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Sample records for cactus opuntia ficus-indica

  1. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) fruit juice protects against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HICHEM

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... A putative beneficial effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear ... peroxidation levels were also increased in animals given ethanol compared to the controls. ..... mechanisms are suggested in this study to explain the.

  2. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  3. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  4. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 10406 EFFICACY OF CACTUS PEAR (Opuntia ficus-indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bdu

    Tigray, a region in north Ethiopia, is a semi-arid area with limited agricultural potential ..... ficus-indica recorded in South Africa by Hugh Mciteka [31]. Younger ... camel and equines feed on cactus varieties most, compared to goats and sheep.

  6. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

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    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  7. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  9. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karym El-Mostafa; Youssef El Kharrassi; Asmaa Badreddine; Pierre Andreoletti; Joseph Vamecq; M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj; Norbert Latruffe; Gérard Lizard; Boubker Nasser; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vit...

  10. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of cooking process on nutritional composition and antioxidants of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Elsy; Domínguez-Fernández, Maite; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-02-01

    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. opuntia ficus-indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15], the composition of phenolic compounds of cladodes of O. ficus-indica is found to be: total ... hydroxide and ascorbic acid (BDH, England); D-catechin, hydrochloric acid, ... on the reduction of phosphotungstate-phosphomolybdate complex by ...

  15. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-09-17

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  16. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karym El-Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  17. Optimized Monitoring of Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal Cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Vieyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs has grown significantly because they are useful for a wide range of applications. Additional advantage in their design requires that they meet the following characteristics: nontoxicity, abundance, sustainability, renewability, and low cost. To address these requirements, nanowhiskers were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Monitoring the process of CNWs preparation is necessary to ensure maximum yield and purity of the end product. In this study, the cellulose preparation was monitored by analyzing microscopic morphology by SEM; the purity degree was determined by fluorescence microscopy as a novel and rapid technique, and FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirmation. The additional parameters that monitored the process were the crystallinity index by X-ray diffraction and the size of the particle by dynamic light scattering (DLS. Nopal cellulose was found to be comparable to commercial microcrystalline cellulose. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica is a viable alternative for the production of highly pure CNWs and the strategy to supervise the preparation process was rapid.

  18. Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill): anatomy, physiology and chemical composition with emphasis on its biofunctional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Aguilar, Rosa Isela; Bosquez-Molina, Elsa; Bautista-Baños, Silvia; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) is native to Mesoamerica and marketed in different forms such as fresh, frozen or pre-cooked. Worldwide, this vegetable is recognized for its pharmaceutical actions, including its antioxidant, diuretic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties, as well as their antiviral and antispermatogenic effects. However, not all of these properties have been associated with its chemical composition; therefore, this review aims to present and integrate information available on the physiology and anatomy of cactus stem and its chemical composition, focusing on some of the many factors that determine its biofunctionality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary s...

  20. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  1. Bioactives in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems possess potent antioxidant and pro-apoptotic activities through COX-2 involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Soh, Soon Yil; Shin, Juha; Cho, Chi-Woung; Choi, Young Hee; Nam, Sang-Yong

    2015-10-01

    Bioactives extracted from cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) stems were investigated for their chemopreventive activities using human cancer cells in vitro. The bioactives present in crude extracts were detected and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among all the extracts, such as hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH), and MeOH:water (80:20), the MeOH extract had the highest amount of polyphenolic compounds and the acetone extract exhibited the most potent effect at scavenging the 2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(•+) ) radical. In addition, most of the extracts, with the exception of hexane, exhibited significant cytotoxicity in human SW480 colon and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Overall, the SW480 cells were more sensitive than the MCF7 cells to the cytotoxic effect of the O. ficus-indica extracts (OFEs). Cell death by OFE treatment caused significant inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio in both SW480 and MCF7 cell lines. However, degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase was significantly increased by OFE only in the MCF7 cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the health-benefit roles, including anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activities as well as pro-apoptotic effects, of bioactive compounds in OFEs, suggesting a chemopreventive role in human cancer cells. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Albano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Betacyanin (betanin, total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy. In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity, betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health.

  3. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  4. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  5. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water Relations, Diurnal Acidity Changes, and Productivity of a Cultivated Cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Edmundo; Badilla, Ignacio; Nobel, Park S.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological responses of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) were studied on a commercial plantation in central Chile. Young cladodes (flattened stems) and flower buds exhibited daytime stomatal opening, whereas mature cladodes and fruit exhibited the nocturnal stomatal opening characteristic of CAM plants. Severe water stress suppressed the nocturnal stomatal opening by mature cladodes, but their high water vapor conductance occurring near dawn was not affected. Nocturnal acidity increases were not as sensitive to water stress as was the nocturnal stomatal opening. The magnitude of the nocturnal acidity increases depended on the total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), being 90% PAR-saturated at 27 moles per square meter per day for a mean nighttime air temperature of 5°C and at 20 moles per square meter per day for 18°C. Inasmuch as the PAR received on unshaded vertical surfaces averaged about 21 moles per square meter per day, nocturnal acidity increases by the cladodes were on the verge of being PAR-limited in the field. The net assimilation rate, which was positive throughout the year, annually averaged 3.4 grams per square meter per day for 1.0- and 2.0-year-old plants. Plants that were 5.4 years old had 7.2 square meters of cladode surface area (both sides) and an annual dry weight productivity of 13 megagrams (metric tons) per hectare per year when their ground cover was 32%. This substantial productivity for a CAM plant was accompanied by the highest nocturnal acidity increase so far observed in the field, 0.78 mole H+ per square meter. PMID:16663084

  7. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouar ben Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days. Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  8. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Anouar Ben; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncib, Sana

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect. PMID:29376078

  10. Caracterización nutricional del cactus nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica bajo diferentes tratamientos de fertilización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rodríguez-M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro planeta se enfrenta actualmente a grandes cambios en su ambiente natural, no sólo como consecuencia de su evolución, sino también del acelerado proceso de degradación antrópica. Dentro de este contexto se origina la necesidad de buscar soluciones que mitiguen el bajo nivel de vida del campesino, dadas las precarias condiciones de muchos de los actuales ecosistemas, que no permiten implementar los modelos tradicionales de explotación desmesurada de los recursos. El cactus nopal  (Opuntia ficus-indica ofrece ventajas en la producción animal, presentándose como una alternativa agroecológica, fácil de implementar en zonas semiáridas bajo condiciones adversas y con un mínimo de insumosagropecuarios. El  objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el desempeño nutricional del cactus nopal bajo cuatro tipos de fertilización, mediante el análisis proximal de alimentos, implementado en el laboratorio de nutrición animal de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC sede Tunja, en los especímenes de cactus nopal existentes en el jardín botánico de la misma. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de tratamientos para la fertilización: 1.Químico, 2.Orgánico, 3. Químico + Orgánico y 4.Testigo, aplicados en intervalos de veinte (20 días, por tres veces, aplicando también agua en un riego semanal; tiempo al cabo del cual se realizó la valoraciónnutricional, en donde el Tratamiento 2 (Orgánico fue el de mejor desempeño, seguido por el Tratamiento 3, luego el tratamiento 1 y, por último, el tratamiento 4 (testigo.

  11. Use of Red Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Encapsulated Powder to Pigment Extruded Cereal

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    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear is a potential natural dye for the food industry and a known antioxidant. Although the use of this powder is possible, it is not clear how it alters food properties, thus ensuing commercial acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear on the physicochemical properties of extruded cereals. The powder was mixed (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w with maize grits and extruded (mix moisture 22%, temperature 100°C, and screw speed 325 rpm. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the extruded cereal were evaluated; extruded cereal without encapsulated powder was used as a control. All cereal extrudates pigmented with the encapsulated powder showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in expansion, water absorption, color, density, and texture compared to the control. The encapsulated powder had a positive effect on expansion and water absorption indices, as well as color parameters, but a negative effect on density and texture. Extruded cereal properties were significantly (P<0.05 correlated. Sensorially, consumers accepted the extruded cereal with a lower red cactus pear powder content (2.5% w/w, because this presented characteristics similar to extruded cereal lacking pigment.

  12. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drying of prickly pear cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica) in a forced convection tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.; de Ita, A.; Vaca, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, DePt. de Energia, Area de Termofluidos, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, Del. Azcapotzalco, C.P. 02200, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this work we evaluated the kinetics of drying of Opuntia's cladodes observing two conditions: complete cladode with the protective cuticle of the intact product and with reduced cuticle (partially removed), using a drying tunnel with forced flow. The temperature of the air was set at 35, 45, and 60 C with velocities of 1.5 and 3.0 m/s. The conditions of the environment were controlled and maintained at 22 C and 30% of relative humidity. The results show that the drying time was considerably reduced when approximately 30% of the cuticle that protects the product was removed. Additionally, the temperature had greater influence than the velocity of the air. The numerical model that best describes the behavior of the drying process is the double logarithmic one, with the imposed restrictions of r close to the unit, the lowest possible {chi}{sup 2} and the RSEM tending to zero. The characteristic drying function of the product resulted in a third-grade exponential curve, where r and SD were the corresponding selection criteria. (author)

  14. Drying of prickly pear cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica) in a forced convection tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Ita, A. de; Vaca, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the kinetics of drying of Opuntia's cladodes observing two conditions: complete cladode with the protective cuticle of the intact product and with reduced cuticle (partially removed), using a drying tunnel with forced flow. The temperature of the air was set at 35, 45, and 60 deg. C with velocities of 1.5 and 3.0 m/s. The conditions of the environment were controlled and maintained at 22 deg. C and 30% of relative humidity. The results show that the drying time was considerably reduced when approximately 30% of the cuticle that protects the product was removed. Additionally, the temperature had greater influence than the velocity of the air. The numerical model that best describes the behavior of the drying process is the double logarithmic one, with the imposed restrictions of r close to the unit, the lowest possible χ 2 and the RSEM tending to zero. The characteristic drying function of the product resulted in a third-grade exponential curve, where r and SD were the corresponding selection criteria.

  15. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

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    Ben Mansour Hédi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which

  16. Conserved and divergent rhythms of crassulacean acid metabolism-related and core clock gene expression in the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallona, Izaskun; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Weiss, Julia

    2011-08-01

    The cactus Opuntia ficus-indica is a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Current knowledge of CAM metabolism suggests that the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) is circadian regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are posttranslationally controlled. As little transcriptomic data are available from obligate CAM plants, we created an expressed sequence tag database derived from different organs and developmental stages. Sequences were assembled, compared with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database for identification of putative orthologs, and mapped using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology and Gene Ontology. We identified genes involved in circadian regulation and CAM metabolism for transcriptomic analysis in plants grown in long days. We identified stable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that OfiSAND, like its counterpart in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and OfiTUB are generally appropriate standards for use in the quantification of gene expression in O. ficus-indica. Three kinds of expression profiles were found: transcripts of OfiPPCK oscillated with a 24-h periodicity; transcripts of the light-active OfiNADP-ME and OfiPPDK genes adapted to 12-h cycles, while transcript accumulation patterns of OfiPEPC and OfiMDH were arrhythmic. Expression of the circadian clock gene OfiTOC1, similar to Arabidopsis, oscillated with a 24-h periodicity, peaking at night. Expression of OfiCCA1 and OfiPRR9, unlike in Arabidopsis, adapted best to a 12-h rhythm, suggesting that circadian clock gene interactions differ from those of Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the evolution of CAM metabolism could be the result of modified circadian regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional

  17. Conserved and Divergent Rhythms of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism-Related and Core Clock Gene Expression in the Cactus Opuntia ficus-indica1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallona, Izaskun; Egea-Cortines, Marcos; Weiss, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The cactus Opuntia ficus-indica is a constitutive Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. Current knowledge of CAM metabolism suggests that the enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) is circadian regulated at the transcriptional level, whereas phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) are posttranslationally controlled. As little transcriptomic data are available from obligate CAM plants, we created an expressed sequence tag database derived from different organs and developmental stages. Sequences were assembled, compared with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant database for identification of putative orthologs, and mapped using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology and Gene Ontology. We identified genes involved in circadian regulation and CAM metabolism for transcriptomic analysis in plants grown in long days. We identified stable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction and found that OfiSAND, like its counterpart in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and OfiTUB are generally appropriate standards for use in the quantification of gene expression in O. ficus-indica. Three kinds of expression profiles were found: transcripts of OfiPPCK oscillated with a 24-h periodicity; transcripts of the light-active OfiNADP-ME and OfiPPDK genes adapted to 12-h cycles, while transcript accumulation patterns of OfiPEPC and OfiMDH were arrhythmic. Expression of the circadian clock gene OfiTOC1, similar to Arabidopsis, oscillated with a 24-h periodicity, peaking at night. Expression of OfiCCA1 and OfiPRR9, unlike in Arabidopsis, adapted best to a 12-h rhythm, suggesting that circadian clock gene interactions differ from those of Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that the evolution of CAM metabolism could be the result of modified circadian regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional

  18. Effect of different film packaging on microbial growth in minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A; Mangia, N P; Fadda, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are natural contaminants of fresh produce and minimally processed products, and contamination arises from a number of sources, including the environment, postharvest handling and processing. Fresh-cut products are particularly susceptible to microbial contaminations because of the changes occurring in the tissues during processing. In package gas composition of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with low storage temperatures besides reducing physiological activity of packaged produce, can also delay pathogen growth. Present study investigated on the effect of MAPs, achieved with different plastic films, on microbial growth of minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntio ficus-indica) fruit. Five different plastic materials were used for packaging the manually peeled fruit. That is: a) polypropylene film (Termoplast MY 40 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 300 cc/m2/24h); b) polyethylene film (Bolphane BHE, 11 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 19000 cc/m2/24h); c) polypropylene laser-perforated films (Mach Packaging) with 8, 16 or 32 100-micron holes. Total aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, mould populations and in-package CO2, O2 and C2H4 were determined at each storage time. Different final gas compositions, ranging from 7.8 KPa to 17.1 KPa O2, and 12.7 KPa to 2.6 KPa CO2, were achieved with MY and micro perforated films, respectively. Differences were detected in the mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and yeast loads, while no difference was detected in psychrophilic microorganisms. At the end of storage, microbial load in fruits sealed with MY film was significantly lower than in those sealed with BHE and micro perforated films. Furthermore, fruits packed with micro-perforated films showed the highest microbial load. This occurrence may in part be related to in-package gas composition and in part to a continuous contamination of microorganisms through micro-holes.

  19. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergenteácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto comalimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que aeficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioralobservations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time spent with

  20. Evaluation of protective effect of cactus pear seed oil (Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL.) against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abderrahim, Ziyyat; Hassane, Mekhfi; Abdelkhaleq, Legssyer; Mohammed, Aziz; Mohamed, Bnouham

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antioxidant power of cactus pear seed oil [Opuntia ficus-indica L. MILL. (CPSO)] and its protective effect against chemically induced diabetes mellitus in mice. The in vitro antioxidant effect of CPSO was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay. The preventive effect was conducted on Swiss albino mice treated with CPSO (2 mL/kg, per os), before and after a single intraperitoneal alloxan administration (100 mg/kg). Survival rate, body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured and histopathological analysis of pancreas was performed to evaluate alloxan-induced tissue injuries. CPSO exhibited an antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging assay. Moreover, the administration of CPSO (2 mL/kg) significantly attenuated alloxan-induced death and hyperglycemia (P < 0.001) in treated mice. Morphometric study of pancreas revealed that CPSO significantly protected islets of langerhans against alloxan induced-tissue alterations. Based on theses results, CPSO can prevente alloxan-induced-diabetes by quenching free radicals produced by alloxan and inhibiting tissue injuries in pancreatic β-cells. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of green chemistry methods in the extraction of dietary fibers from cactus rackets (Opuntia ficus indica): Structural and microstructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikh Rouhou, Marwa; Abdelmoumen, Souhir; Thomas, Sabu; Attia, Hamadi; Ghorbel, Dorra

    2018-05-23

    This work aims to compare the development of three green chemistry methods in the extraction of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) dietary fibers. The influence of extraction conditions (solvent nature: water, lemon juice and ethanol; extraction process: maceration and steam explosion; extraction time: 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 5 h) on the chemical and structural composition was studied. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy proved that all treatments do not affect the cellulose structure and could induce the reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin content. The steam treatment with lemon juice was the best treatment in term of quality of the fibers extracted. Through X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, it was demonstrated that this treatment contributed to the destruction of the amorphous phase with preservation of the crystalline phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the microstructure of the sample surface was uniform and contains arranged fibers. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed fibers with 80 nm of diameter. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Occurrence and identification of the etiologic agents of plant diseases in cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. in the semi-arid region of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Evelyne Franco de Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cactus forage (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., intensely cultivated in dry regions of northeast Brazil, although well adapted to the harsh semi-arid climate is affected by major problems such as pests and diseases, responsible for significant losses in production. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of the etiologic agents of diseases of cactus cultivated in 38 municipalities in the semi-arid region of Paraiba. The analyses were conducted and processed at the Laboratory of Phytopathology of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia - PB. Starting from sick cladodes isolations, multiplications and identifications of the found microorganisms were made. The identification of the microorganisms was achieved through observations of the macro and micromorphological characteristics of the cultures and tests of Gram and pathogenicity. Great incidence and diversity of microorganisms was verified in the cacti researched, but the highest occurrence was mainly that of fungus. The fungi of widest occurrence were: Scytallidium lignicola, Alternate tenuis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Cladosporium cladosporides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. opuntiarum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger, Nigrospora sphaerica, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Exserohilum turcicum, Pestalotia pitospora, Rhizopus stolonifer, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaceloma protearum. A bacterium was also detected that was suspected to belong to the Erwinia sp. strain. Satisfaction of the Postulates of Koch proved the infectious nature of the detected microorganisms. High occurrence of the fungus S. lignicola, an agent of scale rot disease in 100% of the places researched, was observed. This fact is of great concern, since the progression of the disease can cause significant losses in production.

  3. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of cladodes of the two varieties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica grown in Ethiopia

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    K. Haile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, young cladodes corresponding to two (thorn-less and thorn-containing varieties of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica from four different areas of Tigray region, Ethiopia, were investigated for their phenolic contents and antioxidant activities. Quantitative estimation of total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in the cladodes was carried out using spectrophotometric methods. A 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging assay was used for the determination of the antioxidant activities, while Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, aluminum chloride and protein (albumin precipitation methods were used for the determination of total polyphenol, flavonoid and tannin contents, respectively. The cladodes were found to be rich in polyphenols, with values in the range 18.0-71.4 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g of dry weight (DW. The predominant part of the polyphenols is represented by tannins, 9.00-41.2 mg GAE/g of DW, followed by flavonoids, 6.40-25.0 mg catchin equivalent (CE/g of DW. The cladodes showed strong antioxidant activities, 59.3-85.8% inhibition compared to ascorbic acid. Application of paired t-test on the overall mean total polyphenol contents of samples collected from the different areas revealed the presence of significant variation between the thorn-less (31.6 GAE/g of DW and thorn-containing (47.7 GAE/g of DW varieties. One-way ANOVA also revealed that there are significant variations among samples from the same variety but collected from different areas.

  4. The effect of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Igho J; O'Sullivan, Jack; Heneghan, Carl J

    2015-05-01

    Hundreds of dietary supplements are currently marketed as weight loss supplements. However, the advertised health claims of effectiveness for most of these have not been proven. The aim of this study was to critically appraise and evaluate the evidence for effectiveness of cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI), using data from published randomized clinical trials. We conducted electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library. No restrictions on age, time, or language were imposed. The risk for bias in the studies included was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration criteria. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of included studies, assessed reporting quality, and extracted data. We identified seven eligible studies, of which five were included. The studies varied in design and reporting quality. Meta-analysis revealed a nonsignificant difference in body weight between OFI and controls (mean difference = -0.83 kg; 95% confidence interval, -2.49 to 0.83; I(2) = 93%). Significant reductions in body mass index, percentage body fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and total cholesterol were observed. Adverse events included gastric intolerance and flu symptoms. The evidence from randomized clinical trials does not indicate that supplementation with OFI generates statistically significant effects on body weight. Consumption of OFI can cause significant reductions in percentage body fat, blood pressure, and total cholesterol. Few clinical trials evaluating the effects of OFI have been published. They vary in design and methodology, and are characterized by inconsistent quality of reporting. Further clinical trials evaluating the effects of OFI on body composition and metabolic parameters are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Cavoski, Ivana; Thlien, Nadia; Vincentini, Olimpia; De Angelis, Maria; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05) on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin) were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05) of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The highest

  6. Lactic Acid Fermentation of Cactus Cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Generates Flavonoid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Filannino

    Full Text Available Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of γ-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05 on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1β, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05 of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05 higher inhibition of IL-8, TNFα and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The

  7. The optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) skin in a reflux system using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Aguirre Joya; Heliodoro, De La Garza Toledo; Alejandro, Zugasti Cruz; Ruth, Belmares Cerda; Noé, Aguilar Cristóbal

    2013-06-01

    To extract, quantify, and evaluate the phenolic content in Opuntia ficus-indica skin for their antioxidant capacity with three different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and lipid oxidation) and to optimize the extraction conditions (time, temperature and ethanol concentration) in a reflux system. The extraction process was done using a reflux system. A San Cristobal II experimental design with three variables and three levels was used. The variables evaluated were time of extraction (h), concentration of ethanol (%, v/v) and temperature (°C). The extraction process was optimized using a response surface methodology. It was observed that at higher temperature more phenolic compounds were extracted, but the antioxidant capacity was decreased. The optimum conditions for phenolic compounds extraction and antioxidant capacity mixing the three methods were as follows: 45% of ethanol, 80 °C and 2 hours of extraction. Values obtained in our results are little higher that other previously reported. It can be concluded the by-products of Opuntia ficus-indica represent a good source of natural antioxidants with possible applications in food, cosmetics or drugs industries.

  8. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  9. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  10. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  11. Digestibility of (Poly)phenols and Antioxidant Activity in Raw and Cooked Cactus Cladodes ( Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Elsy; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-05-29

    This study aims to investigate whether heat treatment applied to cactus cladodes influences the bioaccessibility of their (poly)phenolic compounds after simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. A total of 45 (poly)phenols were identified and quantified in raw and cooked cactus cladodes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detector high resolution mass spectrometry. Both flavonoids (60-68% total), mainly isorhamnetin derivatives, and phenolic acids (32-40%) with eucomic acids as the predominant ones significantly ( p < 0.05) increased with microwaving and griddling processes. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, 55-64% of the total (poly)phenols of cooked cactus cladodes remained bioaccessible versus 44% in raw samples. Furthermore, digestive conditions and enzymes degraded or retained more flavonoids (37-63% bioaccessibility) than phenolic acids (56-87% bioaccessibility). Microwaved cactus cladodes contributed the highest amount of (poy)phenols (143.54 mg/g dm) after gastrointestinal process, followed by griddled samples (133.98 mg/g dm), showing the highest antioxidant capacity. Additionally, gastrointestinal digestion induced isomerizations among the three stereoisomeric forms of piscidic and eucomic acids.

  12. Protein enrichment of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus - indica Mill using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de Fátima Araújo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbial protein bioconversion of cactus pear by yeast in solid medium was studied. Three cultivation variables used were: inoculum's concentrations (5, 10 and 15 %, substrate layer thickness (2, 4 and 6 cm and temperature (30, 34 and 38 ºC. The rate of dry matter production and total protein were determined. Results obtained were variance analysis, gross energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The maximum protein amount achieved for the conditions studied in the present work was higher than 26 %, which was compatible or greater than those of conventional concentrates of protein supplements used for animal feed. The protein concentrate of cactus pear had a higher in vitro digestibility index (95.8 % and did not show any changes in the gross energy value when compared to that of the cactus pear in natura.A bioconversão da proteína microbiana através da levedura em meio sólido, foi estudada em palma forrageira cultivada em condições laboratoriais, sob três níveis de concentração do inóculo (5, 10 e 15%, espessuras distintas das camadas dos substratos (2, 4 e 6cm e temperaturas (30, 34 e 38ºC. Foram analisadas as taxas de produção de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, cujos resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, energia bruta (EB e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. O valor máximo de teor protéico, alcançado nas condições estudadas nesse trabalho, foi superior a 26%, sendo esse teor compatível ou maior do que os concentrados convencionais utilizados como suplemento protéico para a ração animal. O concentrado protéico da palma obteve um alto índice de digestibilidade in vitro (95,8% e não apresentou grande alteração no valor da energia bruta se comparada com a palma in natura.

  13. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  14. Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

    2014-08-15

    Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  17. Effect of air flow rate on the polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of convective dried cactus pear cladodes (Opuntia ficus indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Infante, José-Alberto; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria-Elizabeth; González-Laredo, Ruben-Francisco; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Medina-Torres, Luis; Cervantes-Cardozo, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    The interest in nopal has encouraged the use of dehydration; there are few studies about the effect of process parameters on the nopal polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of air-drying flow rates on the amount and antioxidant capacity of extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes. Nopal was dried at 45 degrees C and air flow rates of 3 and 5 m/sec. Samples were analyzed for moisture, total polyphenol, flavonoid, and flavonol contents, chain-breaking activity, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein and deoxyribose oxidation. Nopal drying at an air flow rate of 3 m/sec showed higher values of phenols, flavonoids and flavonols. The best value of low-density lipoprotein inhibition and deoxyribose was found at 1,000 microg/ml. The air flow rate affected the amount of polyphenols and the OH( . ) radical scavenging, but did not modify the chain-breaking activity and the low-density lipoprotein inhibition activity.

  18. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em Substituição à Silagem de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench na Alimentação de Vacas Leiteiras Replacement of Forage Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for Sorghum Silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in the Dairy Cows Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmir Lima Wanderley

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Foram utilizadas oito vacas distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4x4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 21 dias, sendo 14 destinados à adaptação dos animais às rações e sete para coleta. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, em kg/dia, % de PV e em relação ao peso metabólico (g/kg0,75, e matéria orgânica e carboidratos totais, expressos em kg/dia, não foram influenciados pela adição de palma na ração, apresentando valores médios de 20,18; 3,41; 167,80; 18,86; e 14,85, respectivamente. O consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos, em kg/dia, aumentou, e os de fibra em detergente neutro, em kg/dia e % de PV, fibra em detergente ácido; proteína bruta e extrato etéreo, expressos em kg/dia, diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão de palma na ração. O consumo de sódio não foi influenciado pela adição de palma na ração, com valor médio de 29,45g/dia. Os consumos de potássio e magnésio aumentaram e o de fósforo diminuiu linearmente com a adição de palma na ração. Não houve efeito da inclusão de palma sobre a produção de leite com e sem correção para 3,5% de gordura, cujos valores médios foram de 25,01 e 26,97kg/dia, respectivamente. O teor de gordura do leite foi influenciado de forma quadrática, sendo o teor máximo estimado em 4,08%, com 20,51% de palma na ração. A conversão alimentar aumentou linearmente com a inclusão de palma.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of lactating Holstein cows fed diet with different replacement levels (0, 12, 24 and 36% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Eight cows were assigned to a two 4x4 latin

  19. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  20. The fatty acid profile of fat depots from Santa Inês sheep fed spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto G; Almeida, Michelly DA; Cruz, George Rodrigo B; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo M; Ribeiro, Neila L; Madruga, Marta S; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Re

    2017-10-01

    Fat is the tissue that varies most in animals from both a quantitative and distribution perspective. It plays a fundamental biological role as energy storage during food scarcity. Renal, pelvic and internal fat are deposited first. These fats are used to identify fatty acid profiles that may be considered beneficial or unhealthy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fatty acid profile of fat depots in Santa Inês sheep finished in confinement with spineless cactus in their diets. The treatments included increasing levels of spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill.): T1 = 0%, T2 = 30%, T3 = 50%, and T4 = 70%. The diets significantly affected the adipose depots. The orthogonal contrast between the diet with no cactus (control) and the other diets indicates that the quantity of saturated fatty acids decreased and that the levels of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in animals fed spineless cactus. The use of spineless cactus in the diets of Santa Inês sheep affects the lipid profile of their fat depots, reducing the quantity of saturated fatty acids and increasing the quantity of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the fat depots indicates that these fats can be used to formulate meat products and add economic and nutritional value to such products, which increases sheep farmers' incomes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Growth and predicted productivity of Opuntia ficus-indica for current and elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Garcia de Cortazar, V. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., a prickly pear cactus cultivated worldwide for its fruits and stem segments, can have an annual dry weight productivity exceeding that of many crops. Using a recent introduced environmental productivity index (EPI), the influences of water status, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on its productivity can be predicted. This investigation calculated the water index, the temperature index, and the PAR index, whose product equals EPI, for 169 sites distributed approximately uniformly across the contiguous USA for present climatic conditions as well as for those associated with an elevated CO{sub 2} concentration of 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of O. ficus-indica was directly measured, and low temperature limitations on productivity were considered. The dry weight gain of O. ficus-indica during 6 mo in an environmental growth chamber was 23% greater at 650 compared with 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} and increased as the duration of the wet period increased. For closely spaced plants that lead to a high productivity per unit ground area, EPI averaged about 0.10, except in desert regions where the water index lowered EPI, in the far North or South and at high elevations where the temperature index lowered EPI, and in the Northeast and Northwest where the PAR index lowered EPI. The predicted annual dry weight productivity for O. ficus-indica was 12.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under current conditions, and 16.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under those associated with 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}.

  2. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  3. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  4. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  5. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of spineless cactus intake (Opuntia ficus-indica) on blood glucose levels in lactating sows and its impact on feed intake, body weight loss, and weaning-estrus interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Ochoa, Gerardo; Juárez-Caratachea, Aureliano; Pérez-Sánchez, Rosa Elena; Román-Bravo, Rafael María; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Ruy

    2017-06-01

    The effect of spineless cactus intake (Opuntia ficus-indica) on blood glucose (BG) levels in lactating sows and its impact on daily and total feed intake (dFI -1 and TFI, respectively), body weight loss (BWL), and weaning-estrus interval length (WEI) were evaluated. Thirty-four hybrid (Yorkshire × Landrace × Pietrain) sows in lactation phase were used. Sows were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 17) where they received commercial feed and G2 (n = 17) provided with commercial feed plus an average of 2.0 ± 0.5 kg spineless cactus, based on a sow's body weight. The variables evaluated were BG, dFI -1 , TFI, BWL, and WEI. Statistical analysis was performed by using a fixed and mixed model methodology, under a repeated measurements experiment. Group effects were found on all analyzed variables (P < 0.05). The BG was lower in G2 (55.2 and 64.5 mg/dL pre- and post-prandial, respectively), compared to that in G1 (70.9 and 80.1 mg/dL pre- and post-prandial, respectively) (P < 0.05). G2 showed better performance than G1 for dFI -1 , BWL, and WEI (P < 0.05) whose averages were 5.5 ± 1.8 kg, 7.4 ± 4.5%, and 5.3 ± 1.2 days, respectively. Averages for these variables in G1 were 4.7 ± 1.5 kg, 16.8 ± 4.6%, and 6.1 ± 1.6 days, respectively. Intake of spineless cactus reduced BG levels in lactating sows, generating greater dFI -1 , lower BWL at the end of lactation, and a lower WEI.

  8. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684 Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill e palma Orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto com alimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que a eficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time

  9. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  10. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  11. Caracterización de la opuntia ficus-indica para su uso como coagulante natural

    OpenAIRE

    Villabona Ortíz, Angel; Paz, Isabel Cristina; Martínez García, Jasser

    2013-01-01

    Título en inglés: Characterization of Opuntia ficus-indica for using as a natural coagulantTítulo corto: Caracterización de Opuntia ficus-indica para coagulante naturalResumenActualmente municipios de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana no cuentan con suministro de agua potable. La aplicación artesanal de la Tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica)  como coagulante es una práctica tradicional en comunidades rurales. En esta investigación se realiza la caracterización del tallo de la Tuna que crece de manera sil...

  12. The use of a natural coagulant (Opuntia ficus-indica) in the removal for organic materials of textile effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Maísa Tatiane Ferreira; Ambrosio, Elizangela; de Almeida, Cibele Andrade; de Souza Freitas, Thábata Karoliny Formicoli; Santos, Lídia Brizola; de Cinque Almeida, Vitor; Garcia, Juliana Carla

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the activity of the coagulant extracted from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) in the process of coagulation/flocculation of textile effluents. Preliminary tests of a kaolinite suspension achieved maximum turbidity removal of 95 % using an NaCl extraction solution. Optimization assays were conducted with actual effluents using the response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken experimental design. The responses of the variables FeCl3, dosage, cactus dosage, and pH in the removal of COD and turbidity from both effluents were investigated. The optimum conditions determined for jeans washing laundry effluent were the following: FeCl3 160 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 2.60 mg L(-1), and pH 5.0. For the fabric dyeing effluent, the optimum conditions were the following: FeCl3 640 mg L(-1), cactus dosage 160 mg L(-1), and pH 6.0. Investigation of the effects of the storage time and temperature of the cactus O. ficus-indica showed that coagulation efficiency was not significantly affected for storage at room temperature for up to 4 days.

  13. Use of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for dairy goats and growing kids: impacts on milk production, kid's growth, and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahouachi, M; Atti, N; Hajji, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600 g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130 g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260 g CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485 ml for Control group and 407 ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones.

  14. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  15. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  16. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  17. Optimization of Ultrasound Extraction of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Seed Oil Based on Antioxidant Activity and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Ortega-Ortega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the optimal ultrasound conditions (amplitude level and time for the extraction of cactus pear seed oil with the highest antioxidant activity using a closed system. Seed oil was analyzed for yield, antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH, and antimicrobial activity. Conventional extraction methods were assessed for comparison. Amplitude level significantly affected antioxidant activity in linear terms (p < 0.0001 DPPH and p < 0.001 ABTS, resp. so, at lower amplitudes, the higher antioxidant activity was achieved. The optimum ultrasound extraction conditions were of 78% amplitude for 10 min and yielded antioxidant activity values of 66.25 mg AAE/100 g and 289 µmol TE/100 g for ABTS and DPPH, respectively. Compared with conventional extraction methods, ultrasound exhibited lower oil yield and antioxidant activity but had the potential to achieve comparable results if multiple ultrasound extractions are performed in the time needed by conventional methods. Seed oils showed similar antimicrobial activity despite the extraction method and were more effective against Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that ultrasound can be an alternative extraction method of seed oils from fruits such as cactus pear.

  18. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  19. Etude physico-chimique, biochimique et stabilité d’un nouveau produit : jus de cladode du figuier de Barbarie marocain (Opuntia ficus-indica et Opuntia megacantha).

    OpenAIRE

    Boutakiout , Amale

    2015-01-01

    The orientations of the Moroccan agricultural policy concerning the Green Morocco Plan, promote the development of the arid zones and the development of crops that adapt to global warming. The prickly pear cactus is a plant which is adapted to the arid climate and still untapped in Morocco. Prickly pear cladodes contain bioactive components that have beneficial health effects. The juice extracted from cladodes of both species Opuntia ficus-indica(spineless) and Opuntia megacantha(spiny) was t...

  20. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Becerra, Ezequiel; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Del Real, Alicia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rodríguez-García, Mario; Rubio, Efraín; Quintero-García, Michelle; Rojas-Molina, Isela

    2017-02-04

    Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively) and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively) for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet). The failure load of femurs was significantly lower ( p ≤ 0.05) in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher ( p ≤ 0.05) than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  1. Nutritional value of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes from Portuguese ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Pitacas, F.I.; Reis, C.M.G.; Blasco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a forage for ruminants has been very important in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. O. ficus-indica cladodes can be fed to small ruminants especially in periods of the year when there is low quality and quantity of pasture. In Mediterranean regions like South of Portugal during the rainy season the availability of pasture is quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory, but in critical times of the year the shortage and low nutr...

  2. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  3. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  4. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract improves endoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... The UPR pathway is triggered by sensors located at the ER membrane. Here, we analyzed a ... the same time to enhance protein folding capacity in the ..... construction to visualize the activation of the UPR during the stress ...

  5. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  6. Bone Mineral Density, Mechanical, Microstructural Properties and Mineral Content of the Femur in Growing Rats Fed with Cactus Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae Cladodes as Calcium Source in Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Becerra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, microstructural properties, mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD of the femur were evaluated in growing rats fed with Opuntia ficus indica (L. Mill. (Cactaceae cladodes at different maturity stages as calcium source. Male weanling rats were fed with cladodes at early maturity stage (25 and 60 days of age, belonging to groups N-60 and N-200, respectively and cladodes at late maturity stage (100 and 135 days of age, belonging to groups N-400 and N-600, respectively for 6 weeks. Additionally, a control group fed with calcium carbonate as calcium source was included for comparative purposes. All diets were fitted to the same calcium content (5 g/kg diet. The failure load of femurs was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in groups N-60 and N-200 in comparison to N-400, N-600 and control groups. The cortical width (Ct.Wi and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th of the femurs in control and N-600 groups were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05 than Ct.Wi and Tb.Th of femurs in groups N-60 and N-200. Trabecular separation of the femurs in N-60 and N-200 groups showed the highest values compared with all experimental groups. The highest calcium content in the femurs were observed in control, N-600 and N-400 groups; whereas the lowest phosphorus content in the bones were detected in N-200, N-600 and N-400 groups. Finally, the BMD in all experimental groups increased with age; nevertheless, the highest values were observed in N-600 and control groups during pubertal and adolescence stages. The results derived from this research demonstrate, for the first time, that the calcium found in Opuntia ficus indica cladodes is actually bioavailable and capable of improving mineral density and mechanical and microstructural properties of the bones. These findings suggest that the consumption of cladodes at late maturity stage within the diet might have a beneficial impact on bone health.

  7. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp (AP-BL) ) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp (AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp (AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  8. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  9. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid ...

  10. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Guti?rrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Mart?nez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Sald?var, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on d...

  11. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein enrichment of an Opuntia ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate by cultivation of Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanni, Gabriel B; du Preez, James C; Steyn, Laurinda; Kilian, Stephanus G

    2015-03-30

    The cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) have a low protein content; for use as a balanced feed, supplementation with other protein sources is therefore desirable. We investigated protein enrichment by cultivation of the yeasts Candida utilis and Kluyveromyces marxianus in an enzymatic hydrolysate of the cladode biomass. Dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of sun-dried cladodes resulted in a hydrolysate containing (per litre) 45.5 g glucose, 6.3 g xylose, 9.1 g galactose, 10.8 g arabinose and 9.6 g fructose. Even though K. marxianus had a much higher growth rate and utilized l-arabinose and d-galactose more completely than C. utilis, its biomass yield coefficient was lower due to ethanol and ethyl acetate production despite aerobic cultivation. Yeast cultivation more than doubled the protein content of the hydrolysate, with an essential amino acid profile superior to sorghum and millet grains. This K. marxianus strain was weakly Crabtree positive. Despite its low biomass yield, its performance compared well with C. utilis. This is the first report showing that the protein content and quality of O. ficus-indica cladode biomass could substantially be improved by yeast cultivation, including a comparative evaluation of C. utilis and K. marxianus. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n -butanol. The n -butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol- n -butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3- O -methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3- O -β- d -glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n -butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-P x . OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  14. Application of Opuntia ficus-indica in bioremediation of wastewaters. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-15

    Heavy metal ion, pesticide and dye wastewaters cause severe ecological contamination with conventional treatment methods proving inadequate, unsuccessful or expensive to apply. Several biomaterials have recently been explored for the biosorption and biocoagulation-flocculation of pollutants from wastewaters. In the past 10 years, there has been an extensive research output on the use of biological materials such as agricultural wastes, chitosan, Moringa Oleifera, Eichhornia crassipes, bacteria, algae, Cactus plants etc. in environmental remediation. The present paper reviews the scattered information about the green technology involving Opuntia ficus-indica derived biomaterials in wastewater decontamination. Its characterization, physicochemical compositions, its application in biosorption and flocculation of dyes, pesticides and metallic species focussing on equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic properties are reviewed. The main results obtained in the depollution of a variety of contaminated wastewaters using cladodes, fruit pulp and peels mucilage and electrolytes show very high and promising pollutant maximum sorption capacities and removal percentages in the range -125.4-1000 mg/g and 0.31-2251.56 mg/g for the biosorption of dyes and metallic species respectively and removal % ranges of 50-98.7%, 11-93.62% and 17-100% for turbidity, chemical oxygen demand and heavy metals respectively by coagulation-flocculation process. The biomaterials proved to be efficient in pollutant removal that there is need to explore the scaling up of the study from the laboratory scale to community pilot plants and eventually to industrial levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

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    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  17. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  18. The role of native flower visitors in pollinating Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., naturalized in Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Verde, Gabriella; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2011-09-01

    The role of insects in pollination and consequently in fruit set and quality was assessed in two commercial orchards of the cactus pear, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., in Agrigento Province, Sicily. In 1997, insects visiting flowers were sampled during May-June (the first bloom) and July (the second bloom, induced by the "scozzolatura" practise). More than 50 insect species belonging to 10 orders were collected in May-June, while only five species of Hymenoptera Apoidea were collected in July. The quality of fruits arising from the second bloom showed that Hymenoptera alone were able to guarantee effective pollination. To verify the role of insects in pollination in 1996 (during only the second bloom), and in 1997 and 2009 (during both blooms), 60 single flowers were marked during each bloom; 30 of them covered with paper sleeves (which prevented natural pollination), while the others were not covered. After withering, fruits produced by marked flowers were analyzed in laboratory: in all years and blooms, the total number of seeds, the number of developed seeds, and the weight and the percentage of pulp were significantly lower for covered flowers than for non-covered flowers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that native insects effectively carry out the pollination of cactus pear flowers.

  19. COMPORTAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE PALMA (Opuntia ficus-indica l. SUBMETIDAS À FERMENTAÇÃO E SECAGEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Marie Macedo Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage cactus is cultivated of extensive form as a producing species of fruits and fodder plant in many countries. The extensive culture if bases on the vegetative propagation, that is preferred, had its easiness. The propagation for seeds can come to be a useful tool for ends of genetic improvement, then, in this work forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L. seeds were submitted to different fermentation periods (0; 24; 48; 72 and 96 hours and were dried or not, before sowing. It was evaluated the physiological quality of the seeds through the determination of the moisture content, emergence percentage and speed of seedling emergency. It was used an entirely randomized experimental design 5x2 (period of fermentation and drying. The practical one of the fermentation is efficient in the elimination of the sarcotesta in palm seeds, occurring bigger vigor in the seeds without drying and submitted the 55 hours of fermentation, as well as, the drying of the seeds, after the first periods of fermentation promotes reduction of the physiological quality, with reflected right-handers in the vigor.

  20. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  1. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  2. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic, and physicochemical characteristics of six O. ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that, in this study, both cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed. The antioxidant activity (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods) was higher in fruit peel than in cladodes. The young cladodes presented an important antioxidant activity by the ferric-reducing ability of plasma method as well as a higher total phenolic content (18.90 g gallic acid equivalent per kilogram). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector analysis revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose, which the values were higher in pulp fruits. HPLC with refractive index detector analysis showed that citric, malic, and succinic acids were the main organic acids in all cultivars, with a significant higher content in old cladodes. These investigations valorize O. ficus-indica fruits in comparison with cladodes. In general, this plant can be considered as an ingredient for the production of health-promoting food, highlighting mainly in the antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content found in young cladodes and peel fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  4. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  5. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

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    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  6. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D'Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca 2+ for muscle contraction. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50

  7. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Results: Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. Conclusion: The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca2+ for muscle contraction. SUMMARY Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical

  8. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade = Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Valéria de Araújo Cavalcanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0%; 12,5%; 25%; 37,5%; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica(DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, aDAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance,digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  9. Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica flowers maceration on quality and on heat stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imène; BenAmira, Amal; Khemakem, Ibtihel; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2017-05-01

    This study was focused on the evaluation of the quality and the oxidative stability of olive oil added with Opuntia ficus - indica flowers. Two different amounts of O. ficus - indica flowers were considered 5 and 15% (w/w). The olive oils were evaluated towards their quality, fatty acids profile, total phenol contents and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry. The oxidative stability was also monitored by employing the Rancimat and the oven test based on accelerating the oxidation process during storage. The addition of O. ficus - indica flowers induced an increase in free acidity values and a variation in fatty acids profile of olive oils but values remained under the limits required for an extra-virgin olive oil. The obtained olive oils were nutritionally enriched due to the increase in their phenols content. The oxidative stability was generally improved, mainly in olive oil enriched with 5% Opuntia ficus - indica flowers. These findings proved that this enriched olive oil could be considered as a product with a greater added value.

  10. Identification of functional groups of Opuntia ficus-indica involved in coagulation process after its active part extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaouine, Omar; Bourven, Isabelle; Khalil, Fouad; Baudu, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica that belongs to the Cactaceae family and is a member of Opuntia kind has received increasing research interest for wastewater treatment by flocculation. The objectives of this study were (i) to provide more information regarding the active constituents of Opuntia spp. and (ii) to improve the extracting and using conditions of the flocculant molecules for water treatment. A classic approach by jar test experiments was used with raw and extracted material by solubilization and precipitation. The surface properties of solid material were characterized by FTIR, SEM, zeta potential measurement, and surface titration. The splitting based on the solubility of the material with pH and the titration of functional groups completed the method. The optimal pH value for a coagulation-flocculation process using cactus solid material (CSM) was 10.0 and a processing rate of 35 mg L -1 . The alkaline pH of flocculation suggests an adsorption mechanism with bridging effect between particles by water-soluble extracted molecules. To validate this mechanism, an extraction water was carried out at pH = 10 (optimum of flocculation) and the solution was acidified (pH = 7) to allow precipitation of so considered active flocculant molecules. The strong flocculant property of this extract was verified, and titration of this solution showed at least one specific pKa of 9.0 ± 0.6. This pKa corresponds to phenol groups, which could be assigned to lignin and tannin.

  11. Compositional, thermal and microstructural characterization of the Nopal (opuntia ficus indica), for addition in commercial cement mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Carrillo, C. G.; Gómez-Cuaspud, J. A.; E Martínez Suarez, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Nopal (opuntia ficus indica) from remote times has contributed like food and additive product in prehispanic constructions; although it grows in all the Colombian territory is very little used and its contribution in mixtures of Colombian cement is unknown. In order to evaluate the hydration characteristics of Nopal, several Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were performed to evaluate the optimal temperature of dehydration. Initially, the results show that around 175°C the weight loss is approximately 95%, this mass loss corresponds to the process of physical removal, suggesting that at least a remaining amount of 5% (w/w) has the ability to retain large amounts of water which is stored in the micro-structural deposits of Nopal. The evaluation by means Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), confirm that the whole cactus structure enables the water storage at cellular level. The results of infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis allowed the qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of the presence of functional groups and elemental chemical composition of Nopal respectively, mainly related with polysaccharide functional groups, which corresponds to 85% of the total composition. Other functional groups, are related with protein and mineral components. This found characteristics are relevant for the water retention in process that require the decrease of water consumption and the reinforcing of mechanical properties and durability, due to ability of Nopal mucilage to restore its hydration characteristics.

  12. Italian Opuntia ficus-indica Cladodes as Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds with Health-Promoting Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Gabriele; Pellizzoni, Marco; Montesano, Domenico; Lucini, Luigi

    2018-02-18

    Natural by-products, especially phenolic compounds, are in great demand by the nutra-pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. An analytical study was performed to investigate, for the first time, the presence of antioxidant constituents and the corresponding in vitro antioxidant activity in the extract of cladodes from Ficodindia di San Cono ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) protected designation of origin (PDO). The cladode extracts were analysed for target determination of selected constituents, i.e. β-polysaccharides and total phenolic content. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts was assessed by means of two different methods: α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. An untargeted UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling approach was used to depict the phenolic profile of hydro-alcoholic cladode extracts. Interestingly, over 2 g/kg of polyphenols were detected in this matrix, and these compounds were mainly responsible for the antioxidant properties, as shown by the strong correlation between phenolic classes and antioxidant scores. Finally, this study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant activities in cladode extracts from cactus that might recommend their novel applications at the industrial level in the field of nutraceutical products.

  13. Hydrothermal carbonization of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes: Role of process parameters on hydrochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maurizio; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Fiori, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes are a potential source of solid biofuel from marginal, dry land. Experiments assessed the effects of temperature (180-250°C), reaction time (0.5-3h) and biomass to water ratio (B/W; 0.07-0.30) on chars produced via hydrothermal carbonization. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that the three process parameters are critically important to hydrochar solid yield, while B/W drives energy yield. Heating value increased together with temperature and reaction time and was maximized at intermediate B/W (0.14-0.20). Microscopy shows evidence of secondary char formed at higher temperatures and B/W ratios. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric data, microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suggest that calcium oxalate in the raw biomass remains in the hydrochar; at higher temperatures, the mineral decomposes into CO 2 and may catalyze char/tar decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  15. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  16. Green Synthesis of Ag-Cu Nanoalloys Using Opuntia ficus- indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rocha, O.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Hernández-Martínez, A. R.; Gámez-Corrales, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Britto-Hurtado, R.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained by green synthesis using Opuntia ficus- indica plant extract. Two synthesis methods were applied to obtain nanoparticles with core-shell and Janus morphologies by reversing the order of precursors. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed size of 10 nm and 20 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Other small particles with size of up to 2 nm were also observed. Absorption bands attributed to surface plasmon resonance were detected at 440 nm and 500 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory predicted a breathing mode type (BMT) located at low wavenumber due to small, low-energy clusters of (AgCu) n with n = 2 to 9, showing a certain correlation with the experimental one (at 220 cm-1). The dependence of the BMT on the number of atoms constituting the cluster is also studied.

  17. Evaluation of Electrochemical Behavior of Nopal Extract (Opuntia Ficus- Indica as Possible Corrosion Inhibitor

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    Araceli Mandujano-Ruíz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main problems of degradation in components, tooling, equipment and even in structural applications, examples of this are the carbon steels. In the present work, the capacity of corrosion inhibition of a biodegradable organic extract from the Nopal plant (Opuntia ficus-indica, for the protection of carbon steel type AISI 1018 was studied adding 50% v/v of the Nopal extract (EN in a solution of H2SO4 (0.6 mol.l-1. Polarization Resistance (LPR and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques were used for the electrochemical evaluation at room temperature for 24 h in order to obtain corrosion rates (Vcorr and inhibition efficiency (IE. Metallographic examination was also carried out to register the surface damage by corrosion. The results showed a reduction of the Vcorr with a maximum IE value of about 84% by adding the organic- liquid extracted from Nopal.

  18. Comparison of hypotensive, diuretic and renal effects between cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica and furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Noori; El-Haskoury, Redouan; El-Menyiy, Nawal; Al-Waili, Thia; Al-Waili, Ali; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the diuretic, hypotensive and renal effect of Opuntia ficus-indica in two different species in oral and intravenous administration. Diuretic activity was evaluated in rats with the plant cladode gel and aqueous extract administrated orally, and was evaluated in rabbits with plant extract administered intravenously. Single and repeated doses of cladode gel or aqueous extract of cladode were tested. Urine volume and blood and urine creatinine, sodium and potassium were measured, and creatinine clearance was calculated. The hypotensive effect of lyophilized extract of cladode was evaluated in rabbits. Two polyethylene PE50 catheters were used: one in the jugular vein for the infusion of the plant extract and the other in the carotid for the evaluation of the arterial pressure. The cladode gel or aqueous extract increased urine volume, creatinine clearance and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium without significant effect on serum creatinine or blood urea. Furosemide, gel and aqueous extract of cladode insignificantly lowered plasma potassium in rats. Intravenous administration of the lyophilized extract caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure in rabbits with a significant increase in urine volume and urine sodium and potassium; the effect was dose dependent. Intravenous administration of lyophilized extract did not affect plasma sodium or potassium. Gel and aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode have a significant diuretic effect on rats, and the lyophilized extract has a diuretic and hypotensive effect on normotensive rabbits without deterioration in renal function test. Additional studies on active ingredients are essential to pave the way for clinical studies on diuretic and hypotensive effect of the plant. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efeitos da Adubação e de Nematicida no Crescimento e na Produção da Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv. Gigante Effects of Nematicide and Fertilization on the Forage Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv. "Gigante" Growth and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em telado do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFRPE, objetivando medir o efeito da adubação e de nematicida no crescimento e produção da palma, com sintoma de amarelecimento. Os tratamentos experimentais constaram da adição ou não de macronutrientes, micronutrientes e de nematicida em um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados. Para número de cladódios primários, a análise de variância demonstrou efeito não significativo pelo teste F. Para número total de cladódios, número de cladódios secundários, área de cladódio, índice de área de cladódios e produção de matéria seca, a análise de variância revelou efeito significativo. Não houve efeito dos micronutrientes e de nematicida no grupo dos tratamentos de Solução de Macronutrientes Completa para número de cladódios primários, número de cladódios secundários, área de cladódio, índice de área de cladódios e produção de matéria seca, sendo a média geral 1,56; 0,84; 811,11 cm²; 1,15 e 42,73 g/vaso, respectivamente.The experiment was performed in a green house at the Animal Science Department of the Pernambuco Federal Rural University (UFRPE and aimed to study the nematicide and fertilization effects on the forage cactus cv. "Gigante" growth and production using propagative materials with clorotic symptom. The experimental treatments tested the addition or no of macronutrients, micronutrients and nematicide. It was used a complete randomized block design. Considering the primary cladode's number, no differences were found by F test. Significative differences were found to the total number of cladodes, secondary cladode number, cladode area, cladode area index and dry matter yield. The addition of micronutrients and nematicide did not influence the primary and secondary cladode number, cladode area, cladode area index and dry matter yield, and the mean values obtained were 1.56, 0.84, 811.11 cm², 1.15 and 42.73 g

  20. Inclusão de cama de frango em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill para vacas mestiças em lactação: 1. Consumo e produção Broiler litter in forage cactus based diets (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill for lactating crossbred cows: 1. Nutrients intake and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla dos Santos Magalhães

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido objetivando-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis de cama de frango (aproximadamente 0; 10; 20 e 30% na matéria seca (MS de dietas contendo palma forrageira, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura, uréia e farelo de algodão, fornecidas na forma de ração completa, sobre o consumo de nutrientes e a produção de leite de vacas mestiças e verificar o tempo necessário para adaptação dos animais às dietas. Foram utilizadas oito vacas 5/8 Holandês-Gir, após pico de lactação, com produção média de 15 kg de leite/dia e 420 kg de peso vivo, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4 simultâneos, com quatro períodos, quatro animais e quatro níveis de cama de frango na ração. Os consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibras em detergente neutro e ácido, carboidratos totais e não-fibrosos e matéria orgânica apresentaram comportamento quadrático significativo, enquanto os consumos de matéria mineral e extrato etéreo aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de cama de frango nas dietas. A produção de leite, com e sem correção para 4% de gordura, o teor e a produção de gordura e a eficiência alimentar não foram influenciadas pelo incremento de cama de frango nas dietas. O período de adaptação dos animais às dietas pode ser reduzido para sete dias.This work was carried to evaluate the effect of diferents of broiler litter inclusion (approximately 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in dry matter base with 45% forage cactus associaded to sugar cane bagasse, urea and cotonsead meal, in total diet form, on nutrient intake and milk yield and to evaluate the time necessary to adaptation of the animals to diets. Eigth lactating 5/8 crossbred Holstein/Gir cows with 420 kg of LW and production of 15 kg/day, were assigned to tratament sequences in a replicated 4X4 latin square with four periods, four animals and four levels of broiler chiken in the ration. The intakes of dry matter, neutral

  1. Inclusão de cama de frango em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill para vacas mestiças em lactação: 2. Digestibilidade aparente Inclusion of broiler litter in forage cactus based diets (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill for lactating crossbred cows: 2. Apparent digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla dos Santos Magalhães

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de matéria seca (DAMS, de matéria orgânica (DAMO, de proteína bruta (DAPB, de extrato etéreo (DAEE, de carboidratos totais (DACHOT e não-fibrosos (DACNF e de fibras em detergente neutro (DAFDN e ácido (DAFDA foram determinados para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de inclusão de cama de frango (0; 10; 20 e 30% na base da matéria seca, associados à 45% de palma forrageira, bagaço de cana de açúcar in natura, uréia e farelo de algodão, utilizando-se a fibra indigestível em detergente ácido (FDAi como indicador interno para estimar a produção de matéria seca fecal. O valor energético observado para as dietas foi comparado com o predito segundo equações propostas pelo NRC (2001. Foram utilizadas oito vacas 5/8 holando-zebu com produção média de 15 kg de leite/dia e 420kg de peso vivo, após pico de lactação, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4 simultâneos, com quatro períodos, quatro animais e quatro níveis de cama de frango na ração. Não foi observado efeito significativo do aumento do nível de cama de frango na dieta sobre DAMS, DAMO, DAEE, DACHOT e DAFDN. Entretanto, a DAPB e a DACNF diminuíram linearmente. As equações propostas pelo NRC (2001 para estimativa dos teores de nutrientes digestíveis totais das dietas superestimaram os valores observados.The coeficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, total carboidrates (ADTCHO, nonfiber carboidrates (ADNFC, neutral (ADNDF and acid detergent fiber (ADADF, were determined to evaluate the effect of diferents inclusions of broiler litter (0, 10, 20 and 30% in dry matter basis, with 45% forage cactus associaded to sugar cane bagasse, urea and cottonsead meal, using the method of indigestible acid detergent fiber as intern indicator to estimate fecal dry matter production. The dietary observed energy value were compared to the

  2. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  3. CO2 uptake of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. whole trees and single cladodes, in relation to plant water status and cladode age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Liguori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of net photosynthesis determinations in Opuntia ficus-indica come from measurements on individual cladodes. However, they have limitations when used to scale up to whole canopy gas exchange, because a large variability of carbon assimilation may occur within the canopy, due to, among others, differences in cladode age and intercepted radiation or individual cladode response to abiotic stresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of open gas exchange chambers, simultaneously applied around the whole canopy, to measure net CO2 uptake, continuously over a 24 h period, in single Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. potted trees and in relation with their water status. Net CO2 uptake was also measured for single cladodes differentiated by age. O. ficus-indica trees continued their photosynthetic activity 60 days after the irrigation was stopped, when soil water content was lower than 5%. At this stage, current-year and 1-year-old cladodes had become flaccid but still the daily net CO2 uptake of non-irrigated trees kept the same rate than at the beginning of the experiment, while watered trees had doubled their net CO2 uptake. The highest instantaneous rates and total daily net CO2 uptake for both well-watered and non-irrigated trees occurred 60 days after the onset of the dry period, when maximal instantaneous rates were 11.1 in well-watered trees and 8.4 mol m–2 s–1 in non-irrigated trees. During the drought period, the chlorenchyma fresh weight decreased by 45% and 30%, in 1- and 2-yearold drought cladodes respectively, and marginally increased in currentyear ones (+20%. Net CO2 uptake for 1-year-old and 2-year-old cladodes changed only at highest photosynthetic photon flux density and temperatures, and average seasonal net CO2 uptake of 2-year-old cladodes was 15% lower than for 1-year-old ones. Whole-tree gas exchange measurements applied for the first time to O. ficus-indica indicated that whole cactus pear trees maintain

  4. Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar de Azevedo Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill extract (FXE were white, homogeneous and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5–6.0; droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI around 0.200 and a zeta potential from −26.71 to −47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  5. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  6. Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, S

    2007-05-04

    Conventional medications in articular disease are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favourable influence on the course of the disease. In this study, we assay the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective effect of some lyophilised extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes and of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human chondrocyte culture, stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Further the antioxidant effect of these extracts was evaluated in vitro employing the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test). All the extracts tested in this study showed an interesting profile in active compounds. Particularly some of these extracts were characterized by polyphenolic and polysaccharidic species. In vitro results pointed out that the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes were able to contrast the harmful effects of IL-1 beta. Our data showed the protective effect of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes in cartilage alteration, which appears greater than that elicited by hyaluronic acid (HA) commonly employed as visco-supplementation in the treatment of joint diseases.

  7. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  8. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  9. Iodine application increased ascorbic acid content and modified the vascular tissue in opuntia ficus-indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuna, H.T.G.; Morales, R.; Rubio, E.M.; Mendoza, A.B.; Ruvalcaba, R.M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discern the effect of applying both iodide and iodate to Opuntia ficus indica irrigation. The effect of iodate (KIO/sub 3/, 10-4 M) and iodide (KI, 10-4 M) on plant growth, yield and morphology was studied. Experiments were carried in three samples under tunnel conditions. In the last sampling, iodine species (KIO/sub 3/, KI) caused a negative effect in biomass. The amount of ascorbic acid, however, was increased over 51% in both iodine treatments. Phosphorus (0.26%), iron (50 ppm), and magnesium (1402 ppm) increases were also observed with iodate treatment in the first sampling, and increases in potassium (46.8 ppm) were apparent in the second. Iodide treatment increased the amounts of copper (1.02 ppm) and manganese (32.80 ppm) in the first sampling. Iodate treatment modified the number of xylem vessels and increased both the mucilage area and amount of druses. In general this study shows that iodate increases the amount of ascorbic acid and the morphology of the vascular tissue. (author)

  10. Extraction and characterization of three polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Kriaa, Mouna; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-11-01

    The chemical extraction and the characterization of polysaccharides from mucilage (MC), pectin (PC) and total pectic mucilage fraction (TFC) of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activities was investigated. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups corresponding to polysaccharides. Uronic acid and the total sugar contents of PC were higher than those of TFC and MC whereas ash content of MC was considerably more important. In addition, the findings showed that all the samples had little protein content and low average molecular weight compared to the results mentioned in literature. Furthermore, MC reached not only the highest water (WHC) and oil holding (OHC) capacities (7.81g/g and 1.34g/g, respectively) but also the highest antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity and reducing power). However, PC had the strongest emulsifying and foaming properties. As for TFC, it had low WHC, OHC and emulsifying properties whereas it had higher foaming properties than MC and greater antioxidant properties compared to PC. These outcomes can encourage the use of PC as a surfactant and MC and TFC as natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7±5.0%, resp. without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4±5.7% equating the indomethacin effects (69.5±5.3%. Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  12. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  13. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  15. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of enzymatic extraction of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes after mucilage removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Friji, Marwa; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2018-02-15

    In this study, pectin was isolated from Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes after removing mucilage using the xylanase and cellulase. The process variables were optimized by the Box Behnken design with three factors at three levels. The optimal extraction condition obtained was: liquid to solid (LS), cellulase to xylanase and enzymes to matter ratios of 22ml/g, 2:1U/U and 4U/g, respectively. The simulated extraction yield of 17.91% was validated by the experimental result (16.67±0.30). The enzyme-extracted pectin from OFI cladodes (EAEPC) was low methylated, with a high uronic acid content, a water and oil holding capacity of 5.42g/g and 1.23g/g, respectively, a good foam and emulsion stability and important DPPH radical scavenging activity. Both the OFI cladodes and enzymatic process present promising alternatives to traditional sources and extraction processes of pectin, respectively. EAEPC thus represents a promising additive in food industries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  18. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X 1 ), microwave power (X 2 ), pH (X 3 ) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X 4 ) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X 1 =2.15min; X 2 =517W; X 3 =2.26 and X 4 =2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  1. Glycemic index and glycemic load in the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Salas, María de Jesús; Novelo-Huerta, Hilda Irene; De León-Salas, Marcela Alejandra; Sánchez-Murillo, Mayra Elisa; Mata-Obregón, María Del Carmen; Garza-Juárez, Aurora de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that support the clinical usage of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in the prevention of chronic disease. To determine the GI and GL of the Opuntia ficus-indica fruit. An analytic, transversal study was made involving 25 healthy volunteers accepted by an informed consent with a normal body mass index, glucose, glycoside hemoglobin, cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The homogeneity of the population was evaluated with anthropometrical and biochemical data using principal component analysis (PCA). The equivalent of 50 g of carbohydrates test food (tuna) and 50 g of dextrose as food standard was provided for the measure of the glucose curve. The GI was determined by calculating the area under the curve by the triangulation method. The CG was reported as the product of IG by carbohydrate loading provided. The IG of the tuna was 48.01 ± 17.4, classified as low, while the CG was 24.0 ± 8.7 rated as high. The chemometric analysis by PCA showed that the selection of the normal population for determining the IG, it is important to consider the values of cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  2. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. cladodes against UVA-induced oxidative stress in normal human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruk, Ganna; Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Imbimbo, Paola; Silipo, Alba; Bonina, Andrea; Rizza, Luisa; Piccoli, Renata; Monti, Daria Maria; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-12-15

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. is known for its beneficial effects on human health, but still little is known on cladodes as a potent source of antioxidants. Here, a direct, economic and safe method was set up to obtain water extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes rich in antioxidant compounds. When human keratinocytes were pre-treated with the extract before being exposed to UVA radiations, a clear protective effect against UVA-induced stress was evidenced, as indicated by the inhibition of stress-induced processes, such as free radicals production, lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. Moreover, a clear protective effect against apoptosis in pre-treated irradiated cells was evidenced. We found that eucomic and piscidic acids were responsible for the anti-oxidative stress action of cladode extract. In conclusion, a bioactive, safe, low-cost and high value-added extract from Opuntia cladodes was obtained to be used for skin health/protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The polysaccharide and low molecular weight components of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes: Structure and skin repairing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Silipo, Alba; Molinaro, Antonio; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Schiraldi, Chiara; D'Agostino, Antonella; Izzo, Elisabetta; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Andrea; Bonina, Francesco; Lanzetta, Rosa

    2017-02-10

    The Opuntia ficus-indica multiple properties are reflected in the increasing interest of chemists in the identification of its natural components having pharmaceutical and/or cosmetical applications. Here we report the structural elucidation of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage that highlighted the presence of components differing for their chemical nature and the molecular weight distribution. The high molecular weight components were identified as a linear galactan polymer and a highly branched xyloarabinan. The low molecular weight components were identified as lactic acid, D-mannitol, piscidic, eucomic and 2-hydroxy-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butanoic acids. A wound healing assay was performed in order to test the cicatrizing properties of the various components, highlighting the ability of these latter to fasten dermal regeneration using a simplified in vitro cellular model based on a scratched keratinocytes monolayer. The results showed that the whole Opuntia mucilage and the low molecular weight components are active in the wound repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efeito da adubação e do uso de nematicida na composição química da palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill Fertilization and nematicide effects on the chemical composition of cactus forage cv. "Gigante"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth Maria Teles

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Zootecnia da UFRPE, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação e de nematicida na composição da palma forrageira cv. gigante, com sintoma de amarelecimento. Para o plantio utilizaram-se cladódios de cor amarela de palma (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill. Cv. Gigante provenientes da Estação Experimental de Caruaru - IPA, onde foi observado o amarelecimento das plantas. Os tratamentos constaram da presença e ausência de macronutrientes, micronutrientes e de nematicida, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para teores de matéria seca, de K, de Ca e de Mg. Para teores de N, de P e de S, a análise de variância revelou diferença significativa. A média geral para teores de MS, N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S foi de 7,29; 1,19; 0,17; 3,31; 1,84; 0,59 e 0,17%, respectivamente. A adição de micronutrientes e de nematicida não influenciou os resultados obtidos para teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Os teores de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio foram superiores nos cladódios mais jovens da planta. Os nutrientes nitrogênio, fósforo e enxofre foram os únicos que influenciaram a composição química.This experiment was carried out in a greenhouse at the Animal Science Department/UFRPE and aimed to evaluate the fertilization and nematicide effects on the chemical composition of cactus forage cv. "Gigante" suffering chlorotic symptoms. Chlorotic cladodes of Cactus forage cv. "Gigante" were used as planting material and they were collected at the Caruaru Experimental Station/IPA in the same location where those symptoms were previously observed. The treatments tested the presence or absence of macronutrients, micronutrients, and nematicide. A completely randomized block design was used and the treatments were replicated four times. No significant differences were found for dry matter

  6. Caracterización de la Opuntia ficus-indica para su uso como coagulante natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Villabona Ortíz

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Actualmente municipios de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana no cuentan con suministro de agua potable. La aplicación artesanal de la Tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica  como coagulante es una práctica tradicional en comunidades rurales. En esta investigación se realiza la caracterización del tallo de la Tuna que crece de manera silvestre en el departamento de Bolívar, y del polvo extraído de esta planta, con el fin de identificar componentes asociados a su poder coagulante para la remoción de turbidez y de color en aguas crudas. Las pencas de la planta se sometieron a operaciones de corte, pelado, secado, molienda, tamizado y despigmentado para obtener el coagulante. El rendimiento del proceso global fue de 65g de coagulante/Kg de material vegetal. Los resultados indicaron que la penca contiene alto porcentaje de humedad y pequeñas proporciones de saponinas, flavonoides, sales minerales de calcio y hierro; lo cual permitió concluir que estos metabolitos y sales no son los responsables de su poder coagulante debido a las cantidades poco significativas en las que se encuentran. Se consideró que otras especies química tales como el ácido poligalacturónico y compuestos algínicos son realmente los que le confieran la cualidad al biomaterial. También, se evaluó el poder coagulante del material extraído, se analizó el efecto de tres dosis sobre el color, la turbidez y el pH del agua tratada. Los resultados indicaron que tiene la capacidad de remover 50% del color y 70% de turbidez de aguas crudas con alta turbidez inicial, y que no altera significativamente su pH.  Palabras clave: aguas crudas, clarificación, flavonoides, saponinas, turbidez. Abstract Currently, municipalities in the Colombian Atlantic Coast do not have potable water supply. The implementation of the Tuna as a coagulant is a traditional practice in rural communities, but is used in craft way. In the present investigation, the characterization of the stalk of Tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica

  7. Ameliorative effect of Opuntia ficus indica juice on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice (OFIj) on reversing oxidative damages induced by chronic ethanol intake in rat erythrocytes. OFIj was firstly analyzed with HPLC for phenolic and flavonoids content. Secondly, 40 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups and treated for 90 days as follows: control (C), ethanol-only 3 g/kg body weight (b.w) (E), low dose of OFIj 2 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Ldj+E), high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100 g b.w+ethanol (Hdj+E), and only a high dose of OFIj 4 ml/100g b.w (Hdj). HPLC analysis indicated high concentrations of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OFIj. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased the activities of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH). Changes in the erythrocyte's antioxidant ability were accompanied by enhanced oxidative modification of lipids (increase of malondialdeyde level) and proteins (increase in carbonyl groups). Interestingly, pre-administration of either 2 ml/100 g b.w or 4 ml/100 g b.w of OFIj to ethanol-intoxicated rats significantly reversed decreases in enzymatic as well as non enzymatic antioxidants parameters in erythrocytes. Also, the administration of OFIj significantly protected lipids and proteins against ethanol-induced oxidative modifications in rat erythrocytes. The beneficial effect of OFIj can result from the inhibition of ethanol-induced free radicals chain reactions in rat erythrocytes or from the enhancement of the endogenous antioxidants activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Opuntia ficus indica on symptoms of the alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Jeff; McPherson, Steve; Odden, Michelle C; Shlipak, Michael G

    2004-06-28

    The severity of the alcohol hangover may be related to inflammation induced by impurities in the alcohol beverage and byproducts of alcohol metabolism. An extract of the Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) plant diminishes the inflammatory response to stressful stimuli. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 64 healthy, young adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive OFI (1600 IU) and identical placebo, given 5 hours before alcohol consumption. During 4 hours, subjects consumed up to 1.75 g of alcohol per kilogram of body weight. Hangover severity (9 symptoms) and overall well-being were assessed on a scale (0-6), and blood and urine samples were obtained the following morning. Two weeks later, the study protocol was repeated with OFI and placebo reversed. Fifty-five subjects completed both the OFI and placebo arms of the study. Three of the 9 symptoms-nausea, dry mouth, and anorexia-were significantly reduced by OFI (all P/=18 points) was reduced by half (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.88; P =.02). C-reactive protein levels were strongly associated with hangover severity; the mean symptom index was 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.1; P =.007) higher in subjects with morning C-reactive protein levels greater than 1.0 mg/L. In addition, C-reactive protein levels were 40% higher after subjects consumed placebo compared with OFI. The symptoms of the alcohol hangover are largely due to the activation of inflammation. An extract of the OFI plant has a moderate effect on reducing hangover symptoms, apparently by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators.

  9. Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriere, Luisa; Attanzio, Alessandro; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2015-08-14

    Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 μM) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 μm-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 μm-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

  10. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2006-09-01

    Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A novel method for the determination of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity in Opuntia ficus indica using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretti, L; Bazzu, G; Serra, P A; Nieddu, G

    2014-03-15

    A simple and rapid method was developed for in vivo simultaneous determination of ascorbic-acid and antioxidant capacity in microdialysates from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller. The method is verified in water-stressed plants, as compared with a well-watered test controls. The microdialysis probe construction and insertion procedure was specifically developed to minimise the tissue trauma of the plant and to obtain optimal dialysis performance. Microdialysis was performed using a flow rate of 3 μL/min and the samples were analysed by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection of ascorbic-acid and DPPH-determined antioxidant capacity. Our data indicate exponential decay of the concentrations of the analysed compounds as a function of microdialysis sampling time. Water-stressed Opuntia show decreased ascorbic acid levels and increased the others antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica juice supplementation on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, and biochemical markers following yo-yo Intermittent recovery test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouloud, Aloui; Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a flavonoid-rich fresh fruit juice on cardiovascular, oxidative stress, and biochemical parameters during the yo-yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). Twenty-two healthy males subjects participated in this study divided into two groups: An experimental group (EG: n  = 11) who consumed the antioxidant supplement and a control group (CG: n  = 11). All participants performed two test sessions at 07:00 hr before and after 2 weeks of supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica juice. Blood samples were taken before (P1) and immediately (P2) after the YYIRT. Our results showed that following the 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ● ) test, the Opuntia ficus-indica juice has an antioxidant capacity for capturing free radicals ( p  Opuntia ficus-indica juice before and immediately after YYIRT. However, no significant effect on HDL ( p  > .05), GLC ( p  > .05) levels nor the SBP and DBP ( p  > .05) was observed after supplementation with Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The supplementation leads to an improvement on YYIRT performance (The total distance covered during the YYIRT, V O 2max , VMA) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Opuntia ficus-indica juice has a potent antioxidant activity that reduces total and LDL-cholesterol with only a moderate lowering of HDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress. Moreover, supplementation decreases muscle damage caused by the endurance exercise.

  13. Characterization of carotenoid profile of Spanish Sanguinos and Verdal prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, spp.) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, M P; Gómez-Maqueo, A; García-Cayuela, T; Welti-Chanes, J

    2017-12-15

    Carotenoid profiles of different tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit) of Spanish Sanguinos (red) and Verdal (orange) prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica spp.) have been characterized in detail and quantified for the first time. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PDA-MS (APCI + ), using a reverse phase C 30 column. A total of 9 xantophylls and 4 hydrocarbon carotenes were identified. Also, minor amounts of chlorophyll a, a' and b can be observed in Opuntia peel extracts. All carotenoids were found to be present in their free form (no carotenoid esters were detected). The RAE was highest in Opuntia peels, showing values from 19.20 to 16.48µg/100g fresh weigth, for Sanguinos and Verdal Opuntia fruits, respectively. The main carotenoid in Opuntia peel extracts was (all-E)-lutein with 1132.51 and 767.98µg/100g fresh weigth, followed by (all-E)-β-carotene with 200.40 and 173.50µg/100g fresh weigth for Sanguinos and Verdal varieties of Opuntia fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolite profiling of enzymatically hydrolyzed and fermented forms of Opuntia ficus-indica and their effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Woon; Kim, Dae-Eung; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jung, Kyung-Hoon; Hurh, Byung-Serk; Kwon, Oh Wook; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation of natural products is emerging as an important processing method and is attracting a lot of attention because it may have the advantage of having a new biological function. In this study, fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica were enzymatically hydrolyzed and then fermented with two species of yeast. We identified novel prominent markers in enzymatically hydrolyzed O. ficus-indica (EO) and fermented O. ficus-indica (FO) samples by using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We also evaluated the effect of EO and FO on photoaging of skin cells exposed to ultraviolet radiation. We identified the major fermented metabolite in the FO as ferulic acid. Our in vitro study indicated that FO significantly enhanced the concentration of pro-collagen type 1 than the EO, by increasing the TGF-β1 production.

  15. Compositional and structural changes in Phoenix canariensis and Opuntia ficus-indica with pretreatment: Effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and second generation ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeh, Benard Anayo; Erkurt, Emrah Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Two different plants namely Phoenix canariensis and Opuntia ficus-indica were used as substrate for reducing sugar generation and ethanol production. Dilute acid, alkaline and steam explosion were used as pretreatment methods in order to depolymerize lignin and/or hemicellulose and recover cellulose. By using alkaline pretreatment with 2.5% NaOH 71.08% for P. canariensis and 74.61% for O. ficus-indica lignin removal and 81.84% for P. canariensis and 72.66% for O. ficus-indica cellulose recovery yields were obtained. Pretreated materials were hydrolyzed by cellulase with high efficiency (87.0% and 84.5% cellulose conversion yields for P. canariensis and O. ficus-indica) and used as substrate for fermentation. Maximum ethanol production of 15.75g/L and 14.71g/L were achieved from P. canariensis and O. ficus-indica respectively. Structural differences were observed by XRD, FTIR and SEM for untreated, pretreated, hydrolyzed and fermented samples and were highly correlated with compositional analysis results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant Opuntia ficus-indica Extract Activates AHR-NRF2 Signaling and Upregulates Filaggrin and Loricrin Expression in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takeshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Takahara, Masakazu; Tsuji, Gaku; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Xianghong; Hachisuka, Junichi; Chiba, Takahito; Esaki, Hitokazu; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a cactus species widely used as an anti-inflammatory, antilipidemic, and hypoglycemic agent. It has been shown that OFI extract (OFIE) inhibits oxidative stress in animal models of diabetes and hepatic disease; however, its antioxidant mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that OFIE exhibited potent antioxidant activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the downstream antioxidant enzyme quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes challenged with tumor necrosis factor α or benzo[α]pyrene. The antioxidant capacity of OFIE was canceled in NRF2 knockdown keratinocytes. OFIE exerted this NRF2-NQO1 upregulation through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Moreover, the ligation of AHR by OFIE upregulated the expression of epidermal barrier proteins: filaggrin and loricrin. OFIE also prevented TH2 cytokine-mediated downregulation of filaggrin and loricrin expression in an AHR-dependent manner because it was canceled in AHR knockdown keratinocytes. Antioxidant OFIE is a potent activator of AHR-NRF2-NQO1 signaling and may be beneficial in treating barrier-disrupted skin disorders.

  17. Opuntia ficus-indica Extract as Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in 1 M HCl Solution

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    J. P. Flores-De los Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal as green corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution has been investigated by using weight loss tests, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis were performed. The inhibitor concentrations used ranged from 0 to 300 ppm at 25, 40, and 60°C. Results indicated the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration and decreases with the temperature, and the inhibitor acted as a cathodic-type inhibitor which is physically absorbed onto the steel surface. In fact, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, indicating monolayer adsorption. The presence of heteroatoms such as C, N, and O and OH groups were responsible for the corrosion inhibition.

  18. Biolistic-mediated transient gene expression in shoot apical meristems of the prickly-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo Marino Llamoca-Zárate

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the transient expression of the GUS gene in cells of the meristematic apical dome of Opuntia ficus-indica. DNA delivery into the cells was achieved using a biolistic PDS-1000He instrument from Bio-Rad Laboratories. The transforming DNA was coated in tungsten particles with diameter of 1.3 m m and the distance between the flying disk and the target tissue was 7.5cm and the shooting pressure was adjusted to 1200 psi. This is the first demonstration that the biolistic transformation system can be used to express a transgene in a member of the Cactaceae.Nós demonstramos a expressão transiente do gene GUS nas células do meristema apical de Opuntia ficus-indica. A introdução do DNA nas células foi realizada através de um sistema de biolística PDS-1000He da Bio-Rad Laboratories. Para transformação, partículas de tungstenio com diâmetro de 1,3 µm foram cobertas com DNA e a distância entre o disco das partículas e o tecido alvo foi de 7,5cm, a pressão de tiro foi 1200 psi. Esta é a primeira demonstração que o sistema de biolística de transformação pode ser usado para a expressão de transgenes nas cactáceas.

  19. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid-rich concentrate recovered from Opuntia ficus-indica juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, A; Nunes, S L; Poejo, J; Mecha, E; Serra, A T; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Bronze, M R; Duarte, C M M

    2014-12-01

    In this work, Opuntia ficus indica juice was explored as a potential source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients towards intestinal inflammation. An adsorption separation process was used to produce a natural flavonoid-rich concentrate (FRC) from Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The FRC effect (co- or pre-incubation) on induced-oxidative stress and induced-inflammation was evaluated in human Caco-2 cells. The main constituents identified and present in the extract are flavonoids (namely isorhamnetins and their derivatives such as isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnose-rutinoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside) and phenolic acids (such as ferulic, piscidic and eucomic acids). Our results showed that co-incubation of FRC with the stress-inducer attenuates radicals production in a much more significant manner than pre-incubation. These results suggest that FRC compounds which cannot pass the cell membrane freely (isorhamnetin derivatives) have an ability to inhibit the formation of H2O2-induced radicals in the surrounding environment of intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity of FRC (co-incubation) for suppressing (at the extracellular level) free radicals chain initiation or propagation reaction was probably related with a more pronounced reduction in protein oxidation. A similar response was observed in the inflammatory state, where a marked decrease in IL-8 secretion and blocked degradation of IκBα was achieved for FRC co-incubation. Simultaneously, treatment with FRC significantly reduces NO and TNF-α expression and modulates apparent permeability in Caco-2 cells. In these cases, no significant differences were found between pre- and co-incubation treatments suggesting that bioavailable phenolics, such as ferulic, eucomic and piscidic acids and isorhamnetin, act at the intracellular environment.

  20. Lignans from Opuntia ficus-indica seeds protect rat primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) seeds against ethanol-treated primary rat hepatocytes yielded six lignan compounds. Among the isolates, furofuran lignans 4-6, significantly protected rat hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, preserving antioxidative defense enzyme activities, and maintaining the glutathione content. Moreover, 4 dose-dependently induced the heme oxygenase-1 expression in HepG2 cells.

  1. Digestibilidade e absorção aparentes em vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench Apparent digestibility and absorption od holstein cows fed diets with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica mill in replacement of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciene Karla Bezerra de Andrade

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira em substituição à silagem de sorgo, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da proteína bruta (DAPB, do extrato etéreo (DAEE, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA, dos carboidratos totais (DACHT e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DACNF, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e os coeficientes de absorção aparente de cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, potássio (K e sódio (Na. Foram utilizadas oito vacas, com peso médio de 590 kg e produção média de leite de 27 kg/dia, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos simultâneos (4x4, sendo quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro níveis de inclusão de palma na ração. A inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrito por função quadrática. Foi possível estimar por intermédio desta função um teor máximo de NDT de 77,43% para utilização de 16,51% de palma na dieta. O aumento nos teores de CNF e a redução da FDN das rações foram responsáveis pelo comportamento quadrático na digestibilidade dos nutrientes. As absorções aparentes de Ca, P e Na foram influenciadas quadraticamente com o aumento dos níveis de palma na ração, enquanto o K aumentou linearmente. A relação Ca:P que proporcionou a melhor absorção desses elementos minerais foi de 1,9:1.It was evaluated the effect of four levels forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage, in diets of lactating Holstein cows, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF and acid (ADADF, total carbohydrates (ADTCH and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC, content of total digestible nutrients (TDN and apparent absorption of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P

  2. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro = The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Alves Peixoto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, asplântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based onbovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  3. Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangeland in Drylands by Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Plantations: Effect on Soil and Spontaneous Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Neffar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid lands, the spiny prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica is an outstanding plant for soil conservation and restoration. To determine the role of Opuntia ficus-indica on vegetation recovery process in desertified areas of Southern Tebessa (Northeast Algeria, we investigated the effect of prickly pear plantation age and some soil properties (grain size, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and CaCO3 equivalents on native plant community. Vegetation cover and plant diversity were assessed by calculating the number of individual plants (N, species richness (S, their ratio (N/S, Shannon index, and Evenness in prickly pear plantation plots of different ages (control, 5 and 20 years. Even if surveyed soil parameters did not differ significantly among O. ficus-indica plantations, results of ANOVA testing the effect of Opuntia plantations on native vegetation traits revealed significant variation for plant abundance (P < 0.0001, N/S ratio (P = 0.003 and vegetation cover (P < 0.0001. Vegetation cover differed significantly with both prickly-pear plantation age (P = 0.031 and seasons (P = 0.019. Tukey's tests revealed that all vegetation traits were significantly higher on prickly pear plantations than in control plots. Multiple comparisons also showed that plant abundance, N/S ratio and vegetation cover were significantly different between both young and old plantations and the controls. Prickly pear cultures facilitated the colonization and development of herbaceous species by ameliorating the severe environmental conditions. In conclusion, the facilitative effect of O. ficus-indica has been clearly demonstrated for both abundance and cover of native vegetation.

  4. Indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulates Neuronal Bioelectric Activity in Rat Hippocampus at Dietary-Consistent Amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Mario; Carletti, Fabio; Gambino, Giuditta; Tutone, Marco; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Sardo, Pierangelo; Almerico, Anna Maria; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-26

    Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment from the Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. In this in vivo study, kinetic measurements showed that indicaxanthin is revealed in the rat brain within 1 h from oral administration of 2 μmol/kg, an amount compatible with a dietary consumption of cactus pear fruits in humans. A peak (20 ± 2.4 ng of indicaxanthin per whole brain) was measured after 2.5 h; thereafter the molecule disappeared with first order kinetics within 4 h. The potential of indicaxanthin to affect neural activities was in vivo investigated by a microiontophoretic approach. Indicaxanthin, administered in a range between 0.085 ng and 0.34 ng per neuron, dose-dependently modulated the rate of discharge of spontaneously active neurons of the hippocampus, with reduction of the discharge and related changes of latency and duration of the effect. Indicaxanthin (0.34 ng/neuron) showed inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced excitation, indicating activity at the level of glutamatergic synapses. A molecular target of indicaxanthin is suggested by in silico molecular modeling of indicaxanthin with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the most represented of the glutamate receptor family in hippocampus. Therefore, at nutritionally compatible amounts indicaxanthin (i) crosses the rat BBB and accumulates in brain; (ii) can affect the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons locally treated with amounts comparable with those measured in the brain; and (iii) modulates glutamate-induced neuronal excitation. The potential of dietary indicaxanthin as a natural neuromodulatory agent deserves further mechanistic and neurophysiologic investigation.

  5. Traceability of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller by ICP-MS multi-element profile and chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottese, Antonio Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Vadalà, Rossella; Bua, Giuseppe Daniel; Bartolomeo, Giovanni; Rando, Rossana; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller fruits, particularly 'Ficodindia dell'Etna' of Biancavilla (POD), 'Fico d'india tradizionale di Roccapalumba' with protected brand and samples from an experimental field in Pezzolo (Sicily) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in order to determine the multi-element profile. A multivariate chemometric approach, specifically principal component analysis (PCA), was applied to individuate how mineral elements may represent a marker of geographic origin, which would be useful for traceability. PCA has allowed us to verify that the geographical origin of prickly pear fruits is significantly influenced by trace element content, and the results found in Biancavilla PDO samples were linked to the geological composition of this volcanic areas. It was observed that two principal components accounted for 72.03% of the total variance in the data and, in more detail, PC1 explains 45.51% and PC2 26.52%, respectively. This study demonstrated that PCA is an integrated tool for the traceability of food products and, at the same time, a useful method of authentication of typical local fruits such as prickly pear. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Evaluation of the Biological Activity of Opuntia ficus indica as a Tissue- and Estrogen Receptor Subtype-Selective Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byoung Ha; Jeong, Hyesoo; Zhou, Wenmei; Liu, Xiyuan; Kim, Soolin; Jang, Chang Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Sohn, Johann; Park, Hye-Jin; Sung, Na-Hye; Hong, Cheol Yi; Chang, Minsun

    2016-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) with potential for use in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to relieve peri/postmenopausal symptoms. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the SERM properties of the extract of Korean-grown Opuntia ficus-indica (KOFI). The KOFI extract induced estrogen response element (ERE)-driven transcription in breast and endometrial cancer cell lines and the expression of endogenous estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells. The flavonoid content of different KOFI preparations affected ERE-luciferase activities, implying that the flavonoid composition likely mediated the estrogenic activities in cells. Oral administration of KOFI decreased the weight gain and levels of both serum glucose and triglyceride in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Finally, KOFI had an inhibitory effect on the 17β-estradiol-induced proliferation of the endometrial epithelium in OVX rats. Our data demonstrate that KOFI exhibited SERM activity with no uterotrophic side effects. Therefore, KOFI alone or in combination with other botanical supplements, vitamins, or minerals may be an effective and safe alternative active ingredient to HRTs, for the management of postmenopausal symptoms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Textile dyes removal from aqueous solution using Opuntia ficus-indica fruit waste as adsorbent and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Cid, A A; Velázquez-Ugalde, I; Herrera-González, A M; García-Serrano, J

    2013-11-30

    For this research, three different adsorbents, one untreated and two chemically activated, were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit waste. By the construction of adsorption isotherms, its adsorption capabilities and the viability of its use in the removal of textile basic and direct type dyes were determined. It was found that the adsorbent with the most adsorption capacity for basic dyes was the one activated with NaClO, and, for direct dyes, it was the one activated with NaOH. Langmuir and Freundlich equations isotherms were applied for the analysis of the experimental data. It was found that the Freundlich model best described the adsorption behavior. The adsorption capacity was improved when the pH of the dye solution had an acid value. The specific surface area of the adsorbents was calculated by means of methylene blue adsorption at 298 K to stay within a range between 348 and 643 m(2) g(-1). The FTIR spectroscopic characterization technique, the SEM, the point of zero charge, and the elemental analysis show the chemical and physical characteristics of the studied adsorbents, which confirm the adsorption results obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lead bioaccumulation in Opuntia ficus-indica following foliar or root exposure to lead-bearing apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Aigouy, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The contamination of edible leafy vegetables by atmospheric heavy metal-bearing particles is a major issue in environmental toxicology. In this study, the uptake of lead by cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi), traditionally used in Mexican cuisine and in livestock fodder, is investigated after a 4-months exposure of either cladodes or roots to synthetic Pb-fluorapatite particles. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for the quantitative analysis of Pb levels, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) for the examination of the cladode surface and fate of particles, and Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) measurements for elemental mapping of Pb in cladodes, were used. The results evidence that foliar contamination may be a major pathway for the transfer of Pb within Ofi cladodes. The stomata, areoles, and cuticle of cladode surface, play an obvious role in the retention and the incorporation of lead-bearing apatite, thus revealing the hazard of eating contaminated cladodes. The possibility of using series of successive cladodes for biomonitoring the atmospheric pollution in arid and semi-arid regions is also rapidly discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féboli, Aline; Laurentiz, Antonio C; Soares, Suelen C S; Augusto, Jeferson G; Anjos, Luciano A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Filardi, Rosemeire S; Laurentiz, Rosangela S

    2016-08-15

    This study describes the in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts from Opuntia ficus indica against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. The anthelmintic activity was evaluated by inhibition of egg hatching, larval development and larval migration assays. The residual aqueous fractions from cladodes and fruits showed higher ovicidal activity with EC50 values of 7.2mg/mL and 1.5mg/mL, respectively. The aqueous, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from fruits and the aqueous fraction from cladodes inhibited 100% of larval development at the lowest concentration tested (1.56mg/mL). The crude cladode and fruit ethanolic extracts inhibited larval migration and showed EC50 values of 0.74mg/mL and 0.27mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical screening detected high concentrations of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins in the fruits and cladodes. The results demonstrated that O. ficus exhibits anthelmintic activity in vitro, suggesting that, beyond its nutritional potential, this plant can also be an ally for parasite control in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of nopal pads (Opuntia ficus indica) and dry vacuum nopal powders as a function of the maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Garcia, M E; de Lira, C; Hernández-Becerra, E; Cornejo-Villegas, M A; Palacios-Fonseca, A J; Rojas-Molina, I; Reynoso, R; Quintero, L C; Del-Real, A; Zepeda, T A; Muñoz-Torres, C

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents the physicochemical and nutrimental characterization of fresh nopal (Opuntia ficus indica, Redonda variety) and nopal powder produced at different stages of development. Nopal powder was obtained by dry vacuum technique using 10(2) Torr and low temperature (40 degrees C). The results showed that the nutrimental and mineral composition of nopal changes as a function of the maturation as follow: The ash content increases from 18.41 for nopalitos (60 g of weight) to 23.24% (nopal pads 200 g); calcium content increases from 1.52 to 3.72%, while phosphorous exhibits an opposite trend: 0.43 to 0.27%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was determined by X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy and quantified by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Calcium oxalate decreases from 7.95 to 3.47 mg/g and the Ca/P ratio varies from 3.6 to 11. The soluble fibre decreases from 25.22 to 14.91%, while insoluble fibre increases from 29.87 to 41.65%. These results suggest that nopal could be an important source of minerals within the diets of people in Mexico and the rest of Latin America.

  11. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  13. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nizar Yeddes; Jamila Kalthoum Chérif; Amel Jrad; Danielle Barth; Malika Trabelsi-Ayadi

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P=180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the sam...

  14. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a functional ingredient: bioactive compounds profile and their effect on antioxidant quality of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaddak, Lotfi; Abdelhedi, Ola; Kridene, Amani; Rateb, Mostafa; Belbahri, Lassaâd; Ammar, Emna; Nasri, Moncef; Zouari, Nacim

    2017-02-07

    In the context of a balanced diet, the antioxidant-rich food consumption is a preventive way of many degenerative diseases. Consequently, improving the nutraceutical quality of traditional foods such as bakery products is an interesting approach. Considering the present consumer's demand, cladodes from prickly pear that were traditionally used as a valuable food as well as in folk medicine for the treatment of several chronic diseases were investigated for their use in bread production to improve its functionality. Bioactive substances were determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-HRESIMS) analysis. Dough rheological properties were characterized by alveographic measurements. Bread antioxidant quality was evaluated by total phenolics content, DPPH• radical-scavenging, metal (Fe 2+ ) chelating and Fe 3+ reducing power determinations. LC-HRESIMS analysis of the cladodes extract allowed the identification of 9 flavonoids, 2 phenolics, 1 alkaloid and 1 terpenoid compounds. Cladodes powder enrichment induced important modifications on the dough rheological parameters in terms of the extensibility (L) and deformation energy (W) decrease. Moreover, cladodes powder addition to bread resulted in a decrease in both crust and crumb colour parameters (L*, a* and b*). A 5% supplementation resulted in an increase of the bread yield and bread specific volume by 8.9 and 25%, respectively. Interestingly, Bread containing cladodes powder showed enhanced total phenolics content and antioxidant potential as compared to the control. Substitution of wheat flour by the cladodes powder at 5% level was optimal for improving the total phenolics content and the antioxidant potential of bread without having any negative effect on its sensory acceptability. Cladodes from Opuntia ficus-indica could be considered as a potential health-promoting functional ingredient in bakery products.

  15. The effect of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from Opuntia ficus-indica in a mouse model of diet induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Torres, Nimbe; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Noriega, Lilia G; Torre-Villalvazo, Iván; Leal-Díaz, Ana M; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Márquez-Mota, Claudia; Ordaz, Guillermo; Chavez-Santoscoy, Rocío A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-03-01

    A diet rich in polyphenols can ameliorate some metabolic alterations associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a plant rich in isorhamnetin glycosides and is highly consumed in Mexico. The purpose of this research was to determine the metabolic effect of an OFI extract on a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and in isolated pancreatic islets. OFI extract was added to a high fat (HF) diet at a low (0.3%) or high (0.6%) dose and administered to C57BL/6 mice for 12 weeks. Mice fed the HF diet supplemented with the OFI extract gained less body weight and exhibited significantly lower circulating total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to those fed the HF diet alone. The HF-OFI diet fed mice presented lower glucose and insulin concentration than the HF diet fed mice. However, the HF-OFI diet fed mice tended to have higher insulin concentration than control mice. The OFI extract stimulated insulin secretion in vitro, associated with increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) mRNA content. Furthermore, the OFI extract improved glucose tolerance, and additionally increased energy expenditure. These metabolic improvements were associated with reduced adipocyte size, increased hepatic IRS1 tyr-608 and S6 K thr-389 phosphorylation. OFI isorhamnetin glycosides also diminished the hepatic lipid content associated with reduced mRNA expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and lipogenic enzymes and increased mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation. Overall, the OFI extract prevented the development of metabolic abnormalities associated with diet-induced obesity.

  16. Brain Distribution and Modulation of Neuronal Excitability by Indicaxanthin From Opuntia Ficus Indica Administered at Nutritionally-Relevant Amounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Gambino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have recently investigated the role of nutraceuticals in complex pathophysiological processes such as oxidative damages, inflammatory conditions and excitotoxicity. In this regard, the effects of nutraceuticals on basic functions of neuronal cells, such as excitability, are still poorly investigated. For this reason, the possible modulation of neuronal excitability by phytochemicals (PhC could represent an interesting field of research given that excitotoxicity phenomena are involved in neurodegenerative alterations leading, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was focused on indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica, a bioactive betalain pigment, with a proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, previously found to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB and to modulate the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons. On this basis, we aimed at detecting the specific brain areas where indicaxanthin localizes after oral administration at dietary-achievable amounts and highlighting eventual local effects on the excitability of single neuronal units. HPLC analysis of brain tissue 1 h after ingestion of 2 μmol/kg indicaxanthin indicated that the phytochemical accumulates in cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum, but not in the striato-pallidal complex. Then, electrophysiological recordings, applying the microiontophoretic technique, were carried out with different amounts of indicaxanthin (0.34, 0.17, 0.085 ng/neuron to assess whether indicaxanthin influenced the neuronal firing rate. The data showed that the bioelectric activity of neurons belonging to different brain areas was modulated after local injection of indicaxanthin, mainly with dose-related responses. A predominating inhibitory effect was observed, suggesting a possible novel beneficial effect of indicaxanthin in reducing cell excitability. These findings can constitute a new rationale for exploring biological mechanisms through

  17. Brain Distribution and Modulation of Neuronal Excitability by Indicaxanthin From Opuntia Ficus Indica Administered at Nutritionally-Relevant Amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giuditta; Allegra, Mario; Sardo, Pierangelo; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Livrea, Maria A.; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Carletti, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have recently investigated the role of nutraceuticals in complex pathophysiological processes such as oxidative damages, inflammatory conditions and excitotoxicity. In this regard, the effects of nutraceuticals on basic functions of neuronal cells, such as excitability, are still poorly investigated. For this reason, the possible modulation of neuronal excitability by phytochemicals (PhC) could represent an interesting field of research given that excitotoxicity phenomena are involved in neurodegenerative alterations leading, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was focused on indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica, a bioactive betalain pigment, with a proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, previously found to cross blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to modulate the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons. On this basis, we aimed at detecting the specific brain areas where indicaxanthin localizes after oral administration at dietary-achievable amounts and highlighting eventual local effects on the excitability of single neuronal units. HPLC analysis of brain tissue 1 h after ingestion of 2 μmol/kg indicaxanthin indicated that the phytochemical accumulates in cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum, but not in the striato-pallidal complex. Then, electrophysiological recordings, applying the microiontophoretic technique, were carried out with different amounts of indicaxanthin (0.34, 0.17, 0.085 ng/neuron) to assess whether indicaxanthin influenced the neuronal firing rate. The data showed that the bioelectric activity of neurons belonging to different brain areas was modulated after local injection of indicaxanthin, mainly with dose-related responses. A predominating inhibitory effect was observed, suggesting a possible novel beneficial effect of indicaxanthin in reducing cell excitability. These findings can constitute a new rationale for exploring biological mechanisms through which PhC could

  18. Opposite Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice Depending on Fruit Maturity Stage on Gastrointestinal Physiological Parameters in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kais; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-06-01

    The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α- 2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α- 2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), and loperamide (5 mg kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). In vivo reverse effect of juice on GI physiological parameters was investigated using a charcoal meal test, phenol-red colorimetric method, loperamide-induced acute constipation, and castor oil-caused small-bowel hypersecretion. However, the opposite in vitro influence of juice on intestinal permeability homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system. Mature prickly pear juice administration stimulated significantly and dose dependently the GI transit (GIT; 8-26%) and gastric emptying (0.9-11%) in a rat model. Conversely, the immature prickly pear juice reduced gastric emptying (7-23%), GIT (10-28%), and diarrhea (59-88%). Moreover, the standard drugs have produced their antagonistic effects on GI physiological functions. The permeability of the isolated perfused rat small-intestine has a paradoxical response flowing prickly pear juices administration at diverse doses and maturity grade. Most importantly, the quantitative phytochemical analyses of both juices showed a different composition depending on the degree of maturity. In conclusion, the prickly pear juice at two distinct phases of maturity has different phytochemical characteristics and opposite effects on GI physiological actions in rat.

  19. Protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica extract on ram sperm quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Öztürk, Mehmet; BenMoula, Anass; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic composition of the acetone extract from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (ACTEX) and its effects on ram semen variables, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage at 5°C for up to 72h in skim milk and Tris egg yolk extenders. Semen samples from five rams were pooled extended with Tris-egg yolk (TEY) or skim milk (SM) extenders containing ACTEX (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%) at a final concentration of 0.8×10 9 sperm/ml and stored for up to 72h at 5°C. The sperm variables were evaluated at different time periods (8, 24, 48 and 72h). Sperm total motility and viability were superior in TEY than in SM whereas the progressive motility, membrane integrity, abnormality and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were greater in SM compared to TEY (P<0.05). The results also indicated that the inclusion of 1% ACTEX in the SM or TEY extender increased the sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, and decreased the abnormality, lipids peroxidation up to 72h in storage compared to control group. Similarly, even at 72h of storage, 1% ACTEX can efficiently decrease the negative effects of liquid storage on sperm DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). In conclusion, SM and TEY supplemented with 1% of ACTEX can improve the quality of ram semen. Further studies are required to identify the active components in ACTEX involved in its effect on ram sperm preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sperm DNA fragmentation induced by cryopreservation: new insights and effect of a natural extract from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamar, Mehrdad; Zribi, Nassira; Cambi, Marta; Tamburrino, Lara; Marchiani, Sara; Filimberti, Erminio; Fino, Maria Grazia; Biggeri, Annibale; Menezo, Yves; Forti, Gianni; Baldi, Elisabetta; Muratori, Monica

    2012-08-01

    To analyze the effect of cryopreservation on sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in two cytometric sperm populations, PI(brighter) and PI(dimmer), and to test the effects of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) extracts, which contain antioxidants and flavanoids, and of resveratrol on cryopreservation of human semen. In vitro prospective study. Institutional study. Twenty-one normozoospermic men undergoing semen analysis for couple infertility. Cryopreservation using the routine method in the presence of OFI extracts or resveratrol. Measurement of SDF by TUNEL/PI flow cytometric method to evaluate sperm motility (by automated motion analysis, CASA system) and viability (by eosin/nigrosin staining) in the two populations of sperm PI(br) and PI(dim). Cryopreservation induced an increase of SDF only in the PI(br) sperm population. The increase was negatively dependent on the basal values of SDF in the same population. Addition of OFI extracts and resveratrol to the cryopreservation medium slightly but statistically significantly reduced SDF in the PI(br) population without affecting the deleterious effect of cryopreservation on sperm motion parameters or viability. The increase of SDF in the PI(br) population, which is unrelated to semen quality, suggests that caution must be taken in using cryopreserved semen, as morphologically normal and motile sperm may be damaged. The addition of substances with multifunctional properties such as OFI extracts to cryopreservation medium is only slightly effective in preventing the dramatic effects on SDF. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Opuntia ficus-indica ingestion stimulates peripheral disposal of oral glucose before and after exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Ramaekers, Monique; Pischel, Ivo; Hespel, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladode and fruit-skin extract on blood glucose and plasma insulin increments due to high-dose carbohydrate ingestion, before and after exercise. Healthy, physically active men (n = 6; 21.0 ± 1.6 years, 78.1 ± 6.0 kg) participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study involving 2 experimental sessions. In each session, the subjects successively underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at rest (OGTT(R)), a 30-min cycling bout at ~75% VO(2max), and another OGTT after exercise (OGTT(EX)). They received capsules containing either 1,000 mg OFI or placebo (PL) 30 min before and immediately after the OGTT(R). Blood samples were collected before (t₀) and at 30-min intervals after ingestion of 75 g glucose for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. In OGTT(EX) an additional 75-g oral glucose bolus was administered at t₆₀. In OGTT(R), OFI administration reduced the area under the glucose curve (AUC(GLUC)) by 26%, mainly due to lower blood glucose levels at t₃₀ and t₆₀ (p blood glucose at t₆₀ was ~10% lower in OFI than in PL, which resulted in a decreased AUC(GLUC) (-37%, p AUC(INS) were not different between OFI and PL. In conclusion, the current study shows that OFI extract can increase plasma insulin and thereby facilitate the clearance of an oral glucose load from the circulation at rest and after endurance exercise in healthy men.

  2. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba du Toit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g, particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg. Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  3. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Alba; de Wit, Maryna; Hugo, Arno

    2018-04-16

    Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo) and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta) cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g) were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g), particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g) and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg). Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg) and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg) values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid) fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February) had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  4. Supplementing with Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and Dioscorea nipponica Makino extracts synergistically attenuates menopausal symptoms in estrogen-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2014-08-08

    Prickly pear cactus grown in Korea (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill, KC) and Buchema (Dioscorea nipponica Makino, B) have been traditionally used in East Asia and South America to treat various metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the extracts of KC, B, and KC+B can prevent the impairments of energy, glucose, lipid and bone homeostasis in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats and to explore their mechanisms. OVX rats were divided into 4 groups and fed high fat diets supplemented with either 3% dextrin (control), 3% KC, 3% B or 1.5% KC+1.5% B. Sham rats were fed 3% dextrin. After 12 weeks of diet consumption, energy, lipid, glucose and bone metabolisms were analyzed and Wnt signaling in the femur and hepatic signaling were determined. OVX impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism and decreased uterine and bone masses. B and KC+B prevented the decrease in energy expenditure, especially from fat oxidation, in OVX rats, but did not affect food intake. KC+B and B reduced body weight and visceral fat levels, as compared to the OVX-control, by decreasing fat synthesis and inhibiting FAS and SREBP-1c expression. KC+B and B prevented the increases in serum lipid levels and insulin resistance by improving hepatic insulin signaling (pIRS→pAkt→pGSK-3β). KC and KC+B also prevented decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) in the femur and lumbar spine in OVX rats. This was related to decreased expressions of bone turnover markers such as serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific ALP levels, and increased serum P levels. KC and KC+B upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, but suppressed the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1. B alone improved energy, lipid and glucose homeostasis, but not bone loss, whereas KC alone enhanced BMD, but not energy, lipid or glucose homeostasis. KC+B synergistically attenuated impairments of bone, energy, lipid and glucose

  5. Additive insulinogenic action of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin extract and leucine after exercise in healthy males

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral intake of a specific extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode and fruit skin (OpunDia™) (OFI) has been shown to increase serum insulin concentration while reducing blood glucose level for a given amount of glucose ingestion after an endurance exercise bout in healthy young volunteers. However, it is unknown whether OFI-induced insulin stimulation after exercise is of the same magnitude than the stimulation by other insulinogenic agents like leucine as well as whether OFI can interact with those agents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: 1) to compare the degree of insulin stimulation by OFI with the effect of leucine administration; 2) to determine whether OFI and leucine have an additive action on insulin stimulation post-exercise. Methods Eleven subjects participated in a randomized double-blind cross-over study involving four experimental sessions. In each session the subjects successively underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 30-min cycling bout at ~70% VO2max. At t0 and t60 during the OGTT, subjects ingested 75 g glucose and capsules containing either 1) a placebo; 2) 1000 mg OFI; 3) 3 g leucine; 4) 1000 mg OFI + 3 g leucine. Blood samples were collected before and at 30-min intervals during the OGTT for determination of blood glucose and serum insulin. Results Whereas no effect of leucine was measured, OFI reduced blood glucose at t90 by ~7% and the area under the glucose curve by ~15% and increased serum insulin concentration at t90 by ~35% compared to placebo (P<0.05). From t60 to the end of the OGTT, serum insulin concentration was higher in OFI+leucine than in placebo which resulted in a higher area under the insulin curve (+40%, P<0.05). Conclusion Carbohydrate-induced insulin stimulation post-exercise can be further increased by the combination of OFI with leucine. OFI and leucine could be interesting ingredients to include together in recovery drinks to resynthesize muscle glycogen faster post

  6. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  7. The n-butanolic extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten enhances long-term memory in the passive avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Park, Dong Hyun; Jung, Seo Yun; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Yong Sup; Jin, Changbae; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2010-08-16

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino (Cactaceae) is used to treat burns, edema, dyspepsia, and asthma in traditional medicine. The present study investigated the beneficial effects of the n-butanolic extract of O. ficus-indica var. saboten (BOF) on memory performance in mice and attempts to uncover the mechanisms underlying its action. Memory performance was assessed with the passive avoidance task, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure changes in protein expression and cell survival. After the oral administration of BOF for 7 days, the latency time in the passive avoidance task was significantly increased relative to vehicle-treated controls (P<0.05). Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element binding-protein (pCREB), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) 1/2 were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue after 7 days of BOF administration (P<0.05). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining also revealed that BOF significantly enhanced the survival of immature neurons, but did not affect neuronal cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the subchronic administration of BOF enhances long-term memory, and that this effect is partially mediated by ERK-CREB-BDNF signaling and the survival of immature neurons. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Co{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Carbon Dioxide Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-12-31

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO{sub 2}. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO{sub 2} condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants under elevated CO{sub 2}, which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO{sub 2} compared with 360 ppM.

  9. Co[sub 2] exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO[sub 2]. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO[sub 2] condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plants under elevated CO[sub 2], which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO[sub 2] compared with 360 ppM.

  10. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration enhanced the activity of carbohydrate-metabolism enzymes, source carbohydrate production, photoassimilate transport, and sink strength for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ning; Nobel, P.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    After exposure to a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration of 750 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} air for about 3 months, glucose and starch in the chlorenchyma of basal cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased 175 and 57%, respectively, compared with the current CO{sub 2} concentration of 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}, but sucrose content was virtually unaffected. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration increased the noncturnal malate production in basal cladodes by 75%, inorganic phosphate (Pi) by 32% soluble starch synthase activity by 30%, and sucrose-Pi synthase activity by 146%, but did not affect the activity of hexokinase. Doubling CO{sub 2} accelerated phloem transport of sucrose out of the basal cladodes, resulting in a 73% higher dry weight for the daughter cladodes. Doubling CO{sub 2} increased the glucose content in 14-d-old daughter cladodes by 167%, increased nocturnal malate production by 22%, decreased total amino acid content by 61%, and increased soluble starch synthase activity by 30% and sucrose synthase activity by 62%. No downward acclimation of photosynthesis during long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations occurs for O. ficus-indica, consistent with its higher source capacity and sink strength than under current CO{sub 2}. These changes apparently do not result in Pi limitation of photosynthesis or suppression of genes governing photosynthesis for this perennial Crassulacean acid metabolism species, as occur for some annual crops.

  11. Extraction/export of nutrients in Opuntia ficus-indica under different spacings and chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate extraction/ export of nutrients and dry matter production in the 'Gigante' cactus pear, grown in different spacings and fertilizations 620 days after planting. Twelve combination of treatments were used consisting of: three spacings - 1.00 x 0.50; 2.00 x 0.25; and 3.00 x 1.00 x 0.25 m, and four fertilizations - 000-000-000; 000-150-000; 200-150-000; and 200-150-100, kg ha-1, of N, P2O5 and K2O, in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Extraction/export of N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Na and Cu were determined and the means were 304.35; 18.81; 421.04; 62.35; 464.63; 215.77; 0.39; 0.81; 23.74; 1.11; 0.62 and 0.08 kg ha-1, besides the mean dry matter production of 17.11 Mg ha-1. There were significant interactions for extraction/export of Mg and dry matter production. The fertilizations used were insufficient to meet the demand of N, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients. Fertilization increased the extraction of nutrients, particularly N, P and S at the spacing of 1.00 x 0.50 m, and increased dry matter production. The decreasing order of extraction/export was Ca, K, N, Mg, S and P for macronutrients and Mn, Zn, Fe, Na, B and Cu for micronutrients.

  12. An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Lee, S H; Shin, K H

    2001-03-01

    In previous studies, the ethanol extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) showed potent anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, following fractionation of the methanol extract of cactus stems guided by adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model in mice, an active anti-inflammatory principle has been isolated and identified as beta-sitosterol.

  13. [Importance of accurate assessment of capillary blood glucose level in diagnosis: misleading results in handlers of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pantoja, José; Landróguez Salinas, Sergio; Barrero Luque, Susana; Pérez Pérez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause symptoms of neuroglycopenia that can be easily confused with symptoms of greater clinical importance such as stroke. Appropriate differential diagnosis between these 2 processes will be essential for guiding the treatment approach. We report a case in which stroke was initially suspected because hypoglycemia was masked by the incorrect capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement technique used in treating an itinerant vendor of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica). We studied the effects of prickly pear handling on the CBG levels in 11 vendors before and after they handled the fruit. CBG levels were noticeably higher after the fruit was handled in all cases. Our observations reveal the need to measure both capillary and venous blood glucose levels to rule out hypoglycemia in patients with acute neurological symptoms.

  14. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  15. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Wet faeces produced by sheep fed dried spineless cactus pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus pear cladodes in ruminant diets are characterized by the production of wet faeces and assumed to be diarrhoea. Incremental levels of sun-dried and coarsely ground spineless cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Algerian) cladodes were used to substitute part of the lucerne hay in balanced sheep diets. Feed and ...

  17. UTILIZACIÓN DE Atriplex canescens Y Opuntia ficus indica EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN DE CABRAS LACTANTES DURANTE LA SEQUÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Urrutia-Morales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilización de Atriplex canescens y Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes durante la sequía. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del Atriplex (Atriplex canescens y nopal (Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes y la producción de leche durante la sequía. Durante los meses secos, entre mayo y agosto de 2005 y entre mayo y junio de 2006, se realizaron tres experimentos en la región semiárida de San Luis Potosí, México. En el primero, se probaron dos tratamientos: CO mantenidas en confinamiento y alimentación controlada (n=10 y AT mantenidas en pastoreo con Atriplex (n=10. En el segundo se aplicaron dos tratamientos: AT Atriplex (n=5 y NP Atriplex más nopal (n=5. En el tercero tres tratamientos: AT Atriplex (n=5, NP-1,0 Atriplex más 1,0% de nopal (n=4 y NP-1,5 Atriplex más 1,5% de nopal (n=5. En el primer experimento las cabras mantuvieron su peso, pero la producción de leche se redujo al 30% bajo confinamiento y menos del 8,0% en Atriplex al final del experimento. En el segundo, las cabras perdieron peso, a pesar de que la producción inicial de leche fue menor de 300 g/d. Las alimentadas con Atriplex redujeron su producción a casi la mitad de la producción inicial, mientras que la inclusión de nopal mantuvo la producción relativamente estable. En el tercer experimento, las cabras alimentadas con Atriplex mantuvieron el peso corporal, pero después de siete semanas la producción de leche fue del 25% de la producción inicial, a pesar de que esta fue de apenas 300 g diarios. En cambio, en las cabras suplementadas con nopal, la producción sólo se redujo al 45 y 64% de la producción inicial. Estos resultados son importantes para los caprinocultores de la región semiárida de México, donde las cabras podrían mantener una buena condición corporal, además de una producción de 150 a 250 g diarios de leche durante la época crítica utilizando Atriplex y nopal.

  18. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. METHODS: Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5’-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. RESULTS: Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5’-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. CONCLUSION: The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage. PMID:16865772

  19. A Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica Derived Fiber for Weight Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee-Win Chong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and caloric overconsumption are the key determinants of the escalating obesity prevalence. Reducing dietary fat absorption may help to induce a negative energy balance and thus help in managing weight problem. Apart from approved drug therapies, weight problems may also be aided with alternative and natural treatments. This paper compiled and reviewed the efficacy and safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI derived fiber, in reducing dietary fat absorption and promoting weight loss. Evidence reviewed shows that Litramine IQP-G-002AS displays efficacy in promoting fat excretion and weight loss in four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies (including an unpublished pilot study. With a daily dosage of 3 g over a seven-day period, Litramine IQP-G-002AS showed an increased faecal fat excretion compared with placebo (15.8% (SD 5.8% versus 4.6% (SD 3.1%; P < 0.001. In a 12-week study, significant greater weight loss (3.8 kg (SD 1.8 kg versus 1.4 kg (SD 2.6 kg; P < 0.001 was observed in overweight and obese subjects treated with Litramine IQP-G-002AS as compared to placebo. No relevant gastrointestinal side effects have been reported for Litramine IQP-G-002AS at the dosages studied.

  20. Exploitation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains to improve shelf life, rheological, sensory and functional features of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) fruit puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Vincentini, Olimpia; Lanera, Alessia; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasonic extraction of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes after mucilage removal: Optimization of experimental conditions and evaluation of chemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Bouallegue, Tahani; Achour, Mabrouka; Kriaa, Mouna; Bougatef, Ali; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2017-11-15

    Ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes after mucilage removal was attempted using the response surface methodology. The process variables were optimized by the isovariant central composite design in order to improve the pectin extraction yield. The optimum condition obtained was: sonication time 70min, temperature 70°C, pH 1.5 and the water-material ratio 30ml/g. This condition was validated and the performance of experimental extraction was 18.14%±1.41%, which was closely linked to the predicted value (19.06%). Thus, UAE present a promising alternative to conventional extraction process thanks to its high efficiency which was achieved in less time and at lower temperatures. The pectin extracted by UAE from OFI cladodes (UAEPC) has a low degree of esterification, high uronic acid content, important functional properties and good anti-radical activity. These results are in favor of the use of UAEPC as potential additive in food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  3. Phytochemical characterization of different prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) cultivars and botanical parts: UHPLC-ESI-MSn metabolomics profiles and their chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Legua, Pilar; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-06-01

    Prickly pear is an important source of bioactive compounds. However, a comprehensive characterization of the phytochemical profile of its aerial botanical parts, considering genotypic differences, has not been conducted. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of four botanical parts (fruit pulp and skin, and young and adult cladodes) of six cultivars. Analysis was carried out by using two non-targeted UHPLC-ESI-MS n experimental conditions and assisted with multivariate analysis to facilitate data interpretation. Up to 41 compounds, mainly (poly)phenolic molecules, were identified and quantified, 23 compounds being reported for the first time in Opuntia ficus-indica. Phenolic composition varied significantly depending on the part of the plant. Betalains were detected only in the fruit of a red cultivar. This study provided novel insights in terms of identification of bioactives and thorough characterization of botanical parts of prickly pears. This information may be used for the development of prickly pear-derived products with high levels of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reversing gastric mucosal alterations during ethanol-induced chronic gastritis in rats by oral administration of Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ramírez, Ricardo; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2006-07-21

    To study the effect of mucilage obtained from cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastritis in rats. Chronic gastric mucosa injury was treated with mucilage (5 mg/kg per day) after it was induced by ethanol. Lipid composition, activity of 5'-nucleotidase (a membrane-associated ectoenzyme) and cytosolic activities of lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases in the plasma membrane of gastric mucosa were determined. Histological studies of gastric samples from the experimental groups were included. Ethanol elicited the histological profile of gastritis characterized by loss of the surface epithelium and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) decreased and cholesterol content increased in plasma membranes of the gastric mucosa. In addition, cytosolic activity increased while the activity of alcohol dehydrogenases decreased. The administration of mucilage promptly corrected these enzymatic changes. In fact, mucilage readily accelerated restoration of the ethanol-induced histological alterations and the disturbances in plasma membranes of gastric mucosa, showing a univocal anti-inflammatory effect. The activity of 5'-nucleotidase correlated with the changes in lipid composition and the fluidity of gastric mucosal plasma membranes. The beneficial action of mucilage seems correlated with stabilization of plasma membranes of damaged gastric mucosa. Molecular interactions between mucilage monosaccharides and membrane phospholipids, mainly PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), may be the relevant features responsible for changing activities of membrane-attached proteins during the healing process after chronic gastric mucosal damage.

  5. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.638 Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.638

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Veras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0; 12,5; 25; 37,5; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, a DAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance, digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  6. Utilización del mucílago de tuna (opuntia ficus-indica) en el mejoramiento de la calidad del agua de consumo humano, en la comunidad de Pusir Grande, provincia del Carchi

    OpenAIRE

    Morejón Díaz, Bayro Javier

    2017-01-01

    Mejorar la calidad del agua de consumo humano utilizando mucílago de tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica) en la comunidad de Pusir Grande, Provincia del Carchi. Dentro del proceso para tratamiento de agua para consumo humano, se utilizan coagulantes químicos como el Sulfato de Aluminio Al2 (SO4)3, sin embargo, según estudios realizados, se ha comprobado que este insumo deja aluminio residual, el mismo que podría causar enfermedades como el Alzheimer. En la naturaleza, existen especies vegetativa...

  7. The cactus webworm, Loxomorpha flavidissimalis (Grote, 1878) (Pyraloidea, Crambidae): its distribution and a potential pest in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Loxomorpha flavidissimalis, the cactus webworm, for the first time from Tamaulipas, Mexico, as an herbivore of the cultivated cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica. We observed larvae over a four year period (2010-2014) during the months of March to November and found young cladode losses attributa...

  8. Immunostimulatory Activity of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten Cladodes Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2017-02-01

    To increase the functionality of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten cladodes, it was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis. Eighty percent methanol extracts were investigated for their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production, cytokine secretion, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells. Methanol extracts of L. plantarum culture medium (LPCME) and B. subtilis culture medium (BSCME) did not affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production but, at 500 μg/mL, increased interferon (IFN)-γ-induced NO production by 55.2 and 66.5 μM, respectively, in RAW 264.7 cells. In RAW 264.7 cells not treated with LPS and IFN-γ, LPCME did not affect NO production, but BSCME increased NO production significantly in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BSCME induced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. BSCME at 500 μg/mL increased TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels by 83.8% and 82.2%, respectively. BSCME increased NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner; 500 μg/mL BSCME increased activity 9.1-fold compared with the control. BSCME induced the phosphorylation of p38, c-JUN NH 2 -terminal protein kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect total ERK levels. In conclusion, BSCME exerted immunostimulatory effects, which were mediated by MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, resulting in increased TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Therefore, BSCM shows promise for use as an immunostimulatory therapeutic.

  9. Hypoglycemic Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Is Due to Enhanced Peripheral Glucose Uptake through Activation of AMPK/p38 MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Gyou; Hahm, Young-Tae; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-12-09

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo systems. OFS treatment inhibited α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption assessed by Na⁺-dependent glucose uptake using brush border membrane vesicles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is widely recognized as an important regulator of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been proposed to be a component of AMPK-mediated signaling. In the present study, OFS dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells. The AMPK and p38 MAPK phosphorylations were stimulated by OFS, and inhibitors of AMPK (compound C ) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) abolished the effects of OFS. Furthermore, OFS increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to the plasma membrane. OFS administration (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg body weight) in db/db mice dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were also dose-dependently improved with OFS treatment. OFS administration improved pancreatic function through increased β-cell mass in db/db mice. These findings suggest that OFS acts by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and enhancing glucose uptake from insulin-sensitive muscle cells through the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  10. Hypoglycemic Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Is Due to Enhanced Peripheral Glucose Uptake through Activation of AMPK/p38 MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Hyun Leem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses, including diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms underlying hypoglycemic effects remain unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the hypoglycemic activity of OFS was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo systems. OFS treatment inhibited α-glucosidase activity and intestinal glucose absorption assessed by Na+-dependent glucose uptake using brush border membrane vesicles. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is widely recognized as an important regulator of glucose transport in skeletal muscle, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK has been proposed to be a component of AMPK-mediated signaling. In the present study, OFS dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in L6 muscle cells. The AMPK and p38 MAPK phosphorylations were stimulated by OFS, and inhibitors of AMPK (compound C and p38 MAPK (SB203580 abolished the effects of OFS. Furthermore, OFS increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. OFS administration (1 g/kg and 2 g/kg body weight in db/db mice dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and glucose tolerance. Insulin resistance assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index were also dose-dependently improved with OFS treatment. OFS administration improved pancreatic function through increased β-cell mass in db/db mice. These findings suggest that OFS acts by inhibiting glucose absorption from the intestine and enhancing glucose uptake from insulin-sensitive muscle cells through the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  11. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

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    Nizar Yeddes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny and 8.91% (thornless against 3.4% (spiny and 1.94% (thornless by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P=180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1. Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny, 59.98% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny, 60.66% (thornless, followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny, 22.40% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny, 20.58% (thornless and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny, 12.92% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny, 13.08% (thornless. The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25, and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C and 4.13 (T = 70°C.

  12. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C). PMID:22754699

  13. Effect of three pretreatment techniques on the chemical composition and on the methane yields of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, P S; Catalán, E; Folino, A; Sánchez, A; Komilis, D

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is an emerging biomass that has the potential to be used as substrate in anaerobic digestion. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of three pretreatment techniques (thermal, alkaline, acidic) on the chemical composition and the methane yield of OFI biomass. A composite experimental design with three factors and two to three levels was implemented, and regression modelling was employed using a total of 10 biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The measured methane yields ranged from 289 to 604 NmL/gVS added ; according to the results, only the acidic pretreatment (HCl) was found to significantly increase methane generation. However, as the experimental values were quite high with regards to the theoretical methane yield of the substrate, this effect still needs to be confirmed via further research. The alkaline pretreatment (NaOH) did not noticeably affect methane yields (an average reduction of 8% was recorded), despite the fact that it did significantly reduce the lignin content. Thermal pretreatment had no effect on the methane yields or the chemical composition. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed changes in the chemical structure after the addition of NaOH and HCl. Modelling of the cumulated methane production by the Gompertz modified equation was successful and aided in understanding kinetic advantages linked to some of the pretreatments. For example, the alkaline treatment (at the 20% dosage) at room temperature resulted to a μ max (maximum specific methane production rate [NmLCH 4 /(gVS added ·d)]) equal to 36.3 against 18.6 for the control.

  14. Supercritical SC-CO(2) and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO(2) extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO(2) flow rate = 15 mL·s(-1)). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO(2): 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO(2): 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO(2): 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO(2) profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C(20:1), C(20:2), and C(22).The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44-5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C).

  15. Desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill., em diferentes substratos, após micropropagação in vitro - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659 The development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L mill., in different substrates, after in vitro micropropagation - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i1.659

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    Jacob Silva Souto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento de Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, em diferentes substratos, utilizaram-se plantas micropropagadas nas seguintes etapas: indução, crescimento, multiplicação e enraizamento dos brotos. Após o enraizamento, as plântulas foram aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, usando-se os seguintes substratos: solo não adubado, solo adubado de acordo com análise de solo, solo + pó de coco (1:1 e 2:1, solo + esterco de bovino (1:1 e 2:1, solo + bioadubo (1:1 e 2:1, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. As plântulas possuíam entre 1 a 2 cm de comprimento e foram enterradas a dois terços no solo. Semanalmente, foram medidas as alturas das plantas e contado o número de brotações. Verificou-se diferença significativa ao nível de 5% de probabilidade pelo Teste t quando comparados os efeitos dos diferentes substratos. Conclui-se que deve-se utilizar o substrato à base de esterco bovino na aclimatização da palma forrageira.The study aimed to evaluate the development of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill, in different substrates, using micropropagated plants in the following stages: induction, growth, multiplication and bud rooting. After rooting, seedlings were acclimatized in greenhouse, by means of the following potting mixture: unfertilized soil, fertilized soil according to soil analysis, soil + coconut dust (1:1 and 2:1, soil + bovine manure (1:1 and 2:1, soil + biofertilizer (1:1 and 2:1, randomly applied with four replications. The seedlings had between 1 and 2 cm of length and were planted two thirds under the soil. There were weekly measures of the plants’ height and the number of shoots. Significant difference to the level of 5% of probability for test was verified when comparing the effects of different substrates. Results show that the potting mixture must be based on bovine manure in the acclimatization of palm grass.

  16. Agrobiodiversity of cactus pear (Opuntia, Cactaceae in the Meridional Highlands Plateau of Mexico

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    Juan Antonio Reyes-Agüero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is characterized by a remarkable richness of Opuntia, mostly at the Meridional Highlands Plateau; it is also here where the greatest richness of Opuntia variants occurs. Most of these variants have been maintained in homegardens; however, the gathering process which originated these homegardens has been disrupted over the past decades, as a result of social change and the destruction of large wild nopaleras. If the variants still surviving in homegardens are lost, these will be hard to recover, that is, the millenary cultural heritage from the human groups that populated the Mexican Meridional Highland Plateau will be lost forever. This situation motivated the preparation of a catalogue that records the diversity of wild and cultivated Opuntia variants living in the meridional Highlands Plateau. To this end, 379 samples were obtained in 29 localities, between 1998 and 2003. The information was processed through Twinspan. All specimens were identified and preserved in herbaria. Botanical keys and descriptions were elaborated. The catalogue includes information on 126 variants comprising 18 species. There were species with only one variant (Opuntia atropes, O. cochinera, O. jaliscana, O. leucotricha, O. rzedowskii and O. velutina, two (O. durangensis, O. lindheimeri, O. phaeacantha and O. robusta, five (O. joconostle and O. lasiacantha, seven (O. chavena, 12 (O. hyptiacantha and O. streptacantha, 15 (O. ficus-indica, 22 (O. albicarpa, and up to 34 (O. megacantha. Additionally, 267 common cactus pear names were related to those variants.

  17. Antioxidant betalains from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) inhibit endothelial ICAM-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, C; Tesoriere, L; Allegra, M; Livrea, M A; D'Alessio, P

    2004-12-01

    It has been suggested that some pigments would have antioxidant properties and that their presence in dietary constituents would contribute to reduce the risk of oxidative stress-correlated diseases. Among others, inflammatory response depends on redox status and may implicate oxidative stress. Vascular endothelial cells are a direct target of oxidative stress in inflammation. We have tested the impact of the free radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of betalains from the prickle pear in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. Here we show the capacity of betalains to protect endothelium from cytokine-induced redox state alteration, through ICAM-1 inhibition.

  18. Damage caused by Tetranychus Merganser Bondreaux (Acari: Tetranychidae on Nopal Verdura Opuntia Ficus-Indica (L. Miller during winter

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    J. Lima-Espíndola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus merganser occurs in some crops in Mexico and USA. This mite could be considered a potential pest in countries like Japan. In this work we recorded the damages that T. merganser causes to the nopal verdura (prickly pear vegetable crop in one of the principal cactus crop regions of Mexico.

  19. Utilización de Atriplex canescens y Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes durante la sequía.

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    Jorge Urrutia-Morales

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del Atriplex (Atriplex canescens y nopal (Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes y la producción de leche durante la sequía. Durante los meses secos, entre mayo y agosto de 2005 y entre mayo y junio de 2006, se realizaron tres experimentos en la región semiárida de San Luis Potosí, México. En el primero, se probaron dos tratamientos: CO mantenidas en confinamiento y alimentación controlada (n=10 y AT mantenidas en pastoreo con Atriplex (n=10. En el segundo se aplicaron dos tratamientos: AT Atriplex (n=5 y NP Atriplex más nopal (n=5. En el tercero tres tratamientos: AT Atriplex (n=5, NP-1,0 Atriplex más 1,0% de nopal (n=4 y NP-1,5 Atriplex más 1,5% de nopal (n=5. En el primer experimento las cabras mantuvieron su peso, pero la producción de leche se redujo al 30% bajo confinamiento y menos del 8,0% en Atriplex al final del experimento. En el segundo, las cabras perdieron peso, a pesar de que la producción inicial de leche fue menor de 300 g/d. Las alimentadas con Atriplex redujeron su producción a casi la mitad de la producción inicial, mientras que la inclusión de nopal mantuvo la producción relativamente estable. En el tercer experimento, las cabras alimentadas con Atriplex mantuvieron el peso corporal, pero después de siete semanas la producción de leche fue del 25% de la producción inicial, a pesar de que esta fue de apenas 300 g diarios. En cambio, en las cabras suplementadas con nopal, la producción sólo se redujo al 45 y 64% de la producción inicial. Estos resultados son importantes para los caprinocultores de la región semiárida de México, donde las cabras podrían mantener una buena condición corporal, además de una producción de 150 a 250 g diarios de leche durante la época crítica utilizando Atriplex y nopal.

  20. CO[sub 2] exchange and growth of the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant opuntia ficus-indica under elevated CO[sub 2] in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism species, were studied at CO[sub 2] concentrations of 370, 520, and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] in open-top chambers during a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 76 and 98% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Eight weeks after daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35 and 49% higher at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, than at 370 L L[sup [minus]1]. Daily water-use efficiency was 88% higher under elevated CO[sub 2] for basal cladodes and 57% higher for daughter cladodes. The daily net CO[sub 2] uptake capacity for basal cladodes increased for 4 weeks after planting and then remained fairly constant, whereas for daughter cladodes, it increased with cladode age, became maximal at 8 to 14 weeks, and then declined. The percentage enhancement in daily net CO[sub 2] uptake caused by elevated CO[sub 2] was greatest initially for basal cladodes and at 8 to 14 weeks for daughter cladodes. The chlorophyll content per unit fresh weight of chlorenchyma for daughter cladodes at 8 weeks was 19 and 62% lower in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, compared with 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Despite the reduced chlorophyll content, plant biomass production during 23 weeks in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 21 and 55% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. The root dry weight nearly tripled as the CO[sub 2] concentration was doubled, causing the root/shoot ratio to increase with CO[sub 2] concentration. During the 23-week period, elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production of O. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hypnotic Effect and GC-MS Analysis of Seeds Extracts From Algerian Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica L.

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    Farah Kenza BENATTIA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sleep disorders are a frequent symptom that requires prior to any prescription medication, an etiological check to eliminate any organic or psychiatric pathology that is under other treatments and that could worsen under hypnotics.The phytochemical study of Nopal affirm to be an excellent source of natural oligoelements which may improve human health and nutrition Aims: The objective of this work is to extract and analyze the lipid fraction of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus–indica. L, and to determine their hypnotic activity in order to achieve a primary pharmacological screening contained in these extracts (aqueous, hydro-ethanol. Methods: GC-MS analysis of seed oil extracted by soxhlet method, and the pharmacology experiment was performed on white mice from a Swiss race Balb/cby calculating the sleep time. Results: The oil of seeds is rich in fatty-acids poly-unsaturates, Main fatty acids identified were linoleic (C18:2, oleic (C18:1, and palmitic (C16:0, palmitoleic (C16:1 acids with respective contents 81.25%, 3.70%, and 15.03%. The extract hydro-ethanolic at the 500mg / kg dose has a moderate hypnotic effect Conclusion: This study proves that the food quality of prickly pear seeds is very important and its natural source of edible oil containing of the essential fatty-acids, and can be a base for a promising work to highlight the bioactive moleculeswithhypnotic effects, myorelaxant and tranquillizing.

  2. Encapsulating betalains from Opuntia ficus-indica fruits by ionic gelation: Pigment chemical stability during storage of beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Osorio, Coralia; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena

    2016-07-01

    Betalain encapsulation was performed by ionic gelation as a stabilization strategy for these natural pigments. Betalains were extracted from purple cactus fruits and encapsulated in calcium-alginate and in combination of calcium alginate and bovine serum albumin. Beads were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Moisture sorption isotherms were determined. Bead morphology was affected by matrix composition. Pigments storage stability was evaluated at different equilibrium relative humidity and temperatures. Pigment composition of beads was determined by HPLC-MS-MS and degradation products were also analysed after storage; betalamic acid being the major one. Both types of matrices protected the encapsulated pigments, being their storage stability better at low relative humidity than that of the non-encapsulated control material. Antiradical activities of beads were proportional to remaining betalain contents. At high relative humidity, there was no protection and low storage stability was observed in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Opuntia ficus indica (nopal) attenuates hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán-Ramos, Sofía; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; López-Romero, Patricia; Torres, Nimbe

    2012-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multiple factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. Nopal, a cactus plant widely consumed in the Mexican diet, is considered a functional food because of its antioxidant activity and ability to improve biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nopal consumption on the development of hepatic steatosis and hepatic oxidative stress and on the regulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were fed a control diet or a diet containing 4% nopal for 7 wk. Rats fed the nopal-containing diet had ∼50% lower hepatic TG than the control group as well as a reduction in hepatomegaly and biomarkers of hepatocyte injury such as alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Attenuation of hepatic steatosis by nopal consumption was accompanied by a higher serum concentration of adiponectin and a greater abundance of mRNA for genes involved in lipid oxidation and lipid export and production of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and microsomal TG transfer proteins in liver. Hepatic reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation biomarkers were significantly lower in rats fed nopal compared with the control rats. Furthermore, rats fed the nopal diet had a lower postprandial serum insulin concentration and a greater liver phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT):AKT ratio in the postprandial state. This study suggests that nopal consumption attenuates hepatic steatosis by increasing fatty acid oxidation and VLDL synthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving liver insulin signaling in obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats.

  4. Response of vegetable pads of two cactus cultivars to the presence of Salmonella strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tender cactus pads (cladodes) or nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L) are an important vegetable in Mexico. They are often pre-trimmed, cut and packaged, and while usually consumed cooked, they may also be eaten raw in salads. Salmonella is an enteropathogenic bacterium that can adapt to adverse envir...

  5. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16(INK4a) gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naselli, Flores; Tesoriere, Luisa; Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Attanzio, Alessandro; Gentile, Carla; Livrea, Maria A

    2014-07-18

    Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC50 400±25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115±15 μM (n=9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ∼80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16(INK4a), a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M-phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interacciones nutrimentales y normas de la técnica de nutrimento compuesto en nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller

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    F. Blanco-Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacen falta conocimientos básicos sobre la nutrición del nopal, esto para hacerlo más productivo. En ese contexto, se utilizó la técnica de Diagnóstico de Nutrimento Compuesto (DNC para definir normas preliminares de nutrición en nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Miller, sustentada en la relación cúbica entre los rendimientos y las funciones de proporción de varianza acumulada, así como en la función de distribución χ2 de los índices de nutrición global. Se consideró una base de datos con 180 observaciones de rendimiento (expresado en peso fresco de cladodio por planta y las concentraciones (% de N, P, K, Ca y Mg en cladodios de un año de edad. El rendimiento de biomasa de nopal depende significativamente de las concentraciones de N (P≤0.01, K (P≤0.05 y Mg (P≤0.05. Se apreciaron los siguientes sinergismos significativos: P-K (P≤0.05, K-Mg (P≤0.01 y Mg-Ca (P≤0.01; y los antagonismos: N-Ca (P≤0.01 y N-Mg (P≤0.05. Las normas preliminares de DNC propuestas y expresadas como logaritmos de las proporciones centradas (media ± desviación estándar para d = 5 nutrientes, con base en una subpoblación (n = 57 de alto rendimiento (más de 46.7 kg·planta-1 de cladodios de nopal cultivado en un suelo calcáreo son: *N V = -0.98 ± 0.35, * P V = -2.23 ± 0.21, * K V = 0.25 ± 0.19, * Ca V = 0.37 ± 0.35, * Mg V = -0.71 ± 0.17, y * Rd V = 3.29 ± 0.09. Esas normas corresponden a los siguientes rangos de concentraciones óptimas (medias ± desviación estándar en los cladodios: 1.29 ± 0.47 de N (%, 0.36 ± 0.08 de P (%, 4.24 ± 0.88 de K (%, 4.96 ± 1.73 de Ca (% y 1.61 ± 0.27 de Mg (%. El nopal concentra más de cuatro veces K y Ca que N, demostrando que es una planta calcitrófica. Algo similar ocurre entre Mg y P, pues el primero se concentra cuatro veces más que el segundo

  7. In Vitro Propagation of Three Moroccan Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia and Plant Establishment in Soil

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    Aissam EL FINTI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia is one of the most widespread cacti, primarily due to their edible fruit and vegetable mass used as feed. The high demand for young plants of Opuntia made it necessary to find a rapid method of multiplication of the cactus, the safest method consisting in vitro micropropagation of species belonging to this genus. With aim of large production of plant material, a propagation system of three important prickly pear cactus cultivar (Opuntia ficus-indica in Morocco was developed. Segments of healthy young cladode (containing one areole were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS containing adenine sulfate (40 mg/1, monosodium phosphate (50 mg/l, sucrose (50 g/l, phytagel (0.3% and benzyladenine (BA at 22.2 μM, to start the process of micropropagation. In vitro-developed shoots from areoles were used as secondary explants to induce shoot development in the MS medium with 5 mg/l of BA. All of the three studied cultivars showed an important multiplication rate in this medium. ‘Sidi Ifni M’ (‘Moussa’ cultivar shows the greatest number of shoots followed by ‘Sidi Ifni A’ (‘Aissa’ and ‘Delahia’ 17.26, 14.12 and 12.13 respectively. Rooting of in vitro-generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or IAA. Rooting frequencies were in the range from 95 to 100% and the highest mean number of root (19.1 was obtained with IBA for ‘Delahia’ cultivar. All micropropagated plants were transferred to greenhouse and all of them survived acclimatization process and showed good overall growth.

  8. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Camacho, R; Roman-Ramos, R

    1979-01-01

    Nopal (Opuntia sp.) has been traditionally used by the Mexican population for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this work is to describe effects produced by directly liquified nopal and extracts from this plant in healthy and pancreatectomized rabbits. Preliminary results allow us to conclude that Opuntia streptacantha, Lemaire, has hypoglycemic properties when orally administered, in animals with experimentally induced diabetes as well as in healthy ones with physiologic hyperglycemia.

  9. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naselli, Flores; Tesoriere, Luisa; Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Attanzio, Alessandro; Gentile, Carla; Livrea, Maria A., E-mail: maria.livrea@unipa.it

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Cactus pear fruit extract and indicaxanthin cause apoptosis of colon cancer cells. • Indicaxanthin does not cause ROS formation, but affects epigenoma in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reverses methylation of oncosuppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reactivates retinoblastoma in Caco-2 cells. • Bioavailable indicaxanthin may have chemopreventive activity in colon cancer. - Abstract: Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC{sub 50} 400 ± 25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115 ± 15 μM (n = 9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ∼80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16{sup INK4a} gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16{sup INK4a}, a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M-phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells.

  10. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of whole extract and isolated indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica associated with re-activation of the onco-suppressor p16INK4a gene in human colorectal carcinoma (Caco-2) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naselli, Flores; Tesoriere, Luisa; Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Attanzio, Alessandro; Gentile, Carla; Livrea, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cactus pear fruit extract and indicaxanthin cause apoptosis of colon cancer cells. • Indicaxanthin does not cause ROS formation, but affects epigenoma in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reverses methylation of oncosuppressor p16 INK4a gene in Caco-2 cells. • Indicaxanthin reactivates retinoblastoma in Caco-2 cells. • Bioavailable indicaxanthin may have chemopreventive activity in colon cancer. - Abstract: Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC 50 400 ± 25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115 ± 15 μM (n = 9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ∼80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16 INK4a gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16 INK4a , a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M-phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells

  11. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  12. Determination of the folate content in cladodes of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) by microbiological assay utilizing Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Escobar, Tania Breshkovskaya; Valverde-González, Maria Elena; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2010-05-26

    Prickly pear cactus has been an important food source in Mexico since ancient times due to its economical and ecological benefits and potential nutraceutical value. Nevertheless, studies on the nutritional aspects and health benefits have been scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess, apparently for the first time, the folate contents of cladodes of nopal by a microbiological assay, using Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) in extracts that were enzymatically treated to release the bound vitamin, employing single, dual, and trienzymatic procedures, and using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We used Opuntia cladodes of different length sizes. The microbiological assay showed some differences among enzyme treatments and sizes of nopal; the trienzyme treatment (alpha-amylase-protease-conjugase) was more efficient in determining the folate content in nopal, giving 5.0 ng/g in the small size cladodes at 54 h of testing time, while ELISA showed no significant differences in the folate content among sizes of cladodes (5.5-5.62 ng/g at 0 min testing time). Both techniques may be used for the assessment of folate content in cladodes, but ELISA is more rapid and reliable.

  13. Influences of elevated CO[sub 2] on CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production for the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica were studied at the current and two elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations (plus 150 and plus 350 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]) in open-top chambers over a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 49% and 84% higher, respectively, than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Nine weeks after the first-daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35% and 49% higher, respectively, in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Despite significantly lower chlorophyll contents (19% and 62%, respectively) in the first-daughter cladodes, biomass production over 23 weeks in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 22% and 50% higher, respectively, than for plants at the current CO[sub 2].

  14. Study of the antioxidant properties of extracts obtained from nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes after convective drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Luis; Vernon-Carter, E Jaime; Gallegos-Infante, J Alberto; Rocha-Guzman, Nuria E; Herrera-Valencia, E E; Calderas, Fausto; Jiménez-Alvarado, Rubén

    2011-04-01

    The process of convective drying was evaluated in terms of the bioactive compounds contained in nopal samples before and after dehydration. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol, carotene and ascorbic acid contents were determined in undehydrated and dehydrated samples. Two drying temperatures (45 and 65 °C) and two air flow rates (3 and 5 m s(-1) ) were evaluated. The rheology of samples under the best drying conditions was also studied, since it provides important information regarding processing (mixing, flow processing) as well as the sensory attributes (texture) of rehydrated samples. Non-Newtonian shear-thinning behaviour was observed for samples dried at 45 °C, while samples dried at 65 °C showed shear-thickening behaviour, possibly caused by thermal chain scission of high-molecular-weight components. The best conditions for bioactive compound preservation were a drying temperature of 45 °C and an air flow rate of 3 m s(-1) , resulting in 40.97 g phenols, 23.41 g flavonoids, 0.543 g β-carotene and 0.2815 g ascorbic acid kg(-1) sample as shown in table 3. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Changes in Respiratory Mitochondrial Machinery and Cytochrome and Alternative Pathway Activities in Response to Energy Demand Underlie the Acclimation of Respiration to Elevated CO2 in the Invasive Opuntia ficus-indica1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Blanc-Betes, Elena; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Azcon-Bieto, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    Studies on long-term effects of plants grown at elevated CO2 are scarce and mechanisms of such responses are largely unknown. To gain mechanistic understanding on respiratory acclimation to elevated CO2, the Crassulacean acid metabolism Mediterranean invasive Opuntia ficus-indica Miller was grown at various CO2 concentrations. Respiration rates, maximum activity of cytochrome c oxidase, and active mitochondrial number consistently decreased in plants grown at elevated CO2 during the 9 months of the study when compared to ambient plants. Plant growth at elevated CO2 also reduced cytochrome pathway activity, but increased the activity of the alternative pathway. Despite all these effects seen in plants grown at high CO2, the specific oxygen uptake rate per unit of active mitochondria was the same for plants grown at ambient and elevated CO2. Although decreases in photorespiration activity have been pointed out as a factor contributing to the long-term acclimation of plant respiration to growth at elevated CO2, the homeostatic maintenance of specific respiratory rate per unit of mitochondria in response to high CO2 suggests that photorespiratory activity may play a small role on the long-term acclimation of respiration to elevated CO2. However, despite growth enhancement and as a result of the inhibition in cytochrome pathway activity by elevated CO2, total mitochondrial ATP production was decreased by plant growth at elevated CO2 when compared to ambient-grown plants. Because plant growth at elevated CO2 increased biomass but reduced respiratory machinery, activity, and ATP yields while maintaining O2 consumption rates per unit of mitochondria, we suggest that acclimation to elevated CO2 results from physiological adjustment of respiration to tissue ATP demand, which may not be entirely driven by nitrogen metabolism as previously suggested. PMID:17660349

  16. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, M; D'Acquisto, F; Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Livrea, M A

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS. A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50-100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5-3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3-12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5-3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  17. Influences of soil volume and an elevated CO[sub 2] level on growth and CO[sub 2] exchange for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Luo, Y. (UCLA-DOE Lab., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Effects of the current (38 Pa) and an elevated (74 Pa) CO[sub 2] partial pressure on root and shoot areas, biomass accumulation and daily net CO[sub 2] exchange were determined for opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, a highly productive Crassulacean acid metabolism species cultivated worldwide. Plants were grown in environmentally controlled rooms for 18 weeks in pots of three soil volumes (2600, 6500 and 26000 cm[sup 3]), the smallest of which was intended to restrict root growth. For plants in the medium-sized soil volume, basal cladodes tended to be thicker and areas of main and lateral roots tended to be greater as the CO[sub 2] level was doubled. Daughter cladodes tended to be initiated sooner at the current compared with the elevated CO[sub 2] level but total areas were similar by 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for the three soil volumes averaged 24% higher for plants growing under elevated compared with current CO-2 levels, but at 18 weeks only 3% enhancement in uptake occurred. Dry weight gain was enhanced 24% by elevated CO[sub 2] during the first 10 weeks but only 8% over 18 weeks. Increasing the soil volume 10-fold led to a greater stimulation of daily net CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production than did doubling the CO[sub 2] level. At 18 weeks, root biomass doubled and shoot biomass nearly doubled as the soil volume was increased 10-fold; the effects of soil volume tended to be greater for elevated CO[sub 2]. The amount of cladode nitrogen per unit dry weight decreased as the CO[sub 2] level was raised and increased as soil volume increased, the latter suggesting that the effects of soil volume could be due to nitrogen limitations. (au) (30 refs.)

  18. Studies on the pharmacological action of cactus: identification of its anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Paek, E A

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus-indica fructus (EEOF) and Opuntia ficus-indica stem (EEOS) were prepared and used to evaluate the pharmacological effects of cactus. Both the extracts inhibited the writhing syndrome induced by acetic acid, indicating that they contains analgesic effect. The oral administrations of EEOF and EEOS suppressed carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and also showed potent inhibition in the leukocyte migration of CMC-pouch model in rats. Moreover, the extracts suppressed the release of beta-glucuronidase, a lysosomal enzyme in rat neutrophils. It was also noted that the extracts showed the protective effect on gastric mucosal layers. From the results it is suggested that the cactus extracts contain anti-inflammatory action having protective effect against gastric lesions.

  19. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Moroccan Opuntia ficus-indica flowers obtained by different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Benayad, Z.; Martínez Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Es-Safi, N. E

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. The objectives of this study were to compare the phenolic extraction efficiency of four extraction procedures, to explore the extract phenolic profile by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of cactus flowers from Morocco. accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 80% acetone in water at 80. °C gave rise to extracts with higher yields of total polyphenols, procyanidins and flavonoids. The qualitative analysis of the phenolic com...

  20. Utilização de técnicas multivariadas na avaliação da divergência genética entre clones de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Carlos Adonai

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, por meio de técnicas multivariadas, a divergência genética entre clones de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill., em um experimento instalado na Estação Experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária - IPA, Caruaru - PE. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram 19 clones de palma do Banco de Germoplasma do IPA. Foram mensuradas: a medidas em artículos, conforme a ordem: comprimento, largura, espessura, número e peso da matéria verde. b medidas por planta: presença de espinho, número de artículos por ordem e total, altura total, infestação por cochonilha e peso da matéria verde. Realizaram-se análises de variância univariada (ANOVA e multivariada (MANOVA, das variáveis canônicas (VC e de agrupamento (AA. Na ANOVA, foi verificada diferença entre as médias de clones e por meio da MANOVA, diferença entre vetores de médias de clones. Com a aplicação da VC, foi possível reduzir a dimensionalidade original para duas dimensões, com explicação de 85,03% da variação total. Foi considerada, como característica passível de descarte, a porcentagem de infestação por cochonilha. Na AA discriminaram-se nove grupos. A característica porcentagem de infestação por cochonilha não deve ser incluída no estudo da diversidade genética nas condições estudadas. As características de maior discriminação foram espessuras dos artículos primário, secundário e terciário, número de artículo primário e pesos médios de matéria verde por artículos secundário e terciário. Em um programa de melhoramento de palma forrageira, devem-se considerar o grupo de clones e o desempenho do clone quanto às características de maior relevância agronômica e zootécnica.

  1. Efecto de la adición de nopal ( Opuntia ficus - indica a la dieta de cerdas lactantes sobre la producción y calidad de la leche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Ortiz - Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de nopal ( Opuntia ficus - indica a la dieta de cerdas lactantes sobre la producción y calidad de la lech e. 22 cerdas hibridas (Yorkshire x Landrace x Pietrain, próximas al parto fueron seleccionadas al azar , con las que se formaron dos grupos (G: G testigo (GT (n=11 cerdas que recibieron alimento balanceado ad libitum y G experimental (GE (n=11 cerdas que recibieron 1% d - 1 de nopal cerda - 1 ( con respecto al peso corporal de la cerda antes del parto más alimento balanceado ad libitum durante 21 días de lactación. Las variables evaluadas fueron: producción láctea en lo s días 6, 10 y 15 postparto, así como los porcentajes de: lactosa, proteína y grasa en leche en los días 3, 11 y 17 de lactación. La información recabada se analizó mediante la metodología de mediciones repetidas y las diferencias entre grupos se obtuviero n a través de medias de mínimos cuadrados. No se encontró efecto de grupo sobre la producción láctea ( P = 0. 4904 . S in embargo , el pico de producción láctea fue a l 15 vo día de lactación: 9.1 y 8.7 kg de leche para GE y GT, respectivamente. Los promedio s (% general es de los componentes físico - quimicos de la leche: lactosa (6.6±0. 5 7 , proteína (4.5±0.4 0 y grasa (7.9±1.6 no fue ron afectado s por el grupo (P>0.05. La adición de nopal a la dieta de cerdas lactantes no modifica la producción ni los componen tes físico - químicos (proteína, lactosa y grasa de la leche de las cerdas lo que asegura el desarrollo del lechón del nacimiento al destete (21 días de edad .

  2. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Saih, Fatima-Ezzahra; Andreoletti, Pierre; Mandard, Stéphane; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Esc...

  3. Cactus (Opuntia dillenii Grahm) stem: a new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, V.K. (Dept. of Applied Physics, V.R.C.E., Nagpur (India)); Joshi, A.M. (Dept. of Applied Physics, V.R.C.E., Nagpur (India))

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been fabricated using cactus stem as an electrolyte. The electrolyte was a stem (phylloclade) of Opuntia dillenii from the family Cactaceae. A thin slice (1 x 1 x 0.5 cm) of the stem was cut and sandwiched between copper and zinc electrodes. A study of the discharge characteristics reveals that, at a current drain of 100 [mu]A, the cell gives an optimum energy density of 175 mWh kg[sup -1]. The power generated by these cells is sufficient to run piezoelectric buzzer and a LCD calculator for a few hours. This work opens up a new interdisciplinary area for physicists, botanists and electrochemists. (orig.)

  4. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    M. Allegra; F. D’Acquisto; L. Tesoriere; A. Attanzio; M.A. Livrea

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia ...

  5. Socio-ecological impacts of invasive alien cactus (Opuntia) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-ecological impacts of invasive alien cactus (Opuntia) in the rangelands of Narok County, Kenya. ... Chopping was the preferred method of management but was combined with other mechanical and chemical methods in order to be more effective. Appropriate interventions are suggested to mitigate the negative ...

  6. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saih, Fatima-Ezzahra; Andreoletti, Pierre; Mandard, Stéphane; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2017-01-07

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Escherichia coli -LPS decreased ACOX1 activity while Salmonella minnesota -LPS reduced only catalase activity. Different cactus cladode extracts showed an antioxidant effect through microglial catalase activity activation and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing nitric oxide (NO) LPS-dependent production. These results suggest that cactus extracts may possess a neuroprotective activity through the induction of peroxisomal antioxidant activity and the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells.

  7. Protective Effect of Cactus Cladode Extracts on Peroxisomal Functions in Microglial BV-2 Cells Activated by Different Lipopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima-Ezzahra Saih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia ficus-indica cactus cladode extracts in microglia BV-2 cells. Inflammation associated with microglia activation in neuronal injury can be achieved by LPS exposure. Using four different structurally and biologically well-characterized LPS serotypes, we revealed a structure-related differential effect of LPS on fatty acid β-oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in peroxisomes: Escherichia coli-LPS decreased ACOX1 activity while Salmonella minnesota-LPS reduced only catalase activity. Different cactus cladode extracts showed an antioxidant effect through microglial catalase activity activation and an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing nitric oxide (NO LPS-dependent production. These results suggest that cactus extracts may possess a neuroprotective activity through the induction of peroxisomal antioxidant activity and the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells.

  8. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, ... C. Total carbohydrates were obtained by calculation. ... varied widely between 12 to 92%. ... However, irrespective of the origin or variety, these fruits are a good .... Crude fat was less than 0.1% except in A (0.40 ± 0)%. The low.

  9. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Forest Products Research Center, Karura,. P. O Box 64636 ... species serve as a source of water for livestock in dry regions around the world and provide an important feed source of ...

  10. Microbial protein synthesis and concentration of urea in dairy heifers fed diets with cactus forage Opuntia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Mercês Aguiar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the influence of increasing levels of forage cactus Opuntia in the diet on the nitrogen balance, the concentrations of urea in urine and plasma and microbial protein synthesis in dairy heifers ¾ Holstein-zebu confined. twenty four heifers were used with initial body weight of 163.00 ± 18 kg, with 8 months old and distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replications. It was used sorghum silage, concentrate and increasing levels of forage cactus Opuntia in the diet (0, 200, 400 and 600 g kg-1. The nitrogen intake, feces and urine, digested and retained with the addition of forage cactus in the diet showed decreasing linear effect. Nitrogen balance was influenced by the inclusion of forage cactus in the diet of dairy heifers through the values observed for the digested and retained nitrogen, which can be related to similar effects found for the consumption of nitrogen and the nitrogen excretion in feces and urine. Nitrogen digested percentage of intake and nitrogen retention as a percentage of ingested and digested showed no difference with the inclusion of forage cactus in the diet. The concentration of urea nitrogen in the urine of heifers had a quadratic effect point of maximum excretion level of 275.80 g kg-1 of forage cactus in the diet. Consequently, the excretion of urea nitrogen and urea excretion showed similar effect with maximum points excretion levels of 293.75 and 319.00 g kg-1 of forage in the diet. The concentration of ureic nitrogen in plasma showed no difference, with an average value of 13.19 mg dL-1. Synthesis of nitrogen and microbial crude protein adjusted to the quadratic model. The microbial efficiency was not influenced by the inclusion of forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage and concentrate. The urine volume similar to the treatments, with an average of 5.90 liters of urine per day, proving that the creatinine excretion in urine was not influenced

  11. Biology, Flowering and Fruiting of the Cactus Opuntia spp.: A Review and Some Observations on Three Varieties in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Arba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cactus is a succulent plant resistant to droughts. According to the recently reviewed classification, cacti belong to the family of Opuntiaceae Desv. (synon. Cactaceae Juss. with Opuntia Mill. as the typical genus. This genus is economically the most important in the family, as it includes a group of cactus pear plants which play an important role in the agricultural systems of arid and semi-arid regions. Flowering of the cactus pear fruit is an important determinant of the fruit harvesting period. The goal of this paper is to present the physiology of the cactus pear and to explain in detail the biology of its flowering and fruiting processes. This study is also enriched by our observations on the flowering and fruiting of three varieties of cactus pear that we followed for two successive years in southern Morocco.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells using Aloe Vera and Cladode of Cactus extracts as natural sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, D.; Jara, J.; Villanueva, R.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) from natural plant-based dyes, extracted from the Cladode (nopal) of the Thornless Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), the gel of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis miller), and the combination of Cladode and Aloe Vera extracts on side-by-side configuration. Optical properties were analyzed using UV-Vis Absorption and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Open circuit voltages (Voc) varied from 0.440 to 0.676 V, fill factors (FF) were greater than 40%, short-circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc) ranged from 0.112 to 0.290 mA/cm2 and highest conversion efficiency of 0.740% was reported for the Cladode DSSC.

  13. EFFECTS OF PLANTING DENSITYAND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION DOSES ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF CACTUS PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NALÍGIA GOMES DE MIRANDA E SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cactus is crucial for the livestock of semi - arid regions in Brazil. This plant has shown the high productivity of forage, which is influenced by several management factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic fertilization doses (20, 40 and 80 t/ ha of bovine manure/ha/two years and planting densities (20, 40, 80 and 160 thousand plants/ha on the productivity of cactus pear Clone IPA - 20 ( Opuntia ficus - indica Mill. At the Experimental Station of Caruaru at the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco, IPA has conducted the experiment. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with split plot arrangements. Higher shoot productivity was observed with increased population density and the application of manure at 80 t ha - 1two years - 1 with values of 61, 90, 117 and 139 t DM ha - 1 two years - 1 at densities of 20, 40, 80 and 160,000 plants ha - 1. The planting density influenced the productivity of cladode - plant and root dry weight, showing exponential responses, with higher cladode - plant and roots weight by area observed with increased plant density. The efficiency of organic fertilization decreased with the increase in manure doses. For increase cactus productivity, 40 t of bovine manure ha - 1 two years - 1 for plantations with 160,000 plants/ha is recommended.

  14. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  15. Equilíbrio higroscópico da palma forrageira: relação com a umidade ótima para fermentação sólida Hygroscopic equilibrium of the cactus pear: relation with the optimum moisture for the solid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia de F. Araújo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available No estudo do processo de enriquecimento protéico da palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill através da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae em meio semi-sólido, a atividade de água é uma das variáveis que mais afetam não apenas o processo fermentativo mas, também, o armazenamento desse enriquecido; desta forma, o presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de se obter isotermas de dessorção da cactácea palma forrageira, nas temperaturas usuais dos processos das fermentações, 30, 35 e 40 oC, de modo a correlacionar atividade de água e umidade. As isotermas obtidas foram analisadas mediante os modelos de GAB e BET sendo que, em geral, o modelo de GAB foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais. A partir das isotermas obtidas, encontraram-se as faixas de umidades adequadas para obtenção das atividades de água recomendadas para o processo fermentativo e durante o armazenamento do enriquecido.In the study of the protein enrichment process of the cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill through the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in semi-solid state fermentation, the water activity is one of the variables that most affects the fermentation process as well as the storage. The present work had the objective of obtaining isotherms of sorption of the cactus pear, in the usual temperatures of the fermentations processes, 30, 35 and 40 oC, in order to correlate water activity and moisture content. The obtained isotherms were analyzed by the GAB and BET models, the GAB model being, in general, the one that adjusted better to the experimental data. The isotherms allowed to find appropriate moisture content to obtain the water activities recommended for the fermentation process as well as during the storage of this enriched product.

  16. Uranium adsorption by non-treated and chemically modified cactus fibres in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melpomeni Prodromou; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption efficiency of Opuntia ficus indica fibres regarding the removal of hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] from aqueous solutions has been investigated prior and after the chemical treatment (e.g. phosphorylation and MnO 2 -coating) of the biomass. The separation/removal efficiency has been studied as a function of pH, uranium concentration, adsorbent mass, ionic strength, temperature and contact time. Evaluation of the experimental data shows that biosorption is strongly pH-depended and that the MnO 2 -coated product presents the highest adsorption capacity followed by the phosphorylated and non-treated material. Experiments with varying ionic strength/salinity don't show any significant effect on the adsorption efficiency, indicating the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The adsorption reactions are in all cases exothermic and relatively fast, particularly regarding the adsorption on the MnO 2 -coated product. The results of the present study indicate that adsorption of uranium from waters is very effective by cactus fibres and particularly the modified treated fibres. The increased adsorption efficiency of the cactus fibres is attributed to their primary and secondary fibrillar structure, which result in a relative relative high specific surface available for sorption. (author)

  17. Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Opuntia spp. Portuguese Populations Using SSR Molecular Markers

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    Carlos M. G. Reis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Opuntia spp., most likely few individuals, were introduced in the Iberian Peninsula in the beginning of the 16th century, after the discovery of America, spreading afterwards throughout the Mediterranean basin. We analysed, for the first time, the genetic diversity in a set of 19 Portuguese Opuntia spp. populations from the species O. ficus-indica, O. elata, O. dillenii and O. robusta using nuclear microsatellite (nuSSR markers. The Italian cultivars ‘Bianca’, ‘Gialla’ and ‘Rossa’ were included in the study for comparison purposes. The nuSSR amplifications produced from five to 16 alleles, with an average of 9.2 alleles per primer pair, and average polymorphism information content of 0.71. The estimated Dice coefficient among populations varied from 0.26 to 1.0, indicating high interspecific genetic diversity but low genetic diversity at the intraspecific level. The hierarchical clustering analysis revealed four major groups that clearly separated the four Opuntia species. Among the O. ficus-indica populations, two sub-clusters were found, one including the white pulp fruits (with cv. Bianca and the other with the orange pulp ones and including the cv. Gialla, the cv. Rossa, and one pale yellow pulp population. No genetic differences were found between the inermis form, O. ficus-indica f. ficus-indica, and the rewilded spiny one, O. ficus-indica f. amyclaea. The dendrogram indicated that the clustering pattern was unrelated to geographical origin. The results revealed a low level of genetic diversity among the Portuguese populations of O. ficus-indica.

  18. Revalorization of cactus pear (Opuntia spp. wastes as a source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaberta Cardador-Martínez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increased interest in antioxidant activity and health-improving capacity of cactus pear has been registered. The antioxidant capacity of the pulp of cactus-pear fruits has been previously assessed. In this work, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins of peel and seeds of four cactus pear cultivars were examined as well as their antioxidant capacity. Tannins were the major phenolics in cactus pear seeds accounting for almost fifty percent for all cultivars. Analysis of variance revealed that ripeness, cultivar, and its interaction had highly significant effect on the total phenolics, tannin, and flavonoid contents of cactus pear peel. With regard to the seeds, only the stage of ripeness and interaction (ripeness stage x cultivar were significant on total phenolics and tannins contents. The flavonoid content in seeds was not affected by any of the factors or their interactions. The antioxidant capacity was higher in the peel than in the seeds. Generally, fruits with light-green or yellow-brown peel have higher antiradical activity and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values compared with those with red-purple peel. Cactus pear by-products can indeed be exploited as a good and cheap source of natural antioxidants.

  19. Desempenho de ovelhas nativas em confinamento recebendo palma-forrageira na dieta na região do semiárido nordestino Performance of native ewes under feedlot system receiving spineless cactus in diet in Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicília Maria Silva de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso, o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dieta à base de palma forrageira em ovelhas nativas confinadas na região do semiárido nordestino. Foram testadas duas formas de oferecimento da palma-forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica: separada da mistura feno de capim-tifton + concentrado e junto da mistura feno + concentrado. Utilizaram-se 40 fêmeas das raças nativas Barriga-preta, Cara-curta, Cariri e Morada Nova, com peso inicial médio de 36,76 kg, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2, com quatro raças e duas estratégias de alimentação. Os genótipos e as estratégias de alimentação influenciaram os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digestíveis totais e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da fibra em detergente neutro. O genótipo influencia o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar em ovelhas alimentadas com palma forrageira na dieta, uma vez que animais das raças Cariri e Cara-curta apresentam maiores ganhos de peso.The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the weight gain, intake of nutrients, and the apparent digestibility of diets based on spineless cactus in native ewes in feedlot system in Brazilian semiarid region. Two spineless cactus feeding strategies were evaluated: spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica separated from the Tifton hay + concentrated mixture, and with Tifton hay mixture + concentrate. It was used forty native breed ewes (Barriga Preta, Cara Curta, Cariri and Morada Nova, with average initial body weight of 36.76 kg, distributed in a complete randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme (four breed and two feeding strategies. The genotypes and feeding strategies neutral fiber detergent had effect on the average intake of neutral fiber detergent and total digestible nutrient, and on the coefficients of neutral fiber detergent

  20. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239

  1. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  2. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica , the domesticated O . species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated ( O. ficus-indica ) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia -enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  3. Effect of different media on the in vitro growth of cactus (Opuntia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... The effect of media composition on the growth of cactus explants was investigated. Two media designated A and B were used in this study. Medium A contained basal Murashige Skoog salt (MS salt) and vitamins supplemented with 5% sucrose and 1% BAP (benzyl amino purines) and media B containing ...

  4. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Kenneth R; Jones, Anthony E; Belmont, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera ( Aloe barbadensis ) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min -1 . Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min -1 . These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe.

  5. Enrichment of rice-based extrudates with Cactus Opuntia dillenii seed powder: a novel source of fiber and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Morsy, Noha E; Youssef, Khaled M

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adding the powder of cactus Opuntia dillenii ( O. dillenii ) seeds on the functional properties, fiber, antioxidants and acceptability of rice-based extrudates. The control blend consisting basically of rice flour was replaced with O. dillenii seed powder at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20% then extruded at the optimum processing conditions. The extruded products were evaluated for their chemical composition, functional properties, color attributes, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics. The results revealed that adding O. dillenii seeds powder enhanced the fiber, phenolics, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of extrudates. Expansion, bulk density and breaking strength were significantly decreased, while water absorption index, water solubility index and oil absorption index were significantly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the mean scores of sensory evaluation indicated clear improvements in all tested sensory attributes, which significantly increased by increasing the level of O. dillenii seed powder up to 15%. The results confirmed that O. dillenii seed powder could be incorporated in rice to develop snack products of acceptable functional, nutritional and sensory properties.

  6. Functional and hypoglycemic properties of nopal cladodes (O. ficus-indica) at different maturity stages using in vitro and in vivo tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez-López, María A; Paredes-López, Octavio; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2013-11-20

    Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes are recommended for their therapeutic properties; their maturity stage may affect their biological properties. Cladodes of three maturity stages, from the same crop and location, were dehydrated and evaluated for some of their physicochemical and nutritional characteristics and antidiabetic properties. The flours of small and medium cladodes (SCF and MCF, respectively) had higher contents of dietary fiber, water absorption, swelling, and viscosity compared to those of the large cladode flour (LCF). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, treated with MCF and SCF (doses of 50 mg/kg body weight), showed reduction of postprandial blood glucose on 46.0 and 23.6%, respectively (p < 0.05), in relation to the control; and LCF had no significant effect. In vitro, glucose diffusion tests showed similar ranking by the two former samples, whereas the latter was close to the control. Cladode maturity stages showed different fiber content and produced suspensions with differences in viscosity, which may affect in vitro and in vivo glucose responses.

  7. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, Siham; Kouhila, Mohammed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Idlimam, Ali; Jamali, Abdelkrim

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 deg. C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 deg. C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m 3 /s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m 2 of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square (χ 2 ) of 4.6572 10 -5

  8. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M.; Mahrouz, M.

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures

  9. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M. E-mail: kouhila@hotmail.com; Mahrouz, M

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures.

  10. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire (LCOA), Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Idlimam, A.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 {sup o} C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 {sup o}C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m{sup 2} of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.6572 10{sup -5}. (Author)

  11. Comparative Study of Antioxidant Power, Polyphenols, Flavonoids and Betacyanins of the Peel and Pulp of Three Tunisian Opuntia Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila K.; Guyot, Sylvain; Sotin, Hélène; Ayadi, Malika T.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta have been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica, while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulp, and the thornless variety has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg·g−1; thornless: 77.03 μg·g−1) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg·g−1). PMID:26787622

  12. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 66 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract improves endoplasmic reticulum stress in ... and agro-biodiversity in black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) genotypes from Pakistan .... Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells · EMAIL ...

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY OF IRRIGATED CACTUS PEAR UNDER DIFFERENT CUTTING INTENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME FERREIRA DA COSTA LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different cutting intensities and years of harvesting on the morphological characteristics and production of fresh (FMP and dry matter (DMP of cactus pear cv. Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill under conditions of irrigation, high planting density and fertilization, with 12 months of regrowth. The experimental was completely randomized in a factorial design (3 × 2 with 12 replicates. The treatments were three cutting intensities (preserving the mother cladode (PMC, primary cladodes (PPC, or secondary cladodes (PSC, and two years of harvesting. The soil was classified as Cambisol Haplicum and the irrigation water was classified as C4S1 (EC 5.25 dS.m-1 density of 50,000 plants ha-1. The research evaluated plant height, number of cladodes per plant (NCP, length, width, perimeter and thickness of the cladodes, cladode area (CA, cladode area index (CAI, FMP and DMP. There was no significant interaction between treatments (P > 0.05 for the variables plant height, NCP, CAI and FMP. The variables related to cladode morphology showed a significant interaction (P < 0.05. The treatment PSC resulted in a greater DMP (P < 0.05 with a mean of 27.17 Mg ha-1 yr-1, compared to PPC (18.58 Mg ha-1 yr-1 or PMC (11.78 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The treatment PSC promoted greater NCP and forage productivity at harvest and can be considered as a management practice for the sustainability of cactus pear cv. Gigante under irrigation. The more important morphological characteristics were also influenced by the lower cutting intensities.

  14. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

    2011-07-01

    The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping ({micro}XRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). {micro}XRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a 'free' nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. {micro}XRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers.

  15. Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Walse, Spencer S.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J.; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A.H.; Freeman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    The organ-specific accumulation, spatial distribution, and chemical speciation of selenium (Se) were previously unknown for any species of cactus. We investigated Se in Opuntia ficus-indica using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, microfocused x-ray fluorescence elemental and chemical mapping (μXRF), Se K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). μXRF showed Se concentrated inside small conic, vestigial leaves (cladode tips), the cladode vasculature, and the seed embryos. Se K-edge XANES demonstrated that approximately 96% of total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is carbon-Se-carbon (C-Se-C). Micro and bulk XANES analysis showed that cladode tips contained both selenate and C-Se-C forms. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry quantification of Se in high-performance liquid chromatography fractions followed by LC-MS structural identification showed selenocystathionine-to-selenomethionine (SeMet) ratios of 75:25, 71:29, and 32:68, respectively in cladode, fruit, and seed. Enzymatic digestions and subsequent analysis confirmed that Se was mainly present in a “free” nonproteinaceous form inside cladode and fruit, while in the seed, Se was incorporated into proteins associated with lipids. μXRF chemical mapping illuminated the specific location of Se reduction and assimilation from selenate accumulated in the cladode tips into the two LC-MS-identified C-Se-C forms before they were transported into the cladode mesophyll. We conclude that Opuntia is a secondary Se-accumulating plant whose fruit and cladode contain mostly free selenocystathionine and SeMet, while seeds contain mainly SeMet in protein. When eaten, the organic Se forms in Opuntia fruit, cladode, and seed may improve health, increase Se mineral nutrition, and help prevent multiple human cancers. PMID:21059825

  16. Palma forrageira em substituição ao feno de capim-elefante: efeito sobre consumo, digestibilidade e características de fermentação ruminal em ovinos Spineless cactus in replacement of elephantgrass hay: effect on intake, apparent digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristics in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safira Valença Bispo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, como fonte de forragem, sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e das características ruminais de carneiros. Cinco dietas isoproteícas foram formuladas, em que a palma forrageira substituiu 0, 14, 28, 42 e 56% do feno de capim elefante na dieta. Cinco ovinos machos não-castrados foram distribuídos em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5 x 5 (cinco períodos, cinco níveis de palma e cinco repetiç��es. Cada período experimental teve duração de 13 dias - sete para adaptação e seis dias para coleta de dados e amostras. Os consumos de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT, CNF e NDT aumentaram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de água diminuiu linearmente e o de FDN apresentou efeito quadrático com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de EE, PB, CNF e FDN não foram influenciados, enquanto os de MS, MO e CT aumentaram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. O pH e a concentração de NH3 ruminal decresceram linearmente com a substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta. A substituição do feno de capim-elefante por palma forrageira na dieta melhora a ingestão e o aproveitamento dos nutrientes.A study was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant-grass by spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill as a forage source on intake, apparent digestibility of the nutrients and of ruminal fermentation characteristics of sheep. Five iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated where spineless cactus replaced 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56% of elephantgrass in the diet. Five non-castrated male sheep were allotted to a 5 x 5 Latin square design

  17. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of cactus cladodes extract against lithium-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Anouar; Dalel, Brahmi; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Smida, Amani; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-12-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Castaceae) (cactus) is used in Tunisian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. This study determines phytochemical composition of cactus cladode extract (CCE). It also investigates antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of CCE against lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3 )-induced liver injury in rats. Twenty-four Wistar male rats were divided into four groups of six each: a control group given distilled water (0.5 mL/100 g b.w.; i.p.), a group injected with Li 2 CO 3 (25 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.; corresponding to 30% of the LD 50 ) twice daily for 30 days, a group receiving only CCE at 100 mg/kg of b.w. for 60 days and then injected with distilled water during the last 30 days of CCE treatment, and a group receiving CCE and then injected with Li 2 CO 3 during the last 30 days of CCE treatment. The bioactive components containing the CCE were identified using chemical assays. Treatment with Li 2 CO 3 caused a significant change of some haematological parameters including red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit (Ht) and mean corpuscular volume (VCM) compared to the control group. Moreover, significant increases in the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were observed in the blood of Li 2 CO 3 -treated rats. Furthermore, exposure to Li 2 CO 3 significantly increased the LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the hepatic tissues. CCE possesses a significant hepatoprotective effect.

  18. Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara-Arauza, J.C.; Yahia, E.M.; Cedeno, L.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate

  19. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação: consumo e digestibilidade Total replacement of corn and partial of tifton hay by forage cactus in diets for lactating dairy cows: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação do consumo e da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dietas contendo diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp, foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, distribuídas em quadrado latino 5 × 5. No início do experimento, os animais apresentavam 583 ± 7,07 kg de peso corporal (PC e período de lactação em torno de 110 dias. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez dias para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete dias para coleta de dados. O consumo de MS (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 e os consumos de MO, EE, PB, carboidratos totais (CT, FDN, FDA e NDT (kg/dia diminuíram linearmente conforme aumentaram os níveis de palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de CNF, no entanto, aumentou com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT e CNF não foram influenciados pela inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Entretanto, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da FDN reduziu linearmente com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. A inclusão da palma forrageira nas dietas influenciou negativamente no consumo dos nutrientes e no coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients in diets containing different levels (0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, and 51.0% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill in total replacement of corn (Zea mays L. and partial of Tifton hay (Cynodon spp. Five Holstein cows were assigned to a 5x5 latin square. The animals showed an average of 583 ± 7,07 kg BW and lactation period around 110 days. Each experimental period lasted 17 days, 10 days for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 7 days for data collecting. The DM intake (kg/day, %BW and g/kg0.75, and the intakes of OM, EE, CP, total

  20. Características de secado de nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica por lecho fluidizado Características de secado de nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica por lecho fluidizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melva López Orozco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del escaldado y la temperatura del aire de secado en trozos de nopal. El experimento se realizó en un secador de lecho fluidizado a cuatro temperaturas diferentes (50 ºC, 60 ºC, 70 ºC y 80 ºC. Las curvas de secado se obtuvieron al graficar la razón de humedad adimensional (MR contra el tiempo de secado; su comportamiento se modeló utilizando los modelos de Henderson-Pabis, Potencia, Peleg y Page. Los resultados mostraron que el secado se llevó a cabo principalmente en el periodo de velocidad decreciente. Los valores de la difusividad efectiva (Def variaron de 0.818x10-7 a 3.25x10-7 m2 s-1, dependiendo de las condiciones de secado. Los valores de la energía de activación (Ea fueron de 35.85 kJ/mol para el nopal sin escaldar y 28.21 kJ/mol para el nopal escaldado, respectivamente. Se encontró que los modelos de Peleg y Page fueron los más adecuados para describir el comportamiento del secado de nopal.   The effect of blanching and drying air temperature on nopal pieces was investigated. Their drying behavior in a fluidized bed was studied at four different temperatures (50 ºC, 60 ºC, 70 ºC and 80 ºC. Drying curves were constructed using dimensionless moisture ratio (MR and time; and their behavior was modeled using Henderson-Pabis, Power, Peleg and Page models. The results indicated that drying took place mainly when the period of dry­ing rate decreased. The moisture effective diffusivity (Def values varied from 0.818x10-7 to 3.25x10-7 m2 s-1 depending on drying conditions. The activation energy (Ea values were: 35.85 kJ/mol for the nopal without blanching and 28.21 kJ/mol for the blanching nopal respectively. Peleg and Page´s models were found the most suitable for describing the dry­ing behavior of nopal.

  1. EVALUACIÓN DEL USO DE ENZIMAS Y FILTRACIÓN POR GRAVEDAD PARA LA CLARIFICACIÓN DE UNA MEZCLA DILUIDA DE PULPA DE FRUTOS DE CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE, JUGOS DE NARANJA Y TORONJA EVALUATION OF THE USE OF ENZYMES AND GRAVITY FILTRATION FOR CLARIFICATION OF DILUTED MIXTURE OF CACTUS (OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII BRITTON & ROSE FRUITS PULP, ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT JUICES

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    Carlos Alberto Padrón Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela los frutos de cactus (Opuntia boldinguii son de escasa utilidad comercial. Para su aprovechamiento se evaluó el efecto del uso combinado de enzimas fibrolíticas y filtración por gravedad en la clarificación de una mezcla diluida de pulpa de frutos de cactus, jugos de naranja y toronja. Se compararon los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado de las mezclas hidrolizada y sin hidrolizar mediante la prueba t de Welch. La concentración óptima de enzimas fue 0,76% (v/v. La hidrólisis enzimática previa a la pasteurización no afectó el color de la mezcla. Durante los ensayos de pasteurización (62 ± 1 ºC por 30 min hubo grandes cambios de coloración, solo en la mezcla hidrolizada, por degradación de las betalaínas y la adición de ácido ascórbico (0,5% p/v permitió preservar el color. Hubo diferencias altamente significativas entre los valores de las curvas de flujo de filtrado (PIn Venezuela the fruits of cactus (Opuntia boldinguii are of scarce commercial usefulness. For its utilization the effect of combined use of fibrolytic enzymes and gravity filtration for clarification of diluted mixture of cactus fruits pulp, orange and grapefruit juices was evaluated. The values of filtered-flow curves of hydrolyzed and not hydrolyzed mixtures were compared by means of Welch’s t-test. The optimal enzymes concentration was 0.76% (v/v. The prior enzymatic hydrolysis to the pasteurization does not affect the color of the mixture. During the pasteurization assays (62 ± 1 ºC for 30 min there were large changes of coloring, only in the hydrolyzed mixture, by betalains degradation and the addition of ascorbic acid (0.5% w/v permitted to preserve the color. There were highly significant differences between the filtered-flow curves values (P<0.01. The filtered-flow of the hydrolyzed mixture elapsed 110 min (0.159 mL·min-1 was greater to the not hydrolyzed mixture (control flow to the 8 min (0.100 mL·min-1. The juice production

  2. PALMA (OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA MILL CV. GIGANTE EM SUPLEMENTOS PARA FÊMEAS LEITEIRAS EM CRESCIMENTO A PASTO

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    GLEIDIANA AMÉLIA PONTES DE ALMEIDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of replacing corn by palm in the supplements for dairy females in grazing at levels of 0, 33, 66 and 100%. Intake of pasture and apparent nutrient digestibility, animal performance, intake of nitrogenous compounds, nitrogen balance, synthesis and microbial efficiency and bioe-conomy system were evaluated. The study was conducted at Farm Roçadinho, municipality of Capoeiras Wasteland region of the State of Pernambuco in the period from 30/09/2012 to 19/01/2013, in a completely randomized design with four treatments and six replications, using 24 dairy females growing initial weight of 180 pounds. Consisted of 112 days, and 28 for adaptation. The intake of DM, DM/pasture, OM, CP, NDFap. NDFi intake and increased ADF because of the NFC, EE, and TDN decreased (P <0.05. PUN levels in plasma did not change. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, NFC, EE and TDN decreased linearly, and CP increased (P <0.05. Weight gains decreased since the FC increased (P <0.05. No effect was observed in nitrogen intake and nitrogen excreted in the urine. A reduction in nitrogen excreted in the faeces nitrogen bal-ance and percentage of ingested nitrogen, urea-N excreted in the urine increased (P <0.05. The replacement of corn by palm reduces the performance of dairy females in pasture growth. Thus the total or partial replacement is conditioned to the projection of age at first calving on the production system and economy of use.

  3. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    Background The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). Methods The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. Results After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). Conclusion The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels. PMID:23704856

  4. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells treated with isorhamnetin glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Moreno-García, Beatriz E; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Alvarez, Mario M; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2014-12-01

    (OFI) contains health-promoting compounds like flavonoids, being the isorhamnetin glycosides the most abundant. We evaluated the effect of OFI extracts with different isorhamnetin glycosides against two different human colon cancer cells (HT-29 and Caco2). The extracts were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH at 40 °C during 15, 30 or 60 min. Tri and diglycosides were the most abundant isorhamnetin glycosides, therefore these compounds were isolated to compare their cytotoxic effect with the obtained from the extracts. The OFI extracts and purified isorhamnetin glycosides were more cytotoxic against HT-29 cells than Caco2 cells. OFI-30 exhibited the lowest IC50 value against HT-29 (4.9 ± 0.5 μg/mL) and against Caco2 (8.2 ± 0.3 μg/mL). Isorhamnetin diglycosides IG5 and IG6 were more cytotoxic than pure isorhamnetin aglycone or triglycosides when they were tested in HT-29 cells. Bioluminescent analysis revealed increased activity of caspase 3/7 in OFI extracts-treated cells, particularly for the extract with the highest concentration of isorhamnetin triglycosides. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that OFI extract and isorhamnetin glycosides induced a higher percentage of apoptosis in HT-29 than in Caco2, while isorhamnetin was more apoptotic in Caco2. This research demonstrated that glycosilation affected antiproliferative effect of pure isorhamnetin glycosides or when they are mixed with other phytochemicals in an extract obtained from OFI.

  5. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Aguilera-Barreiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. Objective: To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM. Methods: The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35–55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG, women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1, women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2, women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG for reference in BMD. Results: After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1% and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5% groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal. Conclusion: The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  6. Extraction and determination of polyphenols and betalain pigments in the Moroccan Prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica

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    Omar Khatabi

    2016-09-01

    This study has permitted us equally to value betalain pigments extracted from fruity juice. These are the betalains present in the epidermis and the pulp of the prickly pear confers on it its color varying from yellow to purple. Results show that yellow and red prickly pears contain imported strengths in betalains. Our work shows that the red prickly pear contains betaxanthin pigments in excess of the indicaxanthin that permits to valorize human’s potential spring of genuine colorings. Betalains and polyphenols are antioxidants that contribute to nutritional prickly pears’ quality and to their products of transformation.

  7. Intake of dehydrated nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) improves bone mineral density and calciuria in adult Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Barreiro, María de Los Angeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Trujillo-Arriaga, Héctor Miguel; Tamayo Y Orozco, Juan Alfredo; Barreira-Mercado, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2013-01-01

    The intake of dehydrated nopal (DN) at a high stage of maturity along with high calcium content could improve bone mineral density (BMD) and calciuria and thus prevent osteoporosis. To evaluate the effect of calcium intake from a vegetable source (DN) on BMD and calciuria covering a 2-year period in menopausal and non-menopausal women with low bone mass (LBM). The study was quasi-experimental, blinded, and randomized, and included 131 Mexican women aged 35-55. Urinary calcium/creatinine index (CCI) was determined; BMD was analyzed on lumbar spine and total hip regions. Four groups were studied: Control group (CG), women with normocalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 1 (EG1), women with hypercalciuria and a minimum dose of DN; experimental group 2 (EG2), women with hypercalciuria, and a maximum dose of DN; and normal group (NG) for reference in BMD. After the first semester of treatment, calciuria levels in women from both experimental groups returned to normal, remaining constant for the rest of the treatment. The percentage difference in BMD increased in the total hip region in the CG (pre 4.5% and post 2.1%) and EG2 (pre 1.8% and post 2.5%) groups significantly in comparison to NG and EG1, which exhibited a significant decrease in their BMD. BMD increased only for the lumbar region in the EG2 group (premenopausal). The use of a vegetable calcium source such as nopal improves BMD in women with LBM in the total hip and lumbar spine regions principally in the premenopausal women, maintaining constant and normal calciuria levels.

  8. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Carvalho, Camila R; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-06-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A hundred-eight endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Biscogniauxia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Paraconiothyrium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. The most frequent species associated with O. humifusa were Alternaria sp. 3, Aureobasidium pullulans and Diaporthe sp. The fungal community of O. humifusa had a high richness and diversity; additionally, the species richness obtained indicates that the sample effort was enough to recover the diversity pattern obtained. Six extracts of endophytes showed antifungal properties and (1)H NMR analyses of the extracts of Alternaria sp. 5 Ohu 8B2, Alternaria sp. 3 Ohu 30A, Cladosporium funiculosum Ohu 17C1 and Paraconiothyrium sp. Ohu 17A indicated the presence of functional groups associated with unsaturated fatty-acid olefinic protons and fatty acid methylene and methyl protons. GC-FID analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of a mixture of different fatty acids. The (1)H NMR analyses of Biscogniauxia mediterranea Ohu 19B extracts showed the presence of aromatic compounds. From the extract of B. mediterranea we isolated the compound 5-methylmellein that displayed moderate antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Phomopsis obscurans. Our results suggest that native medicinal cacti of the United States can live symbiotically with rich and diverse endophytic communities and may be a source of bioactive molecules, including those able to inhibit or control plant disease pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary cladode powder from wild type and domesticated Opuntia species reduces atherogenesis in apoE knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoby-Salom, Sandra; Guéraud, Françoise; Camaré, Caroline; de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina Barba; Rossignol, Michel; Santos Díaz, María del Socorro; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intake of Opuntia species may prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to characterize the biological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia species and to investigate whether Opuntia cladodes prevent the development of atherosclerosis in vivo, in apoE(-)KO mice. The effects of the two Opuntia species, the wild Opuntia streptacantha and the domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, were tested on the generation of intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and kinetics of the LDL oxidation by murine CRL2181 endothelial cells and on the subsequent inflammatory signaling leading to the adhesion of monocytes on the activated endothelium and the formation of foam cells. Opuntia species blocked the extracellular ROS (superoxide anion) generation and LDL oxidation by CRL2181, as well as the intracellular ROS rise and signaling evoked by the oxidized LDL, including the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules, and the adhesion of monocytes to CRL2181. In vivo, Opuntia significantly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic lesions and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in the vascular wall of apoE-KO mice, indicating that Opuntia cladodes prevent lipid oxidation in the vascular wall. In conclusion, wild and domesticated Opuntia species exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties which emphasize their nutritional benefit for preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Manejo de colheita e espaçamento da palma-forrageira, em consórcio com sorgo granífero, no Agreste de Pernambuco Harvest managing and plant spacing of spinelles fodder cactus, under grain sorghum intercropping at the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDERVAL FARIAS

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na zona semi-árida de Pernambuco e teve como objetivo investigar o efeito de espaçamento, e a freqüência e intensidade de colheitas da palma-forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. consorciada com sorgo granífero (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, sendo os espaçamentos alocados nas parcelas principais, e as freqüências e intensidades de colheitas, nas subparcelas. Os resultados são de um período de 12 anos, e as produções de matéria seca de palma, de grãos e restolhos de sorgo foram: 5,23, 1,65 e 2,07; 4,51, 1,30 e 2,10; 2,75, 1,97 e 3,51 t/ha/ano, em espaçamentos de 2,0 m x 1,0 m; 3,0 m x 1,0 m x 0,50 m e 7,0 m x 1,0 m x 0,50 m, respectivamente. A produção de matéria seca foi diferente entre as freqüências de corte, quando foram conservados os artículos primários: 4,08 t/ha/ano na freqüência de quatro anos, e de 3,43 t/ha/ano na freqüência de dois anos. A produção de palma aumentou com o período de crescimento da planta, nas duas intensidades de corte estudadas. A composição química dos artículos de palma e dos restolhos de sorgo foi pouco afetada pelos tratamentos.This trial was carried out in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, aiming to study plant spacing and harvest frequencies and intensities of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.. An experimental design in a split plot design was applied, in which plant spacing were used as the main plots and harvest frequencies and intensities as the subplots. Results presented in this work are related to a twelve-year period. The dry matter yields of forage cactus, sorghum grains and stover were: 5.23, 1.65 and 2.07; 4.51, 1.30 and 2.10; 2.75, 1.97 and 3.5 ton/ha/year, for plant spacing 2.0 m x 1.0 m; 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.50 m and 7.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.50 m, respectively. Dry matter yield was different between harvest frequencies, when primary articles were conserved: 4

  11. Use of physio-biochemical traits to evaluate the salt tolerance of five opuntia species in the algerian steppes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallouche, B.; Boutekrabt, A.; Hadjkouider, B.; Riahi, L.; Lamine, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, twelve physio-biochemical parameters were estimated to assess the behavior of five Opuntia species in the Algerian steppes (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis, O. amyclea, O. streptacantha, O. robusta and O. engelmanii).Herein, the salt stress was induced using three levels of NaCl (200 mM, 400 mM and 600 mM). Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the chlorophyll level for both young cladode and aged cladode was found to be the most discriminant parameter under salt stress concentrations 200 and 400 mM. The species were clustered in three groups with O. ficus indica f. inermis and O. amyclea being the most tolerant to salinity. For a salt concentration of 600 mM, the ANOVA showed that the chlorophyll content in aged cladode was the most discriminant parameter. The Biplot-based species analysis revealed that O. engelmanii was the most salt tolerant species. However, O. amyclea and O. robusta were found to be the most sensitive. In conclusion, total chlorophyll contents for young cladode and aged cladode, chlorophyll a of aged cladode, and root total soluble sugars can be used as key parameters to identify the salt tolerance for Opuntia species. (author)

  12. Effects of cladode age on biomass yield and nutritional value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomized complete block design with five replications was used to assess biomass yield, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and nutritional value of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) produced under drip irrigation and fertilization. Cladodes were harvested from an established plantation at 30, 37, 45, 60, ...

  13. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from nopal stems and water and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopal is a native cactus specie [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) MILL (Cactaceae)] of appreciable economic importance in Mexico. This plant or its by-products are typically ingested fresh as a salad or processed into juice or yogurt, but it can also be used as a dietary supplement or be formulated into co...

  14. Characterization of Salmonella spp. from nopal leaves and associated soil and water samples in Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Nopal is a native cactus specie [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) MILL (Cactaceae)] of great economic importance in Mexico. It is grown in open fields and subsequently ingested fresh as a salad or processed as a juice or yogurt, but it may also be used as a dietary supplement and/or for cosme...

  15. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of wild and domesticated Opuntia spp. species shows a metabolic adaptation through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichereaux, Carole; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E; Santos-Diaz, Maria Del Socorro; Reyes-Agüero, Antonio; Astello-García, Marizel; Guéraud, Françoise; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Schiltz, Odile; Rossignol, Michel; Barba de la Rosa, Ana Paulina

    2016-06-30

    The Opuntia genus is widely distributed in America, but the highest richness of wild species are found in Mexico, as well as the most domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, which is the most domesticated species and an important crop in agricultural economies of arid and semiarid areas worldwide. During domestication process, the Opuntia morphological characteristics were favored, such as less and smaller spines in cladodes and less seeds in fruits, but changes at molecular level are almost unknown. To obtain more insights about the Opuntia molecular changes through domestication, a shotgun proteomic analysis and database-dependent searches by homology was carried out. >1000 protein species were identified and by using a label-free quantitation method, the Opuntia proteomes were compared in order to identify differentially accumulated proteins among wild and domesticated species. Most of the changes were observed in glucose, secondary, and 1C metabolism, which correlate with the observed protein, fiber and phenolic compounds accumulation in Opuntia cladodes. Regulatory proteins, ribosomal proteins, and proteins related with response to stress were also observed in differential accumulation. These results provide new valuable data that will help to the understanding of the molecular changes of Opuntia species through domestication. Opuntia species are well adapted to dry and warm conditions in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, and they are highly productive plants showing considerable promises as an alternative food source. However, there is a gap regarding Opuntia molecular mechanisms that enable them to grow in extreme environmental conditions and how the domestication processes has changed them. In the present study, a shotgun analysis was carried out to characterize the proteomes of five Opuntia species selected by its domestication degree. Our results will help to a better understanding of proteomic features underlying the selection and specialization under

  16. Efeitos da substituição do feno de capim-tifton e do farelo de milho pela palma forrageira e pelo farelo de soja sobre a ingestão de alimentos e parâmetros fisiológicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1149 Effect of the replacement of Tifton grass hay and the corn meal by forage cactus and soybean meal on the ingestion of foods and physiological parameters - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill. Foram utilizadas 5 vacas, distribuídas em delineamento de quadrado latino. As variáveis comportamentais foram observadas a intervalos de 5 minutos, em 24 horas. Os registros de temperatura ambiente, umidade relativa do ar, temperatura retal e freqüência respiratória foram efetuados pela manhã e à tarde. A inclusão de palma influenciou linearmente os tempos de ruminação (redução e ócio (aumento; quadraticamente o consumo de matéria seca (CMS e a eficiência de alimentação e de ruminação em função do CMS e linearmente decrescente o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, a eficiência de ruminação e alimentação em função do CFDN. A temperatura retal no turno da tarde e a ingestão de água diminuíram linearmenteThe experiment was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior of lactating Holstein cows fed diet with different replacement levels (0; 12.9; 25.8; 38.7 e 51.6% of forage cactus (Opuntia fícus indica, Mill. Five cows were assigned to a 5x5 square design. The registration of variables behaviors was accomplished in a visual way, at intervals of five minutes, in 24 hours. The registration of room temperature, humidity relative, rectal temperature and respiratory frequency were performed in the morning and in the afternoon. The rumination time decreased linearly and resting increased linearly; the dry matter intake (DMI, the rumination and feeding efficiency in function of DMI had quadratic behavior; the fiber neutral detergent intake (FNDI, the rumination and feeding efficiency in function of FNDI decreased linearly; the rectal temperature in the afternoon and the water intake decreased linearly, in function of forage cactus levels in the diet

  17. Removal of trivalent samarium from aqueous solutions by activated biochar derived from cactus fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loukia Hadjittofi; Styliana Charalambous; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of activated biochar fibres obtained fromOpuntia Ficus Indica regarding the sorption of trivalent samarium (Sm(III)) from aqueous solutions was investigated by batch experiments. The effect of various physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength, temperature and contact time) on the Sm(III) adsorption was studied and the surface species were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy prior to and after the lanthanide sorption. The experimental results showed that the acti-vated biochar fibres possessed extraordinary sorption capacity for Sm(III) in acidic solutions (qmax=90 g/kg, pH 3.0) and near neutral solutions (qmax=350 g/kg, pH 6.5). This was attributed to the formation of samarium complexes with the surface carboxylic moieties, available in high density on the lamellar structures of the bio-sorbent.

  18. Studies on convective drying of `Ameclyae' Opuntia ficus-indica seeds and its effect on the quality of extracted oil based on its α-tocopherol content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassini, Lamine; Bettaieb, Emna; Motri, Samia; Desmorieux, Hélène

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to model the thin layer convective drying kinetics of `Ameclyae' prickly pear seed variety and to evaluate the effects of drying conditions on the quality of extracted seed oil, specifically α-tocopherol content. Drying experiments were carried on following a full 23 factorial design using a vertical drying tunnel. The study is restricted to a particular particle size and a particular seed bed of height 0.5 cm, of effective porosity around 0.4 and of initial moisture content on dry basis equal to 1.2 (± 0.01) kg/kg. The temperature range was 45 to 70 °C, relative humidity range was 15-30% and air velocity was 1 and 2 m/s. The experimental drying curves were fitted to different semi-theoretical drying models proposed in the literature. The Midilli-Kucuk model was found with satisfaction describing the seed air drying curves with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a standard error of 0.01. For each drying condition, the extraction of fixed oil seeds was performed at cold using liquid/solid separation method. The oil quality was evaluated on the basis of the α-tocopherol content. The α-tocopherol was identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). According to the experimental results, it was found that drying air velocity is the most important factor influencing the concentration of α-tocopherol, whereas the effects of temperature and relative humidity were lower. The increase of the velocity from 1 m/s to 2 m/s reduced the α-tocopherol concentration by about 25%. The convective drying of thin layer of seeds at soft air conditions, drying temperature of 45 °C, relative humidity of 15% and air velocity of 1 m/s give the optimal quality of extracted oil in terms of α-tocopherol content. Characterization of the morphologic structure of seeds was also performed by SEM.

  19. Development of a nopal fiber (Opuntia ficus-indica and powdered cocoa (Theobroma cacao added beef patties, nutritive, physicochemical and sensory characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Chamorro-Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate addition effect of 3% of nopal fiber (FN and cacao powder (CA on the physicochemical, nutritional content and sensory acceptation of patty meat. A total of 144 patties were elaborated in three different batches: Control (TC no addition; FN with 3% of FN; and CA with 3% of CA. Physicochemical tests (pH, Aw, texture (TPA and instrumental color (CIE-Lab at different storage times (0, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days, besides to nutritional content and acceptation test. pH increased in all the treatments at 28 days of storage, where CA addition decreased luminosity (P>0.05 and maintained higher a* values (P0.05. FN or CA addition increased fiber content (P<0.05. Patties with FN showed a moderate acceptation. Since addition of FN or CA did not decreased consumer acceptation, these can be employed as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  20. Reverse Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice and Seeds Aqueous Extract on Gastric Emptying and Small-Bowel Motility in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Selmi, Slimen; Saidani, Khouloud; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) induced constipation. To evaluate the antisecretory effect, we were used as a hypersecretion agent, the castor oil at the dose of 5 mL/kg. Compared to the control and standard groups, we were showed that the prickly pear has an opposite effect on small-bowel motility and gastric emptying. Indeed, the juice at various doses has a laxative effect of gastrointestinal transit in healthy and constipated-rats. However, the aqueous extract of the seeds leads to a reduction of motility in normal rats which gives it a remarkable antidiarrhoeal activity, a notable intestinal fluid accumulation decline and electrolyte concentrations reestablishment. Moreover, orally juice administered at different doses accelerated the stomach emptying time in contrast to the seeds aqueous extract. More importantly, a significant variation in the phytochemical constituents levels between juice and seeds was found. These findings confirm the reverse therapeutic effects of this fruit in the treatment of digestive disturbances such as difficulty stool evacuation and massive intestinal secretion, likewise, the gastric emptying process perturbation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains on raw whole and cut nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) and on nopalitos salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Torres-Vitela, M Refugio; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2017-09-01

    The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Nopalito is a cactaceous that is commonly consumed either raw or cooked in Mexico and other countries. The presence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains on raw whole nopalitos (RWN, without prickles), raw nopalitos cut into squares (RNCS) and in cooked nopalitos salads (CNS) samples was determined. In addition, the behavior of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates on RWN, RNCS and CNS at 25° ± 2 °C and 3° ± 2 °C was investigated. One hundred samples of RWN, 100 of RNCS and 100 more of CNS were collected from public markets. Salmonella strains were isolated and identified in 30, 30 and 10% of the samples, respectively. Seventy multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from all the nopalitos samples. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates survived at least 15 days on RWN at 25° ± 2 °C or 3° ± 2 °C. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates grew in the RNCS and CNS samples at 25° ± 2 °C. However, at 3° ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. This is the first report about multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolation from raw nopalitos and nopalitos salads. Nopalitos from markets are very likely to be an important factor contributing to the endemicity of multidrug-resistant Salmonella-related gastroenteritis in Mexico. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Hwang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE and Nopal dry power (NADP in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1 nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control; (2 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control; (3 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE; and (4 low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone. In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P<0.05. Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P<0.05 than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  3. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-07-05

    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). The composition of gut microbiota was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Nopal modified gut microbiota and increased intestinal occludin-1 in the HFS + N group. This was associated with a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, glucose insulinotropic peptide, glucose intolerance, lipogenesis, and metabolic inflexibility. These changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and brain, and improved cognitive function, associated with an increase in B. fragilis. This study supports the use of nopal as a functional food and prebiotic for its ability to modify gut microbiota and to reduce metabolic endotoxemia and other obesity-related biochemical abnormalities.

  4. Crystallization and Colloidal Stabilization of Ca(OH)2 in the Presence of Nopal Juice (Opuntia ficus indica): Implications in Architectural Heritage Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Elert, Kerstin; Hansen, Eric F

    2017-10-17

    Hydrated lime (Ca(OH) 2 ) is a vernacular art and building material produced following slaking of CaO in water. If excess water is used, a slurry, called lime putty, forms, which has been the preferred craftsman selection for formulating lime mortars since Roman times. A variety of natural additives were traditionally added to the lime putty to improve its quality. The mucilaginous juice extracted from nopal cladodes has been and still is used as additive incorporated in the slaking water for formulation of lime mortars and plasters, both in ancient Mesoamerica and in the USA Southwest. Little is known on the ultimate effects of this additive on the crystallization and microstructure of hydrated lime. Here, we show that significant changes in habit and size of portlandite crystals occur following slaking in the presence of nopal juice as well as compositionally similar citrus pectin. Both additives contain polysaccharides made up of galacturonic acid and neutral sugar residues. The carboxyl (and hydroxyl) functional groups present in these residues and in their alkaline degradation byproducts, which are deprotonated at the high pH (12.4) produced during lime slaking, strongly interact with newly formed Ca(OH) 2 crystals acting in two ways: (a) as nucleation inhibitors, promoting the formation of nanosized crystals, and (b) as habit modifiers, favoring the development of planar habit following their adsorption onto positively charged (0001) Ca(OH) 2 faces. Adsorption of polysaccharides on Ca(OH) 2 crystals prevents the development of large particles, resulting in a very reactive, nanosized portlandite slurry. It also promotes steric stabilization, which limits aggregation, thus enhancing the colloidal nature of the lime putty. Overall, these effects are very favorable for the preparation of highly plastic lime mortars with enhanced properties.

  5. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  6. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α -glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC 50 values of 67.33 and 86.68  μ g/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05  μ g/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model ( P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  7. Modulation of inflammatory mediators by Opuntia ficus-indica and Prunus avium bioproducts using an in vitro cell-based model of intestinal inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Sara Alexandra Luis

    2011-01-01

    Dissertation to obtain a Master Degree in Biotechnology Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, namely Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are chronic intestinal inflammatory disorders characterized by an excessive release of pro-inflammatory mediators, intestinal barrier dysfunction and altered permeability and excessive activation of NF-κB cascade that can lead to development of colon cancer. IBD conventional therapy involves multiple medications and long-term up to life-long treatments. Furthe...

  8. Extensive profiling of three varieties of Opuntia spp. fruit for innovative food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, Bruno; Pereira, Eliana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Garcia-Castello, Esperanza M; Rodriguez-Lopez, Antonio D; Sokovic, Marina; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-11-01

    Consumer interest in the use of natural ingredients is creating a growing trend in the food industry, leading to research into the development of natural products such as colorants, antimicrobials and antioxidant compounds. This work involves an extensive morphological (using physico-chemical assays), chemical (antioxidant activity assays) and microbiological (Gram-positive and negative strains) characterization of prickly peras (Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) var. sanguigna, gialla and Opuntia engelmannii) fruits. Through chromatographic assays, these species have shown interesting contents of hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and betalains) and lipophilic (tocopherols and fatty acids) compounds. While Opuntia engelmannii exhibited higher content of betacyanins and mucilage, OFI varieties sanguigna and gialla displayed greater organic acid content. The sanguigna variety also showed the highest α-tocopherol content. All this compounds could be the responsible of enhancing the bioactivity of this variety, which can be observed in its antimicrobial potential, tested in the studied strains too. Results revealed that Opuntia spp. could be used as a nutraceutical and/or food additive, maintaining and promoting health and life quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimation of the nopal cactus (Opuntia cochenillifera for color removal in drinking water Evaluación de la tuna (Opuntia cochenillifera para la remoción del color en agua potable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jiménez Antillón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of nopal cactus to remove color in river and artificial waters for human consumption was evaluated. The performance of nopal was compared with that of aluminum sulfate coagulant and a cationic flocculant.The river water was cha- racterized by high color, low turbidity, alkalinity and hardness, and a high percentage of dissolved oxygen. The cactus leaves showed no activity as unique coa- gulant to be evaluated only in river water. In artificial water, as a sole treatment (45 mg/l, an efficiency of 94% in color removal was observed, slightly higher than that of the conventional treatment (20 mg/l Al2 (SO43 and 2 mg/l of cationic flocculant with a removal of 89%. However, water treated with nopal left a residual COD value doubled (21 mg/l compared to con- ventional treatment. In the treatment of artificial water, nopal as a flocculant showed a color removal of 92% and a residual COD of 31.5 mg /l applied at a dose of 22.5 mg/l and 7 mg/l of Al2 (SO43. The nopal was not very effective to remove the color produced by humic substances in waters of low turbidity and alkalinity, but its applicability as a coagulant/flocculant in waters of high turbidity and alkalinity is promising. It is recommended to extract the active ingredients of natural products to reduce the organic load of treated water and prevent the formation of disin- fection byproducts.El estudio evaluó la eficiencia del cactus de la tuna para remover el color en agua de río y agua artificial para el consumo humano. Se comparó su desem- peño con el coagulante sulfato de aluminio y un floculante catiónico. El agua fluvial se caracterizó por presentar alto color, baja turbidez, alcalinidad y dureza y alto porcentaje de oxígeno disuelto. Las hojas de tuna no mostraron actividad como coagulante único al ser evaluadas en agua de río. Se observó una eficiencia de remoción de color del 94% en agua artificial, cuando se aplicó como tratamiento único (45 mg/l, poco

  10. Modelagem matemática da desidratação osmo-convectiva da palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill utilizando soluções mistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se nesse estudo avaliar a influência de pré-tratamentos osmóticos utilizando secagem convectiva complementar no processo de perda de água, ganho de sólidos e nos parâmetros de qualidade (cor, atividade de água e textura de cladódios de palma forrageira. O Cladódio foi submetido à desidratação osmótica utilizando soluções mistas contendo 5% de NaCl e concentrações de sacarose de 50 e 60 °Brix, em diferentes proporções palma/solução (1:1, 1:4 e 1:10 a 40°C. Posteriormente foi realizada secagem convectiva a 50 e 60 °C. Foram utilizados, para ajuste aos dados experimentais da secagem, os modelos matemáticos de Page, Henderson & Pabis, Cavancanti Mata, Exponencial de Dois Termos e Midilli. O cladódio de palma in natura e desidratado foi caracterizado quanto aos parâmetros de cor, atividade de água e textura. O aumento da perda de massa foi proporcional ao aumento da proporção cladódio/solução utilizada na desidratação osmótica e o ganho de sólidos foi maior para a concentração de 50 °Brix. O modelo matemático de Midilli foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais. Os parâmetros de cor, atividade de água e textura foram modificados pelas condições de desidratação osmótica e de secagem as quais o cladódio de palma foi submetido. O cladódio desidratado a 50 °C apresentou melhor preservação da cor, maior resistência ao corte e menor atividade de água.  Mathematical modeling of osmo-convective dehydration of the cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill using mixed solutionsAbstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of osmotic pre-treatments with complementary convective drying in the water loss process and solids gain of cactus pear cladodes, to obtain palm for human consumption. The cladode was subjected to osmotic dehydration using mixed solutions containing 5% NaCl and sugar concentrations of 50 and 60 °Brix in different proportions palm/solution (1:1, 1

  11. Code Cactus; Code Cactus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajeau, M; Nguyen, L T; Saunier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-09-01

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors) [French] Ce code permet de traiter les problemes ci-dessous: 1. Depouillement d'essais thermiques sur boucle a eau, haute ou basse pression, en regime permanent ou transitoire; 2. Etudes thermiques et hydrauliques de reacteurs a eau, a plaques, a haute ou basse pression, ebullition permise: - repartition entre canaux paralleles, couples on non par conduction a travers plaques, pour des conditions de debit ou de pertes de charge imposees, variables ou non dans le temps; - la puissance peut etre couplee a la neutronique et une representation schematique des actions de securite est prevue. Ce code (Cactus) a une dimension d'espace et plusieurs canaux, a pour complement Flid qui traite l'etude d'un seul canal a deux dimensions. (auteurs)

  12. Substituição do milho e do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira. Produção de proteína microbiana e excreção de uréia e de derivados de purina em vacas lactantes Effects of replacing of corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Tifton hay and corn with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill on microbial protein synthesis and efficiency and N metabolism in lactating Holstein cows. Diets contained (% of DM: 0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, or 51.0% of forage cactus. Five Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 17 days with 10 days for diet adaptation and seven days for data and sample collection. Urinary volume was estimated based on creatinine excretion in spot urine samples obtained four hours after feeding. Urinary volume (27.62 L, urinary excretion of uric acid (35.78 mmol/day and allantoin (288.42 mmol/day, allantoin in milk (18.11 mmol/day, total allantoin (306.54 mmol/day, total excretion of purine derivatives (342.33 mmol/day, absorbed purines (350.03 mmol/day, microbial protein synthesis (1376.07g/day and efficiency (115.38 g/kgNDT were not affected by increasing the levels of forage cactus in the diet. The urinary excretion of urea (mg/kg BW and the concentrations of urea and urea-N in plasma (mg/dL decreased linearly while the concentrations of urea and urea-N in milk were not affected when the levels of forage cactus were increased in the diet. Corn can be completely replaced with forage cactus because microbial protein synthesis was not changed and urinary excretion of urea decreased linearly. However, Tifton hay was necessary in the diet to maintain microbial production.

  13. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  14. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  15. Identifikasi Molekuler Fitoplasma yang Berasosiasi dengan Tanaman Kaktus Hias Opuntia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariny Prasetya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cactus species (Opuntia sp. is a popular ornamental succulent plant. Some ornamental cactus species in Indonesia showing proliferation and green mosaic pattern symptoms have been reported to be associated with phytoplasma infection. However, further molecular identification for accurate classification of the causal phytoplasma has not been done.  This study aimed to diagnose phytoplasma associated with Opuntia sp. based on molecular methods involving PCR standard combined with nested-PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing. Standard PCR was carried out using P1/P7 primers followed by nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 or fU5/rU3 primer pairs which amplify the 16S rRNA gene targets of 1.2 kb and 880 bp, respectively. Amplified fragment of nested-PCR using R16F2n/R16R2 primers was chosen to be cloned and sequenced for further identification and classification of phytoplasma.  BLASTn analysis showed that the phytoplasma from Opuntia sp. was closely related to 16SrII group. Phylogenetic analysis and in silico RFLP indicated that phytoplasma strain infecting Opuntia sp. was a member of subgroup 16SrII-C (cactus witches’ broom phytoplasma. This is a newly report of cactus witches’ broom phytoplasma on Opuntia sp. in Indonesia.   

  16. Targeting Aging with Functional Food: Pasta with Opuntia Single-Arm Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Candore, Giuseppina; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Aldo; Gambino, Caterina Maria; Ruisi, Paolo; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya; Accardi, Giulia

    2018-06-01

    Interventions to extend life span represent the new perspective in aging investigation. Healthy dietary habits are important modifiable factors that can favor a healthy aging phenotype. Many studies have demonstrated benefits for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus resulting from the traditional Mediterranean foods. Opuntia Ficus Indica (OFI), widespread in the Mediterranean basin, belongs to the Cactaceae family. It is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, products containing extracts from OFI fruits or cladodes have been used to control obesity and other metabolic parameters, such as glycemia and lipid profile. The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of pasta with 3% of OFI cladode extracts added to show its beneficial effect in human health. We performed a single arm longitudinal intervention study in 42 healthy volunteers, administrating 500 g/week of this functional pasta for 30 days. Our pasta had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties with putative effect on the aging process and related metabolic diseases. We also demonstrated a hypoglycemic effect. The results are preliminary, but it is possible to speculate that our pasta could be considered an effective food for the prevention of age-related metabolic disorders.

  17. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno do capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação. Produção, composição do leite e custos com alimentação Effects of replacing corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on milk production and composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de dietas com teores crescentes de palma forrageira sobre a produção, a composição do leite e o perfil dos ácidos graxos do leite de vacas holandesas em lactação. Os animais (583 ± 7,07 kg foram alimentados com dietas formuladas com diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e em substituição parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete para coleta de dados. A produção de leite, total (kg/dia e corrigida para 3,5% de gordura (kg/dia, o teor de gordura (% e a produção de gordura (kg/dia do leite (20,65; 19,76; 3,73 e 0,745, respectivamente não foram influenciados pela introdução de palma nas dietas. O perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura do leite não foi influenciado (quanto aos ácidos cáprico, láurico, mirístico, linoléico, linolênico e araquídico pelos níveis de palma na dieta, entretanto, houve aumento linear dos ácidos de cadeia intermediária (palmítico e palmitoléico e tendência inversa para os ácidos esteárico e oléico. A inclusão de palma forrageira em substituição ao milho e parte do feno de capim-tifton para vacas holandesas em lactação não influenciou a produção e a composição do leite, exceto a concentração dos ácidos graxos de cadeia longa, que apresentou comportamento linear decrescente.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of replacing Tifton hay and corn with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill on milk production and composition and milk fatty acid profile in lactating Holstein cows. Animals averaged 583 ± 7.07 kg of body weight in the beginning of the trial and were fed diets containing (% of DM: 0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0 or 51

  18. Utilização de Três Fontes de Nitrogênio Associadas à Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica, Mill. Cv. Gigante na Suplementação de Vacas Leiteiras Mantidas em Pasto Diferido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Samuel Salgado Cavalcanti de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O fornecimento da palma forrageira como único alimento não atende as necessidades nutricionais do rebanho, notadamente em proteína e fibra. Nesta pesquisa avaliaram-se fontes de suplementação protéica sobre o desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com palma e pasto diferido, durante a estação seca, bem como a composição botânica da pastagem. Testaram-se três tratamentos: T1 = pasto diferido (PD + palma + cama de aviário; T2 = PD + palma + farelo de soja e T3 = PD + palma + uréia/sulfato de amônio, em um delineamento de blocos casualizados. Utilizaram-se 12 vacas mestiças 5/8 Holando-Zebu, com produção média de leite de 5,6 kg/dia/vaca e peso vivo (PV médio de 452 kg. O experimento teve duração de 121 dias, sendo 21 dias de período de adaptação. Os resultados para produção de leite in natura (3,38, 5,33 e 3,38 kg/vaca/dia, produção de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura (3,15, 4,98 e 3,11 kg/vaca/dia, variação de peso vivo (-351, 77 e -401 g/vaca/dia e consumo in natura de palma (26,3, 37,8 e 26,3 kg/vaca/dia, para T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, demonstraram a superioridade do farelo de soja como fonte protéica, em relação aos demais tratamentos. No pasto diferido foram identificados 18 famílias, 32 gêneros e 36 espécies. O capim-milhã (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch foi o componente de maior participação na composição botânica da pastagem (28,72%.

  19. The effect of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) on postprandial blood glucose, incretins, and antioxidant activity in Mexican patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of two different composition breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Romero, Patricia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Avila-Nava, Azalia; Vázquez-Manjarrez, Natalia; Tovar, Armando R; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Torres, Nimbe

    2014-11-01

    Nopal is a plant used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat diabetes. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence to demonstrate whether nopal can regulate postprandial glucose. The purpose for conducting this study was to evaluate the glycemic index, insulinemic index, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) index, and the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) index, and the effect of nopal on patients with type 2 diabetes after consumption of a high-carbohydrate breakfast (HCB) or high-soy-protein breakfast (HSPB) on the postprandial response of glucose, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and antioxidant activity. In study 1, the glycemic index, insulinemic index, GIP index, and GLP-1 index were calculated for seven healthy participants who consumed 50 g of available carbohydrates from glucose or dehydrated nopal. In study 2, 14 patients with type 2 diabetes consumed nopal in HCB or HSPB with or without 300 g steamed nopal. The glycemic index of nopal was 32.5±4, insulinemic index was 36.1±6, GIP index was 6.5±3.0, and GLP-1 index was 25.9±18. For those patients with type 2 diabetes who consumed the HCB+nopal, there was significantly lower area under the curve for glucose (287±30) than for those who consumed the HCB only (443±49), and lower incremental area under the curve for insulin (5,952±833 vs 7,313±1,090), and those patients with type 2 diabetes who consumed the HSPB avoided postprandial blood glucose peaks. Consumption of the HSPB+nopal significantly reduced the postprandial peaks of GIP concentration at 30 and 45 minutes and increased the antioxidant activity after 2 hours measured by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidracyl method. These findings suggest that nopal could reduce postprandial blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma GIP peaks, as well as increase antioxidant activity in healthy people and patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Allegra

    2014-01-01

    A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50–100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5–3 h modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3–12 h concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5–3 h concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  1. Protective effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) leaves and cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica against inflammation associated with diet-induced obesity and DSS-induced colitis in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboura, Ikram; Nani, Abdelhafid; Belarbi, Meriem; Murtaza, Babar; Fluckiger, Aurélie; Dumont, Adélie; Benammar, Chahid; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Ghiringhelli, François; Rialland, Mickaël; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Hichami, Aziz

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob leaves and OFI-cladodes on inflammation associated with obesity and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in Swiss mice. In vitro studies revealed that aqueous extracts of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes exhibited anti-inflammatory properties marked by the inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells concomitant with NF-κβ nucleus translocation inhibition. For in vivo investigations, Swiss male mice were subjected to control or high fat diet (HFD). At the 8th week after the start of study, animals received or not 1% infusion of either carob leaves or OFI-cladode for 4 weeks and were subjected to 2% DSS administration in drinking water over last 7 days. After sacrifice, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in plasma and their mRNA expression in different organs were determined. Results showed that carob leaf and OFI-cladode infusions reduced inflammation severity associated with HFD-induced obesity and DSS-induced acute colitis indicated by decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (as such TNF-α, IL1b and IL-6) in colon, adipose tissue and spleen. In addition, plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were also curtailed in response to infusions treatment. Thus, carob leaf and OFI-cladode infusions prevented intestinal permeability through the restoration of tight junction proteins (Zo1, occludins) and immune homeostasis. Hence, the anti-inflammatory effect of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes could be attributed to their polyphenols which might alleviate inflammation severity associated with obesity and colitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental variables influencing the expression of morphological characteristics in clones of the forage cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lúcia Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The environmental factors that affect the morphological characteristics of different genera of cacti are little known. The aim of this study therefore was to analyse the contribution of environmental variables to growth in cladodes and plant of forage cactus clones of the genera Nopalea and Opuntia. The data used in this study were obtained from an experiment conducted in Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2012 and 2013, where the clones 'IPA Sertânia' (Nopalea, 'Miúda' (Nopalea and 'Orelha de Elefante Mexicana' (Opuntia were submitted to different irrigation depths (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mm and fixed irrigation intervals (7, 14 and 28 days. Morphological characteristics of the cladodes and plants and weather variables were obtained over time. Pearson's correlation, followed by multicollinearity, canonical and path analysis were applied. The minimum temperature, maximum and minimum relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation were the variables that most affected growth in the cactus. The genus Opuntia showed less sensitivity to variations in air temperature compared to the genus Nopalea. The higher intensities of global solar radiation affected clones of the genus Nopalea more than the genus Opuntia. It can be concluded that there are different environmental requirements between forage cacti of the genera Nopalea and Opuntia.

  3. Zoochoric and hydrochoric maritime dispersal of the Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Martins Fraga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary adaptations in the morphology and physiology of cactus species have been associated to their mechanisms of dispersal and colonization. The dispersal mechanisms and modes of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae were characterized in two beaches in Florianopolis, SC, Brazil. A marsupial from the genus Didelphis (Mammalia: Didelphidae was the only frugivorous and, thus, disperser of fruits, presenting specific eating places. The maritime hydrochory was due to the overwash on restinga vegetation, it is characterized by the dispersal of cladodes and fruits at various times of the year. It is here firstly described the sea action as a potential disperser for a cactus species.

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Preservation ® and “ rapid recovery of cellular activity post stress ” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from ICP Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Malta, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to Preservation® and “rapid recovery of cellular activity post stress”. The Panel considers that Preservation®, which contains an extract of prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “rapid recovery of cellular activity...

  5. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies.

  6. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure–function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies. PMID:23212376

  7. Rheological Flow Behavior of Structural Polysaccharides from Edible Tender Cladodes of Wild, Semidomesticated and Cultivated 'Nopal' (Opuntia) of Mexican Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Palacios, C; Peña-Valdivia, C B; Rodríguez-Hernández, A I; Reyes-Agüero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g -1 dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g -1 dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pas n ) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos.

  8. Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP. Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP (18.97% ± 0.58%. The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb. Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw.

  9. A preliminary study of opuntia stricta as a coagulant for turbidity removal in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural polymers, extracted from plants, can be used as coagulants for water treatment in addition to metal salts and synthetic polymers. Natural materials may offer benefits such as local production, lesser health hazards and affordability for developing world. Opuntia stricta plant, a cactus specie native to Mexico, has been explored in this study for its efficacy as coagulant. Efficiency of Opuntia stricta was assessed on the basis of turbidity removal from lab prepared and surface water samples. The effect of water pH on its performance was also analyzed. The study results revealed that removal efficiency of Opuntia stricta for turbidity removal remains consistent within a wide pH range (pH 5 to 10), in contrast to other coagulants which are pH dependent. Furthermore, pH of the water remains constant during coagulation and pH adjustment may not be required for subsequent treatment processes, which is often needed in case metal coagulants are used. Residual turbidity below 20 NTU is conveniently achieved by using Opuntia stricta even when it is used at very low doses. Formation of exceptionally large flocs and their linear configuration reveals the possibility that mechanism of coagulation by Opuntia stricta is adsorption and inter-particle bridging. (author)

  10. Indicaxanthin from cactus pear fruit exerts anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenin-induced rat pleurisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Mario; Ianaro, Angela; Tersigni, Mariaroberta; Panza, Elisabetta; Tesoriere, Luisa; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2014-02-01

    Nutritional research has shifted recently from alleviating nutrient deficiencies to chronic disease prevention. We investigated the activity of indicaxanthin, a bioavailable phytochemical of the betalain class from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Miller) in a rat model of acute inflammation. Rat pleurisy was achieved by injection of 0.2 mL of λ-carrageenin in the pleural cavity, and rats were killed 4, 24, and 48 h later; exudates were collected to analyze inflammatory parameters, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cells recruited in pleura were analyzed for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation. Indicaxanthin (0.5, 1, or 2 μmol/kg), given orally before carrageenin, time- and dose-dependently, reduced the exudate volume (up to 70%) and the number of leukocytes recruited in the pleural cavity (up to 95%) at 24 h. Pretreatment with indicaxanthin at 2 μmol/kg inhibited the carrageenin-induced release of PGE(2) (91.4%), NO (67.7%), IL-1β (53.6%), and TNF-α (71.1%), and caused a decrease of IL-1β (34.5%), TNF-α (81.6%), iNOS (75.2%), and COX2 (87.7%) mRNA, as well as iNOS (71.9%) and COX-2 (65.9%) protein expression, in the recruited leukocytes. Indicaxanthin inhibited time- and dose- dependently the activation of NF-κB, a key transcription factor in the whole inflammatory cascade. A pharmacokinetic study with a single 2 μmol/kg oral administration showed a maximum 0.22 ± 0.02 μmol/L (n = 15) plasma concentration of indicaxanthin, with a half-life of 1.15 ± 0.11 h. When considering the high bioavailability of indicaxanthin in humans, our findings suggest that this dietary pigment has the potential to improve health and prevent inflammation-based disorders.

  11. Proliferação e enraizamento in vitro de brotos de palma forrageira - Opuntia ficus-indica (L. MILL - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1641 Proliferation and rooting in vitro of buds of palm grass Opuntia ficusindica (L. MILL - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i2.1641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Paiva Campos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular da Universidade Federal do Ceará com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do 6- benzilaminopurina (BAP e do ácido indolacético (AIA na proliferação e no enraizamento in vitro de brotos da palma forrageira. Os explantes foram incubados no meio de cultura com sais e vitaminas MS, suplementados com 5% de sacarose, 0,8% de ágar e pH 5,85. Para a proliferação, os brotos foram inoculados em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura em diferentes concentrações de BAP. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial de 10 x 3, com 3 repetições. No enraizamento, os brotos foram inoculados no meio de cultura contendo diferentes concentrações de AIA. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial de 10 x 3, com 3 repetições. Concluiu-se que os melhores protocolos para a proliferação e o enraizamento de brotos foram, respectivamente, BAP 1,00mg/L e AIA 5,00mg/LThe work was carried out in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department of Ceará Federal University. The aim was to evaluate the effects of 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP and indolacetic acid (IAA on proliferation and rooting ,em>in vitro of buds of palm grass. The samples were incubated in the culture environment with salts, vitamins MS, 5% of sucrose, 0.8% of agar and pH of 5.85. For the proliferation, the buds were inoculated in Petri plates, and the culture environment was contained in different BAP concentrations. The experimental delineation was entirely randomly in an arrangement factorial of 10 x 3 and three replications. In the rooting, the buds were inoculated in the culture environment and they had different concentrations of indoacetic acid (IAA. Results showed that the best protocols for proliferation and buds of rooting were, respectively: BAP to 1.00mg/L and IAA to 5.00mg/L

  12. Studies on modulatory effect of Opuntia elatior extract in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poonia, Kavita; Sharma, Jaimala

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia elatior is succulent shrub and is widely grown in warmer parts of the world. Opuntia spp. have shown a variety of medicinal properties such as antiviral, antihyper-lipidemic, antioxidative, antiulcerous, immunomodulatory etc. Objective of the study was to explore radioprotective potential of this wild cactus. The cladodes of Opuntia elatior were collected and cleaned and shade-dried and powdered then hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by refluxing for 36 hrs at 40 °C then liquid extract was cooled and concentrated by evaporating its liquid contents. Mice selected for this study were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals each and administered Opuntia elatior extract dissolved in double distilled water orally with the 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 (mg./kg. body weight/day) for 30 minutes and then animals were exposed whole-body to 8 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, these doses were given for 30 consecutive days. Two doses 5 and 10 (mg./kg. body weight/day) were found tolerable when observed for weight, sign of sickness, morbidity, behavioral and mortality till 30 days. The optimum dose was chosen as 10 (mg./kg body weight/day) on the basis of radiation sickness and survival of mice. It will lay the foundation for the development of New, more effective and non toxic radiomodulators drugs from natural sources. (author)

  13. Toward understanding the efficacy and mechanism of Opuntia spp. as a natural coagulant for potential application in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah M; Fugate, Ezekiel J; Craver, Vinka Oyanedel; Smith, James A; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2008-06-15

    Historically, there is evidence to suggest that communities in the developing world have used plant-based materials as one strategy for purifying drinking water. In this study, the coagulant properties of Opuntia spp., a species of cactus, are quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Opuntia spp. was evaluated for turbidity removal from synthetic water samples, and steps were made toward elucidating the underlying coagulation mechanism. In model turbid water using kaolin clay particles at pH 10, Opuntia spp. reduced turbidity by 98% for a range of initial turbidities. This is similar to the observed coagulation activities previously described for Moringa oleifera, a widely studied natural coagulant. Although it has been reported that Moringa oleifera predominantly operates through charge neutralization, comparison of zeta potential measurements and transmission electron microscopy images of flocs formed by Opuntia spp. suggest that these natural coagulants operate through different mechanisms. It is suggested that Opuntia spp. operates predominantly through a bridging coagulation mechanism. Once optimized, application of these readily available plants as a part of point-of-use water treatment technology may offer a practical, inexpensive, and appropriate solution for producing potable water in some developing communities.

  14. Enriquecimento protéico da palma forrageira com Saccharomyces cerevisiae para alimentação de ruminantes Protein enrichment of cactus pear with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ruminants feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Araújo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o processo de enriquecimento protéico da palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill com levedura Sacharomyces cerevisiae em cultivo semi-sólido, visando melhorar o valor nutritivo da palma para ser utilizada na alimentação de ruminantes. A levedura foi utilizada nas concentrações de 1, 2 e 3% em base úmida no substrato formado pela palma forrageira, incubada em biorreatores durante 6, 12, 24 e 36 horas de fermentação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. O conteúdo de proteína bruta quando se utilizou concentração de 3% de inóculo, no período de seis horas, aumentou de 4,4% na forma in natura para 10,4% após o processamento. Os teores protéicos na concentração de 1% do inóculo foram de 6,1, 8,1, 8,1 e 9,2%; na concentração de 2%, 9,6, 9,7, 9,8 e 9,8% e na concentração de 3%, 10,4, 10,4 7,9 e 7,9%, nos períodos de 6, 12, 24 e 36 horas de fermentação, respectivamente. Uma fonte alternativa para arraçoamento de ruminantes, pode ser obtida pela bioconversão da palma forrageira.The process of protein enrichment of the forage palm (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in a semi-solid culture to improve the nutritional value of forage palm for ruminants feeding was evaluated. The yeast concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% (wet basis in the forage palm substrate were used. The periods of incubation were of 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours. A complete randomized experimental design in a split plot arrangement with four replicates was used. The crude protein content increased from 4.4% (in natura to 10.4% when 3% of inoculums were used and the processing period was of 6 hours. The observed protein contents for 1% of the inoculum, used for the fermentation periods of 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours were 6.1, 8.1, 8.1, and 9.2%, respectively. These values were 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, and 9.8% for 2% of the inoculum, and 10.4, 10.4, 7.9, and 7

  15. Evaluación nutricional de harina de nopal en dietas para borregos.

    OpenAIRE

    Muciño Castillo, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    La deshidratación del nopal es un método de conservación para alargar su vida útil y para mejorar su utilización como forraje en la alimentación de borregos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar: 1) el contenido nutrimental, la degradación de la MS y la producción de gas in vitro de harinas de Opuntia robusta, Opuntia ficus indica var Copena F1, Opuntia albicarpa var Blanca San Martín, Opuntia megacantha var Roja San Martín y Opuntia ficus indica var Atlixco, y de dietas totalmente me...

  16. State of the Art on Cactus Additions in Alkaline Media as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Torres-Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research in progress includes results on the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel in alkaline media when two different dehydrated cacti (Opuntia ficus-indica—Nopal—and Aloe Vera were used as additions in pH 12.5 and 13.3 solutions and in concrete. The dehydrated cactus addition was mixed at different concentrations by either solution or cement mass (0.10%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%. Half-cell potentials and LPR measurements were performed at different time periods to characterize the possible corrosion inhibiting effect of the cactus additions tested in such alkaline media. Results showed good corrosion inhibiting effect of dehydrated Nopal on reinforcing steel, in all tested solutions, when chloride ions are present. Aloe Vera did show also corrosion inhibiting improvements in some extent. The addition of such cactus led to an apparent formation of a denser and more packed oxide/hydroxide surface layer on the steel surface that decreased corrosion activity. This oxide/hydroxide layer growth was confirmed by microscopic evaluation of the metal surface layer performed at the end of the research program. The preliminary findings suggest that adding Nopal at concentrations between 1% and 2%, by mass, might be suitable for durability enhancing applications in alkaline media, especially in concrete structures.

  17. Evaluación del contenido de carbono orgánico en suelos del cultivo intensivo de nopal (Opuntia ficus indica L.) en la delegación de Milpa Alta México D.F.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolás González, Alfredo; Rivera Martínez, Juan G.; Vela Correa, Gilberto; Silva Torres, Beatriz; Puebla Torres, Humberto; Sánchez Martínez, Miguel; Reséndiz de la Rosa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Existen algunas prácticas agrícolas orientadas a la captura de carbono en suelos que pueden disminuir algunos problemas ambientales, algunas de estas son la labranza mínima y cobertura orgánica. El cultivo de nopal verdura de la delegación Milpa Alta cumple con estas características. Se espera que el cultivo de nopal tenga valores altos en niveles de carbono orgánico en suelo (COS). El objetivo fue evaluar los niveles de COS en nopaleras y un cultivo de maíz para su comparación. Se muestrearo...

  18. Demographic monitoring of Wright fishhook cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Kass

    2001-01-01

    Wright fishhook cactus (Sclerocactus wrightiae Benson) is a small barrel cactus endemic to the San Rafael Swell in south-central Utah. It was listed as an endangered species in 1979 due to its small population size, threats of over-collecting, and development associated with oil and gas. Demographic monitoring was initiated in 1993 with the following objectives: to...

  19. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  20. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  1. Tratamento biológico de efluentes de indústrias de papel após floculação e coagulação com sais de alumínio e polieletrólitos naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson M. dos Reis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The flocculation and sedimentation of recalcitrant organic compounds of high molecular weight using natural polyelectrolytes, extracted from the cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica, have been studied. Organic compounds of high molecular weight from effluents of paper and pulp industries are difficult for biological degradation. However, using a mixture of aluminum salts and natural polyelectrolytes, the aggregation and settling properties of recalcitrant organics were increased if compared with conventional methods of wastewater treatment using only aluminum or iron sulfate. After flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration, the effluent was submitted to biological degradation by activated sludge process. The main advantages of using a mixture of aluminum salts and natural polyelectrolytes were shorter time of flocculation, floccus of larger size and easier for filtration.The removal efficiency observed were:85-90% of aromatic compounds, 70-85% of chemical oxygen demand,and 91-97% of colour.

  2. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L(-1)  NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  4. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E [ed.

    1999-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  5. CACTUS technology programme. Yearbook 1998; CACTUS teknologiaohjelman vuosikirja 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    In the future, the paper industry must be prepared for more environmentally friendly. The main challenge is to develop technologies capable of lowering emissions to air and water and at the same time reducing the formation of waste. To achieve a significant reduction in water consumption at paper mills it will be necessary to develop and to introduce new processes and products. The requirements are better paper quality and runnability and better process management. To assess the process alternatives a technology programme was established in 1996. The goal of this four year programme is to create knowledge that can be used at paper mills to achieve substantial reductions in raw water consumption without jeopardizing paper quality and runnability, increasing the consumption chemicals and impairing the energy efficiency. The costs of the programme are evaluated to be FIM 140-160 million, of which Tekes will supply FIM 70-80 million. The rest of funding is covered by participating companies from paper and chemical industry and from equipment producers. At present, the CACTUS Programme is focused on four research areas, (1) separation techniques and treatment methods, (2) measurements and process chemistry, (3) process modelling and simulation and (4) final placement of concentrates. The total cost of research projects within these areas in 1998 is about FIM 14 million. This yearbook summarises the main research results and future plans of the CACTUS projects. There are 26 research projects and 15 industrial joint projects going on in 1997- 1998. (orig.)

  6. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a 60 Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release

  7. UJI EFEK ANALGETIKA EKSTRAK BUAH KAKTUS (Opuntia elatior Mill. PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus YANG DIINDUKSI ASAM ASETAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissa Amellia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a mechanism of body defense. One way to allay or decreasing the pain is using medicines that have analgetic effect. The aim of this study is determine the analgetic effect of cactus fruits (Opuntia elatior Mill. extract and the most effective dose to giving analgetic effect. This study used writhing method by the injection acetic acid 1% as induced. Group I as a negative control used natrium carboxy methylcellulose 1%, group II as a positive control used aspirin suspension which dosage was 1,3 mg/20g BB, group III as a extract of cactus fruits give to dose 50 mg/kg BB, group IV dose 100 mg/kg BB, and group V dose 150 mg/kg BB. The result shows that cactus fruits extract to giving analgetic effect judging from the reduction strength writhing reflex to protection percentage at dose 50 mg/kg BB (11,26%, 100 mg/kg BB (42,10%, 150 mg/kg BB(60,14% and the positif control (75,34%, at the positif control shows that higher protection percentage. Effectiveness percentage analgetic extract of cactus fruits at dose of 50 mg/kg BB (14,4%, 100 mg/kg BB (55,36%, 150 mg/kg BB (79,95% and positif control (100%. The data which is got from the calculation later is analyzed by Kruskal Wallis. The result showed that at dose of 150 mg/kg BB is p: 0,016 (p<0,05 when compared with the positive control. So that is different significantly between dose 150 mg/kg BB and the positive control. The extract showed a optimal analgetic effect characterized by a significant reduction in the number of writhes or abdominal stretches in mice with dose 150 mg/kg BB body weight used when compared to the cactus fruits extract dose 50 and 100 mg/kg BB

  8. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herson Antonio González-Ponce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (APAP-induced acute liver failure (ALF is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients and contain high levels of bioactive compounds, including antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha extracts against APAP-induced ALF. In addition, we analyzed the antioxidant activities of these extracts. Fruit extracts (800mg/kg/day, orally were given prophylactically to male Wistar rats before intoxication with APAP (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally. Rat hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 20mmol/LAPAP, and necrosis was assessed by LDH leakage. Opuntia robusta had significantly higher levels of antioxidants than Opuntia streptacantha. Both extracts significantly attenuated APAP-induced injury markers AST, ALT and ALP and improved liver histology. The Opuntia extracts reversed APAP-induced depletion of liver GSH and glycogen stores. In cultured hepatocytes, Opuntia extracts significantly reduced leakage of LDH and cell necrosis, both prophylactically and therapeutically. Both extracts appeared to be superior to NAC when used therapeutically. We conclude that Opuntia extracts are hepatoprotective and can be used as a nutraceutical to prevent ALF.

  10. Invasive alien plant species used for the treatment of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japonica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest ...

  11. Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  12. Effects of cooking methods on phenolic compounds in xoconostle (Opuntia joconostle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-García, Rosa María; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Zepeda-Vallejo, Luis Gerardo; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    Xoconostle, the acidic cactus pear fruit of Opuntia joconostle of the Cactaceae family, is the source of several phytochemicals, such as betalain pigments and numerous phenolic compounds. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of four cooking procedures (i.e., boiling, grilling, steaming and microwaving) on the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (measured by ABTS, DPPH, reducing power, and BCBA) of xoconostle. In addition, HPLC-DAD analyses were performed to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. After microwaving and steaming xoconostle, the TPC remained the same that in fresh samples, whereas both grilling and boiling produced a significant, 20% reduction (p ≤ 0.05). Total flavonoids remained unchanged in boiled and grilled xoconostle, but steaming and microwaving increased the flavonoid content by 13 and 20%, respectively. Steaming and microwaving did not produce significant changes in the antioxidant activity of xoconostle, whereas boiling and grilling result in significant decreases. The phenolic acids identified in xoconostle fruits were gallic, vanillic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids; the flavonoids identified were epicatechin, catechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol. Based on the results, steaming and microwaving are the most suitable methods for retaining the highest level of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in xoconostle.

  13. Hepatoprotective Effect of Opuntia robusta and Opuntia streptacantha Fruits against Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Ponce, Herson Antonio; Consolacion Martinez-Saldana, Maria; Rosa Rincon-Sanchez, Ana; Teresa Sumaya-Martinez, Maria; Buist-Homan, Manon; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han; Jaramillo-Juarez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) is a serious health problem in developed countries. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the current therapy for APAP-induced ALF, is not always effective, and liver transplantation is often needed. Opuntia spp. fruits are an important source of nutrients

  14. Fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Felipe Just de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus on performance and body weight components of sheep. Thirty hair lambs, with 19 kg ± 0.35 kg initial weight, were randomly divided into five treatments, namely: Tifton 85 Hay (HA; Tifton 85 Hay + fresh spineless cactus (HAFC; Tifton 85 Hay + dehydrated spineless cactus (HADC; fresh spineless cactus (FC; dehydrated spineless cactus (DC. In addition to the spineless cactus and hay, the complete mixture contained soybean meal, mineral salt and limestone in all treatments. Animals were confined for 75 days and then slaughtered. The weight of body components was recorded. Dry matter intake, total digestible nutrients intake and voluntary water intake were higher (p 0.05 by treatments. The cold carcass weight, rib eye area, weight and yield of the skin, liver, kidney and large intestine were higher (p < 0.05 for the DC and HADC treatments. Partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus, in complete diets for sheep, increases the weight of the cold carcass and non-carcass components.

  15. Determination of free amino compounds in betalainic fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Florian; Graneis, Stephan; Schreiter, Pat P-Y; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-06-14

    Amino acids and amines are the precursors of betalains. Therefore, the profiles of free amino compounds in juices obtained from cactus pears [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. cv. Bianca, cv. Gialla, and cv. Rossa], pitaya fruits [Selenicereus megalanthus (K. Schumann ex Vaupel) Moran, Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton & Rose, and Hylocereus undatus (Haworth) Britton & Rose], and in extracts from differently colored Swiss chard [Beta vulgaris L. ssp. cicla (L.) Alef. cv. Bright Lights] petioles and red and yellow beets (B. vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. conditiva Alef. cv. Burpee's Golden) were investigated for the first time. Amino compounds were derivatized with propyl chloroformate. While gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry was used for peak assignment, GC flame ionization detection was applied for quantification of individual compounds. Whereas proline was the major free amino compound of cactus pear and pitaya fruit juices, glutamine dominated in Swiss chard stems and beets, respectively. Interestingly, extremely high concentrations of dopamine were detected in Swiss chard stems and beets. Furthermore, the cleavage of betaxanthins caused by derivatization in alkaline reaction solutions is demonstrated for the first time. Amino acids and amines thus released might increase the actual free amino compound contents of the respective sample. To evaluate the contribution of betaxanthin cleavage to total amino acid and amine concentration, isolated betaxanthins were derivatized according to the "EZ:faast" method prior to quantification of the respective amino compounds released. On a molar basis, betaxanthin contribution to overall amino compound contents was always below 6.4%.

  16. Effects of a natural fire on a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri) and nylon hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus viridiflorus) population in Southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Sivinski

    2007-01-01

    During the summer of 1992, a natural wildfire burned 250 acres of juniper savanna on Rawhide Ridge in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. This fire burned through the center of a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus population. This threatened cactus is locally sympatric with the more abundant nylon hedgehog cactus, which has similar growth form and stature...

  17. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  18. TERRITORY, PUBLIC POLICIES AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF CATURITÉ, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenize Carlos de Macêdo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the environmental conditions of the semiarid territory, livestock has constituted one of the main economic activities and plays an important role in regional economic system.The municipality of Caturité - PB is characterized by the predominance of cattle livestock as the main productive activity. In recent years, however, this is being threatened due to infestation of the Cochineal Carmine (Dactylopius opuntiae in plantations of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill, primary forage food for bovine and goat herds.As consequences of the devastation of spineless cactus, there has been the productive processes of dispossession and dislocation, with consequent loss of identity. In this sense, the objective of this work was to analyze public policies that have been established in the municipality of Caturité the major organs Municipal, State and Federal, seeking to reverse the current situation and promote rural development, as well as producers realize and given the actions of these bodies.Was used as the research methodology of theoretical frameworks, focusing on the concepts of rural areas, public policy and development, there was also the questionnaires in government agencies as well as to farmers in two rural communities surveyed (Serraria and Malhada daPanela aiming establish their socioeconomic profile.The results revealed the importance of agriculture for local development, as well as the environmental degradation caused by Cochineal carmine.There was also the implementation of new cactus cultivars resistant to pests as a possible referral to the minimization problem, which should have an answer in the medium term. However, it was found that the actions have been ad hoc and are not integrated into a broader development project that will be sustainable.

  19. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  20. Assessment of the invasive status of newly recorded cactus species in the central Tugela River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cheek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current distribution information on cacti in the Tugela River basin in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is scant. Accordingly, surveys in this region substantially improve our understanding of regional invasions by this succulent group. The identification of new or extended invasions requires (reassessments of their invasion status and consideration of possible management interventions. Objectives: To identify and collect cacti either not previously recorded or poorly known in the central Tugela River basin, and to assess their invasion status. Method: A 40 km section of tertiary road was travelled through the topocadastral square 2830 CC, from the R74 main road northward across the Bloukrans River towards the Tugela River. Herbarium specimens were collected to vouch for new instances of naturalisation of cacti, the colony sizes of which were estimated and invasion stages determined. An applicable weed risk assessment model was used to determine the threat status of one cactus species not previously evaluated for South Africa. Based on the South African Plant Invaders Atlas database records and field observations, management recommendations were suggested for six cacti species. Results: The first naturalised population of Opuntia microdasys in KwaZulu-Natal was detected, as was the first confirmed South African record of Echinopsis oxygona. Four populations of Peniocereus serpentinus were also found, ranging in size from several square metres to 0.4 ha. Echinopsis oxygona generated a score that falls into the reject category of the risk assessment model used. Conclusion: It is recommended that E. oxygona be added to the Species Under Surveillance for Possible Eradication or Containment Targeting list to investigate whether this species requires formal legal listing and the development of a specific eradication plan. Immediate action from local authorities is recommended for the manual removal of P. serpentinus and O. microdasys

  1. Biomimetic "Cactus Spine" with Hierarchical Groove Structure for Efficient Fog Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Wu, Juntao; Gong, Guangming; Guo, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A biomimetic "cactus spine" with hierarchical groove structure is designed and fabricated using simple electrospinning. This novel artificial cactus spine possesses excellent fog collection and water transportation ability. A model cactus equipped with artificial spines also shows a great water storage capacity. The results can be helpful in the development of water collectors and may make a contribution to the world water crisis.

  2. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  3. Programmed cell death promotes male sterility in the functional dioecious Opuntia stenopetala (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Orozco-Arroyo, Gregorio; Cruz-García, Felipe; García-Campusano, Florencia; Alfaro, Isabel; Vázquez-Santana, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The sexual separation in dioecious species has interested biologists for decades; however, the cellular mechanism leading to unisexuality has been poorly understood. In this study, the cellular changes that lead to male sterility in the functionally dioecious cactus, Opuntia stenopetala, are described. The spatial and temporal patterns of programmed cell death (PCD) were determined in the anthers of male and female flowers using scanning electron microscopy analysis and histological observations, focusing attention on the transition from bisexual to unisexual development. In addition, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assays were used as an indicator of DNA fragmentation to corroborate PCD. PCD was detected in anthers of both female and male flowers, but their patterns differed in time and space. Functionally male individuals developed viable pollen, and normal development involved PCD on each layer of the anther wall, which occurred progressively from the inner (tapetum) to the outer layer (epidermis). Conversely, functional female individuals aborted anthers by premature and displaced PCD. In anthers of female flowers, the first signs of PCD, such as a nucleus with irregular shape, fragmented and condensed chromatin, high vacuolization and condensed cytoplasm, occurred at the microspore mother cell stage. Later these features were observed simultaneously in all anther wall layers, connective tissue and filament. Neither pollen formation nor anther dehiscence was detected in female flowers of O. stenopetala due to total anther disruption. Temporal and spatial changes in the patterns of PCD are responsible for male sterility of female flowers in O. stenopetala. Male fertility requires the co-ordination of different events, which, when altered, can lead to male sterility and to functionally unisexual individuals. PCD could be a widespread mechanism in the determination of functionally dioecious species.

  4. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action

  5. Recent upgrades and performance of the CACTUS detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.

    1998-03-01

    The SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron laboratory, including the Oslo Cyclotron, has been in operation since 1980. The main auxiliary equipment consists of the multi-detector system CACTUS. During the last years, new, high efficiency Ge(HP) detectors were purchased and integrated in the CACTUS detector array. In this connection, the electronical setup was revised and altered. Several drawbacks of the old setup could be pointed out and eliminated. A test of the performance of all detector array elements was made with high accuracy. 27 refs

  6. Identification, characterization, and function analysis of the Cactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozheng Li

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. IκB is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned IκB homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-κB family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-κB binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV.

  7. Response of cactus pear genotypes to different crop densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Aroaldo Dantas Cavalcante

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of cactus pear as an alimentary alternative for the herd of cattle of the Brazilian semiarid region and the effect of crop spacing among plants, this study aimed to evaluate the morphometry, yield and chemical-bromatological composition of cactus pear genotypes, under different cropping densities. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, in a 3x4 factorial scheme. Treatments consisted of a combination of three cactus pear genotypes (Gigante, Redonda and Miúda and four cropping densities (10,000 plants ha-1; 20,000 plants ha-1; 40,000 plants ha-1; and 80,000 plants ha-1, with three replications. The cactus pear genotypes reacted differently, regarding morphometry, yield and chemical-bromatological composition, and, regardless of the species, the denser planting increased yield (tons ha-1. The Miúda palm presented the highest dry matter yield and consequently the greater accumulation of total digestible nutrients, raw protein and water per hectare, as well as the highest in vitro dry matter digestibility.

  8. Hydrocarbon Degradation and Lead Solubility in a Soil Polluted with Lead and Used Motor Oil Treated by Composting and Phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Alvarado, L F; Vaca-Mier, M; López, R; Rojas-Valencia, M N

    2018-02-01

    Used lubricant oils and metals can be common soil pollutants in abandoned sites. When soil is contaminated with various hazardous wastes, the efficiency of biological treatments could be affected. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of combining phytoremediation and composting on the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation and lead solubility in a soil contaminated with 31,823 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from used motor oil and 8260 mg/kg of lead. Mexican cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) and yard trimmings were added in the composting process, and lucerne (Medicago sativa) was used in the phytoremediation process. After a 9 week composting process, only 13% of the initial TPH concentration was removed. The following 20 week phytoremediation process removed 48% of TPH. The highest TPH degradation percentage (66%), was observed in the experiment with phytoremediation only. This work demonstrates sustainable technologies, such as biological treatments, represent low-cost options for remediation; however, they are not frequently used because they require long periods of time for success.

  9. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism.

  10. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  11. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  12. REPEATABILITY OF FRUIT QUALITY TRAITS OF CACTUS PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALTÂNIA XAVIER NUNES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Repeatability analysis has been used to study traits in several crops, assisting in the definition of the minimum number needed to evaluate genotypes more efficiently and with less time and resource consumption. So far, however, no repeatability studies on cactus pear have been found in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the coefficient of repeatability for cactus pear fruits traits and the minimum number of evaluations (fruit that can provide acceptable accuracy for the prediction of the true value. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Bahia/Campus Guanambi, with 150 fruits collected from three municipalities in the state of Bahia. The coefficients of repeatability were estimated by the methods of analysis of variance, principal components based on the covariance (PCCV and correlation (PCC matrices, and structural analysis based on the correlation matrix (SA. The analysis of variance showed that, except for fruit diameter, the effect of the production site (municipality was significant for all traits evaluated. The PCCV method was proven the most suitable for studying the repeatability of quality traits of cactus pear fruits. Seven fruits were required to determine, with 90% confidence, the traits length, diameter, fruit firmness, skin thickness, number of seeds, fruit mass, bark mass, pulp mass, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, SS/AT ratio, and pulp yield.

  13. Cactus Nurseries and Conservation in a Biosphere Reserve in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Pulido

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Documenting how socio-ecosystem conservation knowledge and practice arise and are modified are issues of ethnobiological interest. In the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (RBBM, plant nurseries, some of which were created as Environmental Management Units (UMAs, have been established to grow and conserve cacti. This paper describes these nurseries, their role in cactus conservation, and the benefits and limitations for the people managing them. The nurseries have helped decrease illegal traffic in cacti and have enabled ex situ conservation of 22 cacti species. Cactus management has changed from extraction to cultivation, as a result of the knowledge and actions of multiple actors. The main limitation is marketing, a recurring problem for non-timber forest products (NTFP. Greater coordination among stakeholders is recommended, such as involvement by non-governmental organizations to improve their probability of success, as well as learning from the experience of other cactus UMAs. Improving the market for cacti is an issue that needs an immediate solution; otherwise conservation efforts could relapse.

  14. Adult nutrition, but not inbreeding, affects male primary sexual traits in the leaf-footed cactus bug Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Sasson, Daniel A; Allen, Pablo E; Somjee, Ummat; Miller, Christine W

    2016-07-01

    Adverse conditions may be the norm rather than the exception in natural populations. Many populations experience poor nutrition on a seasonal basis. Further, brief interludes of inbreeding can be common as population density fluctuates and because of habitat fragmentation. Here, we investigated the effects of poor nutrition and inbreeding on traits that can be very important to reproductive success and fitness in males: testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our study species was Narnia femorata, a species introduced to north-central Florida in the 1950s. This species encounters regular, seasonal changes in diet that can have profound phenotypic effects on morphology and behavior. We generated inbred and outbred individuals through a single generation of full-sibling mating or outcrossing, respectively. All juveniles were provided a natural, high-quality diet of Opuntia humifusa cactus cladode with fruit until they reached adulthood. New adult males were put on a high- or low-quality diet for at least 21 days before measurements were taken. As expected, the low-quality diet led to significantly decreased testes mass in both inbred and outbred males, although there were surprisingly no detectable effects on sperm traits. We did not find evidence that inbreeding affected testes mass, sperm concentration, and sperm viability. Our results highlight the immediate and overwhelming effects of nutrition on testes mass, while suggesting that a single generation of inbreeding might not be detrimental for primary sexual traits in this particular population.

  15. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  16. A tale of two cacti-the complex relationship between peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and endangered star cactus (Astrophytum asterias)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Terry; D. Price; J. Poole

    2007-01-01

    Astrophytum asterias, commonly called star cactus, is a federally listed endangered cactus endemic to the Tamaulipan thornscrub ecoregion of extreme southern Texas, USA, and Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Only three metapopulations totaling less than 4000 plants are presently known in Texas. Star cactus, known locally as “star peyote”, is highly...

  17. Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association between the giant cardon cactus Pachycereus pringlei and endophytic bacteria help seedlings establish and grow on barren rock, This cactus, together with other desert plants, is responsible for weathering ancient lava flows in the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico.When cardon seeds are inoculated with endophytic...

  18. Plasma Emission Spectra of Opuntia Nopalea Obtained with Microsecond Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, L.; Flores, T.; Arronte, A.; Flores, A.

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced Plasma Spectroscopy was performed during the spines ablation of Opuntia by using Nd:YAG microsecond laser pulses. The results show strong absorption in Glochids that causes the intense electronic noise on the spectra. This process is consider suitable for practical elimination of spines in alimentary products like opuntia

  19. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Microalgae Scenedesmus Sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Suarez, J. L.; Carreras, N.

    2011-06-07

    Microalgae biomass has been widely studied for biogas production over the last years and results show that anaerobic digestion is often limited by the low C/N ratio of this type of biomass. Therefore, codigestion with substrates of high C/N ratio is necessary. The objectives of this study are to set up an experimental method that ease reproducibility and control of anaerobic digestion processes in laboratory conditions and to determine the biodegradability and biogas production potential of the co-digestion process of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and energy crop Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller. Results obtained showed that higher C/N ratios are preferred in order to maximize methane production. Highest methane yield obtained was 0.252m3CH4/Kg VS and degradability expressed as percentage COD reduced is around 30% for the ideal mixture found, made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. A laboratory setup using MicroOxymax respirometer, after its adaptation to work under anaerobic conditions, can be used for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes. Scenedesmus sp. as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion does not give good results due to low C/N ratio. However, when codigesting it with O. ficus-indica methane production is satisfactory. Best mixture was made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. (Author)

  20. Development of a Configurable Growth Chamber with a Computer Vision System to Study Circadian Rhythm in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Egea-Cortines

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant development is the result of an endogenous morphogenetic program that integrates environmental signals. The so-called circadian clock is a set of genes that integrates environmental inputs into an internal pacing system that gates growth and other outputs. Study of circadian growth responses requires high sampling rates to detect changes in growth and avoid aliasing. We have developed a flexible configurable growth chamber comprising a computer vision system that allows sampling rates ranging between one image per 30 s to hours/days. The vision system has a controlled illumination system, which allows the user to set up different configurations. The illumination system used emits a combination of wavelengths ensuring the optimal growth of species under analysis. In order to obtain high contrast of captured images, the capture system is composed of two CCD cameras, for day and night periods. Depending on the sample type, a flexible image processing software calculates different parameters based on geometric calculations. As a proof of concept we tested the system in three different plant tissues, growth of petunia- and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus flowers and of cladodes from the cactus Opuntia ficus-indica. We found that petunia flowers grow at a steady pace and display a strong growth increase in the early morning, whereas Opuntia cladode growth turned out not to follow a circadian growth pattern under the growth conditions imposed. Furthermore we were able to identify a decoupling of increase in area and length indicating that two independent growth processes are responsible for the final size and shape of the cladode.

  1. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  2. Dispersal of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae, a biological control agent of Opuntia stricta (Haworth. Haworth. (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Foxcroft

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control efforts, the introduction of Cactoblastis cactorum and attempted releases of Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell into the expanding infestation of Opuntia stricta in the Skukuza region of the Kruger National Park (KNP have had limited suc- cess in preventing the spread and densification of 0. stricta. To boost the biological control component, a new strain of D. opuntiae was introduced into KNP during 1997. The new strain established readily and has destroyed large clumps of plants in the vicin- ity of the release site. A large-scale redistribution programme with D. opuntiae is now needed to exploit this biological control agent to the full. In order to match the frequency of manual releases with the natural rates of spread of the insects, surveys were conducted under field conditions to determine the dispersal abilities ofD. opuntiae, with regard to rate and direction of movement. Dispersal of D. opuntiae was found to be slow and restricted and that the insects need to be redistributed by placing them onto plants at approximately 10 m intervals to ensure that they become quickly and evenly distributed on the weed. This information will be crucial in the revision of the integrated management plan for 0. stricta in the KNP, in integrating the cochineal and other control mechanisms.

  3. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  4. Elaboração e caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da farinha da palma (Opuntia fícusindica Mill em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Severo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Palma forrageira (Opuntia fícusindica Mill é uma cactácea originária do México, porém bastante cultivada na região semiárida do nordeste. Na alimentação humana, geralmente, são usados em preparações culinárias os brotos de palma, os frutos in natura ou processados. Uma das maneiras de diversificar o uso da palma forrageira seriam a secagem e sua transformação em farinhas para incorporação em diversos produtos. Desta forma o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade físico-química e microbiológica da farinha. As amostras foram coletadas na zona rural e transportadas para o laboratório do Centro Vocacional e Tecnológico /UFCG – Campus Pombal – PB, as mesmas foram desidratadas até a total retirada da umidade em estufa de circulação de ar nas seguintes temperaturas: 70, 80 e 90 °C, posteriormente passaram por um liquidificador industrial, em seguida por um moinho de facas para a obtenção da farinha. Após a obtenção foram realizadas as análises microbiológicas e analises físico-químicas. O emprego na alimentação humana, a palma forrageira é um grande potencial produtivo do Semiárido com alternativas sustentadas de desenvolvimento.Preparation and physical chemistry and microbiological characterization of flour palm ( Opuntia fícusindica Mill at different temperaturesAbstract: The Spineless cactus ( Opuntia fícusindica Mill is a cactaceous originally from Mexico, but rather grown in semi-arid region of the northeast. For human consumption, generally, they are used in culinary preparations the palm shoots, os frutos in natura ou processados. One way to diversify the use of cactus would be drying and processing into meal for incorporation into various products. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical - chemical and microbiological quality of the flour. The samples were collected in the countryside and transported to the laboratory and Technological Vocational Center / UFCG - Campus

  5. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  6. Probable hypoglycemic adverse drug reaction associated with prickly pear cactus, glipizide, and metformin in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Diana M; Freyer, Craig W

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking prickly pear cactus (PPC), glipizide, and metformin. A 58-year-old Mexican male with type 2 diabetes mellitus being treated with metformin 1000 mg twice daily and extended-release glipizide 10 mg daily was referred to the pharmacist for medication education. He denied taking herbal supplements or experiencing hypoglycemia. Two hemoglobin A(1c) values (6.8% and 6.7%) obtained over the past year demonstrated glycemic control, which was supported by his reported fasting blood glucose readings of 113-132 mg/dL. One month later, the patient reported 4 hypoglycemic events with blood glucose readings of 49-68 mg/dL, which resulted in discontinuation of glipizide. One month later, the patient denied any further hypoglycemia. During medication reconciliation he reported consuming crude PPC pads daily for 2 months for glucose control. Literature suggests that PPC has an effect on lowering blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although few identified data describe ADRs from combining PPC with other agents used in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. A literature search of MEDLINE (through December 2009) using the search terms diabetes mellitus, prickly pear cactus, nopal, opuntia, metformin, glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride, and sulfonylurea revealed no case reports of the described ADR. One case report describing the blood glucose-lowering effect of PPC in a patient concurrently taking oral antihyperglycemics documented an episode of hypoglycemia, although the Naranjo probability scale was not applied. One patient survey discovered the most common drug-herbal interaction in the given population to be between PPC and antihyperglycemic agents, resulting in hypoglycemia. In our case, use of the Naranjo probability scale suggests the ADR to be probable. The mechanism may be due to the additive glucose lowering of the 3 agents consumed concurrently by the

  7. Interfacing the Paramesh Computational Libraries to the Cactus Computational Framework, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will design and implement an interface between the Paramesh computational libraries, developed and used by groups at NASA GSFC, and the Cactus computational...

  8. Partial replacement of corn by forage cactus in the diets of lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Santiago Silva Goveia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of corn by forage cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck in the diets of lactating goats on the nutrient intake, milk production and composition and ingestive behavior. Five crossbreed Saanen x Pardo Alpina goats with body weights of 47 ± 3.3 kg were used in the study. The design was 5x5 Latin square design, in which the treatments were as follows: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% of girl cactus included in the diet as a partial replacement of corn, with 0, 18, 36, 54 and 72% of the added the cactus comprising of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq Walp as roughage in all treatments. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.05 the dry matter intake, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients with the increasing levels of cactus in the diet, presenting means of 1.64, 0.26, 0.82, 0.54 and 1.17 kg day-1, respectively. In the same way, no influence was observed on the daily milk production and levels of fat, protein, lactose and total solids of milk, which averaged 1.18 kg day-1; 3.74, 3.34, 5.06 and 13.56%, respectively. The inclusion of cactus also had no influence (P > 0.05 on the ingestion behavior. The treatment with 35% cactus showed a lower impairment of food intake (31%. The partial replacement of the corn by the girl cactus in the diets of dairy goats can be accomplished because it does not alter the intake, milk yield and composition and feeding behavior. The replacement of up to 54% corn by the cactus is recommended to reduce producer costs for food.

  9. Cereus peruvianus (Koubo new cactus fruit for the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several different species of the columnar cacti of the genera Stenocereus and Pachycereus, were introduced into different semi-arid ecozones in Israel and most of these efforts were of disappointing outcomes, the only exception being the Cereus peruvianus (L. Miller,which bore plenty of fruits, some of them of good taste. The original seeds of this plant were obtained from the late Mr. Amram (Ron Kodish, who collected seeds from various private gardens in Southern California which bore fruits of reasonable qualities. The initial success of this species led us to initiate an intensive research study, and today it is already fruit-crop, marketed mainly in Israel under the name " Koubo" . This paper will describe our work of domestication of this new cactus fruit crop in Israel.

  10. Stability of cactus-pear powder during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The stability of cactus-pear powder, obtained by the process of spray drying for 40 days, was evaluated under controlled conditions of relative air humidity (83% and temperature (25 and 40 °C. The whole pulp was characterized with regard to its physico-chemical parameters: pH, total titratable acidity, soluble solids, water content, total solids, ashes, reducing sugars, total sugars, non-reducing sugars, luminosity, redness, yellowness and water activity. The stored samples in powder were evaluated every 10 days for water content, water activity, total titratable acidity and color (luminosity, redness and yellowness. The whole pulp was slightly acidic and perishable, due to the high water content. During storage, the packages did not prevent water absorption, thus increasing water content and, consequently, water activity. Yellowness oscillated along the storage time, but the predominance of the yellow color was not affected.

  11. Husimi-cactus approximation study on the diluted spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Hiromi; Okabe, Yutaka; Nefedev, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    We investigate dilution effects on the classical spin-ice materials such as Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 . In particular, we derive a formula of the thermodynamic quantities as functions of the temperature and a nonmagnetic ion concentration based on a Husimi-cactus approximation. We find that the formula predicts a dilution-induced crossover from the cooperative to the conventional paramagnets in a ground state, and that it also reproduces the "generalized Pauling's entropy" given by Ke et al. To verify the formula from a numerical viewpoint, we compare these results with Monte Carlo simulation calculation data, and then find good agreement for all parameter values.

  12. Tissue localization of betacyanins in cactus stems Localización de betacianinas en tejido del tallo de cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mosco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Betalains are soluble pigments found only in the suborder Chenopodiniae, while in all other Angiospermae they are replaced by anthocyanins. The convergent evolution of the presence of anthocyanins and betalains in vegetative tissues supports the hypothesis of a similar function, based on the absorption properties of these pigments. The screening effect of anthocyanins results in the reduction of the amount of photoinhibition. betalains, being the anthocyanin counterpart in most families of Caryophyllales, were also suggested to have a screening role. This study is aimed at identifying in which Cactaceae stem tissues betacyanins, reddish to violet betalain pigments, accumulate. Stem accumulation of betacyanins was observed in cacti both in their natural habitat and in cultivation. The localization of betacyanins was assessed by light microscope studies on tubercle transverse sections. During 2 field trips in distinct years to the Mexican plateau in March, many cactus species, belonging to different genera, were observed displaying a reddish stem. Light microscope studies on cultivated plants showed that betacyanins accumulate in the hypodermis and in the outer layers of the chlorenchyma, where they may act as a screen, thus protecting the photosystems present in the underlying chlorenchyma, and have a possible antioxidant function in the cortex.Las betalaínas son pigmentos solubles que se encuentran sólo en el suborden Chenopodiniae, mientras que en el resto de Angiospermae, lo que existe son antocianinas. La evolución convergente de la presencia de antocianinas y betalaínas en tejidos vegetativos apoya la hipótesis de una función similar, que se basa en las propiedades de absorción de estos pigmentos. El efecto pantalla de las antocianinas resulta en la reducción de fotoinhibición. Siendo las betalaínas la contraparte antocianítica en la mayoría de las familias de Caryophyllales, se sugirió también un papel de pantalla de estos

  13. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75. Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.. Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines.

  14. Opuntia in Mexico: identifying priority areas for conserving biodiversity in a multi-use landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Illoldi-Rangel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi-criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi-criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one-third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. CONCLUSIONS: Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as

  15. Abscission Layer Formation as a Resistance Response of Peruvian Apple Cactus Against Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Kwang-Hyung

    2002-09-01

    ABSTRACT Stem disks from 2-year-old cacti Cereus tetragonus (susceptible) and C. peruvianus (resistant) were inoculated in the center (pith) with Glomerella cingulata isolated from Colletotrichum stem rot in three-angled cacti. The susceptible cactus became extensively colonized, whereas colonization was limited to a small area in the resistant cactus. The resistant cactus formed prominent abscission layers (ALs) in parenchyma internal to the inoculation site. Ethanol extracts of the fungal culture also stimulated AL formation in the resistant cactus. Initial cell division followed at 2 to 4 days after treatment, and layering of multiple cells at 7 days after treatment. After 10 days, the outer layers were sometimes sloughed from the inner layers. No AL formation was induced in susceptible C. tetragonus treated with ethanol extract or in untreated control cacti. Light and electron microscopy revealed that initial cell division occurred by cell wall formation, and that an additional cell wall was layered in pre-existing parenchyma cells without ordinary cell division. Later, separation layers formed in ALs where inner cell walls appeared to be thickened secondarily, and the cell walls and middle lamella within the layer dissolved. These results suggest that AL formation in the resistant cactus is induced by fungal metabolites, and that it serves as a histological barrier against anthracnose pathogens.

  16. Bounds on the 2-domination number in cactus graphs

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    Mustapha Chellali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A \\(2\\-dominating set of a graph \\(G\\ is a set \\(D\\ of vertices of \\(G\\ such that every vertex not in \\(S\\ is dominated at least twice. The minimum cardinality of a \\(2\\-dominating set of \\(G\\ is the \\(2\\-domination number \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\. We show that if \\(G\\ is a nontrivial connected cactus graph with \\(k(G\\ even cycles (\\(k(G\\geq 0\\, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\geq\\gamma_{t}(G-k(G\\, and if \\(G\\ is a graph of order \\(n\\ with at most one cycle, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(G\\geqslant(n+\\ell-s/2\\ improving Fink and Jacobson's lower bound for trees with \\(\\ell>s\\, where \\(\\gamma_{t}(G\\, \\(\\ell\\ and \\(s\\ are the total domination number, the number of leaves and support vertices of \\(G\\, respectively. We also show that if \\(T\\ is a tree of order \\(n\\geqslant 3\\, then \\(\\gamma_{2}(T\\leqslant\\beta(T+s-1\\, where \\(\\beta(T\\ is the independence number of \\(T\\.

  17. Komposisi Nutrisi Rumput Laut Calcareous Halimeda opuntia pada Lingkungan Perairan Indonesia

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    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Halimeda opuntia merupakan rumput laut Chlorophyta berkapur yang memiliki kandungan nutrisi untuk pangan fungsional. Namun, pergeseran komposisi nutrisi dapat terjadi akibat perubahan lingkungan akibat limpasan nutrien dan bahan organik lainnya yang umum terjadi di perairan pesisir Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi pergeseran kandungan nutrisi H. opuntia yang tumbuh di zona intertidal agar dapat digunakan sebagai dasar pemilihan lokasi pengambilan bahan baku H. opuntia untuk produk fungsional. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan di empat lokasi perairan di Indonesia, yaitu perairan Binuangeun (Banten, Lampung Selatan, Lombok Timur (Nusa Tenggara Barat dan Konawe Selatan (Sulawesi Tenggara. Karakteristik nutrisi dari rumput laut target meliputi kadar air, abu, protein, lemak, karbohidrat, dan serat kasar. Informasi lingkungan dari habitat sampel ditunjukkan melalui variabel kimia air yaitu DO, pH, salinitas, pCO2, kalsium aragonit, nitrogen anorganik terlarut, serta fosfat anorganik terlarut. Hasil analisis menunjukkan kondisi lingkungan eutrofik berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap komposisi nutrisi H. opuntia. pH dan salinitas menjadi faktor determinan positif (R2 = 0,75 pada p<0,05 terhadap kadar karbohidrat, sementara nitrogen anorganik terlarut menjadi faktor determinan negatif terhadap kadar protein dan lemak (R2= 0,81 dan 0,61 pada p<0,05. Berdasarkan kandungan nutrisinya, maka H. opuntia yang diperoleh dari habitat alamiah merupakan bahan baku produk fungsional yang  lebih baik dibandingkan dengan biota selaras dari perairan eutrofik.

  18. Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hanan H; Hamza, Mervat A; Fayez, Mohamed; Mourad, Elhussein F; Saleh, Mohamed Y; Sarhan, Mohamed S; Suker, Ragab M; Eltahlawy, Asmaa A; Nemr, Rahma A; El-Tahan, Mahmod; Ruppel, Silke; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2016-03-01

    Our previous publications and the data presented here provide evidences on the ability of plant-based culture media to optimize the cultivability of rhizobacteria and to support their recovery from plant-soil environments. Compared to the tested chemically-synthetic culture media (e.g. nutrient agar and N-deficient combined-carbon sources media), slurry homogenates, crude saps, juices and powders of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) and succulent plants (Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens) were rich enough to support growth of rhizobacteria. Representative isolates of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Bacillus spp. and Azospirillum spp. exhibited good growth on agar plates of such plant-based culture media. Cell growth and biomass production in liquid batch cultures were comparable to those reported with the synthetic culture media. In addition, the tested plant-based culture media efficiently recovered populations of rhizobacteria associated to plant roots. Culturable populations of >10(6)-10(8) cfu g(-1) were recovered from the ecto- and endo-rhizospheres of tested host plants. More than 100 endophytic culture-dependent isolates were secured and subjected to morphophysiological identification. Factor and cluster analyses indicated the unique community structure, on species, genera, class and phyla levels, of the culturable population recovered with plant-based culture media, being distinct from that obtained with the chemically-synthetic culture media. Proteobacteria were the dominant (78.8%) on plant-based agar culture medium compared to only 31% on nutrient agar, while Firmicutes prevailed on nutrient agar (69%) compared to the plant-based agar culture media (18.2%). Bacteroidetes, represented by Chryseobacterium indologenes, was only reported (3%) among the culturable rhizobacteria community of the plant-based agar culture medium.

  19. Indicaxanthin inhibits NADPH oxidase (NOX)-1 activation and NF-κB-dependent release of inflammatory mediators and prevents the increase of epithelial permeability in IL-1β-exposed Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriere, L; Attanzio, A; Allegra, M; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2014-02-01

    Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1β, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1β brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-κB, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 μM), and IL-1β prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1β also prevented the IL-1β-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-κB was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level.

  20. Evaluation of Design & Analysis Code, CACTUS, for Predicting Crossflow Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnik, Martin [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Center for Ocean Renewable Energy; Bachant, Pete [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Center for Ocean Renewable Energy; Neary, Vincent Sinclair [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murphy, Andrew W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    CACTUS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is an open-source code for the design and analysis of wind and hydrokinetic turbines. While it has undergone extensive validation for both vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines, and it has been demonstrated to accurately predict the performance of horizontal (axial-flow) hydrokinetic turbines, its ability to predict the performance of crossflow hydrokinetic turbines has yet to be tested. The present study addresses this problem by comparing the predicted performance curves derived from CACTUS simulations of the U.S. Department of Energy’s 1:6 scale reference model crossflow turbine to those derived by experimental measurements in a tow tank using the same model turbine at the University of New Hampshire. It shows that CACTUS cannot accurately predict the performance of this crossflow turbine, raising concerns on its application to crossflow hydrokinetic turbines generally. The lack of quality data on NACA 0021 foil aerodynamic (hydrodynamic) characteristics over the wide range of angles of attack (AoA) and Reynolds numbers is identified as the main cause for poor model prediction. A comparison of several different NACA 0021 foil data sources, derived using both physical and numerical modeling experiments, indicates significant discrepancies at the high AoA experienced by foils on crossflow turbines. Users of CACTUS for crossflow hydrokinetic turbines are, therefore, advised to limit its application to higher tip speed ratios (lower AoA), and to carefully verify the reliability and accuracy of their foil data. Accurate empirical data on the aerodynamic characteristics of the foil is the greatest limitation to predicting performance for crossflow turbines with semi-empirical models like CACTUS. Future improvements of CACTUS for crossflow turbine performance prediction will require the development of accurate foil aerodynamic characteristic data sets within the appropriate ranges of Reynolds numbers and AoA.

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; Gordillo, B E; Altamirano, P; Ariza, C R

    1988-01-01

    To assess the hypoglycemic effect of the nopal Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire (O. streptacantha Lem.), three groups of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied. Group one (16 patients) ingested 500 g of broiled nopal stems. Group 2 (10 patients) received only 400 ml of water as a control test. Three tests were performed on group 3 (6 patients): one with nopal, a second with water, and a third with ingestion of 500 g broiled squash. Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. After the intake of O. streptacantha Lem., serum glucose and serum insulin levels decreased significantly in groups 1 and 3, whereas no similar changes were noticed in group 2. The mean reduction of glucose reached 17.6 +/- 2.2% of basal values at 180 min in group 1 and 16.2 +/- 1.8% in group 3; the reduction of serum insulin at 180 min reached 50.2 +/- 8.0% in group 1 and 40.3 +/- 12.4% in group 3. This study shows that the stems of O. streptacantha Lem. cause a hypoglycemic effect in patients with NIDDM. The mechanism of this effect is unknown, but an increased insulin sensitivity is suggested.

  2. Historical biogeography of longhorn cactus beetles: the influence of Pleistocene climate changes on American desert communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Irwin Smith; Brian Dorsey Farrell

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial sequence data from three species of flightless cactus beetles, Moneilema gigas, M. armatum, and M. appressum, were analyzed. The coalescent models implemented in the program FLUCTUATE were used to test the hypothesis that these species experienced range changes following the end of the last glacial...

  3. Knowlton's cactus (Pediocactus knowltonii): Eighteen years of monitoring and recovery actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Sivinski; Charlie McDonald

    2007-01-01

    Pediocactus knowltonii is a rare, endemic cactus that is presently known to occur on a single 10-hectare hill in northwestern New Mexico near the Colorado border. It was listed as federally endangered in 1979. Population monitoring and recovery actions were initiated when the Recovery Plan was adopted in 1985. The land at the type locality has been...

  4. Survival of the endangered Pima pineapple cactus: Does clearing before prescribed fire alter survival postfire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Jarchow, Christopher; Crawford, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Federal land managers and ranchers often use prescribed fire as a tool to reduce invading woody plants within desert grasslands of the arid southwestern United States. Managers must evaluate the threat of the burn toward the health and survival of plants of concern including how preemptive clearing before prescribed fire might benefit these species. One example is the endangered Pima pineapple cactus (Coryphantha scheeri var. robustispina), a small hemispheric cactus of desert scrublands and grasslands of south-central Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. In 2014, we examined survival of Pima pineapple cactus documented in 2009 or 2010 within grasslands of Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona. Of the 72 sites observed, 35 had no burn after documentation and 37 experienced prescribed fire. Refuge staff removed vegetation between 0.3 and 3.0 m from the cactus preburn. We found that Pima pineapple cacti in areas subjected to prescribed fire and with preemptive clearing had the same survival statistically as cacti from sites that were not burned.

  5. Ecology and conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Deborah M. Finch

    2000-01-01

    This report is the result of a cooperative effort by the Rocky Mountain Research Station and the USDA Forest Service Region 3, with participation by the Arizona Game and Fish Department and the Bureau of Land Management. It assesses the state of knowledge related to the conservation status of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona. The population decline of this...

  6. Chapter 6: Research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; W. Scott Richardson; Deborah M. Finch; David J. Krueper

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe research needs for the conservation of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) in Arizona. Estimates of population size, structure, and dynamics, as well as demographic data, are needed for the recovery team to formulate sound population objectives. Habitat loss due to residential development...

  7. Characterization of a male reproductive transcriptome for Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Kordonowy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodents of the genus Peromyscus have become increasingly utilized models for investigations into adaptive biology. This genus is particularly powerful for research linking genetics with adaptive physiology or behaviors, and recent research has capitalized on the unique opportunities afforded by the ecological diversity of these rodents. Well characterized genomic and transcriptomic data is intrinsic to explorations of the genetic architecture responsible for ecological adaptations. Therefore, this study characterizes the transcriptome of three male reproductive tissues (testes, epididymis and vas deferens of Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse, a desert specialist. The transcriptome assembly process was optimized in order to produce a high quality and substantially complete annotated transcriptome. This composite transcriptome was generated to characterize the expressed transcripts in the male reproductive tract of P. eremicus, which will serve as a crucial resource for future research investigating our hypothesis that the male Cactus mouse possesses an adaptive reproductive phenotype to mitigate water-loss from ejaculate. This study reports genes under positive selection in the male Cactus mouse reproductive transcriptome relative to transcriptomes from Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse and Mus musculus. Thus, this study expands upon existing genetic research in this species, and we provide a high quality transcriptome to enable further explorations of our proposed hypothesis for male Cactus mouse reproductive adaptations to minimize seminal fluid loss.

  8. Invasion of Opuntia humifusa and O. phaeacantha (Cactaceae into plant communities of the Karadag Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Fateryga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study of Opuntia humifusa and O. phaeacantha naturalised in the Karadag Nature Reserve (southeastern part of the Crimean Peninsula are presented. There, the largest coenopopulations of Opuntia plants are confined to the «biostation» territory (bordering with the park, administrative buildings and housing estate. Twelve localities were described in the Karadag Reserve. These differ by phytocoenotic characteristics, area and floristic composition. Seven localities include only O. humifusa plants; four ones include only O. phaeacantha individuals; and both the species are present on the twelfth locality. The total number of individuals of each species and ontogenetic structure of the population were studied in each locality. The total number of O. humifusa individuals in the Karadag Reserve is more than 600 plants within the «biostation» territory, while the total number of O. phaeacantha plants is about 400 individuals. Studying of the plant communities has been carried out according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Opuntia plants form derivate communities within degraded steppes, phryganoid-steppes, and semi-desert badland phytocoenoses almost at all studied localities. A significant number of synanthropic species (including alien plants was found within these communities. Opuntia plants are able to self-reproduce predominantly vegetatively. Self-seeding reproduction occurs less frequently. Both species can be considered as invasive plants because they have a high adaptive capacity.

  9. Quality of Opuntia robusta and its use in development of mayonnaise-like product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino-Nicanor, Aurea; Hinojosa-Hernández, Emma Noemí; Juárez-Goiz, José Mayolo Simitrio; Montañez-Soto, José Luis; Ramírez-Ortiz, María Eugenia; González-Cruz, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage as foodstuffs. Solute absorption of Opuntia robusta parenchyma was studied, mucilage was used to develop a mayonnaise-like product as substitute emulsifier alternative to egg yolk and oil substitute. Shelf life of mayonnaise-like product was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that oxalate calcium crystal were present in the Opuntia robusta parenchyma and mucilage with druses morphology; whereas that in the mayonnaise-like product were not observed calcium oxalate crystals, due probably to the product pH is acidic. The heat treatment of parenchyma at 50 °C, 65°Brix, had highest influence on the solute absorption (about 35 %). Results revealed that best mixture was the formulated with 26.79 % oil, 62.50 % mucilage and 10.71 % whey protein. Mucilage was the component showing the highest effect on all textural characteristics of mayonnaise-like product. The storage temperature had highest effect on the textural characteristics of mayonnaise-like product than storage time. With the right combination of mucilage of Opuntia, oil and whey protein, it is possible to develop a low-fat mayonnaise with functional properties similar to those of commercial mayonnaise.

  10. Substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca e uréia em dietas para vacas mestiças em lactação Replacement of soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings in diets for crossbred lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca+uréia sobre o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill e silagem de sorgo, oito vacas mestiças Holandês:Gir (60±30 dias em lactação e 491 kg de PV inicial foram distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 × 4. A mistura raspa de mandioca+uréia substituiu 0, 33, 67 e 100% do farelo de soja nas dietas. Os consumos de matéria seca (expressos em kg/dia, % do PV, g/kg0,75 do PV, MO, PB, EE, FDN e CHOT diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão da raspa de mandioca. As ingestões de FDN (%PV, FDA, CNF e NDT não foram afetadas pelos níveis de raspa de mandioca+uréia nas dietas. A inclusão de raspa de mandioca+uréia influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrita por função quadrática. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigida para 4,0% de gordura e a produção de gordura diminuíram linearmente em 30, 20 e 0,8 g/dia, respectivamente, enquanto o teor de gordura e a eficiência alimentar, em kg de leite corrigido para 4,0% de gordura/kg de MS, não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de substituição do farelo de soja na dieta.This trial was conducted to investigate the replacement of soybean meal with a mixture of urea plus cassava scrapings on nutrient intake, digestibility, and production of crossbred lactating cows fed diets containing forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, sorghum silage, and concentrate. Eight crossbred holstein:zebu cows averaging 60±30 days in milk and initial body weight (BW of 491 kg were randomly assigned to two replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares and were fed diets with increasing levels of urea plus cassava scrapings: 0, 33, 67 or 100%. Replacing soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings linearly decreased the intakes of DM (kg, % BW and g/BW kg0.75, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and TC. However

  11. Substituição do milho pela raspa de mandioca em dietas para vacas primíparas em lactação Replacement of corn with cassava scrapings in diets for primiparous lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de níveis de substituição do milho moído pela raspa de mandioca no desempenho dos animais, no consumo e na digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill e silagem de sorgo, cinco vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa (60±15 dias em lactação e 448 kg de PV inicial foram distribuídas em um único quadrado latino (5 x 5. A raspa de mandioca substituiu 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% do milho moído nas dietas. Os consumos e a digestibilidade de MS (em kg/dia, % do PV, g/kg0,75 do PV, MO, PB, EE, CNF, CHOT, FDA, FDN e NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de raspa de mandioca nas dietas. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura e a produção de gordura decresceram linearmente em 20, 30 e 1,15 g/dia, respectivamente. A eficiência alimentar (kg de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura/kg de MS diminuiu linearmente em 0,001 para cada unidade de inclusão da raspa de mandioca, enquanto o teor de gordura não foi influenciado pelos níveis de substituição do milho moído nas dietas.This study was conducted to evaluate replacement of ground corn grain with cassava scrapings on nutrient intake, digestibility, and production of primiparous Holstein lactating dairy cows receivind diets containing forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, sorghum silage and concentrate. Five cows averaging 60±15 of days in milk and initial body weight (BW of 448 kg were randomly assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square with increasing levels of cassava scrapings in the diet: 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. Intakes of dry matter (DM (kg, %BW and g/BW kg0.75, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, nonfiber carbohidrates (NFC, total carbohydrates (TCHO, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and total digestible nutrients (TDN all were not affected by replacing ground corn with cassava scrapings in the diet. Similarly

  12. Silagem de maniçoba associada a fontes energéticas na alimentação de caprinos: consumo e digestibilidade = Manioc silage associated with energy sources on feeding goats: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Thomaz Medina

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade de nutrientes em caprinosconfinados, que recebem dietas com 54% de silagem de maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax. Et. K. Hoffman e 46% de concentrados energéticos: grão de milho moído (Zea mays (T1; raspa de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriquecida com 1,8% de ureia (T2 efarelo de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica enriquecido com 1,1% de ureia (T3. Foram utilizados 15 caprinos SRD, inteiros, com peso vivo de 21,0 kg e distribuídos em blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os maiores consumos observadosforam para os tratamentos T3 e T1, respectivamente, com valores para MS de 96,92 e 67,26 g kg-0,75 dia-1; PB 157,72 e 78,54 g dia-1 e NDT 593,29 e 515,35 g dia-1 e para dieta composta de silagem de maniçoba com raspa de mandioca que apresentou menores ingestões com valores para MS de 52,78 g kg-0,75 dia-1 e NDT 347,10 g dia-1. As igestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram de 70,74; 54,66 e 58,08; 59,58; 58,75 e 47,04; 62,49; 64,24; 51,60%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos T1, T2 e T3. Os resultados obtidos para o consumo e para a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes revelam bom potencial para a combinação da silagem de maniçoba a fontes energéticas disponíveis regionalmente.In order to evaluate the diet combination of manioc silage withdifferent energy sources, intake and apparent digestibility were determined in feedlot goats. The diets consisted of 54% manioc silage and 46% energy concentrates: corn meal (Zea mays (T1, cassava meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriched with 1.8% urea (T2, and cactus meal (Opuntia ficus indica, enriched with 1.1% of urea (T3. Fifteen male goats were mixed-breed, initially weighting 21.0 kg, distributed in randomized blocks with three treatments and five repetitions. The greatest intake were observed for the treatments T3 and T1, with values for DM of 96.92 and 67.26 g kg-0, 75 day-1; CP 157.72 and 78.54 g day-1 and TDN 593

  13. Silagem de maniçoba associada a fontes energéticas na alimentação de caprinos: consumo e digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.5228 Manioc silage associated with energy sources on feeding goats: intake and digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.5228

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Soares Cruz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade de nutrientes em caprinos confinados, que recebem dietas com 54% de silagem de maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii Pax. Et. K. Hoffman e 46% de concentrados energéticos: grão de milho moído (Zea mays (T1; raspa de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriquecida com 1,8% de ureia (T2 e farelo de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica enriquecido com 1,1% de ureia (T3. Foram utilizados 15 caprinos SRD, inteiros, com peso vivo de 21,0 kg e distribuídos em blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os maiores consumos observados foram para os tratamentos T3 e T1, respectivamente, com valores para MS de 96,92 e 67,26 g kg-0,75 dia-1; PB 157,72 e 78,54 g dia-1 e NDT 593,29 e 515,35 g dia-1 e para dieta composta de silagem de maniçoba com raspa de mandioca que apresentou menores ingestões com valores para MS de 52,78 g kg-0,75 dia-1 e NDT 347,10 g dia-1. As digestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram de 70,74; 54,66 e 58,08; 59,58; 58,75 e 47,04; 62,49; 64,24; 51,60%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos T1, T2 e T3. Os resultados obtidos para o consumo e para a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes revelam bom potencial para a combinação da silagem de maniçoba a fontes energéticas disponíveis regionalmente.In order to evaluate the diet combination of manioc silage with different energy sources, intake and apparent digestibility were determined in feedlot goats. The diets consisted of 54% manioc silage and 46% energy concentrates: corn meal (Zea mays (T1, cassava meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriched with 1.8% urea (T2, and cactus meal (Opuntia ficus indica, enriched with 1.1% of urea (T3. Fifteen male goats were mixed-breed, initially weighting 21.0 kg, distributed in randomized blocks with three treatments and five repetitions. The greatest intake were observed for the treatments T3 and T1, with values for DM of 96.92 and 67.26 g kg-0, 75 days-1; CP 157.72 and 78.54 g day-1 and

  14. Development and Characterization of 10 Microsatellite Loci in the Giant Cardon Cactus, Pachycereus pringlei (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Gutiérrez Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the cardon, a giant columnar cactus (Pachycereus pringlei of the Sonoran Desert, to investigate intraspecific genetic patterns of diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Using 454 GS-FLX technology and bioinformatics tools, microsatellite primers were successfully identified on 282 reads, including di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotides. A set of 10 primers were characterized on 80 individuals collected in two areas of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. All 10 loci were polymorphic, with a mean of 6.3 alleles per locus and overall levels of observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.41 to 0.59 and from 0.40 to 0.57, respectively. Alleles per individual plant ranged from one to four, suggesting a polyploidal genome. Conclusions: These loci should be useful for future investigations of population structure, genetic diversity, and gene flow in the cardon cactus.

  15. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Juliana Paula Felipe; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Alves, Adryanne Marjorie Souza Vitor; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira; de Andrade, Ida Barbosa; Urbano, Stela Antas; Suassuna, Juraci Marcos Alves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Barros Melo, Tobias Tobit

    2018-04-01

    Fresh sugarcane has been a new roughage source for ruminant's in semiarid regions, a function of the decline of sugar and alcohol industry in recent years. However, there is little data published regarding lambs fed sugarcane associated with spineless cactus. This study evaluated the effect of sugarcane replacement with spineless cactus (0%, 33%, 66%, and 100%) in the diet of Santa Inês lambs on carcass characteristics. Thirty-six non-castrated Santa Ines lambs at four months of age and an initial body weight of 22±2.3 kg were assigned in a randomized block design and slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. The effects of spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield, leg tissue composition, and carcass measurements were studied. The study revealed quadratic behavior in slaughter body weight, and hot and cold carcass weight, with maximum values of 38.60, 18.60, and 18.11 kg and replacement levels of 40.18%, 44.42%, and 43.14%, respectively. The cold carcass yield presented an increasing linear behavior. The compactness index of carcass and leg presented a quadratic effect, with estimated maximal values of 0.28 and 0.57 kg/cm and replacement levels of 43.37% and 45.5%, respectively. The weights of commercial cuts of leg, loin, shoulder, and breast showed quadratic behavior, with maximum values of 2.79, 0.852, 1.46, and 1.30 kg and replacement levels of 49.5, 45.32, 39.0, and 40.7, respectively. For tissue composition, quadratic behavior was verified for leg weight, subcutaneous fat, and total fat. The replacement of sugarcane by spineless cactus at level 44% is recommended for finishing lambs considering that this level improved most of the carcass characteristics, weights, and yields of commercial cuts and leg tissue composition.

  16. A user's guide to the WIMS-E module W-CACTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1983-11-01

    CACTUS is a code that solves the multigroup neutron transport equations using a characteristics method. This is a numerical approach in which the differential form of the Boltzmann equation is integrated along explicit tracks through the geometry and the neutron flux is obtained by a summation of the contributions made by a selected sample of such tracks. This report describes the theory very briefly, and concentrates on providing the information required to use the program. (author)

  17. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Unusual presentation of cactus spines in the flank of an elderly man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Splinters and spines of plant matter are common foreign bodies in skin wounds of the extremities, and often present embedded in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Vegetative foreign bodies are highly inflammatory and, if not completely removed, can cause infection, toxic reactions, or granuloma formation. Older patients are at increased risk for infection from untreated plant foreign bodies. The most common error in plant splinter and spine management is failure to detect their presence. Case presentation Here we report a case of cactus spines in an 84-year-old Caucasian man presenting on the right flank as multiple, red papules with spiny extensions. This presentation was unusual both in location and the spinous character of the lesions, and only after punch biopsy analysis was a diagnosis of cactus matter spines made. Conclusions Our patient presented with an unusual case of cactus spines that required histopathology for identification. Skin lesions with neglected foreign bodies are a common cause of malpractice claims. If not removed, foreign bodies of the skin, particularly in elderly individuals, can result in inflammatory and infectious sequela. This report underscores the importance of thoroughly evaluating penetrating skin lesions for the presence of foreign bodies, such as splinters and spines.

  19. Bacteria associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae larvae and their cactus host Isolatocereus dumortieri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Martínez-Falcón

    Full Text Available We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri. We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31,079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity.

  20. Reproducción de cochinilla silvestre Dactylopius opuntiae (Homóptera: Dactylopiidae Reproduction of wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae (Homoptera: Dactylopiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Flores-Hernández

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Por sus características, la cochinilla silvestre ofrece perspectivas de aprovechamiento como fuente de carmín y para el mejoramiento genético de la grana fina. Por lo anterior, se estableció una multiplicación y crianza de cochinilla silvestre, proveniente de la zona árida del norte de México para caracterizarla, utilizando como hospedero a Opuntia megacantha Salm Dyck. Los resultados indican que la especie silvestre pertenece al género-especie Dactylopius opuntia. Se determinó la presencia de partenogénesis en hembras. La duración de los estadios biológicos depende del sexo del insecto; el adulto hembra permaneció durante 38.4 días y 4.2 días para machos, los primeros estadios ninfales fueron similares en duración (18.1-19.8 días. El ciclo biológico de las hembras fue de 77 días mientras que el de los machos fue de 43 días. Para las hembras se estimó un periodo de preoviposición de 18.8 días, manteniéndose en oviposición durante 21 días con un promedio de 131 insectos por hembra. La proporción sexual hembras: machos fue 1:1. El tipo de reproducción fue predominantemente sexual, aunque hubo hembras partenogénicas. Este es el primer reporte de Dactylopius opuntiae como cochinilla silvestre asociada a la zona árida del noreste de México, específicamente en el Bolsón de Mapimí, Durango, México.Wild cochineal has characteristics that offer advantage as a source of carmine and for fine cochineal improvement. To characterize wild cochineal, we initiated a breeding effort raising wild cochineal from the arid zone of the north oh Mexico, using as a host organism Opuntia megacantha Salm dick. The results indicate that the wild specie is Dactylopius opuntiae. The presence of parthenogenesis in females was determined. The duration of ontogenetic stages depends on the sex of the insect. The adult female lasted 38.4 days and 4.2 days for males, the first stage nymphs were similar in duration (18-19.8 days. The complete

  1. Invasive alien woody plants of the northern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 31% (90/286 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 23 species of which the most prominent invaders were Prosopis spp. The most prominent remaining species were: Opuntia ficus-indica, Nicotiana glauca and Melia azedarach. The greatest abundance and diversity of alien invader plants were recorded near human settlements. More than half of the total recorded species have invaded perennial riverbanks. The episodic Molopo and Kuruman Rivers have been invaded almost exclusively by  Prosopis spp., which in places have formed extensive stands.

  2. Vibrational properties of gold nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Bueno, L. Oscar Neira; Britto Hurtado, R.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Serrano-Corrales, Luis Ivan; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles through an ecological method to obtain nanostructures from the extract of the plant Opuntia ficus-indica. Colloidal nanoparticles show sizes that vary between 10-20 nm, and present various geometric morphologies. The samples were characterized through optical absorption, Raman Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Additionally, low energy metallic clusters of Aun (n=2-20 atoms) were modeled by computational quantum chemistry. The theoretical results were obtained with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The predicted results of Au clusters show a tendency and are correlated with the experimental results concerning the optical absorption bands and Raman spectroscopy in gold nanoparticles.

  3. Exotic woody plant invaders of the Transvaal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance o ;f exotic, woody plant invaders were recorded in 60% of the quarter degree squares in the study area. Sixty-one invaders were encountered o f which the most important and aggressive were Acacia dealbaia, Populus spp.,  Melia azedarach, Opuntia ficus-indica, Salix babylonica and  Acacia mearnsii. Invasion patterns are discussed and an attempt is made to correlate distribution with environmental factors. Attention is drawn to the areas of greatest invasion and the areas that are liable to show the greatest expansion in the future.

  4. Aplicación de películas comestibles a base de quitosano y mucílago de nopal en fresa (Fragaria ananassa) almacenada en refrigeración

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Hernández, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar un estudio para evaluar la aplicación de películas comestibles a base de quitosano y mucílago de nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) en la calidad de fresas (Fragaria ananassa) variedad "Festival", almacenadas en recipientes plásticos, listas para consumir y almacenadas en refrigeración. La primera etapa del estudio consistió en estandarizar una técnica para la extracción de mucílago de nopal. Se evaluaron varias técnicas reportadas...

  5. (Figueira da Índia)

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Susana Cristina da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas As plantas medicinais são usadas desde a antiguidade, pelas civilizações primitivas, no combate às enfermidades. Actualmente, a fitoterapia está cada vez mais sustentada por requisitos de eficácia, segurança e qualidade, sendo as plantas medicinais bastante procuradas como recurso terapêutico (Cunha, Silva e Roque, 2003). A Opuntia ficus indica é uma pl...

  6. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  7. A novel function for the IκB inhibitor Cactus in promoting Dorsal nuclear localization and activity in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Maira Arruda; Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Araujo, Helena Marcolla

    2017-08-15

    The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo, Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here, we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and on Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss- and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently with respect to Cactus fluctuations. In lateral and dorsal embryo domains, loss of Cactus allows more Dorsal to translocate to the nucleus. Unexpectedly, cactus loss-of-function alleles decrease Dorsal nuclear localization ventrally, where Toll signals are high. Overexpression analysis suggests that this ability of Cactus to enhance Toll stems from the mobilization of a free Cactus pool induced by the Calpain A protease. These results indicate that Cactus acts to bolster Dorsal activation, in addition to its role as a NFκB inhibitor, ensuring a correct response to Toll signals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Uebelhack, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667.

  9. Seasonal resource value and male size influence male aggressive interactions in the leaf footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Zachary J; Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W

    2017-05-01

    In animal contests, resource value (the quality of a given resource) and resource holding potential (a male's absolute fighting ability) are two important factors determining the level of engagement and outcome of contests. Few studies have tested these factors simultaneously. Here, we investigated whether natural, seasonal differences in cactus phenology (fruit quality) influence interactions between males in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). We also considered whether males were more likely to interact when they were similar in size, as predicted by theory. Finally, we examined if male size relative to the size of an opponent predicted competitive success. We found that males have more interactions on cactus with high value ripe fruit, as we predicted. Further, we found that males that were closer in size were more likely to interact, and larger males were more likely to become dominant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential larval settlement responses of Porites astreoides and Acropora palmata in the presence of the green alga Halimeda opuntia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K.; Sneed, J. M.; Paul, V. J.

    2016-06-01

    Settlement is critical to maintaining coral cover on reefs, yet interspecific responses of coral planulae to common benthic macroalgae are not well characterized. Larval survival and settlement of two Caribbean reef-building corals, the broadcast-spawner Acropora palmata and the planulae-brooder Porites astreoides, were quantified following exposure to plastic algae controls and the green macroalga Halimeda opuntia. Survival and settlement rates were not significantly affected by the presence of H. opuntia in either species. However, ~10 % of P. astreoides larvae settled on the surface of the macroalga, whereas larvae of A. palmata did not. It is unlikely that corals that settle on macroalgae will survive post-settlement; therefore, H. opuntia may reduce the number of P. astreoides and other non-discriminatory larvae that survive to adulthood. Our results suggest that the presence of macroalgae on impacted reefs can have unexpected repercussions for coral recruitment and highlight discrepancies in settlement specificity between corals with distinct life history strategies.

  11. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugarcane-based diets for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela da Conceição

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% in sugar cane-based diets on the intake of nutrients, feeding behavior, and rumen digestibility of steers was assessed using digested samples collected from the omasum. Five crossbred steers (1/2 Holstein-Zebu were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and then assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Samples of omasal digesta were collected for three days. Rumen was evacuated via the rumen cannula to determine the rumen pool of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, indigestible NDF (iNDF, intake (ki, passage (kp and degradation (NDF rates, and the passage of iNDF (kpi. Nutrient intake displayed a quadratic effect, with maximum intakes of DM (5.73 kg d−1, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, 4.63 kg d−1, and digestible organic matter (DOM, 3.45 kg d−1 estimated at the replacement levels of 54.63, 60.00, and 43.17%, respectively. The replacement levels showed no effect on feeding, rumination, or idle times. There was a linear increase in the total apparent and ruminal digestibility of CP as the spineless cactus content in the diet was increased. There was no effect on total and partial digestibilities of OM and NDF or on intestinal digestibility of CP. No effect was observed on the rumen pool of DM, NDF, or iNDF. Furthermore, ki, kp, NDF degradation, and iNDF passage rates displayed a quadratic effect, with higher concentrations estimated for replacement levels of 56.07, 56.12, 59.00, and 55.20%, respectively. Replacing 55% wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugar cane-based diets is recommended.

  12. Bleogens: Cactus-Derived Anti-Candida Cysteine-Rich Peptides with Three Different Precursor Arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shining Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs play important host-defense roles in plants. However, information concerning CRPs in the Cactaceae (cactus family is limited, with only a single cactus-derived CRP described to date. Here, we report the identification of 15 novel CRPs with three different precursor architectures, bleogens pB1-15 from Pereskia bleo of the Cactaceae family. By combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we showed that the prototype, bleogen pB1, contained 36 amino acid residues, a six-cysteine motif typical of the six-cysteine-hevein-like peptide (6C-HLP family, and a type I two-domain precursor consisting of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER and a mature domain. In contrast, the precursors of the other 14 bleogens contained a type II three-domain architecture with a propeptide domain inserted between the ER and the mature bleogen domain. Four of these 14 bleogens display a third type of architecture with a tandemly repeating bleogen domain. A search of the Onekp database revealed that <1% plant species possess three different precursor architectures for the biosynthesis of 6C-HLPs, including Lophophora williamsii, Pereskia aculeate, Portulaca cryptopetala, Portulaca oleracea, Portulaca suffruticosa, and Talinum sp. NMR analysis confirmed that bleogen pB1 has cystine-knot disulfide connectivity as well as a two-beta-sheet and a four-loop structural fold that is similar to other 6C-HLPs. Sequence analysis, structural studies, and in silico modeling revealed that bleogen pB1 has a cation-polar-cation motif, a signature heparin-binding motif that was confirmed by heparin affinity chromatography. Cell-based assays showed that bleogen pB1 is non-toxic to mammalian cells but functions as an anti-Candida peptide. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the occurrence, functions and precursor architectures of CRPs in the cactus family.

  13. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina VERGARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%, also containing polyphenols and antioxidant activity, whereas the retained fractions were high in mucilage. The best separation was obtained using the ceramic membrane.

  14. Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

    2002-08-01

    Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

  15. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  16. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. Markow

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones. For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation.

  18. Factors affecting establishment success of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-06-01

    Early plant stages may be the most vulnerable within the life cycle of plants especially in arid ecosystems. Interference from exotic species may exacerbate this condition. We evaluated germination, seedling survival and growth in the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis, as a function of sunlight exposure (i.e., growing under open and shaded areas), different shade providers (i.e., growing under two native shrubs and one exotic grass species), two levels of predation (i.e., exclusion and non-exclusion) and variable microenvironmental conditions (i.e., temperature, PAR, humidity). Field experiments demonstrated that suitable conditions for germination and establishment of H. portoricensis seedling are optimal in shaded areas beneath the canopy of established species, but experiments also demonstrated that the identity of the shade provider can have a significant influence on the outcome of these processes. Harrisia portoricensis seedlings had higher probabilities of survival and grew better (i.e., larger diameters) when they were transplanted beneath the canopy of native shrubs, than beneath the exotic grass species, where temperature and solar radiation values were on average much higher than those obtained under the canopies of native shrubs. We also detected that exclusion from potential predators did not increase seedling survival. Our combined results for H. portoricensis suggested that the modification of microenvironmental conditions by the exotic grass may lower the probability of recruitment and establishment of this endangered cactus species.

  19. ESTUDIO DE LA ADSORCION DE CROMO HEXAVALENTE COMO BIOMATERIAL LA ECTODERMIS DE OPUNTIA

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Campos Medina

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta el fenómeno de adsorción química como una opción viable en el tratamiento de aguas residuales que contiene disueltos iones metálicos, específicamente se aborda el estudio del Cromo Hexavalente, el cual se puso en contacto con el biomaterial de Ectodermis de Opuntia. Dicho biomaterial se puso en contacto con soluciones de dicho elemento solo y formando un complejo coloreado con la difenilcarbazida (DFC), esto con la finalidad de estudiar el comportamiento de la ads...

  20. Pollination of pima pineapple cactus (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina): does pollen flow limit abundance of this endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. McDonald; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Pima pineapple cactus (PPC) (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina), a federally listed endangered species, occurs throughout southeastern Arizona and has relatively low population densities. To determine whether pollination limits reproduction of PPC we used florescent dye to quantify pollen flow between individuals in a PPC...

  1. Bezerromycetales and Wiesneriomycetales ord. nov. (class Dothideomycetes), with two novel genera to accommodate endophytic fungi from Brazilian cactus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezerra, Jadson D. P.; Oliveira, Rafael J. V.; Paiva, Laura M.; Silva, Gladstone A.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.; Souza-Motta, Cristina M.

    During a survey of endophytic fungi from the cactus Tacinga inamoena in a Brazilian tropical dry forest (Caatinga) some undescribed ascomycetous fungi were isolated. These fungi are characterized by superficial and immersed, globose to subglobose, smooth or hairy ascomata, bitunicate asci, and

  2. Chapter 2: A historical perspective on the population decline of the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Roy Johnson; Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Lois T. Haight; Russell B. Duncan; Kenneth J. Kingsley

    2000-01-01

    The cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) was discovered in the U.S. by Bendire in 1872 in the Tucson area (Coues 1872). During the next five decades, naturalists collected many specimens of this owl and typically described the subspecies as common or fairly common along some streams and rivers of central and southern Arizona...

  3. 9561 nutritional quality, phytochemical composition and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    conditions and have low water exigency and a high water-use efficiency ratio, which ... skin and pulp colour, pulp texture, sugar content, and juice acidity of cactus ..... methods for preservation of Opuntia cactus fruit syrup: Empowerment of.

  4. Sulphated galactopyran derived from Gracilaria opuntia, a marine macroalgae restores the antioxidant metabolic enzymes during STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rayapu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the effect of sulphated galactopyran fraction isolated from Gracilaria opuntia (G. opuntia (FM4 in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant assays of FM4 were estimated by DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl free radical and Nitric oxide free radical activities. FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FTIR as sulphated galactopyran. Diabetes was induced intraperitonially by single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight. FM4 was administrated orally (80, 100, 125 mg/kg BW to diabetic rats for 60 days. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, lipid peroxidase (LPx, glutathione reduced (GSH, vitamin-C (VIT-C and vitamin-E (VIT-E levels were estimated. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. Results: Our results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of G. opuntia possess free radical scavenging activity. During FM4 fraction treatment (100 mg/kg BW, the SOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GSH, VIT-C and VIT-E levels were significantly (P < 0.05 increased, and the LPx levels were decreased in different organs such as liver, kidney, brain and pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: The sulphated galactopyran fraction of the marine macroalgae (G. opuntia possesses the antioxidant activity which might help in the prevention of oxidative damage that occurs during diabetes.

  5. Response of Opuntia stricta Haw micropropagated plants in acclimatization and field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Medeiros de Araújo Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forage palm (Opuntia stricta Haw. is a great important crop for the semi-arid region of Brasil. It has been propagated through in vitro culture, by areole activation. This work aimed to determine the response of Opuntia stricta Haw. variety ‘Oreja de Elefante Mexicana’ micropropagated plants during its acclimatization and field planting. Plants were acclimatized in tubes and plastic bags with a mixture of soil and manure, and it were kept in greenhouse for 130 days. Later, the plants kept in tubes were divided into nine treatments, according to their size (between 6 to 14 cm, and transfer to the field. The use of tubes provided a higher survival, height, fresh and dry mass of the cladodes. There was no significant differences between the recipients used for root development. At the end of acclimatization it was observed that plants did not have a uniform development, presenting size variation. After the first 15 days in the field, the majority of the plants with primary shoots were larger than 10 cm. At 60 days the survival was 100%, and all plants presented shoots, even the smallest. However, is recommended that plants larger than 10 cm will be used, due to the better establishment to field conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility in the use of micropropagated plants for the establishment of forage palm fields. Keywords: cladodes, forage palm, in vitro culture, semi-arid region

  6. Towards Drylands Biorefineries: Valorisation of Forage Opuntia for the Production of Edible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Iris Nájera-García

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Opuntia may be a well-suited feedstock for biorefineries located in drylands, where biomass is scarcer than in humid or temperate regions. This plant has numerous uses in Mexico and Central America, and its mucilage is a specialty material with many promising applications. We extracted the mucilage from a forage species, O. heliabravoana Scheinvar, and mixed it with a thermoplastic starch to produce an edible coating. The coating was applied to blackberries, which were then evaluated in terms of several physicochemical and microbiological variables. During a 10-day evaluation period, the physicochemical variables measured in the coated fruits were not significantly different from those of the control group. However, the microbiological load of the coated fruits was significantly lower than that of the uncoated fruits, which was attributed to a decreased water activity under the edible coating. Multivariate analysis of the physicochemical and microbial variables indicated that the storage time negatively affected the weight and size of the coated and uncoated blackberries. Although some sensory attributes have yet to be optimised, our results support the use of the mucilage of forage Opuntia for the formation of edible coatings, as well as their valorisation through a biorefinery approach.

  7. Extracción y caracterización química y reológica de hidrocoloide de opuntia spinulifera con perspectivas de aditivo en la industria de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Rodríguez, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    The hydrocolloid at cladodes of Opuntia, is a molecule of secondary metabolism, it´s little known about their physical and chemical properties. The study developed in this work contributes to reassess the genus Opuntia (prickly pear) as a source for obtaining from additive at the food industry. In this work were established a methodology of extraction, which involved the optimization of several parameters of the raw material stage to extract. The Opuntia spinulifera was selected due to their ...

  8. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baydoun, S; Al-Oudat, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Al-Achkar, W [Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology and Health, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1996-09-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Achkar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  11. FRUIT FLIES AND THEIR PARASITOIDS IN THE FRUIT GROWING REGION OF LIVRAMENTO DE NOSSA SENHORA, BAHIA, WITH RECORDS OF UNPRECEDENTED INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUZANY AGUIAR LEITE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae assume the status of primary pests in fruit trees grown in Brazil, causing direct production losses. The aims of the study were to know aspects of diversity of fruit flies and their parasitoids in the fruit growing region of Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia. Fruit samples were collected from 19 plant species during November/2011 and June/2014. Infestation rates were calculated in pupae.kg-1 of fruit and pupae.fruit-1. The results indicate the occurrence of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann and Neosilba pendula (Bezzi. Plant species Anacardium occidentale, Averrhoa carambola, Carica papaya, Eugenia uniflora, Malpighia emarginata, Mangifera indica var. “Haden”, “Rosa” and “Tommy Atkins”, Opuntia ficus indica, Pereskia bahiensis, Psidium guajava, Spondias lutea, Spondias purpurea and Spondias tuberosa are hosts of fruit flies in the region. Unprecedented bitrophic relationships between P. bahiensis and C. capitata and Anastrepha sp. and between Opuntia ficus indica and C. capitata and A. obliqua were recorded. Unprecedented tritrophic relationship for the state of Bahia Averrhoa carambola and C. capitata and parasitoid of the Pteromalidae Family were also recorded. Tritrophic associations between M. indica var. “Tommy Atkins” and S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Doryctobracon areolatus; and between S. purpurea and A. obliqua and Utetes anastrephae were observed.

  12. La Historia de una especie del patrimonio holguinero: Escobaria cubensis (Cactaceae "el cactus enano". Primera parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Reyes Fornet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presenta una investigación sobre la historia taxonómica y estudios sobre la ecología del "cactus enano de Holguín", Escobaria cubensis (Britton & Rose Hunt, 1978 desde 1909 hasta 1990, elementos importantes, para la conservación y como contribución al conocimiento de la historia del patrimonio natural holguinero, con datos históricos sobre visitas de personalidades del mundo y Holguín. Se estudiaron 37 materiales correspondientes a notas de viajes, cartas y publicaciones. Se señala la posibilidad de que el colector, J. Shafer estuvo en dos zonas de distribución. Las contribuciones al conocimiento de su ecología hasta 1990 se basaron en la observación y descripción.

  13. CACTUS, a characteristics solution to the neutron transport equations in complicated geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    CACTUS has been written to solve the multigroup neutron transport equation in a general two-dimensional geometry. The method is based upon a characteristics formulation for the problem in which the transport equation is integrated explicitly along straight line tracks that are suitably distributed throughout the problem. Source distributions and scattering are assumed to be isotropic, but the only restriction on geometry is that the outer boundary should be rectangular. Within this rectangular boundary the user is free to build his problem geometry using any combination of intersecting straight lines and circular arcs. The theory of the method is described, followed by some details of a coding, a sensitivity study on the number of tracks required to integrate fluxes in a particular problem, a user's guide, and a few test cases. (author)

  14. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  15. Development of microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing for the columnar cactus Echinopsis chiloensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Carmen G; Larridon, Isabel; Peralta, Gioconda; Asselman, Pieter; Pérez, Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microsatellite markers as a tool to study population structure, genetic diversity and effective population size of Echinopsis chiloensis, an endemic cactus from arid and semiarid regions of Central Chile. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for E. chiloensis using next-generation sequencing and tested them in 60 individuals from six sites, covering all the latitudinal range of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 8, while the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity ranged from 0.0 to 0.80 and from 0.10 to 0.76, respectively. We also detected significant differences between sites, with F ST values ranging from 0.05 to 0.29. Microsatellite markers will enable us to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of E. chiloensis in future ecological and phylogeographic studies.

  16. Vivipary and offspring survival in the epiphytic cactus Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota-Sánchez, J Hugo; Abreu, Deusa D

    2007-01-01

    Vivipary, the germination of seeds before they are shed from the parent plant, is a rare event in angiosperms involving complex ecophysiological processes. Pseudovivipary and cryptovivipary occur in approximately 30 (2%) species of the cactus family. A remarkable case of vivipary in Epiphyllum phyllanthus is described here. Information is provided regarding the biology of viviparous fruits, morphology, mortality, survival rates of viviparous offspring, and some eco-evolutionary implications of this reproductive strategy in the Cactaceae. This epiphytic cactus has no host-specific relationship. A low proportion (33.3%) of individuals produced viviparous fruits. Seed number/fruit varied from 197 to 230 with percentage of viviparous germination from 97.5% to 99%. The viviparous seedlings exhibited normal development and were no different from non-viviparous offspring. Transplanting experiments showed that the first week is critical for seedling establishment, and high mortality occurred in the three treatments used: 69% on the phorophyte surface, 58.6% on the ground, and 44.8% under controlled conditions. The number of survivors gradually stabilized, and the contribution to establishment was comparable in each of the treatments after the acclimation phase. It is suggested that vivipary is associated with thermoregulation, parental care, conspecific nursing, and rapid seedling establishment. Germination is not a limiting factor in the perpetuation of this viviparous species, but seedling establishment is. In viviparous individuals of E. phyllanthus, seedling mortality during establishment rather than failure to germinate within the fruit is a limiting factor affecting local population density. Overall, viviparity is an intrinsic, genetic event involving high metabolic costs favouring germination and dispersal of the fittest offspring regardless of substrate and environmental conditions.

  17. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  18. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  19. In vitro rumen fermentation kinetics of diets containing oldman saltbush hay and forage cactus, using a cattle inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.L. Tosto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate, by means of the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, fermentation kinetics of carbohydrates and degradability of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM of diets containing oldman saltbush hay levels (8.4; 18.8; 31.2 and 48.3% associated to forage cactus in natura. Pressure readings of the gases were done with a pressure transducer at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 17, 20, 24, 28, 34, 48, 72 and 96h post-inoculation. The rumen kinetics was described by the following parameters: maximum potential of gas production, lag time and production rates of gas (k, fibrous carbohydrates (FC and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC. It could be observed that the addition of oldman saltbush hay to the diets promoted a quadratic effect in the production of gases originated from NFC. However, there was no significant effect on the production of gases originated from FC and on production rates of gases from NFC and FC. The degradability of DM and OM did not differ due to the addition of oldman saltbush hay. The use of 8.4% hay and 74.9% forage cactus promoted the maximum potential of production of gases from the fibrous fraction of diets containing cactus and oldman saltbush hay.

  20. Physico chemical and microbiological changes in nopal (Opuntia spp.) irradiated with gamma rays of cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez N, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the physico-chemical and microbiological changes which take place in the nopal (Opuntia spp.) after they have been irradiated and stored at environment and refrigeration temperatures in order to determine the level of irradiation dose more adequate for getting them an increase in the storage life, as well as to determine the physico-chemical changes attributed to the irradiation doses used, comparing the obtained results with those ones of non-irradiated nopal samples, which are considered as control samples. The radiation source used was a GAMMABEAM-651 PT, property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute of UNAM. The nopals studied are of the variety (Milpa Alta, Opuntia ficus) which were cut and packed in polyethylene bags with and without nitrogen. In order to find the adequate dose level it was used a lot of 200 samples which were treated in sets of 10. They were irradiated in doses of 0.5 to 10 kGy at a dose reason of 3.7 kGy/h. The adequate doses for getting an increase in the storage life, where there was not darkness were of 1.5 and 2.0 kGy, allowed doses in the NOM-033-SSA1-1993, it was not found any change in acceptability by flavour, but so in the titled activity values and sugars. The lowest loss of weight was found in the 1.5 kGy dose without nitrogen and the highest in the 2.0 kGy with nitrogen dose. Likewise was determined that with the irradiation treatment in the recommended doses it is diminished the microorganisms growth, obtaining an improvement in the general appearance of the nopals during their storage period. (Author)

  1. Optimization of the digestion process of Scenedesmus sp. and Opuntia maxima for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Suárez, Juan Luis; Martínez, Alejandro; Carreras, Nely

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Scenedesmus biomass showed low biodegradability and biogas production. • Methane yield and kinetics of the batch process were improved by co-digestion. • Scenedesmus and Opuntia maxima were successfully co-digested in CSTR. • High biogas yields were obtained and no inhibition by ammonia was observed. - Abstract: Scenedesmus biomass is not an adequate substrate for anaerobic digestion due to its low biodegradability and low biogas yield. This study aims to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of Scenedesmus microalgal biomass and Opuntia maxima cladodes, the latter added in order to improve the digestion process. Batch assays were conducted to evaluate possible synergistic effects in different mixtures of both substrates. Mixture with highest methane yield was digested in semi-continuous mode at different VS concentrations. Feedstock composed of 75% O.maxima and 25% Scenedesmus (VS basis) showed the highest methane yield increasing 66.4% and 63.9% that of Scenedesmus and O.maxima, respectively. In semi-continuous mode, ideal organic loading rate (OLR) with 6%VS feed concentration was 4 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 292 ± 39 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). In the case of 8%VS feed concentration ideal OLR was 5.33 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 308 ± 22 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). The co-digestion of O.maxima and Scenedesmus biomass enhanced the anaerobic digestion process and avoided inhibition caused by low C/N ratio of microalgae

  2. Effects of Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuexin; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Zhiping; Bao, Pengyun; Zhang, Congyao; Ding, Jianfeng

    2014-07-01

    The effects of a diet containing Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on growth and digestive enzyme activity were estimated in juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Groups of sea cucumbers were fed diets containing H. opuntiae C21 at 0 (control), 104, 105, and 106 CFU (colony-forming units)/g feed. Results showed that after 45 d the specific growth rate (SGR) of sea cucumbers fed a C21-supplemented diet at 10 4 CFU/g feed was significantly higher than that of the control ( P sea cucumbers. In addition, after feeding the C21-supplemented diets for 15 d, the sea cucumbers were switched to an unsupplemented diet and C21 was confirmed to be capable of colonizing the intestine for at least 31 d after cessation of feeding. In conclusion, C21 was shown to successfully colonize the intestine of juvenile A. japonicus via dietary supplementation, and improve growth and digestive enzyme activity.

  3. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1 the nature and heritage of cacti; 2 cultural heritage; and 3 the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tlalnepantla in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This community has experienced accelerated change due to the exchange of traditional crops for the prickly pear cactus and the integration of farming, commercialization and agro-transformation. Our hypothesis is that the market, internal conflicts and a lack of socio-institutional coordination have put social organization into crisis, favoring the territorial spread of the prickly pear cactus and making the Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS of Tlalnepantla less competitive. The conclusions highlight important economic and social advances whose roots lie in the strengthening and anchorage of the territory-product. However, circumstances both internal and external to the community persist, such as intra-community conflicts, the international market and cultural paradigm shifts that affect the producers and put consolidation of the LAFS at risk.El nopal es un alimento con un fuerte anclaje bio-cultural en México, propiciado por al menos tres factores: 1 la naturaleza y el patrimonio de cactáceas; 2 el patrimonio cultural; y, 3 las relaciones socio-culturales que han permitido un “saber hacer” y un “saber utilizar” con raíces históricas y simbólicas. El objetivo es situar los factores de anclaje territorial y su transformación histórica tomando como caso el municipio de Tlalnepantla, en el estado de Morelos, México. Esta comunidad ha experimentado un acelerado cambio por la reconversión de los cultivos

  4. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  5. Ecophysiological and Anatomical Mechanisms behind the Nurse Effect: Which Are More Important? A Multivariate Approach for Cactus Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Yáñez-Espinosa, Laura; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Flores, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background Cacti establish mostly occurs under the canopy of nurse plants which provide a less stressful micro-environment, although mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. The impact of the combination of light and watering treatments on Opuntia streptacantha (Cactaceae) seedlings was examined. Methods/Principal Findings Ecophysiological [titratable acidity, osmotic potential (‘solute potential’, Ψs), relative growth rate (RGR) and their components (NAR, SLA, and LWR)], anatomical (chloroplast density, chloroplast frequency, and cell area), and environmental [photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and air temperature] sets of variables were analyzed, assessing relationships between them and measuring the intensity of the relationships. Three harvests were carried out at days 15, 30, and 45. Ψs and acidity content were the most important responses for seedling establishment. The main anatomical and environmental variables were chloroplast density and water availability, respectively. Opuntia streptacantha seedlings establish better in the shade-watering treatment, due to higher Ψs and acidity, unaffected chloroplasts, and lower PPFD. In addition, the chloroplasts of cells under high-light and non-watering treatment were clumped closer to the center of the cytosol than those under shade-drought, to avoid photoinhibition and/or to better distribute or utilize the penetrating light in the green plant tissue. Conclusions Opuntia seedlings grow better under the shade, although they can tolerate drought in open spaces by increasing and moving chloroplasts and avoiding drastic decreases in their Ψs. This tolerance could have important implications for predicting the impact of climate change on natural desert regeneration, as well as for planning reforestation-afforestation practices, and rural land uses. PMID:24312310

  6. In vitro ruminal fermentation kinetic of diets containing forage cactus with urea and different starch sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann dos Santos Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate fermentation kinetic of diets based on cactus forage enriched with urea and Tifton 85 hay, containing different starch sources, using semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Treatments were disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications, where concentrates were formulated as follows: cassava roots (FSMa, semi flint corn grains (FSMiSD, dent corn grains (FSMiD and wheat bran (FTMa. All diets were formulated to obtain 15% of crude protein. Gas pressure were measured 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after inoculation. For fast phase maximum gas volume (Vf1, both treatments containing corn did not differ (P>0.05. FTMa differed (P<0.05 from diets composed with corn, as main starch source. Specific degradation rate of fast fraction (Kd1 was higher (P<0.05 on FSMa and FTMa diets, compared with corn diets. Colonization time (L showed lower values (P<0.05 for FTMa diet. The lowest total gas production was observed on FTMa and the highest for FSMiD, varying from 225.49 to 268.31 mL/g, respectively. Cassava roots as starch source contributes to a faster fermentation, compared to both corns, allowing a better synchronization with faster degradation nitrogen sources.

  7. Soil water dynamics and evapotranspiration of forage cactus clones under rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thieres George Freire da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate soil water dynamics in areas cultivated with forage cactus clones and to determine how environmental conditions and crop growth affect evapotranspiration. The study was conducted in the municipality of Serra Talhada, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Crop growth was monitored through changes in the cladode area index (CAI and through the soil cover fraction, calculated at the end of the cycle. Real evapotranspiration (ET of the three evaluated clones was obtained as the residual term in the soil water balance method. No difference was observed between soil water balance components, even though the evaluated clones were of different genus and had different CAI increments. Accumulated ET was of 1,173 mm during the 499 days of the experiment, resulting in daily average of 2.35 mm. The CAI increases the water consumption of the Orelha de Elefante Mexicana clone. In dry conditions, the water consumption of the Miúda clone responds more slowly to variation in soil water availability. The lower evolution of the CAI of the IPA Sertânia clone, during the rainy season, leads to a higher contribution of the evaporation component in ET. The atmospheric demand controls the ET of clones only when there is higher soil water availability; in this condition, the water consumption of the Miúda clone decreases more rapidly with the increase of atmospheric demand.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  9. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH).

  10. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  11. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  12. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae ('cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa.

  13. Forensic identification of CITES protected slimming cactus (Hoodia) using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathier, Gerard; van der Niet, Timotheus; Peelen, Tamara; van Vugt, Rogier R; Eurlings, Marcel C M; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Slimming cactus (Hoodia), found only in southwestern Africa, is a well-known herbal product for losing weight. Consequently, Hoodia extracts are sought-after worldwide despite a CITES Appendix II status. The failure to eradicate illegal trade is due to problems with detecting and identifying Hoodia using morphological and chemical characters. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of molecular identification of Hoodia based on DNA barcoding. Screening of nrITS1 and psbA-trnH DNA sequences from 26 accessions of Ceropegieae resulted in successful identification, while conventional chemical profiling using DLI-MS led to inaccurate detection and identification of Hoodia. The presence of Hoodia in herbal products was also successfully established using DNA sequences. A validation procedure of our DNA barcoding protocol demonstrated its robustness to changes in PCR conditions. We conclude that DNA barcoding is an effective tool for Hoodia detection and identification which can contribute to preventing illegal trade. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rare and endangered cactus Uebelmannia pectinifera (Cactaceae) and its congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, E M; Cidade, F W; Silva, G A R; Machado, M C

    2014-12-04

    The cactus genus Uebelmannia includes 3 narrow endemic species associated with rocky savanna habitats in eastern South America. Because of their rarity and illegal over-collection, all of these species are endangered. Taxonomic uncertainties resulting from dramatic local variation in morphology within Uebelmannia species preclude effective conservation efforts, such as the reintroduction or translocation of plants, to restore declining populations. In this study, we developed and characterized 18 perfect, dinucleotide simple-sequence repeat markers for U. pectinifera, the most widely distributed species in the genus, and tested the cross-amplification of these markers in the remaining congeneric species and subspecies. All markers were polymorphic in a sample from 2 U. pectinifera populations. The effective number of alleles ranged from 1.6 to 8.7, with an average per population of 3.3 (SE ± 0.30) and 4.5 (SE ± 0.50). Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.375 to 0.847 and 8-10 loci showed departures from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium in the analyzed populations. Based on the observed polymorphism level of each marker, as well as the analysis of null allele presence and evidence of amplification of duplicate loci, a subset of 12 loci can be used as reliable markers to investigate the genetic structure, diversity, and species limits of the Uebelmannia genus.

  15. Opuntia spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICAP

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... Agricultura, Sociedad y Desarrollo 5 (2), 167-183 (in Spanish). ... In: La Contribución del sector pecuario a la seguridad alimentaria en México. Eds: Chay, A. ... SAS, 2003. Statistical Analysis Software, Version 9.1.3. SAS ...

  16. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Gang; Xu, Guofeng; Xue, Qingrui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Lab of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO{sub 2} exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} (0.2 A g{sup −1}, 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO{sub 2} samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO{sub 2} with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO{sub 2} assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} compared with the MnO{sub 2} without surfactant (134.8 F g{sup −1}). And such MnO{sub 2} samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as

  17. Experimental binding of lead to a low cost on biosorbent: Nopal (Opuntia streptacantha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miretzky, Patricia; Muñoz, Carolina; Carrillo-Chávez, Alejandro

    2008-03-01

    The use of nopal cladodes (Opuntia streptacantha) as raw material for Pb(2+) biosorption was investigated. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Pb(2+) sorption capacity and the efficiency of the sorption process under different pH, initial Pb(2+) and nopal biomass concentrations. The experimental data showed a good fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models. The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb(2+) was 0.14 mmol g(-1) with an efficiency higher than 94% (pH 5.0 and 2.5 g L(-1) nopal biomass). The Pb(2+) kinetics were best described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. The rate constant, the initial sorption rate and the equilibrium sorption capacity were determined. The practical implication of this study is the development of an effective and economic technology in which the nopal biomass did not undergo any chemical or physical pretreatment, which added to nopal abundance in Mexico and its low cost makes it a good option for Pb(2+) removal from contaminated waters.

  18. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar as Biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa Icela; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela Alejandra; Juárez-Santillán, Luis Felipe; Martínez-Ugalde, Ivan; Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the use of a natural adsorbent like nopal (Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar) for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions with low concentrations of this metal. Two treatments were applied to the cladodes: a dehydration to get dehydrated nopal (DHN) and heating up to 90°C to obtain a thermally treated nopal (TN). After examining the effect of various pH values (2-7), the capacity of each biosorbent was examined in batch sorption tests at different dosages (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 mg L(-1)). The results indicated that adsorption of cadmium to biomass of DHN and TN was highly dependent on pH and biosorbent dosage. The best removal of cadmium (53.3%, corresponding to q e of 0.155 mg g(-1)) was obtained at pH 4.0 by using the TN sorbent. Infrared and Raman spectra confirmed that cadmium removal occurred via adsorption to -OH functional groups.

  19. Extraction, stability, and separation of betalains from Opuntia joconostle cv. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gonzalez, Noe; Jaime-Fonseca, Monica R; San Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Zepeda, L Gerardo

    2013-12-11

    Betalains were extracted and analyzed from Opuntia joconostle (the prickly pear known as xoconostle in Mexico). For the extraction, two solvent systems were used, methanol/water and ethanol/water. A three-variable Box-Behnken statistical design was used for extraction: solvent concentration (0-80%, v/v), temperature (5-30 °C), and treatment time (10-30 min). The extraction and stability of betalains from xoconostle were studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Techniques such as UV-vis, column chromatography, and HPLC were employed for the separation and analysis of the main pigments present in the extracts. Maximum pigment concentration (92 mg/100 g of fruit) was obtained at a temperature of 15 °C and a time of 10 min for methanol/water (20:80), whereas maximum stability of the pigment was observed at pH 5 and a temperature of 25 °C. HPLC chromatograms showed the main betalains of the xoconostle characterized were betalain, betanidin, and isobetalain.

  20. Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar as Biosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Icela Beltrán-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the use of a natural adsorbent like nopal (Opuntia albicarpa L. Scheinvar for removing cadmium from aqueous solutions with low concentrations of this metal. Two treatments were applied to the cladodes: a dehydration to get dehydrated nopal (DHN and heating up to 90°C to obtain a thermally treated nopal (TN. After examining the effect of various pH values (2–7, the capacity of each biosorbent was examined in batch sorption tests at different dosages (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 mg L−1. The results indicated that adsorption of cadmi