WorldWideScience

Sample records for cactoblastis cactorum lepidoptera

  1. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  2. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  3. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaspi, Benjamin C; Legaspi, Jesusa Crisostomo

    2010-04-01

    Invasive pests, such as the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), have not reached equilibrium distributions and present unique opportunities to validate models by comparing predicted distributions with eventual realized geographic ranges. A CLIMEX model was developed for C. cactorum. Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX "growth indices" against field measurements of larval growth. Globally, CLIMEX predicted limited potential distribution in North America (from the Caribbean Islands to Florida, Texas, and Mexico), Africa (South Africa and parts of the eastern coast), southern India, parts of Southeast Asia, and the northeastern coast of Australia. Actual records indicate the moth has been found in the Caribbean (Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands), Cuba, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, southern Africa, Kenya, Mexico, and Australia. However, the model did not predict that distribution would extend from India to the west into Pakistan. In the United States, comparison of the predicted and actual distribution patterns suggests that the moth may be close to its predicted northern range along the Atlantic coast. Parts of Texas and most of Mexico may be vulnerable to geographic range expansion of C. cactorum. Larval growth rates in the field were estimated by measuring differences in head capsules and body lengths of larval cohorts at weekly intervals. Growth indices plotted against measures of larval growth rates compared poorly when CLIMEX was run using the default historical weather data. CLIMEX predicted a single period conducive to insect development, in contrast to the three generations observed in the field. Only time and more complete records will tell whether C. cactorum will extend its geographical distribution to regions predicted by the CLIMEX model. In terms

  4. Collectively Facilitated Behavior of the Neonate Caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence D. Fitzgerald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral biology of the first instar larva of Cactoblastis cactorum was studied from the time of eclosion until the colony penetrated and initiated excavation of the host plant. Hatching from an egg stick was asynchronous, requiring 20 h for the entire cohort to eclose at 50%–70% RH and significantly longer at a lower range of RHs. On eclosion, neonates aggregated in an arena at the base of their egg stick and did not attempt to excavate the cladode until an average of 25 caterpillars had collected, approximately 15 h after the onset of egg hatch. Typically only a single entrance hole was formed, limiting the active process of excavating to one or a few individuals at-a-time until the host was fully penetrated and enlarged internally. Olfactometer tests showed that the neonates are strongly attracted to volatile chemicals released when caterpillars chewed into the cladode, accounting for the strong fidelity of the whole cohort to the initial site of penetration. In one instance, the caterpillars were observed to deal with an explosive release of mucilage by imbibing the liquid until the flooded zone was drained and the caterpillars could reenter the plant through the original entrance hole. Once inside the cladode, marked individuals adopted a regular cycle of defecating at the surface at a mean interval of approximately 10 min when followed for 35 successive cycles. Blanket spraying cladodes with a mandibular gland extract prior to hatching led to the independent dispersal of neonates and a failure to form an arena. When the cladode was impenetrable at the site of eclosion, the active cohort of unfed neonates set off together in search of a new site, marking and following a persistent trail that allowed late-to-eclose caterpillars to join their departed siblings. The adaptive significance of these observations is discussed in the context of the life history of the caterpillar.

  5. Predation of Opuntia monacantha (Willd. Haw. (Cactaceae by Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in a sand bank area of Santa Catarina island, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Opuntia is worldwide known for its ecological, ornamental and agronomic importance. Some species became pests in the countries in which they where introduced, and as biological control, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae, originary from Argentina, were used. However, the effect of the attack of this piralid on native cactus has yet not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to detect and to quantify the predation of C. cactorum on Opuntia monacantha. The study was carried out from September to November of 2004, along pre-defined tracks, on a sand bank vegetation area, between the Mole and Galheta beaches in the Santa Catarina island (27º35’83.1’’S e 48º25’70.6’’W. All the studied plants (n = 20 presented some damage caused by C. cactorum. The proportion of unpredated cladodes (68% and fruits (85% was higher than the predated ones. Terminal cladodes were highly predated structures and presented the highest number of larvae inside. Seed loss in the predated fruits was high. The remaining areole of the predated cladodes and fruits differentiated into sprouts and routs and formed new plants. O. monacantha, despite of being predated by C. cactorum larvae, apparently possess defense mechanisms which assure the maintenance of its populations.

  6. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  7. "Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  8. Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  9. The Multiple 'Personalities' of Cactoblastis cactorum: A Multi-Disciplinary Response to the Biological Impacts of the Moth's Geographical Wanderings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus feeding pyralid Cactoblastis cactorum is perhaps the most well know successful classical biological control agent against weeds when attacking non-native prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.). However, the moth has become a pest in North America where it attacks native Opuntia spp.; threat...

  10. Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) use of Opuntia host species in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central aspect in biology and ecology is to determine the combination of factors that influence the distribution of species. In the case of herbivorous insects, the distribution of herbivorous species is necessarily associated with their host plants, a pattern often referred to as “host use”. Nove...

  11. The Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis in Mass Rearing of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verena-Ulrike Lietze; George Schneider; Pannipa Prompiboon; Drion G. Boucias

    2010-01-01

    .... Utilizing a combination of bacteriological, molecular, and chemical methods the causal agent responsible for this die-off was found to be a strain of the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki...

  12. Anoxia-conditioning hormesis alters the relationship between irradiation doses for survival and sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most important components of a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) program is appropriate irradiation dose. Knowing the organismal dose-response enables the selection of a dose that induces the highest level of sterility while preserving the sexual competitiveness and quality of the sterile in...

  13. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive overview of those Lepidopteran invasions to Europe that result from increasing globalisation and also review expansion of species within Europe. A total of 97 non-native Lepidoptera species (about 1% of the known fauna), in 20 families and 11 superfamilies have establis...

  14. Development of a screening method for resistance to Phytophthora cactorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijbroek, van P.C.L.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Lindeloof, van de C.P.J.

    1997-01-01

    In The Netherlands the fungus Phytophthora cactorum, which causes crown rot in strawberry plants, has become a problem. Because of high losses of plants and the difficulty of chemical control, resistant cultivars are wanted. Therefore we wish to develop an efficient, reliable and fast screening

  15. Genetic variation between Phytophthora cactorum isolates differing in their ability to cause crown rot in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikemo, H.; Klemsdal, S.S.; Riisberg, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Stensvand, A.; Tronsmo, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan,

  16. Aggressiveness of Phytophthora cactorum, P. citricola I, and P. plurivora from European Beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola cause bleeding cankers on European beech trees in the northeastern United States. Inoculation experiments were conducted to compare the aggressiveness of P. cactorum and P. citricola isolates on stems, leaf disks, and roots of European beech and common lilac s...

  17. Identification and analysis of Phytophthora cactorum genes up-regulated during cyst germination and strawberry infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoren; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Brurberg, May Bente

    2011-10-01

    The oomycete Phytophthora cactorum can cause economically important diseases on numerous host plants worldwide, such as crown rot on strawberry. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of P. cactorum on strawberry, transcriptional analysis of P. cactorum during strawberry infection and cyst germination was performed by applying suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and effector-specific differential display (ESDD) techniques. Two SSH cDNA libraries were generated, enriched for P. cactorum genes expressed during infection or during cyst germination, respectively, and 137 unique differentially expressed genes were identified. To specifically select RxLR effector genes from P. cactorum, ESDD was performed using RxLR and EER motif-based degenerate primers. Eight RxLR effector candidate genes as well as 67 other genes were identified out of 124 selected fragments. The expression levels of 20 putatively up-regulated genes were further analyzed using real-time RT-PCR, showing that, indeed 19 of these 20 genes were up-regulated during at least one of the studied developmental stages or during strawberry crown invasion, relative to the mycelium. This study provides a first overview of P. cactorum genes that are up-regulated immediately prior to or during strawberry infection and also provides a novel method for selecting RxLR effector genes from the unsequenced genome of P. cactorum.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora cactorum provides insights into infection-related effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Ren; Zhang, Bo-Yue; Xing, Yu-Ping; Li, Qi-Yuan; Li, Yan-Peng; Tong, Yun-Hui; Xu, Jing-You

    2014-11-18

    Phytophthora cactorum, a hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen, can cause destructive diseases on numerous crops worldwide, leading to essential economic losses every year. However, little has been known about its molecular pathogenicity mechanisms. To gain insight into its repertoire of effectors, the P. cactorum transcriptome was investigated using Illumina RNA-seq. We first demonstrated an in vitro inoculation method that can be used to mimic natural cyst germination on host plants. Over 28 million cDNA reads were obtained for five life cycle stages (mycelium, sporangium, zoospore, cyst and germinating cyst) and de novo assembled into 21,662 unique genes. By comparisons with 11 public databases, 88.99% of the unique genes were annotated, including 15,845 mapped to the gene models of the annotated relative Phytophthora infestans. Using TribeMCL, 5,538 gene families conserved across P. cactorum and other three completely sequenced Phytophthora pathogen species were determined. In silico analyses revealed that 620 P. cactorum effector homologues including 94 RXLR effector candidates matched known or putative virulence genes in other oomycetes. About half of the RXLR effector candidates were predicted to share a conserved structure unit, termed the WY-domain fold. A subset of the effector genes were checked and validated by PCR amplification. Transcriptional experiments indicated that effector genes were differentially expressed during the life cycle and host infection stages of P. cactorum. Ectopic expression in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that RXLR, elicitin and NLP effectors can trigger plant cell death. These effectors are highly conserved across oomycete species. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for RXLR effectors were detected in a collection of P. cactorum isolates from different countries and hosts. This study demonstrates the comprehensive sequencing, de novo assembly, and analyses of the transcriptome of P. cactorum life cycle stages. In the absence of genome

  19. Aggressiveness of Phytophthora cactorum and Phytophthora citricola isolates on European Beech and Lilac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoculation experiments were conducted to compare the aggressiveness of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola isolates on European beech and lilac seedlings grown in a greenhouse. The isolates were obtained from bleeding cankers on European beech from five cities (Albany, Ithaca, Oyster Bay, P...

  20. Reprogramming of Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Root Transcriptome in Response to Phytophthora cactorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljamo, Anna; Blande, Daniel; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Kokko, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) causes significant economic losses in strawberry production. The best control strategy would be to use resistant cultivars, but polygenically inherited resistance makes the breeding of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) challenging. The diploid wild strawberry Fragaria vesca Hawaii 4 genotype was shown previously to have resistance against crown rot. To explore the resistance mechanisms, we inoculated the roots of Hawaii 4 with P. cactorum in a novel in vitro hydroponic system to minimize interference caused by other microbes. Major reprogramming of the root transcriptome occurred, involving 30% of the genes. The surveillance system of the plant shifted from the development mode to the defense mode. Furthermore, the immune responses as well as many genes involved in the biosynthesis of the defense hormones jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid were up-regulated. Several major allergen-like genes encoding PR-10 proteins were highly expressed in the inoculated plants, suggesting that they also have a crucial role in the defense responses against P. cactorum. Additionally, flavonoids and terpenoids may be of vital importance, as several genes involved in their biosynthesis were up-regulated. The cell wall biosynthesis and developmental processes were down-regulated, possibly as a result of the down-regulation of the key genes involved in the biosynthesis of growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids and auxin. Of particular interest was the expression of potential resistance genes in the recently identified P. cactorum resistance locus RPc-1. These new findings help to target the breeding efforts aiming at more resistant strawberry cultivars.

  1. Response of Selected Woody Species to Inoculation with Phytophthora citricola and P. cactorum from European Beech Using Multiple Inoculation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora citricola and P. cactorum are important cosmopolitan plant pathogens with wide host ranges. Both species have recently been identified as the cause of bleeding canker of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) in the northeastern United States, but whether isolates from European beech had the...

  2. Simultaneous detection and quantification of Phytophthora nicotianae and P. cactorum, and distribution analyses in strawberry greenhouses by duplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhu; Inada, Minoru; Watanabe, Hideki; Suga, Haruhisa; Kageyama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora nicotianae and P. cactorum cause Phytophthora rot of strawberry. A duplex real-time PCR technique for simultaneous detection and quantification of the two pathogens was developed. Species-specific primers for P. nicotianae and P. cactorum were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of rDNA and the ras-related protein gene Ypt1, respectively. TaqMan probes were labeled with FAM for P. nicotianae and HEX for P. cactorum. Specificities were demonstrated using 52 isolates, including various soil-borne pathogens. Sensitivities for P. nicotianae and P. cactorum DNAs were 10 fg and 1 pg, respectively. The technique was applied to naturally infested soil and root samples; the two pathogens were detected and the target DNA concentrations were quantified. Significant correlations of DNA quantities in roots and the surrounding soils were found. The minimum soil DNA concentration predicting the development of disease symptoms was estimated as 20 pg (g soil)(-1). In three strawberry greenhouses examined, the target DNA concentrations ranged from 1 to 1,655 pg (g soil)(-1) for P. nicotianae and from 13 to 233 pg (g soil)(-1) for P. cactorum. The method proved fast and reliable, and provides a useful tool to monitor P. nicotianae and P. cactorum in plants or soils.

  3. Distribución de Phytophthora cactorum en el perfil de un suelo cultivado con frutilla (Fragaria x ananassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Iribarren

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora cactorum es el agente causal de la podredumbre seca que produce importantes pérdidas en los cultivos de frutilla (Fragaria x ananassa. Este patógeno persiste como oosporas formadas principalmente en los frutos afectados, los que quedan en la superficie del suelo. En un lote representativo de los cultivos de frutillas de la zona noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y después de haberse levantado la plantación y labrado el suelo, se buscó establecer la distribución espacial de las oosporas de P. cactorum remanentes. El muestreo se realizó en tres bloques ubicados a lo largo de una transecta diagonal al terreno y a dos profundidades en el perfil del suelo. También se caracterizó la topografía del terreno y parámetros físicos del suelo de interés. La detección de P. cactorum se realizó mediante el empleo de cebos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a la presencia del patógeno en los distintos puntos muestreados sobre el terreno, a la escala de análisis. Sólo se observó una pequeña tendencia a la disminución del inóculo en profundidad. El número de recuentos positivos en las profundidades A y AB/BA fueron respectivamente 30 y 22 en un total de 72 muestras. Tampoco hubo diferencias significativas en densidad aparente, humedad equivalente y macroporosidad del suelo. Si bien la distribución en superficie de P. cactorum pudo deberse fundamentalmente a procesos naturales, la labranza del suelo posibilitó la dispersión de oosporas viables en profundidad.

  4. Effects of Mefenoxam, Phosphonate, and Paclobutrazol on In Vitro Characteristics of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola and on Canker Size of European Beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora citricola and P. cactorum cause bleeding cankers that lead to the death of mature European beech in the northeastern United States. Because of the economic value placed on these trees, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two fungicides and a plant growth regulator ...

  5. The Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) of Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Sangmi Lee; Catherine Mercado

    2016-01-01

    Panama has among the most diverse Lepidoptera fauna of many regions or habitats, and the micromoth family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) is one of the largest families of microlepidoptera in the world. However, only 6% of neotropical gelechiid species have been reported in Panama, with 49 species from 28 genera. Here, 49 species of Gelechiidae in Panama are cataloged alphabetically.

  6. Effect of CO2 enhancement on beech (Fagus sylvatica L. seedling root rot due to Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora cactorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is associated with higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The ongoing changes are likely to have significant, direct or indirect effects on plant diseases caused by many biotic agents such as phytopathogenic fungi. This study results showed that increased CO2 concentration did not stimulate the growth of 1-year-old beech Fagus sylvatica L seedlings but it activated pathogenic Phytophthora species (P. plurivora and P. cactorum which caused significant reduction in the total number of fine roots as well as their length and area. The results of the greenhouse experiment indicated that pathogens once introduced into soil survived in pot soil, became periodically active (in sufficient water conditions and were able to damage beech fine roots. However, the trees mortality was not observed during the first year of experiment. DNA analyses performed on soil and beech tissue proved persistence of introduced Phytophthora isolates.

  7. leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le faux ver rose Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae) est une espèce carpophage du cotonnier. En Côte d'Ivoire, elle est difficilement contrôlée par les traitements insecticides et ses infestations sont en forte croissance au cours de ces dix dernières années. En vue de mettre en place une stratégie de gestion.

  8. The effect of some endogenic substances contained in the cortical parenchyma of apple trees on growth in vitro of the fungus Phytophthora cactorum (Leb. of Cohn Schroeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bielenin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gel filtration of an alkaline extract of the cortical parenchyma yielded four fractions of which two had activity in vitro on the growth of Phytophthora cactorum. Fraction I was stimulatory and fraction IV inhibitory; one of the inhibitors in fraction IV was identified as phloridzin. When the extraction solvent contained sodium sulphite in addition to sodium hydroxide, fraction II showed inhibitory activity.

  9. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  10. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    temporary resident. Most records are based on voucher material, the depository of which is stated at http://zoologi.snm.ku.dk/forskning/entomology/. A list of all 1160 species is given, and comments are added for rare, dubious or otherwise interesting records. A considerable part of Anholt consists of open......  The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... on Anholt within these two periods, but examples on species which seem to have disappeared from the island during the last 20-30 years, and other which have colonized Anholt during that period, are discussed under comments ("kommentarer"). We consider a number of the species found in Anholt as only...

  11. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  12. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  13. (JE Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) annually cause enormous loss to the producers and their combat has become a worldwide challenge mainly due to several reports of pesticides resistance. Today, one of the best alternatives used in this combat is the application of natural insecticides such ...

  14. Nieuwe en interessante Microlepidoptera uit Nederland (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Gielis, C.; Huisman, K.J.; Koster, J.C.; Küchlein, J.H.; Wolf, van der H.W.; Wolschrijn, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    New and interesting Microlepidoptera from The Netherlands (Lepidoptera). This is the fourth 'annual' compilation of Microlepidoptera collected in The Netherlands, the first three having been published in Entomologische Berichten (vols 45: 89-104 [1985]; 46: 137-156 [1986]; 48: 69-81 [1988]). The

  15. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  16. The Impact of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundance and effectiveness of Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata Rego Barros (Lepidoptera:Arctiidae) in controlling the Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) ... Insect data was collected using line transects of 100 metres long and 100 metres apart and the removal, sweep net and direct count methods were used and ...

  17. stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    herba alba, sur la population d'insectes ravageurs des denrées stockées Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera). Le bio-pesticide agit avec un double mécanisme d'action. Administré chez les adultes, l'huile essentielle provoque un taux de mortalité significatif par rapport aux témoins. Alors que son administration sur les.

  18. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  19. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  20. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  1. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells......This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...

  2. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  3. Gut microbiota of Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Maxi; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos; Claassens, Sarina; van den Berg, Johnnie

    2016-07-01

    Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a stemborer pest that attacks maize (Zea mays) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetically modified maize has been shown to be effective against B. fusca. However, resistance of B. fusca against Bt-maize has developed and spread throughout South Africa. Previous studies suggested that gut microbiota contribute to mortality across a range of Lepidoptera. To fully assess the role of microbiota within the gut, it is essential to understand the microbiota harboured by natural B. fusca populations. This study aimed to identify the gut-associated bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 78 bacterial strains were characterised from the midgut of B. fusca larvae that were collected from 30 sites across the maize producing region of South Africa. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed bacteria affiliated to Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Taxonomic distribution placed these isolates into 15 different genera representing 20 species. The majority of bacteria identified belong to the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Klebsiella. The B. fusca gut represents an intriguing and unexplored niche for analysing microbial ecology. The study could provide opportunities for developing new targets for pest management and contribute to understanding the phenomenon of resistance evolution of this species.

  4. Micropropagação do porta-enxerto de macieira 'Seleção 69' tolerante à podridão do colo (Phytophthora cactorum Micropropagation of 'Seleção 69' apple rootstock tolerant the rotting (Phytophthora cactorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Santa-Catarina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de porta-enxertos anões, tolerantes a problemas fitossanitários da cultura da macieira, como a podridão do colo (Phytophthora cactorum, pode aumentar o rendimento e reduzir os custos de produção. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estabelecer um protocolo de micropropagação do porta-enxerto 'Seleção 69', tolerante à podridão do colo. Ápices meristemáticos foram cultivados in vitro em meio de cultura MS, suplementado com 4,4mM de 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP, 2,5mM de Ácido indolbutírico (AIB, 0,3mM de Ácido giberélico (GA3, 3% de sacarose e 0,6% de ágar. Foram testados o efeito da concentração de BAP (2,2 e 4,4mM e o efeito dos meios de cultura (MS, Cheng e Quoirin & Lepoivre na multiplicação das brotações. No alongamento das brotações, foram testados os efeitos do GA3 (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5mM e AIB (0; 0,5 e 1,0mM. Para a fase de enraizamento ex vitro e aclimatização, foram testadas diferentes concentrações de AIB (0; 1 e 2g L-1. A taxa de desenvolvimento dos ápices meristemáticos cultivados in vitro foi de 30%. Para estimular a brotação, a melhor concentração de BAP foi 2,2mM, a qual proporcionou 2,6 brotações por explante. O meio MS proporcionou o maior número de brotações por explante (2,5, porém não diferiu estatisticamente do meio Cheng (2,0 brotações por explante. Para a fase de alongamento, o meio MS suplementado com 2,2mM de BAP e 1,0mM de AIB, proporcionou a maior altura das brotações (23mm. Na fase de enraizamento ex vitro e aclimatização, as concentrações de 0, 1 e 2g L-1 de AIB possibilitaram em média, 77,3% de enraizamento das microestacas.The use of tolerant apple rootstocks to phytossanitary problems as the rotting (Phytophthora cactorum is able to increase the production with cost reduction. The objective of the present study is to establish in vitro micropropagation protocol of the '69 Selection' rootstocks tolerant to the rotting. Meristems was cultivated in vitro

  5. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  6. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: An overview of successful and unsuccessful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terenius, O.; Papanicolaou, A.; Garbutt, J.S.; Eleftherianos, I.; Huvenne, H.; Kanginakudru, S.; Albrechtsen, M.; An, Chunju; Aymeric, J.L.; Barthel, A.; Bebas, P.; Bitra, K.; Bravo, A.; Chevalier, F.; Collinge, D.P.; Crava, C.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Duvic, B.; Erlandson, M.; Faye, I.; Felfoldi, G.; Fujiwara, H.; Futahashi, R.; Gandhe, A.S.; Gatehouse, H.S.; Gatehouse, L.N.; Giebultowicz, J.M.; Gomez, I.; Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Groot, A.T.; Hauser, F.; Heckel, D.G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Hrycaj, S.; Huang, L.; Hull, J.J.; Iatrou, K.; Iga, M.; Kanost, M.R.; Kotwica, J.; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Meyering-Vos, M.; Millichap, P.J.; Monteiro, A.; Mrinal, N.; Niimi, T.; Nowara, D.; Ohnishi, A.; Oostra, V.; Ozaki, K.; Papakonstantinou, M.; Popadic, A.; Rajam, M.V.; Saenko, S.; Simpson, R.M.; Soberon, M.; Strand, M.R.; Tomita, S.; Toprak, U.; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, S.; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, J.; Ffrench-Constant, R.H.; Herrero, S.; Gordon, K.; Swevers, L.; Smagghe, G.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive

  7. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  8. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  9. The genus Scrobipalpa in the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Het genus Scrobipalpa in Nederland (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Scrobipalpa is een geslacht van kleine, lastig uit elkaar te houden motjes. In heel Europa zijn ongeveer 70 soorten bekend. Doorgaans zijn de vleugels bruin- of grijsachtig met een tekening van stippels en strepen die bovendien erg kan

  10. The genus Bryotropha in the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Het genus Bryotropha in Nederland (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Het genus Bryotropha staat bekend als een notoir lastig geslacht van kleine bruine motjes. Die moeilijkheid komt door de variatie, maar vooral ook door gebrek aan bruikbare beschrijvingen. Met dit artikel zijn de negen Nederlandse soorten

  11. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY...... WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula....

  12. Two new Gelechiidae for the Iberian Peninsula (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Karsholt, Ole; Vives Moreno, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Gelechiidae, Chrysoesthia hispanica Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Neofriseria hitadoella Karsholt & Vives, sp. n. from Spain and Portugal are described. The adults and male and female genitalia are illustrated. The generic assignment of C. hispanica is discussed. KEY WORD: Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, new species, Iberian peninsula.

  13. Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six new species of Metarbelidae (Lepidoptera: Cossoidea) from the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, including one new species from Marenji Forest in southeast ... Journal of East African Natural History ... from Morogoro (Uluguru Mountains) and Ortharbela cliftoni spec. nov. from Amani (East Usambara Mountains).

  14. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  15. Clepsis dumicolana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), new to the Belgian fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Prins, W.; Baugnée, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    On 17 August 2008 a specimen of Clepsis dumicolana (Zeller, 1847) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was caught at Liège, leg. J.-Y. Baugnée. It was resting on Hedera helix, in the vicinity of the Kennedy bridge. During the following days, about 40 specimens were seen in two localities of the slope to the

  16. Fauna Simalurensis. Lepidoptera Rhopalocera: fam. Satyridae, Morphidae & Nymphalidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eecke, van R.

    1913-01-01

    Continuing the enumeration of the Lepidoptera from Simalur and neighbouring islets, collected by Mr. Edw. Jacobson, I have to notice only one new form of Cethosia and of Acca among a number of 16 species of Nymphalidae. The Satyridae were represented by one species and the Morphidae by two.

  17. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2003-08-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other insects, by having an internal tympanal membrane, and auditory sensilla embedded within the membrane. The tympanum is formed by two thin tracheal walls that stretch across a teardrop-shaped opening between dorsal and ventral air chambers in the first abdominal segment. There are four sensory organs (scolopidia) embedded separately between the tympanal membrane layers: two larger lateral scolopidia within the tympanal area, and two smaller scolopidia at the medial margin of the tympanal frame. Sound is thought to reach the tympanal membrane through two external membranes that connect indirectly to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells are excited by sound stimuli. Those two cells differ in threshold by approximately 19 dB. The morphology of the ear suggests that the two larger scolopidia function as auditory sensilla; the two smaller scolopidia, located near the tympanal frame, were not excited by sound. We present a biophysical model to explain the possible functional organization of this unique tympanal ear.

  18. Flight performance of Macdunnoughia crassisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X-W; Chang, H; He, L-M; Zhao, S-Y; Wu, K-M

    2017-12-01

    Macdunnoughia crassisigna Warren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive herbivore that poses a serious risk to cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. Examining the effects of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of M. crassisigna is crucial for a better understanding of its trans-regional migration. In this study, the flight activity of M. crassisignai moths of different ages, under different temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels, was evaluated by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period. The results showed that M. crassisignai had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was strongest in 3-day-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly in older moths. For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was relatively higher at 24-28°C than other temperatures. There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was relatively higher at RH of 60-75% than other RH levels. For 3-day-old moths under the optimum conditions (24°C and 75% RH) throughout the 24 h scotophase, their mean flight distance reached 66 km, and the mean flight duration reached 13.5 h, suggesting M. crassisigna possess strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.

  19. Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Chao; Wu, Xiao; Guo, Jianglong; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24-28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60-75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  1. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  2. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  3. Launching and steering flagship Lepidoptera for conservation benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. New

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, particularly butterflies and large moths, are popular targets for conservation efforts and as flagship species can help to publicize the need for habitat and resource protection and the ecological value of invertebrates. Here I present an overview of the relevant issues in selecting and promoting flagship species, and discuss how local community support for conservation may be encouraged, using examples from Australia.

  4. Notes on the life history of Acraea encedon l. (Lepidoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle of Acraea encedon (Lepidoptera: Acraeidae) was completed in 40.3 + 2.64 days at a mean daily temperature of 27.91 + 0.440C and relative humidity of 84.8 + 2.62%. The duration of the developmental period of the different life stages of the insect are: embryonic development, 7.5 + 0.54 days; 1st instar, 10.4 + ...

  5. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29, Solanaceae (21, Fabaceae (18 and Lamiaceae (12.

  6. New data on the Pterophoridae fauna of Liberia (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-03-27

    There have been no special studies on plume moths of Liberia until recently. In the World Catalogue of Insects (Gielis 2003) only two species are reported from Liberia: Agdistis tamaricis (Zeller, 1847) and Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius, 1794) despite its well-known richness for other Lepidoptera groups (Fox et al. 1965, Larsen 2005) and its biogeographic position in the centre of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

  7. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Alexandre; Paula-Moraes, Silvana Vieira de; Sosa-Gómez,Daniel Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This work has the objective to catalogue the information of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Plusiinae) host plants. The list of plants comprehends new reports of host plants in Brazil and information from literature review around the world. It is listed 174 plants which are from 39 botanic families. The higher number of host plants of C. includens are in Asteraceae (29), Solanaceae (21), Fabaceae (18) and Lamiaceae (12).

  8. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  9. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  10. Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Huautla, Morelos y Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercedes Luna-Reyes; Jorge Llorente-Bousquets; Armando Luis-Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huautla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera). The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants...

  11. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  12. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  13. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-08-21

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010.

  14. Effects of Temperature on the Development of Stenoma impressella (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) on Oil Palm in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luis C. Martínez; Angelica Plata-Rueda; José C. Zanuncio; Genésio T. Ribeiro; José Eduardo Serrao

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Stenoma impressella Busck (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) is an important oil palm pest and its life history and life table parameters were studied at various temperatures, from 16 °C to 40 °C...

  15. Macrocentrus sylvestrellae spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae), a parasitoid of Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    A new species of the genus Macrocentrus Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Macrocentrinae) described and illustrated: M. sylvestrellae spec. nov. from France and Italy. It is a gregarious koinobiont endoparasitoid of the pine stem borer Dioryctria sylvestrella (Ratzeburg, 1840) (Lepidoptera;

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Bi, Guiqi; Du, Qingwei; Zhao, Ezi; Yang, Junqing; Zhang, Zhen; Shang, Erlei

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined. The circular genome has a size of 15 733 base pairs, containing 36 gene protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 21 tRNA genes. The overall base composition was 41.37% of A, 37.99% of T, 12.54% of G, and 8.10% of C. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete mitogenomes of Plodia interpunctella and 11 closely related Pyralidae species to validate the taxonomy relationship. The complete mitochondrial genome of the P. interpunctella would provide more information for the evolution of Pyralidae family.

  17. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  18. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  20. LEPIDOPTERA (INSECTA OF PROPOSED SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL AREA ‘BELOKURIKHA NATURE PARK’ (NORTHERN ALTAI. FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Vasilenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 149 Lepidoptera species from 16 families were reported for the territory of the proposed protected area "Belokurikha Natural Park". This list is the primary data on the fauna of Lepidoptera in the region. Most of the species belongs to Euro-Siberian and Transpalaearctic groups.

  1. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated.

  2. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  3. Ionizing Irradiation of Adults of Angoumois Grain Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Prevent Reproduction and Implications for a Generic Irradiation Treatment for Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionizing radiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States for use against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insec...

  4. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia pogueisp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  5. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenariasp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated.

  6. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  7. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D N

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species.

  8. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  9. Una nueva especie de Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae del extremo norte de Chile A new species of Eupithecia Curtis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from northernmost Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉCTOR A. VARGAS

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción de una nueva especie de Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae. Su distribución comprende dos valles del extremo norte de Chile: Azapa, Chaca y Camarones. Se describen e ilustran los adultos, incluyendo la genitalia de ambos sexos, y el segmento terminal de la pupa de la hembra. Las larvas se alimentan de inflorescencias de Acacia macracantha y Prosopis tamarugo (FabaceaeThe description of a new Eupithecia species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is presented. Its distribution comprises two valleys in northernmost Chile: Azapa, Chaca and Camarones. The habitus of adult, the genitalia of both sexes, and the last segment of the female pupa are described and illustrated. Larvae feed on inflorescence of Acacia macracantha and Prosopis tamarugo (Fabaceae

  10. Records of mining Lepidoptera in Belgium with nine species new to the country (Nepticulidae, Opostegidae, Tischeriidae, Lyonetiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Records of 56 species of mining Lepidoptera are given, mostly for Wallonia. Stigmella thuringiaca (Namur: Nismes, on Potentilla tabernaemontani), Ectoedemia arcuatella (Luxembourg, Namur, on Fragaria vesca) and Leucoptera lustratella (Luxembourg, Namur, on Hypericum perforatum) are reported new for

  11. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  12. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  13. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy G. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  14. A new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarsky, Oleg; Saldaitis, Aidas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Stenoloba from the olivacea species group, Stenoloba solaris, sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), is described from Yunnan, China. Illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba albistriata Kononenko & Ronkay, 2000, Stenoloba olivacea (Wileman, 1914), and Stenoloba benedeki Ronkay, 2001 (Fig. 4). PMID:23805047

  15. A new species of Stenoloba Staudinger, 1892 from China (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Bryophilinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Pekarsky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stenoloba from the olivacea species group, S. solaris, sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, is described from Yunnan, China. Illustrations of the male holotype and its genitalia are provided. A diagnostic comparison is made with Stenoloba albistriata Kononenko & Ronkay, 2000, Stenoloba olivacea (Wileman, 1914, and Stenoloba benedeki Ronkay, 2001 (Fig. 4.

  16. Uji Patogenisitas Bacillus Thuringiensis Dan Metarhizium Anisopliae Terhadap Mortalitas Spodoptera Litura Fabr (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Di Laboratorium

    OpenAIRE

    Tampubolon, Desy Yanti; Pangestiningsih, Yuswani; Zahara, Fatimah; Manik, Fatiani

    2013-01-01

    Uji patogenisitas Bacillus thuringiensis dan Metarhizium anisopliae terhadap mortalitasSpodoptera litura Fabr (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) di laboratorium. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmendapatkan konsentrasi yang tepat yaitu B. thuringiensis dan M. anisopliae terhadap mortalitaslarva S. litura di laboratorium. Dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman BuahTropika Kebun Percobaan Tongkoh-Berastagi pada bulan Juli sampai Agustus 2012. Metode yangdigunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap...

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  18. First record of Citheronia regalis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) feeding on Cotinus obovatus (Anacardiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The regal moth (Citheronia regalis F.; Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is reported for the first time feeding on foliage of the American smoketree (Cotinus obovatus Raf.; Anacardiaceae), an endemic tree with a relictual distribution on calcareous soils in the southern United States. This record...

  19. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  20. Additional three new species of Anarsia Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) from Cambodia and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Tek; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2017-04-12

    Three new species of the genus Anarsia Zeller (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) are described: A. huensis Park, sp. nov. from Vietnam, and A. pursatica Park, sp. nov. and A. degeneralis Park, sp. nov. from Cambodia. Images of adults and genitalia for the new species are illustrated. A check list of the known species from both countries is provided.

  1. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  2. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  3. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  4. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  5. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  6. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  7. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  8. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  9. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5...

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  11. Extrafloral nectar feeding by Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vila

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Adults of the dry area specialist Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini are here recorded feeding on extrafloral nectar of the large cactus Neoraimondia arequipensis var. gigantea (Werdermann & Backeberg Ritter. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to lycaenid survival in a xeric environment, pollination and mate location.

  12. Description of a new species of Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacca, Thamara; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H; Huertas, Blanca; Neild, Andrew F E; Benmesbah, Mohamed

    2017-02-12

    A new species of Magneuptychia Forster, 1964 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), Magneuptychia andrei Zacca, Casagrande & Mielke sp. n., is described and illustrated from Venezuela, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago and northern Brazil. A comparative diagnosis between the new species and Magneuptychia ocypete (Fabricius, 1776), M. fugitiva Lamas, [1997] and Cissia terrestris (Butler, 1867) is also provided due the similarities in wing pattern.

  13. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  14. Ionizing radiation for quarantine control of Opogona sacchari (Lepidoptera: Tineidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Robert G; Follett, Peter A

    2007-10-01

    A discriminating irradiation dose of 150 gray (Gy) was used to determine the most tolerant immature stages of Opogona sacchari (Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Based on adult emergence, early and late pupae were determined to be the most tolerant stages, and they were significantly more tolerant than eggs, neonate larvae, and larvae that were 1, 2, or 3 wk old. Irradiation treatment of eggs, neonates, 1-wk-old larvae, 2-wk-old larvae, 3-wk-old larvae, early pupae, and late pupae at 150 Gy resulted in a 96, 96, 95, 73, 61, 8, and 9% reduction in adult emergence, respectively. Pupae were treated with irradiation doses between 60 and 400 Gy. Emergence to the adult stage was significantly reduced by irradiation, averaging 90% in experimental controls and 29% in the 400-Gy treatment. Egg production was also reduced by irradiation, although the average age of pupae at the time of irradiation had a larger effect on fecundity. In total, 2,527 pupae treated with 120 Gy eclosed and produced 47,221 eggs and three F1 larvae. In the 150-Gy treatment, 2,927 adults in total emerged from the 4,626 insects treated as pupae. These adults laid 62,878 eggs, none of which hatched. We conclude that a minimum dose of 150 Gy should be sufficient for sterilization of immature O. sacchari infesting export commodities.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parnassiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang; Chen, Yanhong; Xia, Chenchen; Xia, Xueqin; Chen, Xiao; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Parnassius imperator (Lepidoptera: Parnassiinae) is a circular molecule of 15,424 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes and one non-coding A + T-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for the cox1, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopteran species. Some PCGs use standard TAA, while others use TAG (nad1) or incomplete codon T (cox1 and cox2), as their termination codons. 15 intergenic spacers (175 bp in total) and 10 overlapping sequences (29 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The 491 bp long A+ T-rich region contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)6 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. In addition, a 36 bp sequence stretch potential to form stem-loop structures is also found in the A+ T-rich region.

  16. An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Pohl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This checklist documents the 2367 Lepidoptera species reported to occur in the province of Alberta, Canada, based on examination of the major public insect collections in Alberta and the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes. Records from relevant literature sources published since 1950 and from selected older works are also included. The entry for each species includes the scientific name, the author and year of publication of the original description, occurrence status, provincial distribution (according to ecoclimatic region, and adult phenology. The most recent taxonomic references are given, and common names are listed for butterflies and conspicuous moth species. The sources of specimen- and literature-based records are provided for each species. An additional 138 species whose occurrence in Alberta is probable are appended to the list. For 1524 of the listed species and subspecies, annotations are given, with selected information on taxonomy, nomenclature, distribution, habitat, and biology. An additional section provides details on 171 species erroneously reported from Alberta in previous works. Introductory sections to the volume provide a general overview of the order Lepidoptera and review the natural regions of Alberta, the state of knowledge of their Lepidoptera faunas, and the history and current state of knowledge of Alberta Lepidoptera. Each of the 63 families (and selected subfamilies occurring in Alberta is briefly reviewed, with information on distinguishing features, general appearance, and general biology. A bibliography and an index of genus-level, species-level, and subspecies-level names are provided. The list is accompanied by an appendix of proposed nomenclature changes, consisting of revised status for 25 taxa raised from synonymy to species level, and new synonymy for 20 species-level and one genus-level taxa here considered to be subjective synonyms, with resultant revised synonymy for one

  17. Phthalides as promising insecticides against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Elizeu S; Silva, Eliete M P; Teixeira, Milena G; Ferreira, Jhulyana S; Alvarenga, Elson S; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-01-02

    In this study, the insecticide potential of eight phthalides derived from furan-2(5H)-one was evaluated against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae. The potency of the most active phthalides and the susceptibility of six different T. absoluta populations to these compounds were determined. The toxicity of these molecules to two non-target species (Solenopsis saevissima Smith and Tetragonisca angustula Latreille) was also evaluated. Two phthalides (3 and 4) presented insecticide potential against T. absoluta. Phthalide 4 was as toxic as piperine (positive control) and both phthalides exhibited rapid action (LT 50 < 2 hours). The variation in the susceptibility of T. absoluta populations to the phthalides 3 and 4 was low. Neither phthalide presented physiological selectivity for non-target species. Therefore, the phthalides 3 and 4 are promising molecules, or at least, a starting point for a chemical optimization program leading to formulations for the management of the tomato leafminer. The application of such products should be conducted according to the principles of ecological selectivity.

  18. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Micropyle number is associated with elevated female promiscuity in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iossa, Graziella; Gage, Matthew J G; Eady, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    In the majority of insects, sperm fertilize the egg via a narrow canal through the outer chorion called the micropyle. Despite having this one primary function, there is considerable unexplained variation in the location, arrangement and number of micropyles within and between species. Here, we examined the relationship between micropyle number and female mating pattern through a comparative analysis across Lepidoptera. Three functional hypotheses could explain profound micropylar variation: (i) increasing micropyle number reduces the risk of infertility through sperm limitation in species that mate infrequently; (ii) decreasing micropyle number reduces the risk of pathological polyspermy in species that mate more frequently; and (iii) increasing micropyle number allows females to exert greater control over fertilization within the context of post-copulatory sexual selection, which will be more intense in promiscuous species. Micropyle number was positively related to the degree of female promiscuity as measured by spermatophore count, regardless of phylogenetic signal, supporting the hypothesis that micropyle number is shaped by post-copulatory sexual selection. We discuss this finding in the context of cryptic female choice, sperm limitation and physiological polyspermy. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  1. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.

  2. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  3. A comprehensive characterization of the caspase gene family in insects from the order Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Heiko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell suicide pathway of apoptosis is a necessary event in the life of multicellular organisms. It is involved in many biological processes ranging from development to the immune response. Evolutionarily conserved proteases, called caspases, play a central role in regulating apoptosis. Reception of death stimuli triggers the activation of initiator caspases, which in turn activate the effector caspases. In Lepidoptera, apoptosis is crucial in processes such as metamorphosis or defending against baculovirus infection. The discovery of p35, a baculovirus protein inhibiting caspase activity, has led to the characterization of the first lepidopteran caspase, Sf-Caspase-1. Studies on Sf-Caspase-1 mode of activation suggested that apoptosis in Lepidoptera requires a cascade of caspase activation, as demonstrated in many other species. Results In order to get insights into this gene family in Lepidoptera, we performed an extensive survey of lepidopteran-derived EST datasets. We identified 66 sequences distributed among 27 species encoding putative caspases. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Lepidoptera possess at least 5 caspases, for which we propose a unified nomenclature. According to homology to their Drosophila counterparts and their primary structure, we determined that Lep-Caspase-1, -2 and -3 are putative effector caspases, whereas Lep-Caspase-5 and -6 are putative initiators. The likely function of Lep-Caspase-4 remains unclear. Lep-Caspase-2 is absent from the silkworm genome and appears to be noctuid-specific, and to have arisen from a tandem duplication of the Caspase-1 gene. In the tobacco hawkmoth, 3 distinct transcripts encoding putative Caspase-4 were identified, suggesting at least 2 duplication events in this species. Conclusions The basic repertoire of five major types of caspases shared among Lepidoptera seems to be smaller than for most other groups studied to date, but gene duplication still plays a role in

  4. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNASer(AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  5. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  6. Efficiency of Trapping Systems for Detecting Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Amy L; Brambila, Julieta; Barria, Jorge; Euceda, Xavier; Korytkowski, Cheslavo

    2015-12-01

    Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a pest of tomato, was recently detected in Panama in Central America and now threatens to expand into the important tomato production areas of Mexico and the United States. Moths caught in T. absoluta pheromone-baited traps must be removed and dissected to confirm the species present before containment and mitigation strategies are put in place. Timely processing of traps can be hindered by the presence of numerous similar nontarget moths that cannot be easily prescreened. Trapping systems using dry bucket traps or Delta traps with either hot melt pressure sensitive adhesives (HMPSA) or cool melt adhesives were evaluated for their effectiveness in trapping T. absoluta and for their ease in allowing identification of nontarget moths. Delta traps in Panama with HMPSA and cool melt adhesives both trapped T. absoluta with equal efficacy. In Florida, nontarget moths were easier to prescreen from bucket traps and HMPSA inserts. Importantly, moths found in bucket traps as well as on cool melt adhesive inserts were of a lower quality than those on HMPSA inserts, making identification more difficult. Studies conducted in Florida and Panama tomato and potato fields showed that commercially produced pheromones containing only the main pheromone component ((3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate) or containing both the main and minor pheromone component ((3E, 8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl) attracted nontarget moths. Survey programs, particularly large-scale ones, should consider the application of alternative trapping systems or new adhesives available in order to facilitate the visual prescreening of nontarget moths. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  8. Biologia de Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae em milho Biology of Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Fagundes Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae é uma nova praga da espiga de milho no Brasil, sendo seu estudo importante em áreas de produção de sementes porque os grãos atacados pelas lagartas não germinam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a sua biologia em condições de laboratório (25±2°C, UR de 65±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi de 35,2 dias. O período de incubação foi de 4,1 dias. A duração média da fase larval foi de 21,1 dias, sendo observados cinco ínstares larvais. A fase pupal durou 8,4 dias e o peso de pupa de machos e fêmeas foi de 12,4 e 11,3mg, respectivamente. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 118 ovos, apresentando um período de pré-oviposição de 10,7 dias e de oviposição de 14,0 dias. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas foi de 37,02 e 44,16 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual de 0,48. As lagartas danificam os estilo-estigmas e os grãos em estado leitoso por meio de pequenos orifícios de entrada, prejudicando o endosperma e principalmente a região do embrião, inutilizando-os para sementes. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho fornecem subsídios para o estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo do inseto, especialmente em áreas de produção de sementes.The caterpillar Dichomeris famulata Meyrick, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a new pest of corn ear in Brazil, and its study is important in seed fields. The aim of this was to study the biology of this pest under laboratory conditions (25±2°C, 65±10% of RH and 14-hours of photophase. The biological cycle (egg-adult was of 35.2 days. The incubation period was of 4.1 days. The average larval development time was of 21.1 days, and 5 instars were observed. The pupal period was of 8.4 days and the pupae weight was of 12.4 and 11.3 mg for males and females, respectively. The females laid an average of 118 eggs with a pre-oviposition period of 10.7 days and an oviposition time of 14.0 days. The

  9. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  10. Biological characteristics of Trichogramma maxacalii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae on eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Oliveira H. N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of two populations of Trichogramma maxacalii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae were collected from eggs of Euselasia apisaon (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae, a lepidopteran defoliator of Eucalyptus, in plantations in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study investigated the sex ratio, number of parasitoids per egg, and longevity of individuals of these two populations of T. maxacalii, when this parasitoid was reared receiving eggs of the factitious host Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in different periods after emergence, and with or without honey. Sex ratio of T. maxacalii varied from 0.44 to 0.60, and was affected by the interaction between populations, availability of food (honey, and length of time in which the parasitoid stayed without host eggs after their emergence. The population of T. maxacalii collected in São Paulo produced a larger number of individuals per egg of the host A. kuehniella and lived longer when fed.

  11. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    significant radiations. Exposed feeding became associated with radiations in the lower Ditrysia and Apoditrysia and remained correlated with more polyphagy, fewer woody host plants, and increasing use of other Angiosperm superorders. The macrolepidopteran radiation has frequent reversals to monophagy on woody......We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...... categorizations for Britain are accurate predictors for the global fauna. The first (lower glossatan) radiation of the Lepidoptera started with monophagous, internal feeding on woody Eurosids I. Polyphagy on nonwoody Eurosids I evolved together with the ability to feed externally, but did initially not produce...

  12. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

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    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects. The most abundant species were Godartiana muscosa , Mechanitis lysimnia , Hermeuptychia sp and Mechanitis polymnia casabranca , which are bio-indicators of disturbed and/or urban environments. On the other hand, it was found rare species, such as Notascea brevispula . Different species were constant and others occurred in only a short period of the year. The diversity and abundance were higher in hot and rainy months. The diversity index Shannon-Wiener and Simpsom indicate a median diversity and equitability index point absence of dominance.

  13. Parasitismo sobre eurysacca melanocampta meyrick (lepidoptera: gelechiidae) en dos localidades de cusco, perú.

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN F. COSTA; Yábar, Erick; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa) es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm) y Quiquijana (3100 msnm). Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de ...

  14. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to Different Pheromone Emission Levels in Greenhouse Tomato Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Vacas González, Sandra; López -Faubel, Jesus; Primo Millo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantificat...

  15. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Sam

    Full Text Available We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171 of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33 of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4 fed on single family, 6% (3 on single genus and 17% (8 were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts. Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis.

  16. Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

    2014-06-01

    Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there

  17. Assessing the value of DNA barcodes and other priority gene regions for molecular phylogenetics of Lepidoptera.

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    John James Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite apparently abundant amounts of observable variation and species diversity, the order Lepidoptera exhibits a morphological homogeneity that has provided only a limited number of taxonomic characters and led to widespread use of nucleotides for inferring relationships. This study aims to characterize and develop methods to quantify the value of priority gene regions designated for Lepidoptera molecular systematics. In particular, I assess how the DNA barcode segment of the mitochondrial COI gene performs across a broad temporal range given its number one position of priority, most sequenced status, and the conflicting opinions on its phylogenetic performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene regions commonly sequenced for lepidoptera phylogenetics were scored using multiple measures across three categories: practicality, which includes universality of primers and sequence quality; phylogenetic utility; and phylogenetic signal. I found that alternative measures within a category often appeared correlated, but high scores in one category did not necessarily translate into high scores in another. The DNA barcode was easier to sequence than other genes, and had high scores for utility but low signal above the genus level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given limited financial resources and time constraints, careful selection of gene regions for molecular phylogenetics is crucial to avoid wasted effort producing partially informative data. This study introduces an approach to assessing the value of gene regions prior to the initiation of new studies and presents empirical results to help guide future selections.

  18. Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morphology of egg and last instar larvae Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae: morfologia do ovo e da larva de último ínstar

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    G. Poletto

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to knowledge of the immature instars of Neotropical Lepidoptera, this study details the morphology of the egg and last instar larvae of Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, emphasising the structures of the corium and the chaetotaxy. There is also a report of the occurrence of entomopathogenic action of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson fungi on the larva.Este estudo objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento dos estágios imaturos dos lepidópteros neotropicais. Nele é feito o detalhamento da morfologia das fases de ovo e de larva de Aucula magnifica (Schaus, 1904 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Agaristinae, dando ênfase ao estudo das estruturas do córion e da quetotaxia da larva de último ínstar. Além disso é relatada a ocorrência da ação entomopatogênica do fungo Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson sobre suas larvas.

  19. Aspectos biológicos da Traça-da-Batatinha Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Biologic aspects of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas características biológicas de Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae criadas em tubérculos de batata, foram estudadas em laboratório a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotofase de 14 horas. A longevidade dos machos foi de 33,4 dias e das fêmeas foi de 31,7 dias, a sobrevivência foi de 100% até o sexto dia para ambos os sexos, e o número médio total de ovos por fêmea de P. operculella foi 195, com viabilidade de 46,3%, quando esses foram alimentados com solução de mel a 10%.Some biologic characteristics of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae reared in potato tubers was studied in laboratory at 25 ± 1ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and photophase of 14 hours. The male longevity it was 33.4 days and the female longevity it was 31.4 days, the survivor it was 100% until the 6º day for both sex, the total number of eggs per female of P. operculella it was 195, with viability of 46.3%, when these adults received a solution of honey at 10%.

  20. A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica

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    Enrique A. Mundaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of leaf miner (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae for Chile associated to the native tree Lithraea caustica. We propose the new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera Hualpenia lithraeophaga Mundaca, Parra &Vargas gen. nov., sp. nov., leaf miner of Lithraea caustica (Mol. H. et Arn (Anacardiaceae occurring in southern central Chile. Aspects of the life cycle, adult and larval morphology, development and feeding habits of the new genus and species are also presented. We emphasise the uniqueness and importance of this new species for broadening the current knowledge on the Chilean fauna of Gracillariidae.

  1. Protected species of butterflies (Lepidoptera in the National Nature Park “Velyky Lug”

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    K. K. Goloborodko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Velyky Lug is a unique natural complex which has a large biogeographical, ecological, environmental, historical and recreational value. The National Nature Park “Velyky Lug” was only created as recently as 2006.The park is located in Zaporizhzhya region, 15–18 km south of the city Zaporizhzhya, within the limits of floodplain area of the Dnepr river, which broadens to a width of over 20 kmbetween Bilen’ke and Vasilivka (north-eastern part of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. This enormous expansion of the floodplain (about 80,000 ha which is situated between the Dnepr river and its tributary the Kins’ka was in historical times was called the Kin’ski Floodplain or Great Meadow. In modern times this territory is almost completely flooded by the waters of the Kakhovskoe reservoir. Remnants of natural habitats have been preserved along the river banks – in the form of little valleys and ravines which extend all the shore and also islands which appeared in 1956 when the reservoir was flooded. The overall area of the park “Velyky Lug” is 16,756 ha. Within the territory of the park “Velyky Lug” we have recorded 27 species of Lepidoptera which have various levels of conservation status. The taxonomical structure of the complex varies and included representatives of all basic families of moth and day butterflies which have species that are protected by law. In a taxonomical relation this complex is formed by the representatives of 11 families (Zygaenidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Satyridae, Lycaenidae. Zoogeographical analysis of the species that are protected in the territory of the park can be classified into 5 basic groups (Palearctic – 26%, Pontokazach – 26%, Mediterranean– 22%, Eurosiberian – 15%, European – 11%. Analysis of the biotopic advantages of the protected Lepidoptera species present in the territory of the park showed representatives from all

  2. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

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    Sven Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  3. The influence of vegetation and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgio, G.; Sommaggio, D.; Marini, M.; Chiarucci, A.; Landi, S.; Fabbri, R.; Pesarini, F.; Genghini, M.; Ferrari, R.; Muzzi, E.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Masetti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera:

  4. Castniidae (Lepidoptera) in the collection of the Museum and Institute of Zoology Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł J. Domagała; González, Jorge M.; Dariusz J. Ziaja; Roland Dobosz

    2017-01-01

    The material representing 14 species and subspecies belonging to the Castniidae (Lepidoptera) deposited in the Museum and Institute of Zoology Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw was studied. A brief comment on the history of the Museum is provided. General comments on natural history, distribution, and other details are presented for each mentioned species and subspecies.

  5. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  6. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny.

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    Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The small heat shock protein (sHsp family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3 was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera.

  7. Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNA interference (RNAi) has gained popularity in several fields of research, silencing targeted genes by degradation of RNA. The objective of this study was to develop RNAi for use as a molecular tool in the control of the invasive pest Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), gypsy moth, which ha...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  9. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  10. Dogwood Borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) Abundance and Seasonal Flight Activity in Apple Orchards, Urban Landscapes and Woodlands in Five Eastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, V...

  11. Spatial genetic variation among Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sampled from the United States, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. Understanding the genetic diversity and gene flow of this economically important pest can help to de...

  12. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  13. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

  14. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  15. Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Huautla, Morelos y Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Luna-Reyes; Jorge Llorente-Bousquets; Armando Luis-Martínez

    2007-01-01

    La Cuenca del Balsas es una región singular donde se encuentra una representación significativa de la riqueza y el endemismo de la flora, la herpetofauna y la avifauna mexicanas. Sin embargo, es escaso el conocimiento respecto a los papilionoideos (Lepidoptera), en especial aquellos asociados con la selva baja caducifolia. Aquí se presenta un estudio sobre la distribución local y temporal de los Papilionoidea de la cuenca alta en su vertiente oriental al río Balsas, en particular de la sierra...

  16. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

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    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  17. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  18. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  19. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  20. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

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    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  1. Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae: a New Pest of Tomato in Serbia

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    Ivo Toševski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, a devastating pest of tomato originating from South America has been recorded in Serbia on three localities: in tomato main greenhouse and open field production area located in the vicinity of town Leskovac (South Serbia, in surroundings of the village Donji Vrtogoš (near town Vranje, South Serbia and in a greenhouses complex in Kraljevci (60 km west of Belgrade. The presence of T. absoluta was confirmed by morphological and molecular study of the collected specimens.

  2. Pheromone-based management strategies to control the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. A review

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    Caparros Megido, R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We here review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. After presenting the general principles of sex pheromone-based control strategies, we describe strategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection, population monitoring, mass annihilation and mating disruption techniques.

  3. Two new species of the genus Deltophora Janse, 1950 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houhun; Wang, Zhibo; Sattler, Klaus

    2016-01-04

    Two Chinese species of the genus Deltophora Janse (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), both in obligate mutualism with the plant genus Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae), are newly described: Deltophora phyllanthicella Li et Sattler sp. n., from Hainan, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus rheophyticus Gilbert et Li; Deltophora polliniferens Li et Sattler sp. n., from Guangdong, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. The adults and the male and female genital structures of both species are described and illustrated. The presence of a fully developed 1st instar larva in the female abdomen of Deltophora phyllanthicella is recorded as the first such case in Gelechiidae.

  4. Actividad insecticida de Ricinus Communis L. sobre Plodia Interpunctella Hbn. (Lepidoptera: Phycitinae).

    OpenAIRE

    Collavino, Marcelo; Pelicano, Alicia; Giménez, Rosana A.

    2006-01-01

    La aplicación de insecticidas sintéticos como principal sistema de control de plagas de granos y productos almacenados ha originado el desarrollo de poblaciones de insectos resistentes a dichos químicos, la contaminación del medio ambiente y la acumulación de sustancias tóxicas en los alimentos. En este trabajo se evaluaron los efectos de la aplicación de molido de hojas de ricino sobre larvas de la «polilla de las harinas» (Lepidoptera: Phycitinae). Los molidos ...

  5. Theoretical study of electromagnetic transport in Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus wing scales

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    J. Sackey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the electromagnetic energies developed in the scales of the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus. The Green tensor method was used to calculate and simulate the energies at specific wavelengths. Scattering of electromagnetic waves within the scales was simulated at different wavelengths (λ with the corresponding maximum energy occurred at λ = 0.45 μm. The study shows that the design of wing’s cross-ribs maximizes the eigenmode of electromagnetic energy. This shows promising applications in bio-sensors of Solar light and likewise in waveguide for photonic transmission.

  6. Two new species of Utetheisa Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

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    Lazaro Roque-Albelo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species, Utetheisa connerorum and Utetheisa henrii (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Arctiinae are described from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. The latter inhabits the highlands of San Cristobal Island while the former is widely distributed on most of the islands of the archipelago. Their habitus and genitalia are illustrated. Based on a study of the holotype, Utetheisa galapagensis (Wallengren was found to be restricted to San Cristobal Island, contrary to previous reports, and is redescribed here. A key is provided to separate all six Galapagos species of Utetheisa based on external characters.

  7. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 1. Two new species of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuinae, Agrotini

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    Eric Metzler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The white gypsum dune ecosystem in the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico is the largest gypsum dune field on earth, covering 712.25 km2. White Sands National Monument in Otero County, New Mexico, protects approximately 40%, 297.85 km2, of this dune field. In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, resulting in the discovery of two new species, Euxoa lafontainei Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. and Protogygia whitesandsensis Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. described herein. Adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for Euxoa lafontainei, and adults and male genitalia are illustrated for Protogygia whitesandsensis and its relatives.

  8. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  10. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  11. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  12. A molecular analysis of the Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea) with an interpretative grouping of its taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko; Lee, Sangmi

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5, Isocitr......We re-examine the higher level phylogeny and evolutionary affinities of the family Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea) based on DNA sequence data for one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I ) and seven nuclear genes (Elongation Factor-1α, wingless, Ribosomal protein S5......, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and Carbamoylphosphate synthase domain protein). Fifty-two taxa representing nearly all established subfamilies and tribes of Gelechiidae, and about 10% of described gelechiid genera, in addition to five...... outgroup taxa were sequenced. Data matrices (6157 bp total) were analysed under model-based evolutionary methods (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference), resulting in novel high-level phylogenetic interrelationships. The best supported cladogram divided the Gelechiidae into six distinct clades...

  13. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations.

  14. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae

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    Donald Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of E. minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae, new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable inwing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of E. grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.

  15. Eucalyptus cloeziana AS A NEW HOST TO Hylesia paulex (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

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    Alexandre Igor Azevedo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified Lepidoptera species was found defoliating Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae in a cerrado area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Pupae of this insect, collected in the area, were brought to the laboratory and maintained in Petri dishes (9.0 cm x 1.5 cm under 25 ± 2oC, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and 12 hours photophase to obtain adults and eggs. This insect was identified as Hylesia paulex Dognin (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, and, in that way, the objective of the present study was to register for the first time its herbivory in E. cloeziana plants. Newly-emerged caterpillars were reared in 10 plastic pots (500ml, with 30 caterpillars per pot and fed, daily, with fresh leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae. The egg incubation period of H. paulex was 32.00 ± 1.19 days. The total duration of the seven instars of this insect was 67.83 ± 0.84 days. Hylesia paulex completed its life cycle with E. cloeziana plants, what proves its adaptability to this kind of exotic Myrtaceae in Brazil.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences.

  17. Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno (2010 Population dynamic of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polytes (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 11: 19-23. The population dynamic of Papilio polytes L. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the citrus orchard in Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Population of immature stages of P. polytes was observed alternate day from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, from April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and from October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. The population dynamics of the immature stages of P. polytes varied between seasons. The immature stages of P. polytes are more abundance and significantly different in the PWS than those of the DS and the SWS. The larval densities in all seasons decreased with progressive development of the instar stages. Predators and parasitoids are the main factor in regulating the population abundance of immature stages of P. polytes. There were positive correlations between the abundance of immature stages of P. polytes and their natural enemies abundance in each season. Ooencyrtus papilioni Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae is the most egg parasitoid. Oxyopes quadrifasciatus L. Koch. and O. elegans L. Koch. (Araneae: Oxyopidae are the main predators in the young larvae, meanwhile Sycanus dichotomus Stal. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae, Calotes versicolor Fitzinger (Squamata: Agamidae, birds and praying mantis attacked the older larvae.

  18. Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae, in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify the parasitoids of P. xylostella and to determine their influence on larva and pupa mortality. Weekly collections of larvae and pupae were randomly conducted in cabbage crops during spring 2006 and 2007. The immature forms collected were classified according to their developmental stage: L1 and L2 (Ls = small larvae, L3 (Lm = medium larvae, L4 (Ll = large larvae, pre-pupae and pupae (P. Each individual was observed daily in the laboratory until the adult pest or parasitoid emergence. We identified parasitoids, the number of instar and the percentage of mortality of P. xylostella for each species of parasitoid. Parasitoids recorded were: Diadegma insulare (Cresson, 1875 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and an unidentified species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera. Besides parasitoids, an unidentified entomopathogenic fungus was also recorded in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the most successful parasitoids were D. insulare and O. sokolowskii, while in 2007 only D. insulare exerted a satisfactory control and it attacked the early instars of the pest.

  19. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

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    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  20. Evolutionary Diversifaction of Aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by Conserved Clade-specific Amino Acid Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. PMID:24675701

  1. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Controle químico da Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae na cultura do pessegueiro Chemical control of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach orchards

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    Cristiano João Arioli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa oriental Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae é a principal praga da cultura do pessegueiro no Brasil. O controle do inseto depende basicamente do emprego de inseticidas de alta toxicidade e baixa seletividade aos inimigos naturais. Este trabalho avaliou os inseticidas etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 e 150mL 100L-1, benzoato de emamectina (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 e 15g 100L-1 + óleo mineral (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC, 40 e 60mL 100L-1 e spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 e 25mL 100L-1 para o controle da G. molesta na cultura do pessegueiro. No experimento de laboratório, somente o etofemprox apresentou baixa mortalidade (±50% de lagartas. Em pomar comercial, todos os inseticidas e doses testadas reduziram o nível de injúria nos ponteiros em nível superior a 80%. Os inseticidas avaliados apresentam características desejáveis para uso no manejo integrado da G. molesta, destacando-se a baixa toxicidade e reduzida dose de aplicação, o que minimiza os riscos ao homem e ambiente.Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the most important peach pest in Brazil. Pest management is based on chemical control using insecticides with high toxicity and low selectivity to natural enemies. Etofemprox (Trebon 100 SC, 100 and 150mL 100L-1, emamectin benzoato (Proclaim 5 SG, 10 and 15g 100L-1 associated to mineral oil (Assist, 250mL 100L-1, metoxyfenozide (Intrepid 240 SC 40 and 60mL 100L-1, spinosad (Tracer 480 SC, 15 and 25mL 100L-1 and fosmet (Imidan 500 PM, 200g 100L-1 were evaluated in laboratory and field conditions to G. molesta control. In laboratory, only etofemprox resulted in low mortality (± 50% in residual bioassay. In commercial peach orchards, all insecticides reduced pest damage (> 80%. All insecticides shows characteristics for use in the integrated management of G. molesta including low toxicity and reduced application dose.

  3. Controle químico da Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae e da Hypocala andremona (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em laboratório

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    Bavaresco Alvimar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Hypocala andremona (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae e a Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae são as principais pragas do caquizeiro na Serra Gaúcha contudo, há poucas informações sobre o controle químico dessas lagartas. Neste trabalho, avalia-se a eficácia dos inseticidas: acefato, benzoato de emamectina (+ ��leo mineral, clorpirifós-etil, espinosade, etofemproxi, fenitrotiona, fosmete, metoxifenozida, tiacloprido e triclorfom no controle da A. sphaleropa e da H. andremona em laboratório. Os inseticidas (em gramas de ingrediente ativo por 100 litros de água - g i.a. 100L-1 acefato (37,5 e 75,0, benzoato de emamectina (0,375 e 0,5, clorpirifós-etil (45,0 e 67,5, espinosade (4,8 e 9,6, etofemproxi (10,0 e 15,0, fenitrotiona (75,0, metoxifenozida (14,4 e triclorfom (120,0 e 150,0 resultaram em mortalidade superior a 80,0% entre as lagartas de A. sphaleropa. Em relação à H. andremona, observou-se que o acefato (37,5 e 75,0, o benzoato de emamectina (0,375 e 0,5, o clorpirifós-etil (45,0 e 67,5, o espinosade (4,8 e 9,6, o etofemproxi (10 e 15,0, a fenitrotiona (50 e 75,0, o fosmete (50,0 e 100,0, a metoxifenozida (9,6 e 14,4 e o triclorfom (120,0 e 150,0 causaram mortalidade superior a 80%. Esses inseticidas apresentaram elevada eficiência em laboratório e características desejáveis para uso no manejo de lagartas do caquizeiro. No entanto, para validar o seu emprego em pomares comerciais é necessária avaliação de campo.

  4. Seletividade de inseticidas a três Vespidae predadores de Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae Selectivity of insecticides to three Vespidae predators of Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO FIALHO DE MOURA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os insetos que atacam o maracujazeiro, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae é considerada a praga-chave. Estudou-se a seletividade dos inseticidas fentiom, cartape, malatiom e deltametrina a Dione juno juno, em relação às vespas predadoras Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris e Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae. Estimaram-se as curvas concentração-mortalidade e mediante o uso da concentração letal do inseticida em 90% dos indivíduos (CL90 calcularam-se os índices de seletividade diferencial e índices de tolerância. A deltametrina foi seletiva à P. scutellaris e P. fastidiosuscula e medianamente seletiva à P. sylveirae e o cartape foi medianamente seletivo às três espécies de vespas predadoras. O malatiom foi seletivo a P. sylveirae e medianamente seletivo a P. fastidiosuscula. As vespas predadoras P. fastidiosuscula eP. scutellaris foram mais tolerantes a deltametrina e ao fentiom do que P. sylveirae, enquanto o P. fastidiosuscula e P. sylveirae toleraram mais o cartape do que P. scutellaris. O malatiom foi mais tolerado pela espécie P. sylveirae do que por P. fastidiosuscula e P. scutellaris.Among insects that attack passion fruit, Dione juno juno (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae is considered the most dangerous plague. The selectivity of the insecticides fenthion, cartap, malathion and deltamethrin to the predatory wasps Polybia fastidiosuscula, Polybia scutellaris and Protonectarina sylveirae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae was studied based on these insecticide toxicities to their prey Dione juno juno. Concentration-mortality regression lines were obtained and the estimated lethal concentration of insecticide to 90% (LC90 of the individuals were used for the calculation of the differential selectivity index and tolerance index. Deltamethrin was selective in favor of P. scutellaris and P. fastidiosuscula and showed intermediate selectivity to P. sylveirae, while cartap showed intermediate selectivity to all

  5. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

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    Holt Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L., Manduca sexta (L., Pieris rapae (L. and Heliothis virescens (F. treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel, and Lymantria dispar (L. treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII. Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII following antibiotic

  6. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole A; Robinson, Courtney J; McMahon, Matthew D; Holt, Jonathan; Handelsman, Jo; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2009-03-04

    Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L.), Manduca sexta (L.), Pieris rapae (L.) and Heliothis virescens (F.) treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel), and Lymantria dispar (L.) treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII). Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII) following antibiotic treatment significantly increased

  7. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

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    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  8. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Characterization and Compartmentalization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Darvishzadeh; Vahid Hosseininaveh; Siavash Salimian Rizi

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to...

  9. The “Taygetis ypthima species group” (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae: taxonomy, variation and description of a new species

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    Ricardo Siewert

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided.

  10. Cluster biodiversity as a multidimensional structure evolution strategy: checkerspot butterflies of the group Euphydryas aurinia (Rottemburg, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Bolshakov, L. V.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2016), s. 441-457 ISSN 0307-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euphydryas aurinia * biodiversity * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12167/abstract

  11. Primeira ocorrência de fitofagia de frutos e sementes de Orchidaceae por Hyphilaria thasus Stoll. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRÉ RODRIGO RECH; YARA BRITO CHAIM JARDIM ROSA; EDGARD JARDIM ROSA JUNIOR

    2008-01-01

    Em um levantamento para identificação de espécies nativas da mata ciliar do Rio Dourados, Dourados (MS), observou-se a fitofagia em frutos de Brassavola cebolleta e Oncidium jonesianum por larvas de Hyphilaria thasus (Stoll, 1780) (Lepidoptera). Este é o primeiro relato da fitofagia de frutos e sementes nessas duas espécies de Orchidaceae no Brasil.

  12. Primeira ocorrência de fitofagia de frutos e sementes de Orchidaceae por Hyphilaria thasus Stoll. (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae no Brasil

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    ANDRÉ RODRIGO RECH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Em um levantamento para identificação de espécies nativas da mata ciliar do Rio Dourados, Dourados (MS, observou-se a fitofagia em frutos de Brassavola cebolleta e Oncidium jonesianum por larvas de Hyphilaria thasus (Stoll, 1780 (Lepidoptera. Este é o primeiro relato da fitofagia de frutos e sementes nessas duas espécies de Orchidaceae no Brasil.

  13. Structural similarity between the lepidoptera- and diptera-specific insecticidal endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" and "israelensis".

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, L; Garduno, F; Thompson, T; Decker, D.; Zounes, M; Wild, M.; Walfield, A M; Pollock, T J

    1986-01-01

    A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" was cloned from the large plasmids of this subspecies and was shown to code for a mosquitocidal polypeptide. The gene could be expressed in either Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, or B. thuringiensis subsp. "israelensis" to produce the larvicidal activity. Similarly, a Lepidoptera-specific toxin gene from B. thuringiensis subsp. "kurstaki" was also cloned and expressed in E. coli and B. subtilis. Both cloned genes were sequenced and ...

  14. Espécies de Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Rocco Alfredo Di Mare

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of Adelpha Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitidinae occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Based on literature, collections and sampled butterflies, a list of twelve species of Adelpha Hübner occurring in Rio Grande do Sul State is presented, including host plants. Adelpha epizygis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha falcipennis Fruhstorfer, [1916], Adelpha goyama Schaus, 1902 and Adelpha isis (Drury, 1782 are new reports to Rio Grande do Sul. The species are illustrated and keyed.

  15. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  16. Some Brain Peptides Regulating the Secretion of Digestive Enzymes in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjadian Seyede Minoo; Hosseininaveh Vahid; Jahromi Khalil Talebi

    2014-01-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a destructive polyphagous pest of many stored products. To interfere with the physiological processes, especially digestion, of the larval pest, more information on the regulatory mechanisms is needed. The brain extract from 1-day-old last instar larvae of P. interpunctella was examined. In the bioassays, the midguts were treated with the brain extract, and the carbohydrase and protease activities were measured. ...

  17. Ecology of the African maize stalk borer, Bussolea fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with special reference to insect-plant interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno; van den Berg, J; Schulthess, F

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on ...

  18. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Paul-André Calatayud; Le Ru, Bruno P.; Johnnie van den Berg; Fritz Schulthess

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on...

  19. Combining natural enemies and selective pesticides in IPM programmes of exotic pests: the Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) case

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The recent invasion of the Mediterranean basin by the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), has lead to a swift increase in insecticide applications in tomato crops. Such increase may compromise the tomato Integrated Pest Management (IPM) packages that were sustainable and commonly used by farmers. My work aimed at providing key bases for including indigenous biocontrol agents of T. absoluta in IPM programs on tomato in Europe. A survey carried out in 3 Ital...

  20. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

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    Angel Olguín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I and aristolactam-II (AL-II present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  1. Fate of Ingested Aristolactams from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alejandro; Olguín, Angel; Santander, Rocío

    2013-10-11

    We performed a sequestration study of aristolactams (ALs) from Aristolochia chilensis in Battus polydamas archidamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) by examining the AL content of the plant, fifth instar larvae, osmeterial secretion, pupae, exuviae and feces. Aristolactam-I (AL-I) and aristolactam-II (AL-II) present in A. chilensis are sequestered by fifth instar larvae of B. polydamas archidamas. There is a preferential sequestration of AL-II, or a more efficient metabolization and excretion of AL-I, by the larva. No ALs were found in the osmeterial secretion, pupae and exuviae; in addition, little AL-I and no AL-II were found in larval frass. The two lactams, particularly AL-I, are extensively metabolized to other products in the larva. A reasonable hypothesis is that the ingested ALs are oxidized to their respective aristolochic acids.

  2. Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae: conservation, notes, and rediscovery of an endangered butterfly from southern Brazil

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    Ricardo Russo Siewert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stichelia pelotensis (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae is an endemic and threatened butterfly from the Pampa biome in southern Brazil, and has not been recorded in its type locality in the last 56 years. Recently, a population was found in two sites from extreme south Brazil, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul state. These records are an important find given the conservation status of S. pelotensis, since all the information gathered is new and involve the natural history of this species. The information obtained is useful for the management, monitoring and conservation priorities of this species and its associated habitats, since its known distribution is restricted to a narrow area in the Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain inside this threatened biome in southern Brazil.

  3. A new, prairie-restricted species of Anacampsis Curtis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) from Illinois .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry L; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-11-26

    Anacampsis wikeri (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), new species, is described. The larva of A. wikeri feeds on leaves of a prairie legume, leadplant, Amorpha canescens (Fabaceae). The moth is univoltine, with mature larvae occurring in late May; adults are active from early June into summer and autumn, while overwintering throughout the winter months. The adult of A. wikeri is externally very similar to that of another legume-feeding species, Anacampsis psoraliella. Sight identification of adults of these two species, especially of unreared individuals originating in the multi-state area of the Midwest in which their respective larval hostplants are sympatric, therefore is rendered problematic. Larval host plant specificity and adult genital morphology, however, allow unequivocal diagnosis. These characters are discussed, and male and female genitalia are illustrated for both species.

  4. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Megido, Rudy Caparros; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2014-11-11

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  5. Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Isabel Bertolaccini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortality of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae by parasitoids in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae larvae cause severe economic damage on cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae, in the horticultural fields in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Overuse of broad spectrum insecticides affects the action of natural enemies of this insect on cabbage. The objectives of this work were to identify the parasitoids of P. xylostella and to determine their influence on larva and pupa mortality. Weekly collections of larvae and pupae were randomly conducted in cabbage crops during spring 2006 and 2007. The immature forms collected were classified according to their developmental stage: L1 and L2 (Ls = small larvae, L3 (Lm = medium larvae, L4 (Ll = large larvae, pre-pupae and pupae (P. Each individual was observed daily in the laboratory until the adult pest or parasitoid emergence. We identified parasitoids, the number of instar and the percentage of mortality of P. xylostella for each species of parasitoid. Parasitoids recorded were: Diadegma insulare (Cresson, 1875 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjumov, 1912 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and an unidentified species of Chalcididae (Hymenoptera. Besides parasitoids, an unidentified entomopathogenic fungus was also recorded in 2006 and 2007. In 2006, the most successful parasitoids were D. insulare and O. sokolowskii, while in 2007 only D. insulare exerted a satisfactory control and it attacked the early instars of the pest.Mortalidade de Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae por parasitóides na Província de Santa Fé, Argentina. Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae causa danos econômicos severos em repolho, Brassica oleracea variedade capitata L. (Brassicaceae, na área de horticultura localizada

  6. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

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    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  7. Pheromone races of Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae overlap in host plant association and geographic distribution

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    Marie eBengtsson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the sex pheromone of Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae by pheromone gland analysis followed by field trapping with synthetic compounds shows the occurrence of two pheromone races. Acorn moth females from Sweden, where oak Quercus robur is the only host plant, use a blend of the E,Z and E,E isomers of 8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. In Central and Southern Europe, where C. splendana feeds on chestnut Castanea sativa and several species of oak, males respond to another isomer blend, E,E and Z,E. The distribution of the two pheromone races of C. splendana overlaps in Northern France, where they share oak as plant host. Differences in sex communication signals lead to behavioural pre-mating isolation between these populations, and emphasize the role of specific mate recognition in speciation events.

  8. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

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    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  9. First report of Elaphria agrotina and Elaphria deltoides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Elaphriini) feeding on maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Alexandre; Soria, Miguel Ferreira; Maba, Talita Saiara Mafini; Belufi, Luana Maria de Rossi; Godoi, Bárbara Weschenfelder; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa; Paula-Moraes, Silvana V

    2014-08-01

    This is the first report of Elaphria agrotina (Guenée, 1852) and Elaphria deltoides (Möschler, 1880) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on maize (Zea mays L.). The specimens were collected in maize fields during the crop season of 2012 and 2013 in three municipalities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Larvae were collected while feeding at the ear base, which often resulted in ears dropping to the ground. Larvae also were observed feeding on kernels in fallen ears. Ear injury often leads to reduced grain quality, and when the ears fall to the ground, reduced yield. A previous report of Striacosta albicosta (Smith, 1888) feeding on maize in Brazil was probably a misidentification of an E. agrotina male, which has wing pattern and coloration similarities with S. albicosta.

  10. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  11. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East.

  12. First report of Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on African mahogany Khaya ivorensis

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    Ronald Zanetti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The mahogany shoot borer Hypsipyla grandella Zeller is an important economic pest in all American tropical forests, because it prevents monoculture of valuable timber trees species like mahogany and cedar. The shoot borer damages several tree structures, especially the apical shoots, impairing the formation of the commercial stem. This pest can attack the plants during the year and one larva per plant is enough to cause significant damage. In infested areas, the attack can reach up to 100 % of the trees. The Australian cedar and African mahogany have been cultivated in Brazil for timber production, because they are considered resistant to H. grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae attack. However, in this work we report for the first time the H. grandella attack to African mahogany Khaya ivorensis.

  13. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  14. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

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    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-jun; Shi, Bao-cai; Kang, Zong-jiang; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Shu-jun

    2012-03-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) currently is one of the economically most destructive pest species of stone and pome fruits worldwide. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,776 bp long, with an A + T content of 81.24%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A + T-rich region. All gene are arranged as hypothesized ancestral gene order of insects except for trnM, which was shuffled from 3' downstream of trnQ to 5' upstream of trnI. cox1 gene uses unusual CGA start codon, as that in all other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genome. The secondary structures for the two rRNA genes were predicted. All helices typically present in insect mitochondrial rRNA genes are generated. A microsatellite sequence was inserted into the region of H2347 in rrnL in G. molesta and two other sequenced tortricid mitochondrial genomes, indicating that the insertion event in this helix might occurred anciently in family Tortricidae. All of the 22 typical animal tRNA genes have a typical cloverleaf structure except for trnS2, in which the D-stem pairings in the DHU arm are absent. An intergenic sequence is present between trnQ and nad2 as well as in other sequenced lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, which was presumed to be a remnant of trnM gene and its boundary sequences after the duplication of trnM to the upstream of trnI in Lepidoptera. The A + T-rich region is 836 bp, containing six repeat sequences of "TTATTATTATTATTAAATA(G)TTT."

  16. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Jenis Kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di Sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi

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    Bestia Dewi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan jenis kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi. Sampel  diambil dari 5 stasiun yang ditentukan secara purposif. Pada Masing-masing stasiun dibuat transek sepanjang 140 m, lalu dibuat 10 plot dengan ukuran 5x5 m dengan jarak antar plot yang sama (10 m. Parameter pengamatan meliputi keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan jenis. Selain itu diamati pula kondisi lingkungan yang meliputi intensitas cahaya, suhu udara dan kelembaban udara. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ditemukan 143 individu dari 5 famili yaitu famili Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae dan Hesperiidae dengan indeks keanekaragaman jenis yaitu 2,153. Hasil perhitungan kelimpahan jenis menunjukkan banyak jenis yang ditemukan dengan kelimpahan yang rendah yaitu dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,006 (1 individu. Adapun jenis kupu-kupu yang ditemukan melimpah adalah jenis Junonia orithya dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,160  (23 individu, diikuti oleh Acraea terpsicore dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,132(19 individu dan Eurema hecabe dengan nilai kelimpahan jenis 0,118 (17 individu. Kondisi lingkungan yaitu intensitas cahaya (16780-92170 Lux, suhu udara (31,6-34,2 oC dan kelembaban udara (63,8-80,8%. Dari hasil penelitian, keanekaragaman jenis kupu-kupu (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera di sekitar Kampus Pinang Masak Universitas Jambi menunjukkan tingkat yang sedang dengan nilai berkisar antara 1,5-3,5. Disarankan untuk dapat dilakukan penelitian sejenis dengan lokasi yang lebih luas, dan dengan berbagai kondisi musim sehingga mendapatkan hasil yang lebih luas.   Kata kunci: kupu-kupu, keanekaragaman, kelimpahan, Universitas Jambi.

  17. Genetic and biological analysis of Colombian Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus isolated from Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Correal, Carlos; Léry, Xavier; Villamizar, Laura; Gómez, Juliana; Zeddam, Jean Louis; Cotes, Alba Marina; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2010-11-01

    Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an invasive potato pest of the north of South America that recently colonized zones where Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a taxonomically related insect, was established. Nowadays, both species can be found in most areas in different proportions. The Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) was found to efficiently control P. operculella and was used as a biopesticide in storage conditions. However, no appropriate biological control methods exist for T. solanivora, and the use of granulovirus isolates would provide a solution. The Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) carried out several T. solanivora larva samplings in Colombia with the aim of finding potential isolates. Five geographical granulovirus isolates from T. solanivora (VG001, VG002, VG003, VG004, and VG005) were found, and molecular analysis by REN profiles shows three different genotypic variants in Colombia. Analysis of their genomes revealed their relatedness to PhopGV. Two isolates exhibited submolar bands in their REN patterns, suggesting a mixture of viral genotypes. These data were confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of particular regions of the viral genomes. Their biological activity was assayed on both hosts, T. solanivora and P. operculella. A significantly higher pathogenicity in both hosts was observed with isolates VG001 and VG005 than with isolate VG003 or a Peruvian isolate (from P. operculella) used as a reference in the bioassay. Based on their molecular and biological activity characteristics, VG001 and VG005 isolates should be selected for further analysis in order to establish their potential as biological control agents.

  18. Mitochondrial genome characterization of Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its phylogenetic relationship with other lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Ríos, Viviana; Franco-Sierra, Nicolás D; Alvarez, Javier Correa; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I; Villanueva-Mejía, Diego F

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was sequenced, annotated, characterized and compared with 140 species of the order Lepidoptera. The circular genome is 15,251 bp, containing 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region). The gene arrangement was identical to other lepidopteran mitogenomes but different from the ancestral arrangement found in most insects for the tRNA-Met gene (A+T-region, tRNA-I, tRNA-Q, tRNA-M). The mitogenome of T. solanivora is highly A+T-biased (78.2%) and exhibits negative AT- and GC-skews. All PCGs are initiated by canonical ATN start codons, except for Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (COI), which is initiated by CGA. Most PCGs have a complete typical stop codon (TAA). Only NAD1 has a TAG stop codon and the COII and NAD5 genes have an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. The A+T-rich region is 332 bp long and contains common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes, including the 'ATAGA' motif, a 17 bp poly (T) stretch and a (AT)8 element preceded by the 'ATTTA' motif. Other tandem repeats like (TAA)4 and (TAT)7 were found, as well as (T)6 and (A)10 mononucleotide repeat elements. Finally, this mitogenome has 20 intergenic spacer regions. The phylogenetic relationship of T. solanivora with 28 other lepidopteran families (12 superfamilies) showed that taxonomic classification by morphological features coincides with the inferred phylogeny. Thus, the Gelechiidae family represents a monophyletic group, suggesting that T. solanivora and Pectinophora gossypiella have a recent common ancestor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Attack behavior of Podisus rostralis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidade adults on caterpillars of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    Walkymário Paulo Lemos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Attack behavior of the predator Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae adults on fourth instar Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae caterpillars was studied in laboratory conditions. Ten 24 hours old adults of this predator were observed during two hours with the following attack behavior: (1 Predator: prey finding; prey observation; touching prey with antenna; attack behavior; prey paralysis; predator retreat after attack; attack cessation; successive attacks; and (2 Prey: defense. The predator P. rostralis found its prey before attacking and it approached it with slow circular movements. The attack was usually made in the posterior part of the prey to reduce defense reaction. Larger size of prey in relation to the predator resulted difficult prey paralysis but it occurred in less than two hours.Estudou-se, em laboratório, o comportamento de ataque de adultos do predador Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae tendo como presa lagartas de quarto estádio de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. Dez adultos do predador, com 24 horas de idade, foram observados durante duas horas acompanhando-se os seguintes comportamentos de ataque: (1 Predador: localização da presa; observação da presa; toque das presas com as antenas; comportamento de ataque; paralisação da presa; fuga do predador após ataque; finalização do ataque; ataques sucessivos; e (2 Presa: defesa. O predador P. rostralis localizou sua presa antes do ataque, aproximando-se dela através de lentos movimentos circulares. O ataque é, usualmente, realizado na parte posterior da presa para reduzir reação de defesa. O maior tamanho da presa em relação ao predador pode dificultar a paralisação, porém o predador consegue paralisá-la em menos de duas horas.

  20. Global Dosage Compensation Is Ubiquitous in Lepidoptera, but Counteracted by the Masculinization of the Z Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huylmans, Ann Kathrin; Macon, Ariana; Vicoso, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    While chromosome-wide dosage compensation of the X chromosome has been found in many species, studies in ZW clades have indicated that compensation of the Z is more localized and/or incomplete. In the ZW Lepidoptera, some species show complete compensation of the Z chromosome, while others lack full equalization, but what drives these inconsistencies is unclear. Here, we compare patterns of male and female gene expression on the Z chromosome of two closely related butterfly species, Papilio xuthus and Papilio machaon, and in multiple tissues of two moths species, Plodia interpunctella and Bombyx mori, which were previously found to differ in the extent to which they equalize Z-linked gene expression between the sexes. We find that, while some species and tissues seem to have incomplete dosage compensation, this is in fact due to the accumulation of male-biased genes and the depletion of female-biased genes on the Z chromosome. Once this is accounted for, the Z chromosome is fully compensated in all four species, through the up-regulation of Z expression in females and in some cases additional down-regulation in males. We further find that both sex-biased genes and Z-linked genes have increased rates of expression divergence in this clade, and that this can lead to fast shifts in patterns of gene expression even between closely related species. Taken together, these results show that the uneven distribution of sex-biased genes on sex chromosomes can confound conclusions about dosage compensation and that Z chromosome-wide dosage compensation is not only possible but ubiquitous among Lepidoptera. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae oviposition on macadamia nuts

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    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6 939. E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.Se determinó la distribución vertical de los huevos del barrenador de la nuez de macadamia Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae y los sitios de preferencia de oviposición en los árboles y entre clones de macadamia. Se detectó la presencia de huevos de E. torticornis en todo el árbol, sin embargo, se encontró un menor número de huevos en la parte alta de la corona que en la parte media e inferior. La diferencia en la distribución horizontal de los huevos fue no significativa, a pesar de encontrarse un mayor número de huevos en las posiciones externas. El número de huevos entre clones fue similar, sugiriendo que la polilla del barrenador no tiene preferencias de oviposición entre clones.

  2. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  3. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  4. Utilización de feromonas en la predicción fenológica de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo Casas, Josep I.

    1994-01-01

    Utilització de feromones en la predicció fenològica de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Helicoverpa (=Heliothis) armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) és un insecte plaga clau en conreus de tomàquet i clavell a l'aire lliure al Delta del Llobregat i Maresme. La millora dels sistemes de control d'aquest lepidòpter plaga passa per l'obtenció de mètodes senzills per a definir les densitats presents a fi de racionalitzar la presa de decisions d'intervenció. Els mostreig...

  5. Biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae na cultura da soja Biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in the soybean crop

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    Eliana Aparecida Magrini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a biologia de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em campos de soja. Os experimentos foram conduzidos durante os períodos agrícolas de 1992 a 1997. Em cada ano foram realizadas duas avaliações, com 20 repetições para cada fase do ciclo de A. gemmatalis. Os insetos levados ao campo foram criados por duas gerações, em laboratório, sobre folhas de soja da variedade hospedeira à temperatura de 27 ± 1 oC, fotofase de 14 horas e 60 ± 10 % UR até a fase de pupa. Foram determinados o número, viabilidade e período de incubação de ovos e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade dos adultos, ritmo de postura e razão sexual. A viabilidade média para a fase de ovo variou de 43,0 % (1996 a 76,3 % (1997, sendo a duração média de 3,60 dias. O período larval dos indivíduos que originaram fêmeas variou de 8,95 (1993 a 16,75 dias (1997 e a viabilidade média foi de 17,2 %. O períCodo de pupas fêmeas e de machos foi praticamente o mesmo nos anos estudados (9,80 e 10,61 dias, respectivamente. A longevidade dos adultos fêmeas variou entre 9,10 (1997 a 12,90 dias (1996. A média de ovos colocados foi de 73,5, dos quais 42,3 % viáveis. A razão sexual média foi de 0,50. O período de postura, ocorreu até o 7o (1997 ou 13o dias (1996 com o acme no 2o dia. O ciclo médio de vida da fêmea (ovo - adulto foi de 26,51 dias.The biology of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae was studied in soybean fields. The experiments were conducted during the seasons of 1992 through 1997. Two evaluations were performed each year with 20 replications for each phase of A. gemmatalis. The insects taken to the field were reared in laboratory for two generations on leaves of the host soybean variety, at 27 ± 1 oC, 14 - hour photophase, and 60 ± 10 % RH, up to the pupal phase. The number, viability and period of incubation of the eggs as well as the viability of the larval and pupal stages, longevity of adults, egg

  6. Efecto del flufenoxuron sobre la actividad copuladora del macho de spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Flufenoxuron effects on copulating capacity of spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae males

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    Jairo Roberto Mendonça Lyra

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Ha sido evaluado el efecto de benzoilfenylureia sobre la capacidad copuladora de machos de Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepdoptera: Noctuidae. Dos grupos de larvas de 3º estadio fueron tratados con el flufenoxuron, uno por ingestión y el otro por contacto, con una concentración del producto igual a la DL60. Cuando hubo la emergencia de los adultos, 10 machos por tratamiento fueron individualizados en cilindros de papel de filtro y puestos a copular con hembras vírgenes, que eron sustituídas diariamente, hasta la muerte de las mismas. Las hembras que fueron ofrecidas a los machos, al morir, eron dissecadas para verificar se estaban o no copuladas, a través de la observación de la presencia de espermatóforos en la bursa copulatrix. Fue observado que los machos de S. littoralis provenientes de larvas tratadas con el flufenoxuron, no tuvieron su capacidad copuladora alterada. La metodología fue considerada adecuada para evaluar la atividad copuladora y el número de copulaciones realizadas por el macho de esta especie.The effect of benzoilphenylureas was studied on the copulating capacity of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae males. Two groups of third instar larvae were treated with flufenoxuron, one by ingestion and another by contact with an DL60 rate. After emergence of the adults, ten males of the each treatment were put individualy in a filter paper cylinder, from the first night until death, in the presence of a virgin female that shift daily. After the female death they were desiccated in order to see the presence or not of the spermatophore in the bursa copulatrix. It was observed that the S. littoralis males that proceeded from the flufenoxuron treated larvae did not change their copulating capacity. The metodology was considerate efficient to evaluate the copulate capacity of this specie males.

  7. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

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    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea from Corrientes city, Argentina. Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae

  8. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

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    Johansson Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0 into (Z-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone

  9. Hemocyte quantitative changes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae infected by AgMNPV

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    Fábio Goulart de Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial effects of the infection by AgMNPV in the total and differential counts of the hemocytes in Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae were studied. The total number of the hemocytes did not decrease in infected larvae, as it occurred in non infected larvae. In infected larvae, the hemocyte types showed the following frequencies: plasmatocytes - 47.8%, esferulocytes - 25.9%, granulocytes - 15.8%, oenocytoids - 7.2%, prohemocytes - 2.8%, vermicytes - 0,5%. Only the percentage of the granulocytes was different among infected and non infected larvae, indicating that these cells responded quickly to the initial viral infection. These results showed the effective role of the hemocytes in the response of the A. gemmatalis to the infection by AgMNPV. The comprehension of the immunological mechanisms of this insect is an important tool to understand its biological control.Os efeitos iniciais da infecção por AgMNPV nas contagens total e diferencial dos hemócitos em Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foram estudados. O número total de hemócitos não diminuiu nas larvas infectadas, como ocorreu nas larvas não infectadas. Nas larvas infectadas, os tipos de hemócitos apresentaram as seguintes freqüências: plasmatócitos - 47,8%, esferulócitos - 25,9%, granulócitos - 15,8%, oenocitóides - 7,2%, prohemócitos - 2,8%, vermiformes - 0,5%. Apenas a porcentagem de granulócitos foi diferente entre larvas infectadas e não infectadas, indicando que estas células responderam rapidamente à infecção viral inicial. Estes resultados mostraram o papel efetivo que dos hemócitos na resposta de A. gemmatalis à infecção por AgMNPV. A compreensão dos mecanismos imunológicos deste inseto é uma ferramenta importante para compreender seu controle biológico.

  10. Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditakis, Emmanouil; Steinbach, Denise; Moritz, Gerald; Vasakis, Emmanouil; Stavrakaki, Marianna; Ilias, Aris; García-Vidal, Lidia; Martínez-Aguirre, María Del Rosario; Bielza, Pablo; Morou, Evangelia; Silva, Jefferson E; Silva, Wellington M; Siqueira, Ηerbert A A; Iqbal, Sofia; Troczka, Bartlomiej J; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Vontas, John; Nauen, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T. absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T. absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P. xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P. xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T. absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance

  11. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  12. A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps

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    Gunnar Brehm

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most nocturnal Lepidoptera can be attracted to artificial light sources, particularly to those that emit a high proportion of ultraviolet radiation. Here, I describe a newly developed LED lamp set for the use in the field that is lightweight, handy, robust, and energy efficient. The emitted electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to the peak sensitivity in most Lepidoptera eye receptors (ultraviolet, blue and green. Power LEDs with peaks at 368 nm (ultraviolet, 450 nm (blue, 530 nm (green, and 550 nm (cool white are used. I compared the irradiance (Ee of many commonly used light-trapping lamps at a distance of 50 cm. Between wavelengths of 300 and 1000 nm, irradiance from the new lamp was 1.43 W m-2. The new lamp proved to be the most energy efficient, and it emitted more radiation in the range between 300 and 400 nm than any other lamp tested. Cold cathodes are the second most energy-efficient lamps. Irradiation from fluorescent actinic tubes is higher than from fluorescent blacklight-blue tubes. High-wattage incandescent lamps and self-ballasted mercury vapour lamps have highest irradiance, but they mainly emit in the long wave spectrum. The use of gauze and sheets decreases the proportion of UV radiation and increases the share of blue light, probably due to optical brighteners. Compared with sunlight, UV irradiance is low at a distance of 50 cm from the lamp, but (safety glasses as well as keeping sufficient distance from the lamp are recommended. In field tests, the new LED lamp attracted large numbers of Lepidoptera in both the Italian Alps and in the Peruvian Andes.

  13. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrejo, Nancy; Diaz, Ana E; Woodley, Norman E

    2013-11-18

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam., in Colombia. Aspects of its biology are briefly discussed.

  14. Biology, behavior, and larval morphology of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson; Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San Jose and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and...

  15. Three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Depressariidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 from Costa Rica: R. annemayae Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov., R. eowilsoni Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. and R. philipmayi Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. We used a data set of DNA COI-barcodes accumulated for Lepidoptera collected at Area de Conse...

  16. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  17. (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-Pentacosapentaene and (Z) -11-Hexadecenyl Acetate: sex attractant blend for Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Miller; Jocelyn Millar; Alex Mangini; Christopher Crowe; Gary Grant

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2008, we tested (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (pentaene) with the pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), as sex attractants for four sympatric species of coneworms, Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and...

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  19. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  20. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  1. NEW DATA ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOCTUID MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLANDS TULENEI, CHECHEN AND NORDOVIY OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work gives the species composition and geographical distribution of the noctuid moths (Lepidoptera,Noctuidae of the islands Tulenei, Chechen and Nordoviy of the north-western Caspian sea. Provides a list of common species of moths for all three of the Islands, as well as the list of rare with small populations of species.

  2. Comparative studies on the fecundity, egg survival, larval feeding, and development of Chilo partellus and Chilo orichalcociliellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on five grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofomata, V.C.; Overholt, W.A.; Huis, van A.; Egwuatu, R.I.

    2000-01-01

    Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Chilo orichalcociliellus Strand (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are gramineous stem borers that occur sympatrically in the southern coastal area of Kenya. Evidence over a 30-yr period indicates that the indigenous stem borer, C. orichalcociliellus, is being gradually displaced

  3. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  4. An integrated management plan for the control of Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Lotter

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia stricta is the most problematic alien plant species in the Kruger National Park (KNP where 30000 ha around Skukuza have been invaded by the weed. Control of 0. stricta is expensive and time consuming and there are insufficient resources available for the task at present. Biological control using the moth Cactoblastis cactorum has only been partially successful and herbicidal control remains the main method for tackling the problem. In order to optimise the control operation against 0. stricta, a management plan has been developed for the KNP. The infested region of the park has been divided into 18 management units, each of which will be treated in turn. During the first three years the control operations will clear 0. stricta from the peripheral units, to prevent the spread of the weed into other areas of the KNP, after which the central units will be tackled. The objective is to destroy all mature fruiting plants and those nearing maturity to curb long-range (seed dispersal of the weed. The small juvenile plants, which are difficult to detect, will be suppressed by C. cactorum. After five years the problem should be contained to the extent that an ongoing 'holding' programme will be sufficient to keep the weed in check. The success of the plan will depend on increased resources being committed to alien plant control in the Kruger National Park.

  5. Borboletas e Mariposas (Insecta: Lepidoptera do Município de Joaçaba, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Mario Favretto

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. For the first time is presented a list of Lepidoptera recorded in the municipality of Joaçaba, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The individuals were collected between the years 2006 and 2010 in different environments resulting in 58 species belonging to ten families. The most abundant families were Nymphalidae and Saturniidae, representing 34,48% and 24,13% of the species richness respectively. In addition, the most representative genera of Nymphalidae were Morpho (three species, and Hamadryas (two species, while in Saturniidae were Rothschildia (three species and Automeris (two species.

  6. The Ando-Patagonian Stigmella magnispinella group (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) with description of new species from Ecuador, Peru and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius; Diškus, Arūnas; Gerulaitis, Virginijus

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of morphological studies of collection samples from the Andes (Ecuador, Peru and Argentina), we describe five new species of Stigmella Schrank (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): S. varispinella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Ecuador), S. olekarsholti Remeikis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. magnispinella Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Peru), S. dolia Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. patagonica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Argentina). All treated taxa belong to the newly designated S. magnispinella group. Images of adults and genitalia, pictorial keys, a distribution map, and photographs of the leaf-mines of S. olekarsholti are included.

  7. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

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    Paul-André Calatayud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species. This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  8. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae

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    Еkaterina Yegorenkova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae. The female of P. gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  9. The preimaginal stages of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva & Kurashev, 1990 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), a parasitoid associated with Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorenkova, Ekaterina; Yefremova, Zoya

    2012-01-01

    The larval instars of Pnigalio gyamiensis Myartseva and Kurashev are described in detail for the first time. This species is a larval-pupal ectoparasitoid of Chrysoesthia sexguttella (Thunberg) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), which forms leaf mines in the plant Chenopodium album L. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae). The female of Pnigalio gyamiensis lays a single egg on the skin of the host larva or nearby it, without any significant preference for a particular variant. The presence of long hairs on its body provides the newly-hatched first larval instar with high mobility. Some peculiarities in this parasitoid-host relationship are described.

  10. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae collected on tomato plants in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    C. H. Marchiori

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21º14'43"S; 44º59'59"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae, one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae, and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae. The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

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    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  12. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-07-08

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  13. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed. PMID:26462824

  15. Susceptibility of the filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and filbert weevil (Curculio occidentalis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Denny J; Walton, Vaughn M

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the two primary direct insect pests of hazelnuts in Oregon to three species of entomopathogenic nematodes. The entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis marelatus Pt. Reyes, Steinernema carpocapsae All and Steinernema kraussei L137) were used in laboratory soil bioassays to determine their virulence against filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and filbert weevil, Curculio occidentalis (Casey) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). All three nematode species were infective in laboratory bioassays. Infectivity ranged from 73-100% and 23-85% for filbertworm and filbert weevil, respectively. Field results were similar to those found in the laboratory with filbertworm larvae being more susceptible to nematode infection.

  16. Abdominal macrochaetae of female Hylesia oratex Dyar, 1913 (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: external morphology and medical significance

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    ROSÂNGELA BRITO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of the genus Hylesia Hübner, [1820] are significant among the medically important Lepidoptera. Adult females use abdominal setae to wrap and protect the eggs that remain for months in nature. These setae, in contact with human skin, may cause allergic reactions including swelling, itching and local erythema, known as lepidopterism. The morphology of the abdominal scales and setae from the female H. oratex Dyar, 1913 is herein described and aspects related to their medical significance are discussed. Portions of each abdominal segment were examined through a scanning electron microscope. Two types of scales without medical importance, and two types of setae with medical importance, classified as "true setae" and "modified setae" were found. The true setae, which are slightly fusiform and have radially arranged lateral projections, are responsible for the allergic reactions caused by skin penetration. The modified setae, which are larger, curved, with the median enlarged and serrated margins, can be responsible for the release of chemical substances. This information provides a better understanding of the structure of the urticating setae, which are responsible for lepidopterism outbreaks in humans, and contributes towards the identification of the moth species involved.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and comparison with other Pyraloidea insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Bian, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome can provide important information for the understanding of phylogenetic relationships. The complete mt genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been sequenced. The circular genome is 15 287 bp in size, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The AT skew of this mt genome is slightly negative, and the nucleotide composition is biased toward A+T nucleotides (80.15%). All PCGs start with the typical ATN (ATA, ATC, ATG, and ATT) codons, except for the cox1 gene which may start with the CGA codon. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon T or TA. All the tRNA genes are folded into the typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, except for trnS1 (AGN) in which the DHU arm fails to form a stable stem-loop structure. The overlapping sequences are 35 bp in total and are found in seven different locations. A total of 240 bp of intergenic spacers are scattered in 16 regions. The control region of the mt genome is 327 bp in length and consisted of several features common to the sequenced lepidopteran insects. Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 PCGs using the Maximum Likelihood method shows that the placement of P. interpunctella was within the Pyralidae.

  18. [Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Corrientes city, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela Lazzeri, María; Esther Bar, María; Pieri Damborsky, Miryam

    2011-03-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae and Riodinidae and 18 subfamilies were recorded. Fifty-nine genera and 75 species were identified; Anartia jatrophae jatrophae was the most abundant species at both localities. This species and Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus and Dryas iulia alcionea were, among other seven, captured at all months. Highest values of abundance were registered during the warmest seasons. Santa Catalina presented the largest abundance (n = 701), richness (S = 74) and diversity (H' = 3.87). A total of 413 individuals and 52 species were identified at Parque Mitre, and Shannon diversity index was 3.58. The obtained data reveals a high species richness and similarity at both sites.

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis isolates entomopathogenic for Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae and Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gobatto

    Full Text Available Samples of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt were collected from soil and insects. Eight isolates were selected from rural soil, 15 from urban soil and 11 from insects. These were evaluated for entomopathogenicity against larvae of Anticarsia gemmatalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The pathogenicity tests showed that a higher percentage of isolates were active against A. gemmatalis (60% compared to C. quinquefasciatus (31%. Probit analysis (LC50 indicated that against A. gemmatalis four of the isolates presented values similar to the reference strain against A. gemmatalis, while against C. quinquefasciatus one isolate showed an LC50 similar to the reference strain (IPS-82. SDS-PAGE characterisation of two isolates showed a 27 kDa protein fraction related to the Bt subspecies israelensis cytolytic toxin (cyt gene. One 130 kDa protein, possibly related to the Bt crystal inclusions (cry1 gene, was identified in the other two isolates, which were more toxic for lepidoptera; another isolate presented a protein of 100 kDa. Some new local Bt isolates had similar LC50 probit values to the reference strains.

  20. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

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    Edy Syahputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  1. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  2. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  3. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  4. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  5. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  6. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  7. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  8. Whole-farm mating disruption to manage Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in diversified New Jersey orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollerup, Kris E; Rucker, Ann; Shearer, Peter W

    2012-10-01

    Fruit orchards in New Jersey are usually isolated from neighboring farms and diversified, often containing separate plantings of peach (Prunus spp.) and apple (Malus spp.). These crops can suffer significant damage from oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). This study evaluated the effect of managing G. molesta by using sex pheromone-based mating disruption applied to both peaches and apples (whole-farm mating disruption) rather than treating either crop alone. In year 1 of the experiment, G. molesta mating disruption applied to the adjacent peach and apple blocks provided better control than treating peaches or apples alone. During year 2, treating these adjacent blocks or only treating apples controlled G. molesta equally well. G. molesta populations were so low at the end of year 2 that mating disruption was not applied against this pest during year 3. This allowed us to determine whether applying mating disruption for two consecutive years controlled G. molesta well enough that it eliminated the need mating disruption for three consecutive years. The mean cumulative number of G. molesta captured in plots where both peaches and apples had been treated did not exceed two moths per trap in the third year of this experiment. In contrast, G. molesta capture rebounded during August in peaches and apples that had not been treated with mating disruption the previous 2 yr. Implications for managing G. molesta by using mating disruption as a "whole-farm" tactic as well applying it for two consecutive years and not a third year are discussed.

  9. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  10. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  13. DNA Barcoding of the Korean Lymantria Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) for Quarantine Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Su; Lee, Heung-Sik

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding and morphological analyses of Korean Lymantria (Erebidae, Lepidoptera) were conducted for quarantine inspection. In DNA barcoding, Lymantria dispar identified through quarantine inspection was distinguished as three species, L. dispar asiatica, L. albescens, and L. xylina. Lymantria monacha, which is known as a single species in Korea, is revealed as containing three species, L. monacha, L. minomonis, and L. sugii. At the subspecies level, L. dispar dispar formed a single cluster, whereas L. d. asiatica and L. d. japonica formed a cluster containing both subspecies. In morphological re-examination on DNA barcoding results, L. dispar was distinguished from L. albescens by wing pattern, and from L. xylina by papillae anale. L. monacha and the related species were hard to be distinct from each other by using wing pattern, but it was easily distinct through comparison of genitalia. Therefore, DNA barcoding led to accurate identification in species level, but in subspecies level, only a taxon showing geographically far distance was discriminated from the others. These results may provide a taxonomic outline of the Korean Lymantria fauna and may be used as an identification reference for Lymantria species during quarantine inspection. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Wedding biodiversity inventory of a large and complex Lepidoptera fauna with DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daniel H; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Hallwachs, Winnie; Remigio, Ed; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    By facilitating bioliteracy, DNA barcoding has the potential to improve the way the world relates to wild biodiversity. Here we describe the early stages of the use of cox1 barcoding to supplement and strengthen the taxonomic platform underpinning the inventory of thousands of sympatric species of caterpillars in tropical dry forest, cloud forest and rain forest in northwestern Costa Rica. The results show that barcoding a biologically complex biota unambiguously distinguishes among 97% of more than 1000 species of reared Lepidoptera. Those few species whose barcodes overlap are closely related and not confused with other species. Barcoding also has revealed a substantial number of cryptic species among morphologically defined species, associated sexes, and reinforced identification of species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically. For barcoding to achieve its full potential, (i) ability to rapidly and cheaply barcode older museum specimens is urgent, (ii) museums need to address the opportunity and responsibility for housing large numbers of barcode voucher specimens, (iii) substantial resources need be mustered to support the taxonomic side of the partnership with barcoding, and (iv) hand-held field-friendly barcorder must emerge as a mutualism with the taxasphere and the barcoding initiative, in a manner such that its use generates a resource base for the taxonomic process as well as a tool for the user. PMID:16214742

  15. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Grethe Aarnes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  16. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  17. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  18. Vegetative insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis BLB459 and its efficiency against Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukedi, Hanen; Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Hadhri, Rania; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2017-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strain BLB459 supernatant showed a promising activity against Lepidopteran pests with extremely damages in the larvae midgut. Investigations of the genes that encode secreted toxin demonstrated that this strain harbored a vip3-type gene named vip3(459). Based on its original nucleotide and amino acid sequences, this gene was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was purified and tested against different insects and interestingly the novel toxin demonstrated a remarkable activity against the stored products pest Ephestia kuehniella and the polyphagous insects Spodoptera littoralis and Agrotis segetum. As demonstrated, the acute activity of Vip3(459) protein against A. segetum can be due to its original amino acids sequence and the putative receptors of this toxin in the larvae midgut. These results demonstrated that this Vip3 toxin showed a wide spectrum of activity against Lepidoptera and support its use as a biological control agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BIJI TANAMAN MINDI MELIA AZEDARACH (L. TERHADAP SPODOPTERA LITURA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE

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    Hamdani .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Activity of Melia azedarach (L. seed extract against armyworm Spodoptera litura (F. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectivenes and biological activity of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae seed extract against armyworm, Spodoptera litura F. The first instar larvae were fed extract-treated cotton leaves for 2 days, then were maintained on untreated leaves until the third instar stage. Records were kept in regard to the larvae mortality and developmental time of surviving larvae from first instar to third instar. The result showed that Melia azedarach L. seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% exhibited moderate insecticidal activity against S. litura larvae (43.33 - 68.33% mortality. Addition of detergen at 0.2% to extract did not increase insecticidal activity of the extract. However, boiling seed extract at consentration of 50 g of seeds/l of water (5% during 10 until 20 minutes increased insecticidal activity of extract (66.67 - 68.33% mortality. Generally, M. azedarach seed extract treatment did not affect  developmental time of  S. litura larvae.

  20. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  1. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

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    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  2. Papilionoidea de la Sierra de Huautla, Morelos y Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera

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    Mercedes Luna-Reyes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huautla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera. The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants. Despite this, our knowledge of the Papilionoidea of the region is poor. We analyzed the local and temporal distribution of Papilionoidea at 24 localities in the states of Morelos and Puebla. The study sites are situated between 900 and 1300 m. a. s. l., and are composed of dry tropical forest (dtf. We recorded 8790 individuals of 83 genera and 142 species of Papilionoidea (sensu Kristensen, 1975, over 79 days of field work, with 2-4 days at each of the 24 localities. Twenty five species were newly recorded for the state of Puebla. Our data render Morelos and Puebla among the seven richest Mexican states, in terms of Papilionoidea diversity. Our results show that the Sierra de Huautla has the lowest diversity, but the highest standard abundance, compared to other Mexican regions with similar vegetation. Patterns of diversity and seasonal abundance are atypical, in that individuals of many species are unusually abundant during the wet months. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 16771716. Epub 2008 December 12.

  3. Transmembrane ion distribution during recovery from freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

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    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-08-01

    During extracellular freezing, solutes in the haemolymph are concentrated, resulting in osmotic dehydration of the cells, which must be reversed upon thawing. Here, we used freeze tolerant Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) larvae to examine the processes of ion redistribution after thawing. To investigate the effect of the intensity of cold exposure on ion redistribution after thawing, we exposed caterpillars to -14°C, -20°C or -30°C for 35h. To investigate the effect of duration of cold exposure on ion redistribution after thawing, we exposed the caterpillars to -14°C for up to 6 weeks while sampling several time points. The concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were measured after thawing in the haemolymph, fat body, muscle, midgut tissue and hindgut tissue. Being frozen for long durations (>3 weeks) or at low temperatures (-30°C) both result in 100% mortality, although different ions and tissues appear to be affected by each treatment. Both water distribution and ion content changes were detected after thawing, with the largest effects seen in the fat body and midgut tissue. Magnesium homeostasis appears to be vital for post-freeze survival in these larvae. The movement of ions during thawing lagged behind the movement of water, and ion homeostasis was not restored within the same time frame as water homeostasis. Failure to regain ion homeostasis after thawing is therefore implicated in mortality of freeze tolerant insects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

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    Qin, Feng; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Zhou, Shan-Yi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), which is considered as an endemic species in China. It is listed as a vulnerable species by International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List and also a first class endangered species in China. The complete mtDNA from T. aureus guangxiensis was 15,235 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The T. aureus guangxiensis genes were in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. All PCGs of T. aureus guangxiensis mitogenome start with a typical ATN codon and terminate in the common stop codon TAA, except that ND1 gene uses TTA, ND3 gene uses ATT, and ND4 and ND4L gene use TAA. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed with the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs of the mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic results confirmed that Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae are monophyletic clades.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

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    Feng, Xia; Liu, Dian-Feng; Wang, Nai-Xin; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2010-12-01

    The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Papilio xuthus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was sequenced for its nucleotide sequence of 13,964 bp. The genome has a typical gene order identical to other lepidopteran species. All tRNAs showed same stable canonical clover-leaf structure as those of other insects, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. Anomalous initiation codons have been observed for the cox1 gene, where the ATTACG hexa-nucleotide was believed to be involved in the initiation signaling. Twelve mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequence data were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the insect orders. Even though the number of insect orders represented by complete mitochondrial genomes is still limited, several well-established relationships are evident in the phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequences. Monophyly of the Homometabola was not supported in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, Papilionoidea and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea and Papilionoidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). Bombycoidea (Bombyx mandarina and Antheraea pernyi) and Papilionoidea (P. xuthus and Coreana raphaelis) formed a sister group.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

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    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Shao, Lili; Cheng, Chunhui; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionodae) is a circular molecule of 15,226 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with typical ATN codons, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon. Ten PCGs use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the COI, COII and ND5 genes end with single T. Twelve intergenic spacers (82 bp in total), and 11 overlapping regions (30 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 403 bp long and contains some conserved structures characteristic of the butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 13-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)12 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  7. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  8. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

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    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

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    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunliang; Zuo, Ni; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae) is a circular molecule of 15,266 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. Ten PCGs terminate in the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas the COI, COII and ND4 genes end with single T. Ten intergenic spacers (73 bp in total), and 12 overlapping regions (28 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 405 bp long and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 12-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)14 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Additionally, a 11-bp poly-T sequences and a microsatellite-like (AT)7 repeated elements are detected in this region.

  10. Diversidad del orden Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea y Papilionoidea de la ciudad Corrientes, Argentina

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    María Gabriela Lazzeri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de urbanización representa una de las amenazas más importantes a la biodiversidad. Los lepidópteros son uno de los grupos taxonómicos utilizados como indicadores de la diversidad y calidad del ambiente. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer los Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea de la ciudad de Corrientes. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos al azar en un parche de bosque nativo situado en el barrio Santa Catalina y en un área antropizada, el Parque Mitre. Las recolectas se realizaron en las cuatro estaciones climáticas entre enero y octubre de 2007 con redes entomológicas. El total de ejemplares capturados asciende a 1 114, los que se distribuyen en seis familias: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae y Riodinidae y 18 subfamilias. Se identificaron 59 géneros y 75 especies. Anartia jatrophae jatrophae fue la especie más abundante en ambas unidades. Esta especie junto a Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus y Dryas iulia alcionea se capturaron en todas las estaciones. El mayor número de ejemplares se colectó en las estaciones más cálidas. La abundancia (n=701, riqueza (S=74 y diversidad (H’=3.87 fueron superiores en Santa Catalina. Las unidades exploradas exhiben una elevada riqueza de especies y alta similitud.

  11. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

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    Stanislav K. Korb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae is distributed in the mountains of Central Asia. We analysed genetic and phylogeographic patterns throughout the western part of its range using a mitochondrial marker (COI. We also analysed the wing pattern using multivariate statistics. We found that the species contains several unique haplotypes in the west and shared haplotypes in the east. The haplotype groups do not correspond to the wing pattern and also the described subspecies do not correspond to either the haplotypes or the groups circumscribed by the wing pattern. Currently, there are more than ten subspecies of K. charltonius in Central Asia; based on our analyses we suggest a reduction to only five of them. The following nomenclatural changes are applied: (1 K. charltonius aenigma Dubatolov & Milko, 2003, syn. n., K. charltonius sochivkoi Churkin, 2009, syn.n., and K. charltonius alrashid Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius romanovi (Grum-Grshimailo, 1885; (2 K. charltonius marusya Churkin & Pletnev, 2012, syn. n., K. charltonius eugenia Churkin, 2009, syn. n., K. charltonius anjuta Stshetkin & Kaabak, 1985, syn. n., and K. charltonius mistericus Kaabak, Sotchivko & Titov, 1996, syn. n. are new synonyms of K. charltonius vaporosus (Avinov, 1913; and (3 K. charltonius safronovi Korb, Shaposhnikov, Zatakovoy & Nikolaev, 2013, syn. n. is a new synonym of K. charltonius voigti (Bang-Haas, 1927.

  12. Plant Resistance to the Moth Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) in Tomato Cultivars.

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    Sohrabi, F; Nooryazdan, H R; Gharati, B; Saeidi, Z

    2017-04-01

    The resistance of 11 tomato cultivars (Ps-6515, Berlina, Poolad, Petoprid-5, Zaman, Matin, Golsar, Sandokan-F1, Golshan-616, Sadeen-95 and Sadeen-21) to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) was investigated under field conditions. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data analysis indicated that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among cultivars regarding leaflet damage, leaf damage, overall plant damage, number of mines per leaf, number of holes on the stem, and fruit. Our findings revealed that the cultivars Berlina, Golsar, Poolad, and Zaman were less suitable cultivars, suggesting that they are more resistant to the tomato moth than the other cultivars. The high density of leaf trichomes present in the cultivars Berlina, Zaman, and Golsar can be one of the possible causes of resistance to T. absoluta. Knowledge of the extent of susceptibility or resistance of cultivars to a pest on a crop is one of the fundamental components of integrated pest management (IPM) programs for any crop.

  13. Potential Toxicity of α-Cypermethrin-Treated Nets on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

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    Biondi, A; Zappalà, L; Desneux, N; Aparo, A; Siscaro, G; Rapisarda, C; Martin, T; Tropea Garzia, G

    2015-06-01

    Insect-proof nets are thought to be effective physical barriers to protect tomato crops against several insect pests, including the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). However, protected tomato crops are frequently infested by this destructive pest, and there is a higher infestation of plants closer to openings in Mediterranean greenhouses, suggesting that immigrating adults can easily walk on these protective materials and find a way to reach the crop. Laboratory bioassays were carried out to characterize the potential toxicity of α-cypermethrin-treated insect-proof nets (Agronet) against T. absoluta adults. The data showed that the net acts mainly through a variety of chronic sublethal effects rather than acute ones. Reduced longevity and, more markedly, a reduced number of laid eggs were observed after the moths were exposed to the treated net over the duration of their lifetimes. A Y-tube experiment showed that the treated net does not affect the T. absoluta olfaction cues for host location. In contrast, when the moths were given the option to choose either the treated or the untreated net in laboratory cages, they significantly preferred the untreated one. The toxicological significance and the functional implications of these subtle effects for the implementation of integrated T. absoluta management strategies are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Insecticide effect of cyantraniliprole on tomato moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae in field trials

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    Patricia Larraín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae has traditionally been managed in Chile with organophosphate, pyrethroid, and nereistoxin insecticides; all of these have wide action spectra and high toxicity and many of them have developed rapid resistance. It is therefore important to have new molecules which are effective in controlling this pest; how ever, these molecules must have lower toxicity and greater selectivity for beneficial fauna to produce a more sustainable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of T. absoluta control with cyantraniliprole insecticide, which has desirable characteristics for programs of integrated pest management of tomato; we thus performed three trials in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. These trials evaluated the control of T. absoluta using different doses of two formulations: cyantraniliprole 10 OD (oil dispersion with or without surfactants (Dyne-Amic, Codacide applied to leaves and cyantraniliprole 20 SC (suspension concentrate applied to soil. Trials used a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The effect of treatments was compared with standard insecticides and a control without insecticide. The degree of control was estimated by foliar and fruit damage at harvest. Results indicate a reduction in fruit damage between 75% and 85% for foliar applications and 82% for soil applications of cyantraniliprole. It is concluded that both formulations of cyantraniliprole were effective to reduce damage caused by the tomato moth larva in both the foliage and fruit of tomato.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Dai, Hanyang; Bai, Lixin

    2016-05-01

    Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key pest in many cotton-growing countries of the world. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pink bollworm P. gossypiella was determined, which is 15,202 bp in length (GenBank accession number: KM225795) containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial gene and an A + T-rich region. The gene order of P. gossypiella mtDNA was different from the insect ancestral gene order in the translocation of trnM, as shared by previously sequenced lepidopteran mtDNAs. The protein-coding genes (PCGs) have typical mitochondrial start codons ATN, with the exception of COI, Nad5, which uses the start codons CGA, GTT. Eight PCGs stop with complete termination codons (TAA), whereas five PCGs use incomplete stop codon T. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Like other insects, the control region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 309 bp and an A + T content of 94.8%, which is the most AT-rich region and comparatively simple, with little evidence of long tandem repeats, but harbors a conserved structure combining the motif ATAGA and a 18-bp poly-T stretch.

  16. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.

  17. New Pyrethroids for Use Against Tuta Absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their Toxicity and Control Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Silvério, Flaviano O; Picanço, Marcelo C; Alvarenga, Elson S; Pereira, Renata R; Santana Júnior, Paulo A; Silva, Gerson A

    2017-09-01

    Insect pests are responsible for major losses in crop productivity, and insecticides are the main tools used to control these organisms. There is increasing demand for new products for pest management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of pyrethroids with acid moiety modifications to measure the insecticidal activity of these compounds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). First, we synthesized E/Z mixtures of five pyrethroids: [9], [10], [11], [12], and [13]. Then, we separated the cis and trans pyrethroid isomers of [9], [10], [11], and [12]. We assessed the toxicity of these compounds against T. absoluta. The E/Z mixtures of the five pyrethroids (30 µg of substance per mg-1 of insect) caused high (100%) and rapid (<12 h) tomato borer mortality. The cis isomer of pyrethroid [10] was the most toxic to T. absoluta, causing mortality similar to permethrin. The other isomers were less powerful than permethrin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  18. Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in tomato

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    Elaine Ferrari de Brito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1, all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. medium; however, no extracts reduced the weight of the surviving larvae. The extract from P. amalago var. medium at the concentration of 1,011 mg L-1 caused a significant lengthening of the larval and pupal stages. The ethanolic leaf extract of P. amalago var. medium is promising for the control of T. absoluta larvae in tomato, since it exhibits acute toxicity toward these caterpillars at the concentration of 2,000 mg L-1 and affects the insect's development by reducing its survival and lengthening the larval and pupal stages.

  19. Demography and randomized life table statistics for peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, Petros

    2013-04-01

    This work studies for first time the effect of constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 3 degrees C) on the demography of Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) based on jackknife and bootstrap randomization methods. Male and female longevity was substantially reduced at the higher temperatures in contrast to intermediate and lower temperatures. According to a second order polynomial regression function, high correlations were observed between temperatures and the age of first reproduction as well as temperature and oviposition times. Net reproductive rate was highest at 25 degrees C and 74.172, while the intrinsic rate of increase displayed its highest values at 30 degrees C and was estimated to be 0.238. Birth rate and finite capacity of increase were higher at 30 degrees C and estimated to be 0.235 and 1.268, respectively. Mean generation time and doubling time varied significantly with temperature and the shortest mean generation and doubling time was obtained at 30 degrees C (25.566 and 2.909 d respectively). Life expectancy had its lowest value 10.3 d at 25 degrees C, whereas cohorts that were maintained at 20 and 15 degrees C increased their life expectation approximately three to sixfold.

  20. Temperature effects on development and fecundity of Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Su, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the impacts of temperature on the development and reproductivity of the sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in sweet potato leaves under laboratory conditions. We determined developmental time of B. macroscopa larval, pupal, and pre-adult stage at different temperatures. Male and female longevity, male and female lifespan, mortality of immature stages, oviposition period of B. macroscopa were also investigated under six constant temperatures (21°C, 24°C, 27°C, 30°C, 33°C, 36°C), based on age-stage, two-sex life tables. The results revealed that eggs in 36°C were unable to hatch. At temperatures between 21°C -33°C, the duration of the pre-adult period, as well as the adult lifespan both for males and females, were shortened by increasing temperatures. The lowest larval mortality rate (15.33%) occurred at 27°C. The age-stage-specific fecundity rates with the greatest number were, in order, 30°C, 27°C, 21°C, 24°C and 33°C. The results show that B. macroscopa population levels could reach highest at the temperature of 27℃.

  1. Structure and distribution of the sensilla on the antennae of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawin, Thomas; Collard, France; De Backer, Lara; Yarou, Boni Barthélémy; Compère, Philippe; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2017-05-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4±135.3μm) and females (3292.1±111.5μm), being segmented into a scape, a pedicel, and a distal filiform flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were observed on both sexes: Böhm's bristles, sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica (two subtypes), sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla auricillica, and sensilla styloconica. The main sexual dimorphism was related to the higher abundance of sensilla trichodea in males, twice as abundant as in females. The putative functional significance of the different sensilla types regarding the insect ecology is discussed based on the available literature. This work provides descriptions of the antennae and related sensory structures. We expect these results to help develop further electrophysiological investigations aiming to a better understanding of T. absoluta olfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  3. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae is an insect pest of 60 economically important crops, including sugarcane, wheat, soybean, rice, beans, sorghum, peanuts, and cotton. The aim of this work was to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with insecticidal activity against E. Lignosellus that could be used as an alternative method of control. Selective bioassays were done to evaluate the toxicity of 47 isolates against first instar larvae of E. lignosellus. For the most toxic bacterial strains, the lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated and morphological, biochemical and molecular methods were used to characterize the isolates. Among the 47 isolates tested, 12 caused mortality above 85% and showed LC50 values from 0.038E+8 to 0.855E+8 spores mL-1. Isolates BR83, BR145, BR09, BR78, S1534, and S1302 had the lowest LC50 values and did not differ from the standard HD-1 strain; the exception was BR83.The protein profiles produced bands with molecular masses of 60-130 kDa. The genes cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 were identified in the molecular characterization. The morphological analysis identified three different crystal inclusions: bipyramidal, spherical and cuboidal. Among the tested isolates, 12 isolates have potential for biotechnological control of E. Lignosellus by development of new biopesticides or genetically modified plants.

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  5. Biological and immune response of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to sodium tetraborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Yonca; Büyükgüzel, Kemal

    2008-06-01

    Inorganic insecticides are commonly used in urban pest management because of their low mammalian toxicity. We tested the effects of sodium tetraborate (ST) on life parameters of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to determine its sublethal toxicity on the insect. Survival, development, adult longevity, and fecundity of the wax moth were investigated by rearing larvae on artificial diets containing ST at concentrations of 0.005, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3%. Larvae reared on medium at the highest concentration of ST (0.3%) had significantly decreased survival to the seventh instar and prolonged time required to reach the seventh instar. This concentration reduced pupa and adult yields to 12.5%, and it also prolonged development by 5 d. ST did not significantly influence adult longevity. Dietary ST led to significant decreases in fecundity and egg viability. Oviposition of survivors at the highest ST concentration (0.3%) was completely inhibited. Lysozyme content was decreased in larval hemolymph and fat body at high dietary ST concentrations. Fat body lysozyme content was significantly increased two-fold for larvae reared on diet at the lowest concentration of ST (0.005%). However, the highest concentration (0.3%) dramatically decreased fat body lysozyme content from 0.12 +/- 0.013 to 0.006 +/- 0.003 mg/ml in seventh instars. We infer that sublethal levels of dietary ST substantially influence life history parameters and immunocompetence in G. mellonella.

  6. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  7. Effect of varying dispenser point source density on mating disruption of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Epstein, David; Gut, Larry J; Goldfarb, Heidi; Miller, James R

    2010-08-01

    Hand-applied dispensers are successfully used in mating disruption programs, but cost of labor to apply these dispensers limits their adoption. Creating hand-applied dispensers that release larger amounts of pheromone and that can be applied at lower densities per hectare could reduce the cost of mating disruption and increase its use. The effect of reducing the number of point sources per hectare while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant on the success of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) mating disruption was investigated with Confuse-OFM, paraffin disk, and Isomate-M Rosso dispensers. For all dispensers, as point source density decreased, numbers of moths captured increased, percentage of orientation disruption to traps decreased, and variability in these measures increased. Decreasing point source density, even while keeping the amount of pheromone applied per hectare constant is not a viable option for reducing the cost of G. molesta mating disruption with hand-applied dispensers. Puffers (aerosol dispensers) are applied at 2.5-5 dispensers per ha for G. molesta control. However, hand-applied dispensers fail when clumped at such low numbers of release sites. Potential explanations for the success of Puffers and the failure of hand-applied dispensers at very low point source densities are presented. The utility of paraffin disk dispensers as experimental devices also is discussed.

  8. Estimate of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae development with nonlinear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate which nonlinear model [Davidson (1942, 1944, Stinner et al. (1974, Sharpe & DeMichele (1977, and Lactin et al. (1995] best describes the relationship between developmental rates of the different instars and stages of Alabama argillacea (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, and temperature. A. argillacea larvae were fed with cotton leaves (Gossypium hirsutum L., race latifolium Hutch., cultivar CNPA 7H at constant temperatures of 20, 23, 25, 28, 30, 33, and 35ºC; relative humidity of 60 ± 10%; and photoperiod of 14:10 L:D. Low R² values obtained with Davidson (0.0001 to 0.1179 and Stinner et al. (0.0099 to 0.8296 models indicated a poor fit of their data for A. argillacea. However, high R² values of Sharpe & DeMichele (0.9677 to 0.9997 and Lactin et al. (0.9684 to 0.9997 models indicated a better fit for estimating A. argillacea development.

  9. Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov., isolated from caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Hatice; Ince, Ikbal Agah; Demir, Ismail; Demirbag, Zihni

    2010-02-01

    This work deals with the taxonomic study of a bacterium, strain Tp12(T), isolated from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775; Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae). The isolate was assigned to the genus Brevibacterium on the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic study, including morphological and biochemical characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid analysis and DNA G+C content. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to this isolate was approximately 96 %, with the type strains of Brevibacterium album and Brevibacterium samyangense. Cellular fatty acids of the isolate are of the branched type, with the major components being anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 69.8 mol%. Although the strain was related to B. album and B. samyangense according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it differed from any known species of Brevibacterium. Based on this evidence, the novel species Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Tp12(T) (=DSM 21720(T) =NCCB 100255(T)) as the type strain.

  10. Aktivitas biologi enam jenis ekstrak tumbuhan famili Asteraceae terhadap larva Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Ratna Sari Dewi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological Activity of Six Plan Extract from Asteraceae on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (lipedoptera : Noctuidae Larvae. Asteraceae is one of plant family that is known to have insecticidal activity to several insect pests, such as Parthenium argentatum, Crysanthemum cineariaefolium, and Agerantum houstoneanum. The aim of this study is to explore other asteraceae species in other to search for insecticidal activity to Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Six species, Blumea balsamifera (leaf, Elephantopus scaber (leaf, Gynura procumbens (leaf Artemisia vulgaris (leaf Soncbus arvensis (leaf and Helianthus annus (seed were use in this study. Plant extract were obtained by meseration method using menthanol. The extract were bioassayed to the second instar larvae of S. litura to evaluate the mortality, antifeedant and growth regulation activity. Extract of B. balsamifera and E. scaber have high antifeedant activity at 5 % by reducing larval feeding 87.7% and 81.8% in no choice test, and 94.1% and 86.1% in choice test method, respectively Extract of H. annus, A. vulgaris, and E. scaber prolonged the development of larvae by 4.9, 4.1, 3.9 days, respectively. While extract of H. annus caused mortality of larvae by 86% at 5%.

  11. Lethal and sublethal effects of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen, on obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-04-01

    The obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is one of the most destructive pests of tree fruit in Washington. The development of insecticide resistance in C. rosaceana has led us to explore new management tactics. The use of very low doses of insecticides that have strong sublethal effects represents an environmentally friendly option to improve existing integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. We tested the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen to determine its lethal and sublethal effects on growth and development of C. rosaceana. A leaf-disk bioassay was used to test seven concentrations of pyriproxyfen ranging from 0 to 30 ppm on fifth-instar C. rosaceana. Male and female larvae were assessed separately for mortality as well as other parameters of growth and development. The LC, values for males and females were 2.4 and 4.8 ppm, respectively. The response to pyriproxyfen was concentration-dependent: only 5-6% of the larvae treated with the highest concentration emerged as morphologically normal adults compared with 86% emergence in the controls. The pupation and adult emergence was significantly delayed at concentrations higher than 1 ppm. The weights of C. rosaceana pupae and adults were significantly increased, whereas fecundity and fertility were significantly reduced at a sublethal concentration of 0.3 ppm. We conclude that both lethal and sublethal effects might exhibit significant impacts on the population dynamics of C. rosaceana in tree fruit orchards treated with low concentrations of pyriproxyfen.

  12. Changes in insecticide resistance of the rice striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jianya; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Gao, Congfen

    2014-02-01

    Application of insecticides is the most important method to control Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and continuous use of individual insecticides has driven the rapid development of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis during the past 30 yr. Monitoring insecticide resistance provides information essential for integrated pest management. Insecticide resistance of field populations to monosultap, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin in China was examined in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the resistance levels of 14 field populations to four insecticides were significantly different. Four populations showed moderate resistance, and other populations possessed low-level resistance or were susceptible to monosultap. Nine populations displayed an extremely high or a high level of resistance to triazophos, whereas four populations were sensitive to this agent. Five populations exhibited a low level of resistance to abamectin, while the others remained sensitive. When compared with historical data, resistance to monosultap and triazophos decreased significantly, and the percentage of populations with high-level or extremely high-level resistance was obviously reduced. By contrast, the resistance to abamectin increased slightly. The increasing and decreasing resistance levels reported in this study highlight the different evolutionary patterns of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis. An overreliance on one or two insecticides may promote rapid development of resistance. Slow development of resistance to abamectin, which was used mainly in mixtures with other insecticides, implies that the use of insecticide mixtures may be an effective method to delay the evolution of resistance to insecticides.

  13. Resistensi populasai hama bawang merah Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae terhadap klorfluazuron

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    Abdi Negara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of Onion Pest Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Populations to Chlorfluazuron. The research was conducted from August 2001 until April 2002 in the Kalitiro Agriculture Training and Development Research Station, Gadjah Mada University. The objective of research was to determine the resistance level of Spodoptera exigua populations collected from the district of Sanden, Kretek, Wates, Temon, Panjatan, Wonosari, Panggang and Playen (all are in Yogyakarta Province to chlorfluazuron insecticide. Research was conducted by dipping artificial diet about 30 seconds in insecticide solution and there are used test two hours after they were air dried. Based on the preliminary test, different concentrations were tested to determine the toxicity of the insecticide to each population. Third instar larvae (five days old of the first generation were used in bioassays. Each larvae with its artificial diet was placed in a plastic cup (diameter 3,5 cm. Larval mortality was recorded at 72 hours after exposure. Data was analyzed using probit analysis to determine LC50 values. The result showed that the LC50 values of chlorfluazuron againsts eight population of S. exigua at 72 hours after exposure varied from 16,10 ppm (Panggang to 84,76 ppm (Panjatan. The results suggested that all populations from Panggang, Playen, Kretek, Sanden, Wates, Wonosari and Temon were still susceptible to chlorfluazuron. Population from Panjatan indicated to be resistant to chlorfluazuron.

  14. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass.

  15. Larval Biology of Anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza A. P.; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B.; Morais, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius , Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha . Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius ; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed “bungee jumping” behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius , K. syllis , M. azia , Pai. aphaca , P. polibetes , Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha , and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  16. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma

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    Akito Kawahara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: H. ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, H. makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Maui and H. tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of H. inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, H. auropurpurea Walsingham and H. nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, the CAD primer sequences for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  17. Evaluation of seven viral isolates as potential biocontrol agents against Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Talita M; Ribeiro, Zilda Maria A; Craveiro, Saluana R; Cunha, Fabiane; Fonseca, Ines Cristina B; Moscardi, Flávio; Castro, Maria Elita B

    2010-09-01

    The caterpillar Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, 1857) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), known as soybean looper, is a pest that has recently assumed greater importance in soybean in Brazil. Isolates of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) of this pest have been identified from cotton in Guatemala and soybean farms in Brazil, providing an interesting perspective of potential use of viral insecticide against the insect in lieu to chemical insecticides. With the objective to contribute to the characterization studies of this virus, morphological and molecular analyses and biological activity were carried out with seven P. includens viral isolates (I-A to I-G). Electron microscopy of viral samples, purified from macerated infected larvae, showed particles with typical morphology of the Baculoviridae family, genus Alphabaculovirus (Nucleopolyhedrovirus - NPV) presenting virions with only a single nucleocapsid per envelope (SNPV) occluded in a protein matrix, forming occlusion bodies (OB). This virus was then classified as P. includens single nucleopolyhedrovirus (PsinSNPV). OB particles analyzed in SDS-polyacrylamide gel showed an intense band corresponding in size to NPV polyhedrin protein. DNA restriction profiles of the PsinSNPV isolates showed differences in the fragment size and number suggesting the existence of genotypic variants, except between I-E and I-F profiles that were similar. Among the isolates tested for infectivity against P. includens, I-A, I-E and I-F were the most virulent. Survival times (ST(50)) varied according to viral concentration, with significant differences among isolates for the three higher concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  19. lepidoptera: pyralidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-02-18

    Feb 18, 2004 ... extractor and tested as insecticides against the eggs and. Effect of Ethanolic Extract on larva ... distilling the content of the soxhlet extractor at 40-60°C. All the oil extract were .... root bark was more effective than the powder in the control The authors are grateful to the Third World Academy of of C. maculatus.

  20. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis and Identification of Major Detoxification Gene Families and Insecticide Targets in Grapholita Molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiong; Chai, Yanping; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Zhiguo; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ma, Ruiyan

    2017-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important pest of most stone and pome fruits and causes serious damage to the fruit industry worldwide. This insect pest has been primarily controlled through the application of insecticides; as a result, G. molesta has developed resistance to many different types of insecticides. To identify detoxification genes, we have, de novo, sequenced the transcriptome of G. molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and yielded 58,970 unigenes of which 26,985 unigenes matched to known proteins. In total, 2,040 simple sequence repeats have been identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set has permitted us to identify members of important gene families related to detoxification in G. molesta, including 77 unigenes of putative cytochrome P450s, 28 of glutathione S-transferases, 46 of Carboxylesterases, and 31 of insecticide targets. Orthologs of some of these unigenes have shown to play a pivotal role in insecticide resistance in other insect species and those unigenes likely have similar functions in G. molesta. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Response of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) field populations to four years of Lepidoptera-specific Bt corn production.

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    Floate, K D; Cárcamo, H A; Blackshaw, R E; Postman, B; Bourassa, S

    2007-10-01

    Pitfall traps were used to monitor populations of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in plots of corn grown in continuous cultivation during a 4-yr period (2000-2003). Treatments included transgenic corn expressing a Bt Cry protein with efficacy specific against Lepidoptera (Bt), conventional corn grown with insecticide application (I), and the same conventional cultivar grown without insecticide application (NI). Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on pitfall captures of beetles combined across weeks to give seasonal sums. Effects of corn treatment were not detected (P > 0.05) on total beetle abundance or species richness in any year. Effects of corn treatment on individual taxa were detected (P < 0.05) for 3 of the 39 species-by-year combinations examined. Effects of near significance (P < 0.08) were detected for an additional two species. In 2001, captures of Amara farcta Leconte and Harpalus amputatus Say were lower in Bt plots than in I or NI plots. In 2003, captures of Amara apricaria (Paykull) and Amara carinata (Leconte) were higher in Bt plots than in I or NI plots. Also in 2003, captures of Poecilus scitulus Leconte were higher in I plots than in Bt or NI plots. These patterns were not repeated among years. Results of this study indicate that cultivation of Lepidoptera-specific Bt corn in southern Alberta does not appreciably affect ground beetle populations.

  3. VIRULENSI BERBAGAI ISOLAT JAMUR ENTOMOPATOGEN METARHIZIUM SPP. TERHADAP HAMA PENGGEREK BUAH KAKAO CONOPOMORPHA CRAMERELLA SNELL. (LEPIDOPTERA: GRACILLARIIDAE

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    . Trizelia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of various Metarhizium spp. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes  isolates on cocoa pod borrer pest, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae. In Indonesia, Conopomorpha  cramerella  Snell.  (Lepidoptera  :  Gracillariidae is a serious pest of cocoa.  Entomopathogens such as Metarhizium  spp.  (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes  can be used to control this pest as an alternative to chemical insecticides.  The purpose of this research was to study the virulence of isolates of Metarhizium  spp. to pupae of C. cramerella. Nine isolates of Metarhizium spp each with 107 conidia/ml rate were used in the experiment.  Pupal mortality  was recorded  daily.  The results showed that isolate MetApCi from chili rhizosphere had the highest virulence causing  96.67% mortality of C.  cramerella  pupae and with an LT50 of 3.04 days.

  4. Effects of croton urucurana extracts and crude resin on Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Luciana Barboza Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of plant species have been studied in order to find out the active ingredient responsible for their insecticidal activity against the pests of economic importance. To verify the insecticidal activity in the husk of stem of Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae against Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, the methanolic (EMeOH extract, dichloromethane fraction (FDM, ethyl acetate fraction (FAE and crude resin, incorporated into an artificial diet were evaluated. EMeOH (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% and crude resin (2.0% interfered with neither the weight nor the survival of fourth instar larvae and other analyzed parameters. FDM (2.0% fraction caused mortality of 65%, and the artificial diet containing 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5% FAE caused 100, 55 and 68% mortality respectively when compared with the control, confirming the least efficiency rates of food conversion for FDM(2.0% and FAE(1.0%. The tryptic analysis performed with the midgut fluid of fourth-instar larvae demonstrated that tryptic and chymiotryptic activities for the larvae fed artificial diet containing EMeOH and crude resin were not different.Atualmente centenas de plantas são investigadas para se conhecer os princípios ativos responsáveis pela atividade inseticida contra as diversas pragas de importância econômica. Com o objetivo de verificar a atividade inseticida das cascas do caule de Croton urucurana Baillon 1864 (Euphorbiaceae em relação a Anagasta kuehniella Zeller 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, avaliou-se o extrato metanólico (EMeOH, fração diclorometano (FDM, a fração acetato de etila (FAE e a resina in natura, os quais foram adicionados à dieta artificial. O EMeOH (0,5, 1,0 e 20,% e a resina in natura (2,0%, não interferiram no peso, sobrevivência das larvas de 4ª ínstar, bem como nos demais parâmetros analisados. A fração FDM (2,0% causou mortalidade de 65%, e a dieta artificial contendo 2,0, 1,0, e 0,5% de FAE causou 100, 55 e 68% de

  5. Biological characteristics of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) induced to diapause in laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto e Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In southern Brazil, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) uses diapause as survival strategy during the winter (May-August). In our study, we evaluated the effect of diapause on biological characteristics of the species for 4 months in laboratory. Newly hatched larvae of G. molesta were induced to diapause changing the photoperiod and temperature (T) (12 ± 1°C), relative humidity (RH) (70 ± 10%), and a photophase of 12 h and, when they started diapause in the prepupal stage, the conditions were kept for 4 months. Afterwards, the insects were induced to finalize the diapause process at T 25 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 16 h. We evaluated the duration and viability of the larval stages and pupae, pupae weight at 24 h and sex ratio (sr), periods of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition; adult life span (males and females); fecundity (daily and total); embryonic period duration and eggs viability, comparing the data with insects nondiapause. The results show that diapause greatly affected the viability of pupal-adult stages of the population (21.8%) when compared with insects' nondiapause (80.0%). Total fecundity (83.0 eggs) and mean life span (12.0 d) of insects diapause was significantly lower compared with insects nondiapause (173.0 and 17.0), respectively. However, these differences were not observed in the sr, which was similar to insects diapause (sr = 0.41) and insects nondiapause (sr = 0.49). The diapause induced for 4 months negatively affects reproduction and life span of adults of G. molesta. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

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    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  7. Susceptibility of Oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae to selected reduced-risk insecticides.

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    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    To determine their baseline susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and acetamiprid, oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), neonates were placed on diet cubes containing a range of concentrations of each insecticide. Mortality was assessed after 96 h. Two populations-a long-term laboratory colony from Rutgers University and a colony established in 2007 from a southwestern Illinois (Calhoun County) field population-were tested. We used probit and logit analyses to compare the responses of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on 'Gala' apples (Malus spp.) with those of Calhoun colony neonates from parents reared on lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., diet. We also compared the responses of Calhoun colony neonates with those of Rutgers colony neonates (all from parents reared on apples). LC50s (ppm in diet) for Calhoun colony progeny of adults reared on apples were 0.08, 0.06, 0.41, and 0.30, respectively, for chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, acetamiprid, and spinosad. Parental food source (apples versus lima bean diet) did not consistently influence the concentration-mortality relationships for neonates. Based on LC50s and toxicity ratio tests, Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to spinetoram and acetamiprid than were Rutgers colony neonates. Similarly, LC90s and toxicity ratio tests indicated that Calhoun colony neonates were slightly but significantly less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole as well. However, toxicity ratios (Calhoun/Rutgers) were low in all instances, and the highest ratio was 1.73 at LC90 for chlorantraniliprole. Overall, the two colonies responded similarly to these insecticides. Results reported here provide baseline data for future monitoring of resistance development.

  8. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

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    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.

  9. Towards a better understanding of the higher systematics of Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

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    Wahlberg, Niklas; Weingartner, Elisabet; Nylin, Sören

    2003-09-01

    Research on the molecular systematics of higher taxa in the butterfly family Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) is only just beginning. Outgroup selection is difficult at the moment due to the lack of consensus on the basal relationships of the major groups in Nymphalidae. We identify four major clades in the Nymphalidae based on a cladistic analysis of one mitochondrial gene sequence (COI, 1450 bp) and two nuclear gene sequences (EF-1alpha, 1064 bp, and wingless, 412-415 bp) from 54 exemplar species sampled from all currently recognized subfamilies. The COI data set was found to be highly incongruent with the nuclear data sets and a Partitioned Bremer Support analysis shows that the COI data set largely undermines support for most clades. Transitions at the third codon positions of the COI data set were highly saturated, but analyzing the combined data set with the COI third positions removed did not change the results. The major clades we found are termed the danaine clade (including Danainae), the satyrine clade (including Charaxinae, Satyrinae, Calinaginae, and Morphinae), the heliconiine clade (including Heliconiinae and Limenitidinae excluding Biblidini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, and Coeini) and the nymphaline clade (including Nymphalinae, Apaturinae, and Coeini, Cyrestini, Pseudergolini, and Biblidini from Limenitidinae). The heliconiine and nymphaline clades are sister groups, while the most parsimonious explanation for the combined data set places the danaine clade as the most basal large group of Nymphalidae. Our results give one of the strongest hypotheses for the subfamilial relationships within Nymphalidae. We were able to resolve the polyphyletic nature of Limenitidinae, which we recommend to be split into three subfamilies: Limenitidinae, Biblidinae, and Cyrestinae. The tribe Coeini belongs in Nymphalinae.

  10. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  11. A partitioned likelihood analysis of swallowtail butterfly phylogeny (Lepidoptera:Papilionidae).

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    Caterino, M S; Reed, R D; Kuo, M M; Sperling, F A

    2001-02-01

    Although it is widely agreed that data from multiple sources are necessary to confidently resolve phylogenetic relationships, procedures for accommodating and incorporating heterogeneity in such data remain underdeveloped. We explored the use of partitioned, model-based analyses of heterogeneous molecular data in the context of a phylogenetic study of swallowtail butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Despite substantial basic and applied study, phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages of this prominent group remain contentious. We sequenced 3.3 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (2.3 kb of cytochrome oxidase I and II and 1.0 kb of elongation factor-1 alpha, respectively) from 22 swallowtails, including representatives of Baroniinae, Parnassiinae, and Papilioninae, and from several moth and butterfly outgroups. Using parsimony, we encountered considerable difficulty in resolving the deepest splits among these taxa. We therefore chose two outgroups with undisputed relationships to each other and to Papilionidae and undertook detailed likelihood analyses of alternative topologies. Following from previous studies that have demonstrated substantial heterogeneity in the evolutionary dynamics among process partitions of these genes, we estimated evolutionary parameters separately for gene-based and codon-based partitions. These values were then used as the basis for examining the likelihoods of possible resolutions and rootings under several partitioned and unpartitioned likelihood models. Partitioned models gave markedly better fits to the data than did unpartitioned models and supported different topologies. However, the most likely topology varied from model to model. The most likely ingroup topology under the best-fitting, six-partition GTR + gamma model favors a paraphyletic Parnassiinae. However, when examining the likelihoods of alternative rootings of this tree relative to rootings of the classical hypothesis, two rootings of the latter emerge as

  12. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

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    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  13. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Papilio protenor (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) and Implications for Papilionidae Taxonomy

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    Liu, Nai-Yi; Wu, Yun-He; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Si-Zhu; Wang, Shu-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Papilio protenor (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was sequenced and annotated in this study. The mitogenome comprised a typical circular, double-stranded DNA molecule of 15,268 bp in length including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and an A+T-rich region. The gene order and mitogenome orientation were similar to those of all known Papilionidae species. The nucleotide composition of the P. protenor mitogenome exhibits considerable A+T bias (80.5%) and the AT (−0.019) and GC (−0.231) skewness is slightly negative. All of the PCGs except for cytochrome c oxidase (COI) start with a canonical ATN start codon, whereas the COI gene is tentatively designated by the CGA codon. Of the 13 PCGs, 11 contain the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas COI and COII were terminated with a single T nucleotide. All tRNAs exhibit the typical cloverleaf structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), which does not contain the dihydrouridine arm. The 458 bp A+T-rich region is comprised of nonrepetitive sequences including the motif ATAGA followed by a poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)6 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Phylogenetic analysis of the 13 PCGs data using Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood methods, and maximum parsimony support the view that the subfamily Parnassiinae is regarded as an independent subfamily within Papilionidae and that Zerynthiini should be treated as one of the two clades of the subfamily Parnassiinae along with Parnasiini. In addition, the analysis strongly supports the monophyly of the subfamily Parnassiinae.

  14. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  15. Taste receptor plasticity in relation to feeding history in two congeneric species of Papilionidae (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, Giorgia; Biolchini, Maurizio; Crnjar, Roberto

    2018-02-15

    In the peripheral taste system of insects, the responsiveness of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) depends on several factors, such as larval instar, feeding history, physiological state and time of day. To study the role of the feeding history, the spike activity of the maxillary taste chemosensilla in the larvae of two related species of Lepidoptera (Papilio machaon L. and Papilio hospiton Géné) raised on different host plants, was recorded with electrophysiological techniques after stimulation with simple stimuli (sugars, bitters and inorganic salt) and host plant saps, with the aim of cross-comparing their response patterns and evaluating any effects of different feeding histories. For this purpose the larvae were raised each on their preferential host plant and, in addition, P. machaon larvae was also raised on Ferula communis, the host plant preferred by P. hospiton. The GRN spike activity of the lateral and medial sensilla of each test group was measured in response to simple and complex stimuli. The taste discrimination capabilities and modalities of the two species were measured and cross-compared with the aim of studying convergence and/or divergence linked to the insect feeding history. The results show that: a) the GRN responsiveness of both sensilla in P. machaon raised on Fe. communis differs significantly from that of P. machaon on Foeniculum vulgare, but is not different from P. hospiton on Fe. communis; b) P. machaon larvae raised on Fe. communis exhibit response spectra somewhat intermediate between those of P. machaon on fennel and of P. hospiton on Fe. communis, the latter two exhibiting a wider difference from each other; c) the pattern of GRNs activity generated by each plant sap in both sensilla of P. machaon raised on Fe. communis is different from that generated when raised on Fo. vulgare, while no difference is observed with P. hospiton. The data support the hypothesis that diet-related factors may influence peripheral chemosensitivity

  16. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

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    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  17. Insecticide Effect of Zeolites on the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Caroline De Smedt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2 Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta. The toxicity of three different zeolites and six zeolite formulations to T. absoluta eggs and larvae was determined using different exposure methods. (3 Results: In general, the formulated zeolites yielded higher egg and larvae mortality values, especially when the zeolite particle film was residually applied. Notable differences in mortality rates from exposure to zeolites compared to other products, such as kaolin, its formulated product Surround, and the insecticide spinosad, were observed. Kaolin and Surround exhibited little or no effect for both application methods, while the hatch rate was reduced by 95% when spinosad was applied topically. Spinosad yielded egg and larvae mortality rates of 100% for both application methods. Additionally, increased oviposition activity was observed in adults exposed to the wettable powder (WP formulations. These WP formulations increased egg deposition, while Surround and spinosad elicited a negative oviposition response. (4 Conclusions: It can be derived that the tested products, zeolites BEA (Beta polymorph A, FAU (Faujasite, LTA (Linde type A, and their formulations, had no real insecticidal activity against the eggs of T. absoluta. Nevertheless, egg exposure to zeolites seemed to affect the development process by weakening the first instar larvae and increasing their mortality. Subsequently, based on the choice test, no significant difference was observed between the number of eggs laid on

  18. Performance of Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Natural Enemy of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Gervassio, Nadia G; Luna, María G; D'Auro, Franco; Sánchez, Norma E

    2017-12-27

    Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck; Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid that attacks the South American tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The interaction between P. dignus and T. absoluta in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.; Solanales: Solanaceae) crops has demonstrated that this enemy exhibits some desirable ecological traits as an effective biological control agent of this pest. With the aim of extending the use of P. dignus to other solanaceous crops, laboratory experiments were carried out to assess some life history traits and the parasitism efficiency when parasitizing T. absoluta larvae fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.; Solanales: Solanaceae). Rearings and experiments were conducted at 25 ± 2°C, ≈70% RH, and 14:10 (L:D) h photoperiod, and T. absoluta was fed with eggplant. P. dignus developmental times of immature stages were lower (~ 5 d) on S. melongena than on S. lycopersicum. The female did not exhibit a pre-reproductive period, and its oviposition period lasted longer (~ 4 d) than that determined in tomato plants. Adult longevity was ca. 24 d for both sexes. Females produced ca. 61 cocoons during their lives and the maximum daily percentage of parasitism was 50% at the first day of adult emergence. Functional response of P. dignus on eggplant was density-independent of the host density offered, as in tomato plant, and the instantaneous attack rate (a') was 0.24 attacked larvae/ available larvae, in 24 h. Our results indicate that although there are differences, P. dignus would have a similar performance in eggplant and tomato in terms of its efficacy in the control of T. absoluta. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

    2010-08-01

    Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill.

  20. Susceptibility of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Brazilian populations to ryanodine receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R; Silva, Tadeu B M; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Jefferson E; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2015-04-01

    Phthalic and anthranilic diamides comprise a new insecticide class recently registered in Brazil to control Lepidoptera such as Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Therefore, the baseline of susceptibility was determined for eight representative field populations of this species to establish a resistance monitoring programme. The potential for cross-resistance as well as detoxification metabolism was assessed in order to fine-tune the resistance management programme. Brazilian populations were very susceptible to chlorantraniliprole (LC50 values varied from 3.17 to 29.64 µg AI L(-1) ), cyantraniliprole (LC50 values varied from 8.61 to 28.95 µg AI L(-1) ) and flubendiamide (LC50 values varied from 94 to 230 µg AI L(-1) ), with respective resistance ratios of 9.33-, 3.36- and 2.45-fold between most susceptible and tolerant populations. Anthranilic diamides showed significant correlations between log LC50 values among themselves, suggesting a high risk of cross-resistance. However, the log LC50 values of T. absoluta to phthalic diamide did not show any correlation with anthranilic diamides. Cytochrome- P450-dependent monooxygenase activity showed a weak correlation with log LC50 values of T. absoluta populations to anthranilic diamides, which suggests a potential route for evolving resistance to anthranilic diamides. The diamides were highly effective against T. absoluta, with populations showing a homogeneous response to them. Cross-resistance is very likely between anthranilic diamides in T. absoluta. Populations of this pest may evolve resistance by increasing cytochrome- P450-dependent monooxygenases. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Functional Response of Three Species of Predatory Pirate Bugs Attacking Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Ramos, Rodrigo S; Gontijo, Lessando M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2015-04-01

    The functional response and predation parameters of three species of predatory pirate bugs Amphiareus constrictus (Stal), Blaptostethus pallescens Poppius, and Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were evaluated at four different densities of eggs of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing a tomato leaf disk infested with the pest eggs, and maintained inside growth chamber with environmental conditions of 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. A. constrictus and B. pallescens showed a type III functional response where predation increased at a decreasing rate after egg density was higher than 12 per leaf disk, reaching an upper plateau of 18.86 and 25.42 eggs per 24 hours, respectively. By contrast, O. tristicolor showed a type II functional response where the number of eggs preyed upon increased at a decreasing rate as egg density increased, reaching an upper limit of 15.20 eggs per 24 hours. The predator equations used in this study estimated handling time of 1.25, 0.87, 0.96 h for A. constrictus, B. pallescens, and O. tristicolor, respectively. The lower handling time and possible higher attack rate of B. pallescens suggests a higher efficiency and probably greater impact on the pest population. If conservation or classical biological control of T. absoluta is to be implemented, then prioritizing which natural enemy species is the most efficient is an important first step. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Oviposition deterrent activity of basil plants and their essentials oils against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarou, Boni Barthélémy; Bawin, Thomas; Boullis, Antoine; Heukin, Stéphanie; Lognay, Georges; Verheggen, François Jean; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-08-07

    The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and the health of producers, alternative control methods are needed. In this study, we assessed the oviposition-deterring effect of basil plants, Ocimum gratissimum L. and O. basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), using dual-choice behavioural assays performed in flight tunnels. We found that both plants significantly reduced T. absoluta oviposition behaviour on a tomato plant located nearby. To evaluate the potential effect of basil volatile organic compounds, we formulated essential oils of both plant species in paraffin oil, and observed a similar oviposition-deterring effect. Gas chromatography analyses detected 18 constituents in these essential oils which the major constituents included thymol (33.3%), p-cymene (20.4%), γ-terpinene (16.9%), myrcene (3.9%) in O. gratissimum and estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), β-elemene (2.9%) and E-β-ocimene (2.6%) in O. basilicum. Twenty and 33 compounds were identified of the volatiles collected on O. gratissimum and O. basilicum plants, respectively. The main components include the following: p-cymene (33.5%), γ-terpinene (23.6%), α-terpinene (7.2%), α-thujene (6.7%) and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%) in O. gratissimum, and methyl eugenol (26.1%), E-β-ocimene (17.7%), and linalool (9.4%) in O. basilicum. Four compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, Myrcene, Limonene) were common in essential oils and plants. Our results suggest the valuable potential of basil and associated essential oils as a component of integrated management strategies against the tomato leafminer.

  3. Insecticide Effect of Zeolites on the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Caroline; Van Damme, Veerle; De Clercq, Patrick; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-12-02

    (1) Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2) Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta . The toxicity of three different zeolites and six zeolite formulations to T. absoluta eggs and larvae was determined using different exposure methods. (3) Results: In general, the formulated zeolites yielded higher egg and larvae mortality values, especially when the zeolite particle film was residually applied. Notable differences in mortality rates from exposure to zeolites compared to other products, such as kaolin, its formulated product Surround, and the insecticide spinosad, were observed. Kaolin and Surround exhibited little or no effect for both application methods, while the hatch rate was reduced by 95% when spinosad was applied topically. Spinosad yielded egg and larvae mortality rates of 100% for both application methods. Additionally, increased oviposition activity was observed in adults exposed to the wettable powder (WP) formulations. These WP formulations increased egg deposition, while Surround and spinosad elicited a negative oviposition response. (4) Conclusions: It can be derived that the tested products, zeolites BEA (Beta polymorph A), FAU (Faujasite), LTA (Linde type A), and their formulations, had no real insecticidal activity against the eggs of T. absoluta . Nevertheless, egg exposure to zeolites seemed to affect the development process by weakening the first instar larvae and increasing their mortality. Subsequently, based on the choice test, no significant difference was observed between the number of eggs laid on the treated

  4. Life table parameters of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), feeding on tubers of six potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, A; Razmjou, J

    2010-06-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is an important and ubiquitous pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae), in both field and stores in the subtropical and tropical zones. The evaluation of potato tubers for susceptibility to potato tuberworm, by measuring its life table parameters, is a valuable component of integrated pest management (IPM). Potato tuberworm life table parameters were investigated in laboratory at 24 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 8:16 (L:D) h on six commonly grown potato cultivar tubers: 'Agria', 'Burren', 'Savalan', 'Marfona', 'Sante', and 'Picaso'. No food was provided to feeding adult moths during experiments. The survival rate on Savalan and Burren potatoes was higher than on other cultivars. The highest reproductive rate was observed on Burren potatoes (50.739 +/- 2.45), although there was one statistical group for net reproduction rate (R(o)). The mean generation time (T(o)) was the longest on the Agria potatoes. The significant difference was observed between intrinsic rates of increase (r(m)) on the potato cultivars. The mean generation time has reciprocal relation with r(m); subsequently, the lowest intrinsic rate of increase was observed on Agria potatoes. The highest and lowest r(m) value was observed on Burren and Agria potatoes, respectively. The descending order of intrinsic rates of increase was on Burren, Savalan, Sante, Marfona, Picaso, and Agria potaotes. The lowest r(m) value indicates that Agria is a relatively insusceptible compared with the other cultivars tested and that this cultivar can be used effectively in sustainable IPM.

  5. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

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    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available We report the assembly of the 14,054 bp near complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the legume pod borer (LPB, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, which we subsequently used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. The arrangement and orientation of the 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA, and 19 tRNA genes sequenced was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The sequence contained a high A+T content of 80.1% and a bias for the use of codons with A or T nucleotides in the 3rd position. Transcript mapping with midgut and salivary gland ESTs for mitochondrial genome annotation showed that translation from protein-coding genes initiates and terminates at standard mitochondrial codons, except for the coxI gene, which may start from an arginine CGA codon. The genomic copy of coxII terminates at a T nucleotide, and a proposed polyadenylation mechanism for completion of the TAA stop codon was confirmed by comparisons to EST data. EST contig data further showed that mature M. vitrata mitochondrial transcripts are monocistronic, except for bicistronic transcripts for overlapping genes nd4/nd4L and nd6/cytb, and a tricistronic transcript for atp8/atp6/coxIII. This processing of polycistronic mitochondrial transcripts adheres to the tRNA punctuated cleavage mechanism, whereby mature transcripts are cleaved only at intervening tRNA gene sequences. In contrast, the tricistronic atp8/atp6/coxIII in Drosophila is present as separate atp8/atp6 and coxIII transcripts despite the lack of an intervening tRNA. Our results indicate that mitochondrial processing mechanisms vary between arthropod species, and that it is crucial to use transcriptional information to obtain full annotation of mitochondrial genomes.

  6. Two new genera of metalmark butterflies of North and Central America (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae

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    Marysol Trujano-Ortega

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera are described, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. (Neoapodemia nais (W. H. Edwards, 1876, comb. n., N. chisosensis Freeman, 1964, comb. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. (Plesioarida palmerii palmerii (W. H. Edwards, 1870, comb. n., P. palmerii arizona (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. palmerii australis (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hepburni hepburni (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. hepburni remota (Austin, 1991, comb. n., P. murphyi (Austin, [1989], comb. n., P. hypoglauca hypoglauca (Godman & Salvin, 1878, comb. n., P. hypoglauca wellingi (Ferris, 1985, comb. n., P. walkeri (Godman & Salvin, 1886, comb. n., P. selvatica (De la Maza & De la Maza, 2017, comb. n.. Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. is distributed in the southwestern USA and northeastern Mexico, while Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. is present from the southern USA to Central America. Species of these genera were previously classified as Apodemia C. Felder & R. Felder but molecular and morphological evidence separate them as new taxa. Morphological diagnoses and descriptions are provided for both new genera, including the main distinctive characters from labial palpi, prothoracic legs, wing venation and genitalia, as well as life history traits. A molecular phylogeny of one mitochondrial gene (COI and two nuclear genes (EF-1a and wg are also presented of most species of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n., Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n., and sequences of specimens from all tribes of Riodinidae. We compare the characters of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. and discuss the differences that support the description of these new taxa. This is a contribution to the taxonomy of the Riodinidae of North America of which the generic diversity is greater than previously recognized.

  7. Phylogeny and biogeography of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae: evidence from five nuclear genes.

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    Akito Y Kawahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae comprise one of most conspicuous and well-studied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable to confidently determine relationships among most groups. As a major step toward understanding relationships of this model group, we have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of hawkmoths representing all subfamilies, tribes and subtribes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data set consisted of 131 sphingid species and 6793 bp of sequence from five protein-coding nuclear genes. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses provided strong support for more than two-thirds of all nodes, including strong signal for or against nearly all of the fifteen current subfamily, tribal and sub-tribal groupings. Monophyly was strongly supported for some of these, including Macroglossinae, Sphinginae, Acherontiini, Ambulycini, Philampelini, Choerocampina, and Hemarina. Other groupings proved para- or polyphyletic, and will need significant redefinition; these include Smerinthinae, Smerinthini, Sphingini, Sphingulini, Dilophonotini, Dilophonotina, Macroglossini, and Macroglossina. The basal divergence, strongly supported, is between Macroglossinae and Smerinthinae+Sphinginae. All genes contribute significantly to the signal from the combined data set, and there is little conflict between genes. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple separate origins of New World and Old World radiations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of one of the most conspicuous and well-studied insects. The molecular phylogeny challenges current concepts of Sphingidae based on morphology, and provides a foundation for a new classification. While there are multiple independent origins of New World and Old World

  8. A novel pheromone dispenser for mating disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Stephen L; Stelinski, Lukasz L; Robinson, Richard D

    2011-04-01

    The sex pheromone of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was deployed in a Florida citrus (Citrus spp.) grove by using a novel deployment device (IFM-413) containing SPLAT, a flowable formulation of an emulsified wax compound designed to provide slow release of semiochemicals. The device consisted of two disks connected by string. Each disk was loaded with 1 g of SPLAT containing either 0.15% (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal (triene) or 2% (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal (diene). The devices were deployed using a two-dimensional multivariate design to determine the optimal rate of pheromone per unit area and degree of aggregation of the deployment devices (number of trees treated per unit area). The IFM-413 device proved effective at becoming securely entangled in tree branches. Furthermore, the devices effectively delivered pheromone-loaded SPLAT that resulted in disruption of trap catch of male P. citrella. Response surfaces showed a quadratic response of trap catch disruption to both total amount of pheromone per unit area and the degree of aggregation of the deployed devices (number of treated trees per unit area). The response surfaces for 0.15% triene or 2.0% diene were similar. The diene produced an effect similar to that of the triene at approximately 13 times the rate of the triene. The greatest disruption of trap catch occurred when the number of treated trees per unit area was greatest (no aggregation of deployment devices). Manufacturing, packaging, and mechanical deployment of the devices remain to be investigated.

  9. Assessing diversity of diurnal lepidoptera in habitat fragments: testing the efficiency of strip transects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew R

    2008-10-01

    Species richness is the most widely used measure of biodiversity, but the relationship between the observed and true numbers of species present in a study site is not always investigated. A field study at 27 habitat remnants was used to measure the effectiveness of a survey regimen for assessing species richness of butterflies and day-active moths in southwest Western Australia. Observed species richness was compared with known species richness and to statistical estimates of true species richness, and the bootstrap was found to be the best predictor of true richness. A regimen of 10-m-wide walk transects sampled on six occasions at 2-wk intervals during the austral spring (mid-September to mid-December) gave an almost complete inventory of resident species for each site (approximately 87% of the fauna detected), consistent with two previous studies that have assessed sample completeness in temperate areas. The abundance of diurnal lepidoptera showed large temporal variation over the flight season and varied to a lesser extent with time of day and temperature, but not with cloud cover or wind speed. Transect route and sampling frequency were the most important considerations in devising a survey regimen: transects placed off tracks detected both more species and more individuals per unit length. The fraction of the site area sampled was relatively unimportant, and even low sampling fractions of 1-2% may be adequate if the number and frequency of surveys is sufficient. The design of future surveys would be facilitated if sampling fraction was routinely reported and examined in relation to sample completeness.

  10. Postharvest Irradiation Treatment for Quarantine Control of the Invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, Hannah; Follett, Peter A; Perry, Christopher L; Mack, Ronald G

    2017-12-19

    Irradiation is a postharvest treatment option for exported berries and berry-like fruits to prevent movement of the quarantine pest European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in L. botrana were examined. Eggs, neonates, third and fifth instars, and early- and late-stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untreated as controls in replicated factorial experiments, and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation generally increased with increasing age and developmental stage. A dose of 150 Gy prevented adult emergence in eggs and larvae. Pupae were more radiotolerant than larvae, and late-stage pupae were more tolerant than early-stage pupae. In large-scale validation tests, 150 Gy applied to fifth instars in diet prevented adult emergence, but some survival occurred in fifth instars irradiated in table grapes; however, 250 Gy prevented fifth instar survival in grapes. For most commodities, the fifth instar is the most radiotolerant life stage likely to occur with the commodity; a minimum radiation dose of 250 Gy will prevent adult emergence from this stage. For traded commodities such as table grapes that may contain L. botrana pupae, 325 Gy applied to mature female pupae sterilized emerging adults and may provide quarantine security. Radiotolerance in L. botrana is comparable to other tortricids, and the data reported here support a generic dose of 250 Gy for eggs and larvae of this group. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Molecular Phylogeny of the Small Ermine Moth Genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hubert; Lieshout, Niek; Van Ginkel, Wil E.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their host-plant associations. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies, and to obtain insight into the history of host-plant use and the biogeography of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequences from an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and from the 16S rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase (COII) mitochondrial genes were collected from 20–23 (depending on gene) species and two outgroup taxa to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Palaearctic members of this genus. Sequences were analysed using three different phylogenetic methods (parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference). Conclusions/Significance Roughly the same patterns are retrieved irrespective of the method used, and they are similar among the three genes. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese (but not the Dutch) population of Yponomeuta sedellus and Y. yanagawanus, a Y. kanaiellus–polystictus clade, and a Rosaceae-feeding, western Palaearctic clade (Y. cagnagellus–irrorellus clade). Within these clades, relationships are less well supported, and the patterns between the different gene trees are not so similar. The position of the remaining taxa is also variable among the gene trees and rather weakly supported. The phylogenetic information was used to elucidate patterns of biogeography and resource use. In the Palaearctic, the genus most likely originated in the Far East, feeding on Celastraceae, dispersing to the West concomitant with a shift to Rosaceae and further to Salicaceae. The association of Y. cagnagellus with Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae), however, is a reversal. The only oligophagous species, Y. padellus, belongs

  12. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  13. Spatial ecology of the palm-leaf skeletonizer, Homaledra sabelella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T Cronin

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes that determine the distribution of populations is a fundamental goal in ecology. In this study, I determined the relative contribution of space and the biotic and abiotic environment to the distribution of the palm-leaf skeletonizer Homaledra sabalella (PLS; Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae among patchily distributed dwarf palmettos (Sabal minor; Arecaceae. Based on surveys conducted at two sites in the Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, Louisiana, I found that the distribution of the PLS was primarily related to local environmental conditions--number of PLS increased with palmetto height, was greater in dry versus wet habitats, and varied in an inconsistent way with the type of understory cover. Spatial structure of the forest and isolation of the host plant were of minor importance to the distribution of the PLS. Based on a series of experiments, the mechanisms underlying the effects of these environmental variables on PLS abundance were elucidated. Tall palmettos have a greater abundance of PLS because they are 2.5 times more likely to be colonized than small palmettos. Tall palmettos do not represent better hosts (in terms of PLS survival to pupation, pupal length, or risk of parasitism. Similarly, an open understory increased colonization by two-fold, relative to a shrub understory, but understory type had no effect on host quality. Wet soils greatly reduced palmetto quality as a host (survival and pupal length, but only for the smallest palmettos (<0.75 m height. Finally, corroborating the survey data, my dispersal experiment revealed that the PLS is a strong flier and that local PLS populations (i.e., infested palmettos are likely well connected by dispersal. I conclude by discussing how landscape-level changes at Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, owing to recent hurricane activity, could affect the risk of palmetto infestation by the PLS.

  14. A new gene superfamily of pathogen-response (repat) genes in Lepidoptera: classification and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, G; Hernández-Martínez, P; Vogel, H; Ferré, J; Herrero, S

    2013-01-01

    Repat (REsponse to PAThogens) genes were first identified in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to Bacillus thuringiensis and baculovirus exposure. Since then, additional repat gene homologs have been identified in different studies. In this study the comprehensive larval transcriptome from S. exigua was analyzed for the presence of novel repat-homolog sequences. These analyses revealed the presence of at least 46 repat genes in S. exigua, establishing a new gene superfamily in this species. Phylogenetic analysis and studies of conserved motifs in these hypothetical proteins have allowed their classification in two main classes, αREPAT and βREPAT. Studies on the transcriptional response of repat genes have shown that αREPAT and βREPAT differ in their sequence but also in the pattern of regulation. The αREPAT were mainly regulated in response to the Cry1Ca toxin from B. thuringiensis but not to the increase in the midgut microbiota load. In contrast, βREPAT were neither responding to Cry1Ca toxin nor to midgut microbiota. Differential expression between midgut stem cells and the whole midgut tissue was studied for the different repat genes revealing changes in the gene expression distribution between midgut stem cells and midgut tissue in response to midgut microbiota. This high diversity found in their sequence and in their expression profile suggests that REPAT proteins may be involved in multiple processes that could be of relevance for the understanding of the insect gut physiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    M. C. Lacerda

    Full Text Available Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, specially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae larvae (T1, compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae (T2 and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae larvae (T3 at a temperature of 25 ± 0.5ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 ± 1.02 similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 ± 1.49. Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 ± 2.02; 15.00 ± 7.40; 8.42 ± 1.84; 296.69 ± 154.75; and 228.55 ± 141.04, respectively while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 ± 16.15 and 35.00 ± 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 ± 13.60 and 23.46 ± 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  16. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

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    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.

  17. Population genetics of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the implications for management using biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Y; Mitchell, A; Le Rü, B P; Conlongs, D E

    2010-01-01

    The African sugarcane stalk borer, Eldona saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa and is an important insect pest of maize and sugarcane. The insect shows significant variation in behaviour, host plant and natural enemy guild in different regions. Several attempts to redistribute the natural enemies of E. saccharina from West Africa to South Africa were unsuccessful. The significant behavioural, host plant and natural enemy variations as well as failures of biocontrol attempts evoked a hypothesis of genetic diversification. To evaluate this hypothesis a molecular analysis was conducted on geographically isolated populations of E. saccharina from East, North, South and West Africa, using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of the mitochondrial genome. The results revealed that E. saccharina populations are separated into four major units corresponding to the West Africa, Rift Valley, South/East Africa and southern African populations. Mitochondrial DNA divergence among the four populations ranged from 1% to 4.98%. To examine the impact of the observed genetic variation on the fertility of inter-population crosses, a mating experiment was conducted between the Rift valley and South African population to produce an F1 generation, and these were backcrossed with the South African parent population. Fertility of eggs produced by the F1/parent population cross was significantly reduced when compared to fertility of the "true" South African line, and the F1/F1 cross. The contributions of the observed genetic differences and inter population incompatibility for the failure of previous biocontrol attempts are discussed and recommendations on future biocontrol practices are given.

  18. Morphology and biology of the fruit piercing moth, Ophiusa corona (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Permkam, S.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and biology of the fruit-piercing moth Ophiusa coronata (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were studied in laboratory. Eggs were spherical and colored grayish green with an average diameter of 1.03±0.01 mm (mean±SEM. The larvae were looper caterpillars, possessing 2 white bands on the black head. The body was brown to blackish, marked with black spots and red longitudinal streaks. The pupa was black-brown. The adult moth had rufous and fuscous forewings tinged with a black spot in the middle. The hind wings were bright yellow in ground color with a dark band at the anterior and the posterior borders. Time required for egg to adult development averaged 40.35±0.59 days (mean±SEM. The average duration for egg, larval and pupal developments were 4.0±0.0, 23.20±0.49 and 13.15±0.22 days, respectively. Sexual maturity for female took 10.67±1.05 days. The average duration of egg laying, number of eggs and longevity of adult moths were 7.33±1.28 days, 333.0±171.82 egg/female and 22.83±2.45 days, respectively. Feeding preference and phototaxis of adult studies showed that adults likely preferred to feed ranking from slices of pineapple, banana, papaya and citrus, whereas sapodilla and rose apple were rarely fed on. Blue light and mercury vapor light were highly attractive, whereas violet light and fluorescent light were less attractive to this adult moth species.

  19. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Assessing Common Bean Cultivars for Resistance to the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morando, R; Baldin, E L L; Cruz, P L; Lourenção, A L

    2017-10-01

    The soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is known as an important pest of leguminous plants worldwide. In Brazil, this pest species is gaining importance to producers of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) because it limits field production of the crop. Chemical control is still the primary method of insect control. However, due to the possible harmful effects of pesticides to humans and the environment, alternative and less aggressive practices are being investigated. For this reason, the use of resistant plant genotypes represents a valuable tool in insect control. This study evaluated the biological aspects of larvae of C. includens confined to 14 bean genotypes under laboratory conditions (26 ± 2°C; 65 ± 10% RH; photoperiod of 14 h L:10 h D). The duration of the instars, total duration of the larval phase, consumption while in the larval phase, weight of the fifth instar larvae, larval viability, duration of the pre-pupal and pupal phases, pupal weight, pupal viability, pupal deformity, caterpillar-to-adult cycle, duration of the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, and total number of viable eggs per female were evaluated. The genotypes "IAC Boreal," "IAC Harmonia," and "IAC Formoso" expressed antibiosis, prolonging the caterpillar-to-adult cycle and reducing the larval viability; however, each of these genotypes also experienced high leaf consumption. "IAC Jabola" expressed moderate levels of antibiosis and/or antixenosis (feeding), while the genotype "BRS Horizonte" expressed antixenosis (feeding). The data obtained with IAC Boreal, IAC Harmonia, IAC Formoso, IAC Jabola, and BRS Horizonte are promising and may help with the improvement of programs aimed at managing C. includens damage to this leguminous agricultural crop.

  2. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  3. Bioecological aspects of Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on persimmon cultivars = Aspectos bioecológicos de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em cultivares de caquizeiro

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    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of Hypocala andremona (Cramer on persimmon (Diospyrus kaki L. leaves of the cultivars Atago and Giombo was studied in laboratory (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% RH, 14 hours photo period and egg distribution on plants of the cultivar Giombo in a commercial orchard, during the 2001/2002 crop season, in Londrina, Paraná state. The developmental period of larvae fed on ‘Giombo’ was longer (17.8 . 0.17 days in comparison to that of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ (15.8 . 0.27 days. In contrast, the duration of the pupal stage of insects raised on ‘Giombo’ was lower (12.0 . 0.29 days than that of insects reared on ‘Atago’ (13.3 . 0.17 days. The viabilities of larvae were 60.8 and 38.8% for insects reared on ‘Giombo’ and on ‘Atago’, respectively. Pupal viability was similar (ca. 93% between treatments. The duration of the preoviposition and incubation periods of larvae fed on ‘Atago’ were 4.0 days and 2.1 days, respectively, the fecundity 524.7 eggs, egg viability 77% and adult longevity 12.9 days. No eggs were obtained when H. andremona larvae were reared on ‘Giombo’ in laboratory. Adults preferred to lay their eggs on leaveslocated at the top of the persimmon tree canopy.A biologia de Hypocala andremona (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae foi estudada em folhas das cultivares de caquizeiro (Diospyrus kakiL. Atago e Giombo em laboratório (27 ± 1ºC, 65 ± 10% UR, 14h fotofase e a distribuição de ovos em plantas da cultivar Giombo em pomar comercial, durante o período de 2001/2002, em Londrina, Estado do Paraná. O período de desenvolvimento das lagartas alimentadas com ‘Giombo’ foi maior (17,8 . 0,17 dias em relação às alimentadas com‘Atago’ (15,8 . 0,27 dias. Entretanto, a duração do estágio de pupa de insetos criados em ‘Giombo’ foi menor (12,0 . 0,29 dias do que as criadas em ‘Atago’ (13,3 . 0,17 dias. As viabilidades das lagartas foram 60,8 e 38,8% para insetos alimentados em ‘Giombo’ e

  4. Isolation of BAC Clones Containing Conserved Genes from Libraries of Three Distantly Related Moths: A Useful Resource for Comparative Genomics of Lepidoptera

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    Yuji Yasukochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, =31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (=28, the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108–184 clones representing 101–182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  5. Danos de Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em seis cultivares de pessegueiro em Araucária, Paraná Damages of Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in six peach orchards cultivars in Aracuária, Paraná

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    Alex Sandro Poltronieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se a ocorrência e os danos de Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pomar comercial de pessegueiros com seis cultivares de ciclos de maturação de frutos precoce ('São Pedro', médio ('Chimarrita', 'Ouro', 'Coral' e 'Marli' e tardio ('BR II', no município de Araucária-PR. Foram sorteadas cinco plantas por cultivar para serem avaliados os danos em brotações e frutos. Os danos foram acumulados e avaliados em três fases: pré-raleio, endurecimento do caroço e colheita. Os resultados mostraram que houve um nível diferenciado no ataque de G. molesta em brotações e frutos, entre as cultivares. As avaliações de danos em brotações mostraram que, até a fase de colheita, a cultivar Ouro foi a mais atacada, sendo superada pela 'Chimarrita' quando se inclui os danos ocorridos na fase pós-colheita. Em frutos, a 'Marli' apresentou o maior número de pêssegos danificados entre as seis cultivares avaliadas.This paper deals with the occurrence and damage of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a commercial peach orchard with six cultivars of different fruit ripening cycles: precocious ('São Pedro ', medium ('Chimarrita ', 'Ouro ', 'Coral ' and 'Marli ' and late ('BR II ', in Araucaria, State of Paraná, Brazil. Five plants of each cultivar were selected for evaluating the damages in shoots and fruits. The damages were accumulated and evaluated in three phases: previous thinning, stone hardening and harvesting. The results were as follows: the cultivar "Ouro" was the most damaged one up to the harvesting phase, although 'Chimarrita' surpassed 'Ouro' when the damages observed in the post-harvesting phase were included. Among the six cultivars, 'Marli' was the one presenting the highest number of damaged fruits.

  6. Primeiro registro de Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae em plantas de Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Nota Científica. First record of Fulgurodes sartinaria (Lepidoptera: geometridae in Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae (Scientific Note.

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    Claubert Wagner Guimarães de MENEZES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a oviposição e o desenvolvimento de uma nova espécie de lepidóptera associada à Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Ovos, imaturos e adultos de Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae foram encontrados em plantas de E. cloeziana no município de Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este trabalho é o primeiro registro desse desfolhador em plantas de eucalipto. Ninfas de Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae foram também observadas predando as lagartas de F. sartinaria, isto indica que este predador poderá ser um potencial agente de controle biológico da espécie. A ocorrência de F. sartinaria ovipositando e se desenvolvendo em plantas de E. cloeziana mostra que este lepidóptero pode se tornar um desfolhador importante da espécie, sendo recomendável sua inclusão em monitoramentos de pragas do eucalipto visando seu manejo integrado.The aim of this study was to record the oviposition and development of a new species of lepidopteran pests of Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, 1878 (Myrtaceae. Eggs, immatures and adults of Fulgurodes sartinaria Guenée, 1858 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae were found in plants of E. cloeziana in Itamarandiba, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This work is the first record of this defoliator in eucalyptus plants. Nymphs of the Brontocoris tabidus Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae have also been observed preying on the larvae of F. sartinaria, this indicates that this predator is a probable potential biological control agent of the species. The occurrence of F. sartinaria developing and laying eggs on plants of E. cloeziana shows that this insect can become an important defoliator and it is recommended its inclusion in monitoring pest of eucalyptus for integrated pest management.

  7. External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae

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    Luis Anderson Ribeiro Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the adult of Dynamine postverta (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Biblidinae and patterns of morphological similarity among species from eight tribes of Nymphalidae. The external structure of the integument of Dynamine postverta postverta (Cramer, 1779 is based on detailed morphological drawings and scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared with other species belonging to eight tribes of Nymphalidae, to assist future studies on the taxonomy and systematics of Neotropical Biblidinae.

  8. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Studies of Physiological Responses in the Ghost Moth, Thitarodes armoricanus (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guiqing; Qiu, Xuehong; Cao, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhan, Zubing; Han, Richou

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the sensitive method to quantify the expression levels of target genes on the basis of endogenous control. An appropriate reference gene set for normalization is essential for reliable results. The ghost moth, Thitarodes armoricanus, a host species of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, is an economically important member of the Lepidoptera. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of adaptation o...

  9. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 10. A remarkable new white species of Chionodes Hübner (Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Landry, Jean-François

    2016-05-09

    The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study, in late 2006, of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Chionodes bustosorum sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2010, during the third year of the study. The male imago and male genitalia are illustrated, and its DNA barcode is compared to that of seven other species of Chionodes from western North America.

  10. Compositional analysis and toxicity of four plant essential oils to different stages of Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandir, Dilek; Baş, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the biological effects of essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on the different stages of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Essential oils were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The doses of the essential oils applied were 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 20, 5...

  11. Pemanfaatan Kulit Ubi Kayu Dan Daun Tomat Sebagai Insektisida Nabati Dalam Mengendalikan Ulat Grayak Spodoptera litura L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Pada Tanaman Sawi

    OpenAIRE

    Supriadi, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Dani Supriadi, "Utilization of Cassava Waste Leather Leaf Tomato And Vegetable For Insecticides In controlling the caterpillar Spodopteralitura L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) At planting mustard "It was under supervised by Mena Uly Tarigan and YuswaniPangestiningsih.The research aims to determine the effectiveness of skin waste cassava and tomato leaves as a vegetable insecticide to control caterpillars grayakS.lituraL. Research conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture land of North Sumatra Unive...

  12. A note on the migration of Dark Cerulean Jamides bochus (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in Eravikulam National Park, Idukki District, Kerala, India

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    M.J. Palot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The migratory movements of butterflies are poorly documented in Kerala. It’s for the first time the migratory behaviour of the Dark Cerulean Jamides bochus (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae was documented from the Kerala part of Western Ghats. The migratory movement was from high ranges of Eravikulam National Park, Idukki district, Kerala at an elevation of 2085m to the lower elevations in a north-east to south-east direction.

  13. Effect of pyramiding Bt and CpTI genes on resistance of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under laboratory and field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, J.J.; Luo, J.Y.; Werf, van der, W.; Ma, Y.; Xia, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, adapted to China, have been bred that express two genes for resistance to insects. the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt), and a trypsin inhibitor gene from cowpea (CpTI). Effectiveness of the double gene modification in conferring resistance to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was studied in laboratory and field experiments. In each experiment, performance of Bt+CpTI cotton was c...

  14. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones: Discovery of dicloromezotiaz as a lepidoptera insecticide acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors1,2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Holyoke, Caleb W; Barry, James; Cordova, Daniel; Leighty, Robert M; Tong, My-Hanh T; Hughes, Kenneth A; Lahm, George P; Pahutski, Thomas F; Xu, Ming; Briddell, Twyla A; McCann, Stephen F; Henry, Yewande T; Chen, Yuzhong

    2017-02-15

    A novel class of mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones has been discovered with exceptional insecticidal activity controlling a number of insect species. In this communication, we report the part of the optimization program that led to the identification of dicloromezotiaz as a potent insecticide to control a broad range of lepidoptera. Our efforts in discovery, synthesis, structure-activity relationship elucidation, and biological activity evaluation are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil ( Lepidoptera , Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea )

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz-Santos,Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restri...

  16. Clarifying the source of Conicofrontia sesamoides Hampson (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) population in South African sugarcane using morphological identification and mitochondrial DNA analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa, Y; Goftishu, M.; Capdevielle Dulac, Claire; Le Rü, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Valid identification of a novel pest species and clarifying its origin are the primary steps in understanding population structure and development of biocontrol programs. In this study geographical populations of Conicofrontia sesamoides Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) collected during surveys conducted in the years 2009, 2014 and 2015 were morphologically identified and their genetic diversity was analysed by using sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase I (COI) gene in an attem...

  17. Astrotischeria neotropicana sp. nov.-a leaf-miner on Sida, Malvaceae, currently with the broadest distribution range in the Neotropics (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-11-05

    This paper describes Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae), a new leaf-miner on Sida (Malvaceae) with a broad distribution range in tropical Central & South America. The new species is currently recorded from the Amazon Basin in Peru and Ecuador to tropical lowlands in Guatemala and Belize (including the Caribbean Archipelago). The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf-mines; distribution map is also provided.

  18. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Forbes, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time.

  19. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883 (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883, previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time.

  20. Effect of antibiotic on survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its gut microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, A; Dhammi, P; Saini, H S; Kaur, S

    2016-06-01

    Addition of antibiotics to artificial diets of insects is a key component in the rearing of insects in the laboratory. In the present study an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulphate was tested for its influence on survival and fitness of Spodoptera litura (Fabricus) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as well as its gut microbial diversity. The antibiotic did not adversely affect the survival of S. litura. Faster growth of larvae was recorded on diet amended with different concentrations of streptomycin sulphate (0.03, 0.07 and 0.15%) as compared to diet without streptomycin sulphate. The overall activity of various digestives enzymes increased on S+ diet while the activity of detoxifying enzymes significantly decreased. In addition, alteration in microbial diversity was found in the gut of S. litura larvae fed on diet supplemented with antibiotic (S+) and without antibiotic (S-).

  1. High Bacterial Agglutination Activity in a Single-CRD C-Type Lectin from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Leila; Ferré, Juan; Herrero, Salvador

    2017-03-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram- as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other biotechnological applications involving bacterial capture.

  2. First report and spore ultrastructure of Vairimorpha plodiae (Opisthokonta: Microspora) from Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Pınar Güngör, F; Gonca Güner, Beyza; Radek, Renate; Linde, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the first isolation and characterization of Vairimorpha plodiae, a microsporidian pathogen of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Turkey. We present characteristic light and electron microscopical features of the spores. Fresh binucleate spores are oval and measure 4.48 ± 0.23 (4.01-4.84) µm in length and 2.21 ± 0.15 (1.91-2.48) µm in width. Ultrastructural studies showed that the spore wall measures 150 to 200 nm and consists of a clear endospore (125-150 nm) and an electron-dense, uniform, thin exospore (30-50 nm). The polar filament is isofilar and with 10-12 coils. The well-developed polaroplast consists of two parts with thin lamellae anteriorly and thick, irregularly arranged lamellae posteriorly. The identity of our isolate is discussed.

  3. Constituents of osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, B V; Munro, Z; Röth, M; Spies, H S; Truter, V; Geertsema, H; Habich, A

    1985-08-01

    The defensive osmeterial secretion of pre-final instar larvae of the citrus swallowtail,Papilio demodocus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was found to contain methyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, α-pinene, myrcene, limonene, β-phellandrene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-ocimene, β-caryophyllene, (E)-β-farnesene, and germacrene-A, as well as a further number of unidentified sesquiterpenoid constituents. The presence of germacrene-A in the secretion was inferred from the formation of β-elemene under certain GC conditions. Larvae of the second, third, and fourth instars produce qualitatively similar secretions. Remarkable quantitative differences were found between the secretions of individual larvae. These variations could not be correlated with the diet on which the larvae were fed, their sex, instar, or color form. However, in a number of larvae the two prongs of the osmeterium were found to produce quantitatively different secretions.

  4. Sensilla on the Antennae and Ovipositor of the Sea Buckthorn Carpenter Moth, Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R; Zhang, L; Xu, L L; Zong, S X; Luo, Y Q

    2015-02-01

    Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) is an important boring pest that damages the sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides. Larvae of H. hippophaecolus cause major losses of this shrub in Northern China, with severe economic and ecological consequences. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the typology, morphology, and distribution of sensilla on the antennae and ovipositor of H. hippophaecolus. In total, seven subtypes of sensilla were found on the antennae, i.e., chaetica, trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica (two subtypes), coeloconica, and Böhm bristles. In addition, three types of sensilla were detected on the ovipositor, i.e., chaetica, trichodea, and basiconica. The identification of these sensilla types could provide morphological evidence to facilitate a better understanding of the host location, mate finding, and oviposition processes of this important species.

  5. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  6. Some Brain Peptides Regulating the Secretion of Digestive Enzymes in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjadian Seyede Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is a destructive polyphagous pest of many stored products. To interfere with the physiological processes, especially digestion, of the larval pest, more information on the regulatory mechanisms is needed. The brain extract from 1-day-old last instar larvae of P. interpunctella was examined. In the bioassays, the midguts were treated with the brain extract, and the carbohydrase and protease activities were measured. The brain extract showed increasing dose-dependent effects on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and trypsin secretion in the larval midgut. The extract was further characterised and partially purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Several peptides were determined in the brain extract regulating hydrolase activities in the larval midgut of the pest.

  7. Biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae with larvae reared on khaki and mate-plant leaves

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    A. Specht

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to investigate biological aspects of Periga circumstans Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: Hemileucinae whose larvae were fed on leaves of khaki-plant (Diospyros khaki Linnaeus - Ebenaceae and Mate-plant (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire - Aquifoliaceae leaves. The biological parameters were obtained from specimens kept under controlled conditions: temperature of 25 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 12 hours. For each developmental stage, morphological and ethological parameters are described. The larvae passed through six instars with a growth average rate of 1.4 for each instar. The host plants influenced significantly only the total duration of the larval phase, which was prolonged for larvae fed on khaki-plant leaves. Several aspects related to the morphology and the ethology of P. circumstans are similar to those described for Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855.

  8. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) isolated from rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dongxu; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Sentai; Han, Lanzhi; Li, Qingrong; Zhao, Chaoyi; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Mingqiang

    2017-10-01

    A new microsporidium was isolated from Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), one of the most important rice pests in China. The morphology and molecular systematics of this novel microsporidium were described in this study. The spores were long oval and measured 3.17 × 1.64 μm on fresh smears. Ultrastructure of the spores was characteristic for the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 10-12 polar filament coils of the same type, and posterior vacuole. Small subunit rRNA gene sequence data and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the microsporidian species from C. suppressalis belong to the true Nosema sub-group of the genus Nosema. Besides, the microsporidium Nosema sp. CS could cause systemic infection of Bombyx mori and infect silkworms through vertical transmission. Therefore, mulberry field pest control should be carefully monitored, and sanitation of mulberry leaves is essential to control the pebrine disease in sericulture.

  9. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its natural enemies, and the presence of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Cropping practice can affect pests and natural enemies. A three-year study of the strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana (Lienig and Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its parasitoid Copidosoma aretas Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and its entomopathogenic fungi was conducted in seven pairs...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response...... unknown causes. Only two of the field-collected A. comariana larvae were infected by entomopathogenic fungi; one was infected by Isaria sp. and the other by Beauvaria sp. The density of A. comariana was on average four times lower in organic farms, which was significantly lower than in conventional farms...

  10. Overview on current status of biotechnological interventions on yellow stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Sikha; Barthakur, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a monophagous pest of paddy is considered as most important pest of rain fed low land and flood prone rice eco-systems. Breeding of yellow stem borer resistance in rice is difficult owing to the complex genetics of the trait, inherent difficulties in screening and poor understanding of the genetics of resistance. On the other hand, a good level of resistance against the widespread yellow stem borer has been rare in the rice germplasm. Resistance to insects has been demonstrated in transgenic plants expressing genes for delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), protease inhibitors, enzymes and plant lectins. The performance of insect resistant GM rice in trials in China has been quite impressive. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in biotechnological intervention for yellow stem borer resistance in rice.

  11. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella.

  12. Susceptibility of Seven Selected Tomato Cultivars to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Implications for Its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Saeedeh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Asgari, Shahriar

    2017-04-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious pest originating from South America that affects tomato production in many countries, particularly in Iran (since 2010). In this study, by using age-stage, two-sex life-table parameters, the resistance of seven tomato cultivars, namely, 'Primo Early', 'Rio Grande', 'Cal JN3', 'Petomech', 'Early Urbana Y', 'Super 2270', and 'Super Strain B' to T. absoluta, was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h). Larval and pupal periods were longest on Early Urbana Y, 13.86 and 6.52 d, respectively, and shortest on Cal JN3, 10.92 and 5.5 d, respectively. The longest and shortest development times of immature stages lasted 26.42 and 20.83 d on Early Urbana Y and Cal JN3, respectively. Male and female adult longevity was longest on Early Urbana Y, 30.42 and 38.52 d, respectively, and shortest on Cal JN3, 11.67 and 18.8 d, respectively. The net reproductive rate (R0) ranged between 80.94 (Cal JN3) and 45.87 (Primo Early) offspring. The lowest and the highest values of the intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were on Early Urbana Y and Cal JN3, 0.1052 and 0.1522 and 1.1109 and 1.1644 d-1, respectively. The mean generation time (T) on different cultivars varied from 30.47 to 37.28 d. Our results indicated that Cal JN3 was the most susceptible to infestation and Primo Early and Early Urbana Y were the most resistant to T. absoluta among the tomato cultivars tested. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Impacts of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) on the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Renata A; Feliciano, Julia R; Solter, Leellen F; Delalibera, Italo

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT₅₀) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9 ± 0.3 to 42 ± 2.3 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10 spores/μl). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32 ± 0.7 to 37 ± 0.7 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-5 × 10(2) spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10(4) spores/μl in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50% mortality (LC₅₀) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9-17.6) spores/μl and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200-4700) spores/μl. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male

  14. PERKEMBANGAN DAN REPRODUKSI CROCIDOLOMIA PAVONANA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE PADA PAKAN ALAMI DAN SEMIBUATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novalia Jelita Sari dan Djoko Prijono .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Development and reproduction of Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae on natural and artificial diets.  Development and reproduction of Crocidolomia pavonana on natural and artificial diets were studied in the laboratory (25.2 ± 0.9 C; 84.6% ± 6.7% RH; ca. 12 h photophase.  The natural diets tested were broccoli, cabbage, chinese cabbage, and cauliflower leaves.  The artificial diets used were agar–based general lepidopteran diets mixed with red bean or broccoli leaves, and supplemented with vitamins and microbial inhibitors.  Observation of insect development was done since the egg stage.  After the eggs hatched, larvae were kept singly in plastic cups and fed with appropriate diets.  Fifty larvae were used for each diet.  Records were kept with regard to the duration of each larval instar, pupal period, and the pupal weight.  The emerging adults were paired, and then the number of dead adults and that of eggs laid were recorded daily.  On all the natural diets tested, the larval stage of C. pavonana passed through four instars.  The egg incubation, total larval developmental, and pupal period of C. pavonana on chinese cabbage were the shortest compared to those on the other natural diets.  The pupal weight, however, was the highest on broccoli, followed by that on chinese cabbage, cabbage, and cauliflower.  The female fecundity was also the highest on broccoli (average 258 eggs/female followed by that on chinese cabbage (212, cauliflower (162, and cabbage (102.  Broccoli diet also yielded adults with the longest lifespan although the adult lifespan on broccoli was not significantly different from that on the other natural diets, except that of males on cabbage.  C. pavonana failed to develop successfully on six kinds of artificial diets tested.  The best artificial diet (broccoli–based diet with microbial inhibitors 20% of the normal amount only yielded two males and five females with deformed wings, but

  15. Taxonomía y distribución de Nathalis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae en Colombia

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    Hannier W Pulido-B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, Nathalis comprende dos especies descritas: N. iole y N. plauta. Autores previos no describieron detalladamente su distribución meridional y fallaron en la diferenciación de ambas especies basado en sus caracteres genitales. Algunos caracteres de su diseño alar habían sido suficientes para separarlas, pero su co-especificidad pudo ser una posibilidad. Estas habitan en Colombia, por arriba de los 2000 m en el páramo, y tienen una distribución vicariante desde poblaciones remanentes de N. iole en las Antillas y en Centro y Norteamérica. Un análisis de la variación de los genitales masculinos y femeninos, así como del diseño alar de más de 100 especímenes de los Andes Colombianos (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta y Sierra de Perijá y México, indica que las dos especies difieren en sus genitales, y considerando su distribución alopátrida, nosotros confirmamos la distinción específica entre N. iole y N. plauta. Describimos una nueva subespecie endémica encontrada exclusivamente en el páramo por encima de los 3000 m, un área en donde se dan otros endemismos. Las especies de Nathalis presentan plasticidad fenotípica debida a factores ambientales.The taxonomy and distribution of Nathalis (Lepidoptera: Pieridae in Colombia. In Colombia, Nathalis has two described species: N. iole and N. plauta. Previous authors did not make detailed descriptions of its distribution in meridional regions and failed to differentiate both species based on genitalic characters. Some wing marks have been enough to separate them, but co-specificity was a possibility. They inhabit Colombia above 2000 m in the paramo, and have a vicariant distribution from the remaining population of N. iole in the Antillean and Central and North America. An analysis focused on male and female genitalia, as well as the wing pattern of more than 100 specimens from the Colombian Andes (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Sierra de Perijá and Mexico, indicates that the

  16. Genetic and Biological Analysis of Colombian Phthorimaea operculella Granulovirus Isolated from Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Correal, Carlos; Léry, Xavier; Villamizar, Laura; Gómez, Juliana; Zeddam, Jean Louis; Cotes, Alba Marina; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an invasive potato pest of the north of South America that recently colonized zones where Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a taxonomically related insect, was established. Nowadays, both species can be found in most areas in different proportions. The Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) was found to efficiently control P. operculella and was used as a biopesticide in storage conditions. However, no appropriate biological control methods exist for T. solanivora, and the use of granulovirus isolates would provide a solution. The Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) carried out several T. solanivora larva samplings in Colombia with the aim of finding potential isolates. Five geographical granulovirus isolates from T. solanivora (VG001, VG002, VG003, VG004, and VG005) were found, and molecular analysis by REN profiles shows three different genotypic variants in Colombia. Analysis of their genomes revealed their relatedness to PhopGV. Two isolates exhibited submolar bands in their REN patterns, suggesting a mixture of viral genotypes. These data were confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of particular regions of the viral genomes. Their biological activity was assayed on both hosts, T. solanivora and P. operculella. A significantly higher pathogenicity in both hosts was observed with isolates VG001 and VG005 than with isolate VG003 or a Peruvian isolate (from P. operculella) used as a reference in the bioassay. Based on their molecular and biological activity characteristics, VG001 and VG005 isolates should be selected for further analysis in order to establish their potential as biological control agents. PMID:20870793

  17. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.Uma nova espécie de Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae dos valles litorais do norte do Chile, e o primeiro registro continental de E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae é registrado pela primeira vez para o Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. é descrita e ilustrada com base em espécimes criados de larvas colectadas em Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae nos vales litorais do deserto do norte do Chile. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, conhecida previamente das Ilhas Galápados, Equador, é registrada pela primeira vez para SulAmérica continental. Suas larvas foram coletadas em Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  18. Biological aspects of Dirphia moderata (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae on Eucalyptus cloeziana and Psidium guajava

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    Fabricio Fagundes Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An egg mass of Dirphia moderata Bouvier was collected around a branch of Eucalyptus cloeziana to register the occurrence and to study the biological aspects of this species fed with leaves of E. cloeziana or P. guajava at 25 ± 2º C, relative humidity of 60 ± 10% and photo phase of 12 h. The duration and viability of the larva stage of D. moderata was 56.01 days and 80.00% and 55.79 days and 72.5% for its caterpillars fed with the first and second host plants, respectively. The duration (days and viability (% of the pupae stage of this insect were 37.64 and 87.00 fed with E. cloeziana and 49.93 and 87.75 with P. guajava, respectively. The average longevity (days was 6.79 and 8.85 for males and 10.48 and 10.09 for females with E. cloeziana and P. guajava, respectively. Each female of D. moderata laid 121.71 and 112.00 eggs with an incubation period (days of 18.14 and 17.79 and viability (% of 75.0 and 70.0 with the first and the second hosts, respectively.Postura de Dirphia moderata Bouvier, 1919 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae foi coletada ao redor de um ramo de Eucalyptus cloeziana na área experimental do Laboratório de Entomologia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. O objetivo foi registrar a ocorrência e estudar aspectos biológicos de D. moderata alimentada com folhas de E. cloeziana ou Psidium guajava na temperatura de 25 ± 2º C, umidade relativa de 60 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. A duração e a viabilidade larval foram de 56,01 dias e 80,00% e de 55,79 dias e 72,50% para lagartas de D. moderata alimentadas com E. cloeziana ou Psidium guajava, respectivamente. A duração (dias e a viabilidade (% do estágio de pupa foram de 37,64 e 87,00 para este inseto com E. cloeziana e de 49,93 e 87,75 com P. guajava, respectivamente. A longevidade média (dias foi de 6,79 e 8,85 para machos e de 10,48 e 10,09 para fêmeas desse inseto com E. cloeziana e P. guajava, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de D. moderata

  19. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae

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    Francisco Soto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp. and cedars (Cedrela spp. are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata. Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 487-499. Epub 2011 March 01.En América Latina y el Caribe, algunas especies que son fuente de maderas preciosas, como las caobas (Swietenia spp. y cedros (Cedrela spp., son seriamente dañadas por la larva de Hypsipyla grandella, la cual barrena el brote principal de los árboles. En experimentos previos orientados

  20. A Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain highly active to sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae Uma Estirpe Brasileira de Bacillus thuringiensis com elevada atividade para a broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Patrícia de Medeiros Gitahy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of the major sugarcane pest, Diatraea saccharalis, is limited by the stem location of the caterpillar. As part of a long-term project towards the development of an alternative and efficient delivery system of Cry proteins to control the sugarcane borer, the current work describes the selection and characterization of a Brazilian B. thuringiensis strain with prominent activity towards D. saccharalis. Strain S76 was eleven-fold more active than the HD-1 Lepidoptera-standard strain, as estimated by the LC50 of 13.06 µg/L and 143.88 µg/L, respectively. We observed bipiramidal and cuboidal crystals similar to those found in other B. thuringiensis strains with entomopathogenic activity against Lepidoptera and Diptera. In addition, smaller and spherical crystalline inclusions were also observed. The plasmid profile of strain S76 is similar to that of HD-1. PCR amplifications of S76 DNA using cry specific primers confirmed the presence of cry1Aa,cry1Ab,cry1Ac,cry2Aa1, and cry2Ab2, but not cry1Ad, cry2Ac and cry9 type genes. No differences that could explain the superior activity of S76 when compared to HD-1, the Lepidoptera standard strain, were observed. Nevertheless, its higher entomopathogenic activity has pointed this strain S76 as a potential source of cry genes to control sugarcane borer, an important pest that affects sugarcane, a crop that occupies a planted area of about 6 million ha in Brazil.Diatraea saccharalis é o inseto-praga que provoca os maiores danos a cultura da cana-de-açúcar, e seu controle é limitado pela localização do ataque no interior do colmo das plantas. Como parte de um projeto a longo prazo com o objetivo de desenvolver uma alternativa eficiente para o controle da broca da cana utilizando as proteínas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis, o presente trabalho descreve a seleção e caracterização de uma estirpe desta bactéria com atividade larvicida para D. saccharalis. A estirpe brasileira S76, foi

  1. ACEPTACIÓN DE UNA DIETA ARTIFICIAL POR LARVAS DE LA MARIPOSA BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS(LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE ACCEPTANCE OF AN ARTIFICIAL DIET FOR CATERPILLARS OF THE BUTTERFLY BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE

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    Ricardo A Claro

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la aceptabilidad de dietas artificiales para la alimentación de larvas de la mariposa Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. A las larvas se les ofrecieron dietas en diferentes presentaciones y composiciones: en discos, vertida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero y plantas hospedero como control. La composición de la dieta se realizó de acuerdo con ensayos previos y con los análisis nutricionales desarrollados a larvas maduras y a hojas de la planta hospedera, Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae. La longevidad de las larvas, criadas en laboratorio, se vio afectada significativamente por los diferentes tratamientos de alimentación. Solo se finalizó el ciclo de desarrollo entre las larvas alimentadas con hojas jóvenes de la planta (control y con dieta esparcida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero; las curvas de sobrevivencia no presentaron diferencias significativas entre las larvas sostenidas con estos dos tratamientos. En contraste, las tasas de crecimiento larval, fueron significativamente afectadas según el tratamiento, obteniéndose mayor biomasa en las alimentadas con hojas con suplemento. Se sustenta la cría de mariposas de la especie B. polydamas bajo una dieta artificial como suplemento esparcido sobre hojas del hospedero bajo condiciones de temperatura, humedad y luminosidad controlada, con propósitos de investigación o futuros planes de manejo y conservación.We evaluated the acceptability of an artificial diet for the feeding larval stage of the butterfly Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae under control conditions. We offered to the larvae a diet in different forms and composition: disks, spilled like a supplement over the host sheet plant and host plant like a control. The diet composition was made according with preliminary essays and nutritional analyses to the larvae and the host plant, Aristolochia maxima. The longevity of the

  2. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Biological activity of extracts of Melia azedarach on larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    María R. Rossetti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en las dosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.In the course of searching for plant chemicals with potential insecticide properties, the activity of Melia azedarach L. senescent leaf and ripe fruit extracts (2, 5 and 10% was evaluated on larvae of Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. This polyphagous species is considered a sporadic pest on many important crops. Food consumption was assessed and an antifeedant index was calculated through choice tests. Also, food consumption, larval mortality, weight and depositions were recorded and nutritional indices were calculated in no-choice tests. Results from choice tests

  3. Efeito de dietas artificiais para a alimentação de adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, em laboratório Effect of artificial diets for the adults of Bonagota cranaodes feeding (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in laboratory

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    Fabiana Lazzerini da Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adultos de Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae submetidos a tratamentos com água, solução de mel a 10%, solução de mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja e sem alimento foram mantidos em gaiolas de PVC transparente para avaliar a fecundidade, longevidade e viabilidade de ovos em laboratório a 25±1°C e 70±10% de UR. Maior longevidade de fêmeas e machos e número de ovos/fêmea foram obtidos nos substratos compostos de mel a 10% (17,75 dias, 17,35 dias e 14,07 ovos/postura e mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja (18,25 dias, 18,20 dias e 12,71 ovos/postura. A viabilidade dos ovos e a duração do período embrionário foram semelhantes em todos os tratamentos. O substrato alimentar mel a 10% + 25% de cerveja, apresentou efeitos semelhantes ao substrato composto de apenas mel a 10% sobre a longevidade, fertilidade e viabilidade dos ovos. Entretanto, devido ao menor custo, a dieta a base de mel apresenta melhor potencial de utilização para manutenção da criação do inseto em laboratório.Adults of Bonagota cranaodes (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae were maintained in cages of transparent PVC without food, with water, and fed with honey solution at 10% and with honey solution at 10% + 25% of beer only with water and without feeding to evaluate their fecundity, longevity and viability of eggs in growth to (25±1°C and 70±10% of RU. The longevity of females and males was longer and number of eggs/female were obtained in the mean substratum composed of honey at 10% (17,75 days, 17,35 days and 14,07 eggs/posture and honey at 10% + 25% of beer (18,25 days, 18,20 days and 12,71 eggs/posture. The viability of the eggs and the duration of the embryonic period was similar in all the treatments. The mean with honey at 10% + 25% of beer, presented effects similar to the mean composed with honey at 10% regarding to the longevity, fertility and viability of eggs of B. cranaodes. However, due to the lower cost, the diet based only in honey represents

  4. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae Piezas bucales y sensilios asociados de Synempora andesae, una polilla de Sudamérica (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae

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    Michel J. Faucheux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouthparts of Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen were studied by means of scanning electron microscope. The existence of gustative uniporous sensilla styloconica is demonstrated for the second time on the proboscis of Neopseustidae. It is with this family, and not at a later stage within the Incurvaroidea, that these sensilla appear during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Contrary to common belief, the labial-palp-pit organ, or organ of vom Rath, is present at the distal extremity of the labial palpi of S. andesae. It is made up of a dozen of grooved multiporous sensilla coeloconica whose function is carbon dioxide sensitive. Thus, its presumed absence can no longer be considered as an autapomorphy of Neopseustidae. S. andesae possesses other original characteristics: both short and long bifurcate aporous sensilla chaetica on the labrum, numerous sensilla campaniformia on the first segment of labial palpi, as well as those previously described: the double-tube configuration of the proboscis and the composite and polymorphic multiporous sensilla basiconica on the antennae. Other cephalic sensilla are also described: aporous bifurcate sensilla chaetica on the clypeus, aporous sensilla campaniformia above the mandibles, and on the chaetosemata.Las piezas bucales de Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen fueron estudiadas con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se demuestra, por segunda vez, la existencia de sensilios estilocónicos gustativos uniporosos en la proboscis de Neopseustidae. Es en esta familia, y no en un estadio posterior dentro de Incurvaroidea, que aparecen estos sensilios durante la evolución de Lepidoptera. Contrario a lo que se cree, el órgano sensitivo labial u órgano de Von Rath, se encuentra en la extremidad distal del palpo labial de S. andesae. Está conformado por una docena de sensilios celocónicos multiporosos estriados, cuya función es percibir el dióxido de carbono. Por lo tanto, su supuesta ausencia ya no puede

  5. Gamma radiation effects on phases of evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) on artificial diet; Efeitos da radiacao gama nas fases do ciclo evolutivo da Plodia interpunctella (Huebner, 1813) (Lepidoptera - Pyralidae) em dieta artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborlin, Maria Julia

    1988-10-01

    The effects of increased gamma radiation ({sup 60} Co) doses on different phases of the evolutional cycle of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner,1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) have bean studied under laboratory conditions in the Laboratory of Radioentomology of the Nuclear Energy for Agriculture Center (CENA) in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. For all treatments with gamma radiation a Cobalt-60 source type Gamma bean-650 has been used and the activity was of approximately 2.93 x 10{sup 14} Bq (7,925 Ci), with a dose rate of 2.80 KGy per hour and the insects were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted to 27 {+-} 2{sup 0} C and a relative humidity of 70 {+-} 10%. The LD{sub 50} and LD{sub 100} of gamma radiation for eggs of in artificial diet were respectively 51 Gy and 125 Gy. The sterilizing doses in adults which were irradiated at immature phases (larvae and pupae) were 160 Gy and 250 Gy respectively. The sterilizing doses for adults females and males were respectively 250 Gy and 300 Gy. The LD{sub 100} for adult males was 4,750 Gy, 4,500 Gy for females and 4,750 Gy for insects at random. (author). 70 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Three new cecidogenous Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Momphinae associated with Melastomataceae in Brazil Três espécies novas de Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Momphinae, cecidógenas, associadas com Melastomataceae no Brasil

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    Vitor O. Becker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new cecidogenous Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae, Momphinae, described herein, induce galls on stems and leaves of Melastomataceae species. They include: Palaeomystella tibouchinae sp. n., on Tibouchina barbigera (Naudin Baillon, P. oligophaga sp. n., on Macairea radula (Bonpland de Candolle and M. thyrsiflora de Candolle, and P. henriettiphila sp. n., on Henriettea succosa (Aublet de Candolle. Adults, including male and female genitalia, larva, pupa, and galls are illustrated and described in detail.As espécies de Palaeomystella aqui descritas induzem cecídeas nos ramos e folhas de espécies de Melastomataceae: Palaeomystella tibouchinae sp. n. em Tibouchina barbigera (Naudin Baillon, P. oligophaga sp. n. em Macairea radula (Bonpland de Candolle, e M. thyrsiflora de Candolle, P. henriettiphila sp. n. em Henriettea succosa (Aublet de Candolle. Os adultos, incluindo venação das asas, e genitálias dos machos e fêmeas, larvas, pupas e cecídeas, são descritos e ilustrados em detalhes.

  7. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? - Implications of a Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-08-10

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  8. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  9. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

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    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  10. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  11. Catálogo do acervo de borboletas (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea depositadas no Museu de História Natural da Universidade Católica de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

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    Ricardo Siewert

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. The collection of Papilionoidea (Lepidoptera from Irmãs Figueiredo is deposited on the Universidade Católica de Pelotas and have 166 species distributed in Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. There were registered first occurrence from Lycaenidae and Riodinidae to physiographic region Encosta do Sudeste from Rio Grande do Sul State.

  12. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  13. Has the currently warming climate affected populations of the mountain ringlet butterfly, Erebia epiphron (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), in low-elevation mountains?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, O.; Kuras, T.; Klečková, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, APR 05 (2016), s. 295-301 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA ČR GAP505/10/2248; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-33733S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Erebia epiphron Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2016/01/36.pdf

  14. Impacto da pilosidade do algodoeiro sobre o curuquerê Alabama argillacea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e seu predador Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Carlos Alberto Domingues da [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    Estudou-se em laboratório e casa-de-vegetação, o impacto da pilosidade do algodoeiro sobre o curuquerê Alabama argillacea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e seu predador Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Inicialmente, foi determinado o desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e a reprodução de A. argillacea em algodoeiros com alta e baixa densidade de tricomas, mostrando um aumento na duração dos estágios de larva e pupa deste inseto. Em seguida, foi estudada a mobilidade de ninfas de P. n...

  15. A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eccopsis Zeller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae from the coastal valleys of northern Chile, with the first continental record of E. galapagana Razowski & Landry. Eccopsis Zeller, 1852 is reported for the first time from Chile. Eccopsis razowskii Vargas, n. sp. is described and illustrated based on specimens reared from larvae collected on native Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean desert. Eccopsis galapagana Razowski & Landry, 2008, previously known only from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, is recorded for the first time from continental South America. Larvae of the latter were collected in northern Chile feeding on Prosopis alba Griseb (Fabaceae.

  16. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Characterization and Compartmentalization

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    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut α-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of α-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH α-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.

  17. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R; Donelson, Sarah L; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-22

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  18. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  19. Target and Non‑Target Moth Species Captured by Pheromone Traps for Some Fruit Tortricid Moths (Lepidoptera

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    Klára Jakubíková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of the synthetic sexual pheromones for five tortricid species, viz. Grapholita funebrana Treitschke, 1835, G. janthinana (Duponchel, 1835, G. lobarzewskii (Nowicki, 1860, G. molesta (Busck, 1916, and Pandemis heparana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775, was evaluated in two areas in the SE part of the Czech Republic. The lures for G. funebrana produced by the Pherobank showed a higher selectivity and efficiency than those by the Propher. On the contrary, pheromones for G. molesta by the Propher are more effective than those by the Pherobank. Besides the target species, 29 non-target tortricid species and 25 other Lepidoptera species were captured. The number of non-target tortricid species was comparable by the attractants for all species (15 – 17 spp., except Pandemis heparana (only 7 spp.. The most abundant non-target Tortricidae were Cnephasia stephensiana (Doubleday, 1849, Hedya pruniana (Hübner, 1799, and Epiblema cirsiana (Zeller, 1843. Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner, 1799 was recorded in outdoor conditions of the Czech Republic for the first time. Celypha rosaceana (Schläger, 1847 was found as new for Moravia. Oegoconia novimundi (Busck, 1915 (Autostichidae was attracted by the lures for Grapholita funebrana and G. molesta in unusually high number of specimens.

  20. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

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    Venu M Margam

    Full Text Available The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation.

  1. Pan-American Similarities in Genetic Structures of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) With Implications for Hybridization.

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    Leite, N A; Correa, A S; Michel, A P; Alves-Pereira, A; Pavinato, V A C; Zucchi, M I; Omoto, C

    2017-08-01

    The genus Helicoverpa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) includes phytophagous and polyphagous agricultural insect pests. In the Americas, a native pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and an invasive pest, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), are causing severe damage in vegetable and agronomic crops. The population structure of both species in South America is poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relatedness of H. armigera and H. zea suggests natural interspecific gene flow between these species. Using microsatellite loci, we investigated: 1) the genetic diversity and gene flow of H. armigera specimens from Brazil; 2) the genetic diversity and gene flow between H. zea specimens from Brazil and the United States; and 3) the possibility of interspecific gene flow and the frequency of putative hybrids in Brazil. We detected high intraspecific gene flow among populations collected in the same country. However, there is a geographic limit to gene flow among H. zea individuals from South and North America. Pairwise Fst and private alleles showed that H. armigera is more similar to H. zea from Brazil than H. zea from the United States. A comparative STRUCTURE analysis suggests natural hybridization between H. armigera and H. zea in Brazil. High gene flow and natural hybridization are key traits to population adaptation in new and disturbed environments, which can influence the management of these pests in the American continent. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Leaf extrafloral nectaries enhance biological control of a key economic pest, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in peach (Rosales: Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Brown, Mark W; Bottrell, Dale G

    2007-04-01

    Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in many plant species produce sugary secretions that commonly attract ants. This research determined the impact of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) EFNs on the biological control of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a key economic pest in peach orchards, and studied interactions of EFNs and ants. Studies (2002-2005) in peach orchards of the mid-Atlantic United States showed that 'Lovell' peach trees with EFNs supported more parasitic Hymenoptera in the spring and increased the parasitism of G. molesta larvae later in the season than those trees without EFNs. Ant exclusion experiments revealed that trees with EFNs harbored fewer G. molesta larvae when ants were permitted access to the tree canopies. Furthermore, the trees with EFNs had approximately 90% less fruit injury by G. molesta, indicating that EFNs have a protective role for the fruit as well. The results show that the combined actions of ants and parasitic Hymenoptera confer an EFN-mediated protective effect spanning the whole fruit growing season. When EFNs are present, naturally occurring biological control agents can reduce damage by G. molesta in peach orchards without insecticide inputs. The EFNs are an important host-plant characteristic that should be retained in future peach cultivar selections as a means of enhancing biological control.

  3. Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.

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    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs.

  4. Sublethal exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the attractiveness and responsiveness in adult oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Michael D; Barrett, Bruce A

    2007-02-01

    The chemical communication (female attractiveness and male responsiveness) of adult oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide for 48 h were investigated in two laboratory wind tunnel assays. The recapture assay examined the ability of treated males to orient to a single cage of treated females, and the data gathered were mean percentage of males recaptured per treatment. The male sexual behavior assay examined some specific orientation behaviors (associated with sexual excitability) of treated males when they were given a choice of two competing pheromone sources (cages of treated females), and the data gathered were mean time males spent in upwind plume orientations and at source contact (female cage) per treatment. Data from the recapture assay suggests that exposure to methoxyfenozide impacts male responsiveness more than female attractiveness. In contrast, data from the sexual behavior assay strongly revealed that exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces does negatively impact both the ability of calling females to attract males and of aroused males to display sustained upwind flight behavior and time spent at the female cages.

  5. Toxicity of thiamethoxam and mixtures of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam to neonates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2012-08-01

    To assess the toxicity ofthiamethoxam and three mixtures of insecticides to oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), we added the insecticides to diet and fed it to neonates of two laboratory colonies; mortality was assessed after 96 h. Thiamethoxam was much less toxic than insecticides previously tested. Five of six analyses of the joint action of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam indicated that toxicity was not independent and not correlated. For chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, mortality was slightly lower than expected at low concentrations and greater than expected at high concentrations. For chlorantraniliprole plus esfenvalerate, mortality was less than expected at nearly all concentrations, suggesting antagonism despite the two compounds' different modes of action. For chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam, observed mortality exceeded expected mortality at low concentrations, but this trend did not continue at higher concentrations. Although the null hypothesis of independent and uncorrelated toxicity was rejected for chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid and chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam in three of four analyses, differences between observed and expected mortality were minor and inconsistent over the range of concentrations tested. We do not expect these mixtures to exhibit significant synergism or antagonism in the field. Apparent antagonism between chlorantraniliprole and esfenvalerate is particularly relevant because these insecticides (or chlorantraniliprole plus a different pyrethroid) may be used together in apples or peaches for control of oriental fruit moth and hemipteran pests. The effectiveness of each insecticide against oriental fruit moth might be reduced in such applications.

  6. Control of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) in peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli, Aldomario Santo; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Dolinski, Claudia; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is considered a major pest in temperate fruit trees, such as peach and apple. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are regarded as viable for pest management control due to their efficiency against tortricid in these trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of native EPNs from Rio Grande do Sul state against pre-pupae of G. molesta under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, pre-pupae of G. molesta were placed in corrugated cardboard sheets inside glass tubes and exposed to 17 different EPNs strains at concentrations of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 IJs/cm(2) and maintained at 25 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 16 h. Insect mortality was recorded 72 h after inoculation of EPNs. Steinernema rarum RS69 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora RS33 were the most virulent strains and selected for field application (LC95 of 70.5 and 53.8 IJs/cm(2), respectively). Both strains were highly efficient under field conditions when applied in aqueous suspension directed to larvae on peach tree trunk, causing mortality of 94 and 97.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alicely A; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Teixeira, Alvaro A C; Oliveira, José V de; Torres, Jorge B

    2009-01-01

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 degrees C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Boüin s aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxilin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron.

  8. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  9. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

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    Guoping Li

    Full Text Available Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L. that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  10. EFEITO E ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE Cinnamomum zeylanicum E Rosmarinus officinalis SOBRE Helicoverpa armigera Hübner,1908 (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae

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    Cristhian Eliseo Durán Aguirre

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A lagarta-do-algodoeiro, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner, 1908 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae é uma praga agrícola de grande importância econômica no mundo. O principal método de manejo desse inseto está baseado no uso de pesticidas sintéticos que acarretam efeitos negativos para a saúde humana, o meio ambiente e organismos no-alvos. Os óleos essenciais são metabolitos secundários derivados de plantas que tem ação inseticida em insetos pragas. Além disso, tem pouca persistência no ambiente, são degradáveis e não tem efeitos sobre inimigos naturais. O objetivo de este trabalho foi testar a ação inseticida dos óleos de canela, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e alecrim, Rosmarinus officinalis sobre lagartas de primeiro instar. Foram aplicados os referidos óleos a 5%(m v -1 diante pulverização e avaliou-se a atividade inseticida até 72 horas após tratadas. Os óleos essenciais não apresentaram atividade inseticida, mas, porém, poderiam ter efeitos subletais na biologia dos insetos pragas.

  11. Some ecological factors influencing the breeding success of the Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

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    D.A. Edge

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brenton Blue butterfly, Orachrysops niobe (Trimen, 1862 (Lepidoptera:Lycaenidae, is endemic to the southern Cape and is currently listed as Endangered. This study looks at some of the key ecological factors influencing the breeding success of the species—host plant abundance and condition, nectar sources, climate/ microclimate, and vegetation management techniques. The adult butterfly population was monitored over an entire breeding season; host plants were identified and individually monitored; and egg counts were done. This enabled the effects of a number of different management techniques to be evaluated (burning, cutting, physical removal of invasive elements, and combinations thereof. A fivefold increase in the population of O. niobe was observed over the breeding season. This increase was positively correlated to a similar increase in host plant abundance in the areas where cutting and physical removal of invasive elements was practiced. Burning, by contrast, appeared to have a negative impact on host plant and butterfly abundance over the same period. Impacts of other factors such as climate, nectar sources and the natural strength of the second brood are discussed. A hypothesis, of megaherbivore activity as the principal historical disturbance mechanism promoting locally favourable conditions for O. niobe to establish and maintain colonies, is proposed. Recommendations for reserve management and future research are made.

  12. Molecular systematics and evolution of the recently discovered "Parnassian" butterfly (Parnassius davydovi Churkin, 2006) and its allied species (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Keiichi; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Shinkawa, Tsutomu

    2009-07-15

    The nucleotide sequence of 807 bp of the mtDNA-ND5 locus of Parnassius davydovi (Churkin, S. 2006. A new species of Parnassius Latreille, 1804, from Kyrgyzstan (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Helios (Moskow) 7,142-158), was determined. This butterfly was unexpectedly discovered recently in Kyrgyzstan, and we wished to shed light on its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other Parnassian butterflies, as well as to the related taxa in the subfamily Parnassiinae of the family Papilionidae. Using the ML method with the GTR+I+Gamma model, we inferred the phylogenetic tree for 60 Parnassius individuals together with materials of the related genera in the subfamily Parnassiinae (Hypermnestra, Archon, Luehdorfia, Bhutanitis, Allancastria, Zerynthia and Sericinus) with Papilio machaon as an out-group. It was found that P. davydovi is a distinct species most closely related to P. loxias in clade VI among the eight clades, or species groups of Parnassius. The morphological diversity in the form of sphragis, the attachment to the female abdomen formed by the male during copulation, is characteristic to this clade, and we inferred the order of emergence of the different sphragis forms during evolution. Attempts to estimate the divergence times between related taxa were also made. It was inferred that the relatively rapid radiation of Parnassian butterflies started at about 24 MYA BP, while P. davydovi diverged from P. loxias at about 10 MYA BP.

  13. ACEPTACIÓN DE UNA DIETA ARTIFICIAL POR LARVAS DE LA MARIPOSA BATTUS POLYDAMAS POLYDAMAS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE

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    Ricardo Augusto Claro Carrascal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la aceptabilidad de una dieta artificial utilizada en la alimentación del estado larval de la mariposa Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, bajo condiciones de laboratorio.  A las larvas se les ofreció una dieta en diferentes presentaciones y composiciones, de acuerdo con ensayos previos y con los análisis nutricionales desarrollados a larvas maduras y a hojas de la  planta hospedera, Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae.  La longevidad, en estado larval, de B. polydamas criadas en laboratorio, se ve afectada significativamente por los diferentes tratamientos de alimentación. La curva de sobrevivencia no presento diferencias significativas entre las larvas alimentadas con solamente hojas jóvenes de la planta y aquellas que se alimentaron con dieta esparcida. En contraste, las tasas de crecimiento larval, fueron significativamente afectadas según el tratamiento.  Se sustenta la cría de mariposas de la especie B. polydamas bajo una dieta artificial con condiciones de temperatura, humedad y luminosidad controlada, con propósitos de investigación o futuros planes de manejo y conservación.

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1alpha genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Lucci Freitas, André Victor; Brower, Andrew V Z; Solferini, Vera Nisaka

    2005-09-01

    A phylogeny of the Neotropical members of the Tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) was obtained with sequences of three protein-coding genes: two mitochondrial (COI and COII), and one nuclear (EF-1alpha). Parsimony and Bayesian analyses of 33 taxa resulted in very similar trees regardless of method used with the 27 troidines always forming a monophyletic clade. Within Troidini, the genus Battus is sister group to the remaining troidines, followed by a clade formed by the Paleotropical taxa (here represented by three exemplars). The genus Euryades is the next branch, and sister group of Parides. The genus Parides is monophyletic, and is divided into four main groups by Maximum Parsimony analysis, with the most basal group composed of tailed species restricted to SE Brazil. Character optimization of ecological and morphological traits over the phylogeny proposed for troidines indicated that the use of several species of Aristolochia is ancestral over the use of few or a single host-plant. For the other three characters, the ancestral states were the absence of long tails, forest as the primary habitat and oviposition solitary or in loose group of several eggs.

  15. Synthesis and field evaluation of synthetic blends of the sex pheromone of Crocidosema aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Andres; Altesor, Paula; Liberati, Paola; Rossini, Carmen, E-mail: agonzal@fq.edu.uy [Laboratorio de Ecologia Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Alves, Leticia; Ramos, Juan; Carrera, Ignacio; Gonzalez, David; Seoane, Gustavo; Gamenara, Daniela [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Silva, Horacio; Castiglioni, Enrique [Departamento de Proteccion Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomia, EEMAC, Universidad de la Republica, Paysandu (Uruguay)

    2012-11-15

    Crocidosema (= Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a bud borer that feeds on soybean and forage legumes. Its economic importance is restricted to South America, where it can alternate throughout the year between forage and grain legumes. The sex pheromone of C. aporema females is composed of a 15:1 mixture of (7Z,9Z)-dodeca-7,9-dien-1-ol and (7Z,9Z)- dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate. Aiming at the development of a monitoring tool, it was synthesized both components of the pheromone and evaluated male captures in pheromone traps baited with different blends of synthetic pheromone, in an experimental soybean field in Uruguay. The conjugated dienes were obtained from 2-pentyn-1-ol and 1,7-heptanediol, by oxidation of the former, Wittig coupling and Zn-catalyzed reduction of the triple bond. The 1:1 mixture was the most efficient in capturing males. The pheromone traps were attractive for up to 40 days, even with small septum loads (0.1 mg) and low population levels. (author)

  16. Estimating the development rate of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), using linear and non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, Cesar A; Krechemer, Flavia S; Foerster, Luis A

    2017-07-01

    Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is native to South America and has recently invaded European, African and Asian countries, where it is causing severe damage to tomato crops leading to an increase in the number of insecticide applications. This situation has prompted a demand for alternative pest management strategies aiming to control T. absoluta and concomitantly reduce insecticide applications. The development period for immature stages of T. absoluta at constant temperatures was modelled to select appropriate mathematical functions for simulating its development. The performance of the models varied according to the insect development stage, but in general all models performed well considering the statistical criteria used. Discrimination among models was possible only when the reliability of the temperature thresholds estimated by the models was used as an additional criterion. In this case, the models Briere-1, Lactin-2 and Shi proved adequate to describe the relationship between temperature and development rate of T. absoluta. These models provide an important tool to predict the occurrence of the immature stages of T. absoluta in the field in order to determine the best period for implementing control measures. This is an important contribution to the development of pest management strategies for T. absoluta. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Assessing the spatial distribution of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs in open-field tomato cultivation through geostatistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlio C; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Ricardo S; Gonring, Alfredo Hr; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Guedes, Raul Nc

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of insects is due to the interaction between individuals and the environment. Knowledge about the within-field pattern of spatial distribution of a pest is critical to planning control tactics, developing efficient sampling plans, and predicting pest damage. The leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato crops in several regions of the world. Despite the importance of this pest, the pattern of spatial distribution of T. absoluta on open-field tomato cultivation remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the spatial distribution of T. absoluta in 22 commercial open-field tomato cultivations with plants at the three phenological development stages by using geostatistical analysis. Geostatistical analysis revealed that there was strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) T. absoluta eggs in 19 of the 22 sample tomato cultivations. The maps that were obtained demonstrated the aggregated structure of egg densities at the edges of the crops. Further, T. absoluta was found to accomplish egg dispersal along the rows more frequently than it does between rows. Our results indicate that the greatest egg densities of T. absoluta occur at the edges of tomato crops. These results are discussed in relation to the behavior of T. absoluta distribution within fields and in terms of their implications for improved sampling guidelines and precision targeting control methods that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Development, Reproduction, Survival, and Demographic Patterns of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Different Commercial Tomato Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechemer, F S; Foerster, L A

    2017-12-01

    The increase in the production of tomato, Solanum lycopersicon Mill. (Solanaceae), has favored the proliferation of pests, especially Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). In this study, the development, reproduction, survival, and demographic parameters of T. absoluta reared on six commercial tomato cultivars (Cherry, Cordilheira, Giuliana, Nemoneta, Paron, and Santa Clara) were evaluated. Tuta absoluta completed its development in all tomato cultivars. Development from newly hatched caterpillar to newly emerged adult varied between 24.8 and 28.2 days. Female fecundity ranged from 126.3 to 166.9 eggs, with fertility from 54.2 to 84.1%. Mortality during egg-adult development varied between 21.4 and 46.4% for insects reared on cultivars Cherry and Giuliana, respectively. The cultivars Cordilheira, Giuliana, and Santa Clara are promising options to tomato producers in order to decrease the attack and proliferation of T. absoluta. However, the development and population growth of T. absoluta is faster on the tomato cultivar Cherry.

  19. Preferensi Parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea spp. yang Memarasit Telur Penggerek Buah Merah Jambu Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders (Lepidoptera; Gelechiidae terhadap Beberapa Inang

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    Dwi Adi Sunarto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Pink bollwonn Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the key pests of cotton. Exploration of its egg parasitoids in East Java, yields Trichogrammatoidea spp. The research objective are to study host acceptance of the parasitoids to several levels of host age and host species for a consideration of selection in using the parasitoids as candidates of biocontrol agent of pink bollworm. The study was carried out in Biocontrol Laboratory of Indonesian Tobacco and Fiber Crops Research Institute (IToFCRI from April to December 2002 with laboratory condition (T: 25 - 27°C; RH: 65-70%. The treatments consist of combinations of the parasitoid origin (Trichogrammatoidea sp A and Trichogrammatoidea sp L; host species (eggs of Corcyra cephalonica, P. gossypiella, and Helicoverpa armigera and host ages (1, 2 and 3 days. The number of replicates is 10. Preference level was assessed by using continuous observation method. Trichogrammatoidea sp A is most preferred to P. gossypiella eggs, significantly different with that of C. cephalonica and H. armigera eggs. Host preference of Trichogrammatoidea sp L to P. gossypiella and C. cephalonica eggs is not significantly different and higher than that of H. armigera eggs. Both parasitoid species have no different preference to P. gossypiella and H. armigera eggs, however, Trichogrammatoidea sp L has a higher preference to C. cephalonica eggs than Trichogrammatoidea sp A. Host preference of both species was not affected by the age of all three species of host eggs.

  20. New Insight into the Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Shokoofeh; Karimi, Javad; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M

    2018-02-09

    The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious threat to tomato production in the world. Due to serious issues with insecticide resistance, there is a dire need for alternative control methods. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) have potential for the biological control of T. absoluta. In the laboratory, we examined the effect of temperature, soil type, and exposure time on the efficacy of the EPN species Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) against last-instar T. absoluta larvae. Both species caused high mortality in loamy sand (89%) and coco peat (93%) but not in sandy loam (17%). H. bacteriophora caused 92-96% mortality at 19, 25, and 31°C; S. carpocapsae caused 89-91% mortality at 25 and 31°C but only 76% at 19°C. Both species caused similar mortality levels after 65-min exposure; thereafter, mortality increased only with S. carpocapsae reaching high levels even at a low concentration. Both species infected larvae within leaf galleries. When applied to whole large tomato plants in the greenhouse, both species provided similar control levels (48-51%) at high pest densities. Both species could be incorporated as an effective alternative to synthetic insecticides into T. absoluta management programs in greenhouse tomato production. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

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    Kishan R. Sambaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  2. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  3. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P-Glycoprotein from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lixia; Yang, Jiaqiang; Hou, Wenjie; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2013-01-01

    Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart. PMID:24264038

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P-Glycoprotein from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Tian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp, a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart.

  5. DNA barcoding the Lepidoptera inventory of a large complex tropical conserved wildland, Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2016-09-01

    The 37-year ongoing inventory of the estimated 15 000 species of Lepidoptera living in the 125 000 terrestrial hectares of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, has DNA barcode documented 11 000+ species, and the simultaneous inventory of at least 6000+ species of wild-caught caterpillars, plus 2700+ species of parasitoids. The inventory began with Victorian methodologies and species-level perceptions, but it was transformed in 2004 by the full application of DNA barcoding for specimen identification and species discovery. This tropical inventory of an extraordinarily species-rich and complex multidimensional trophic web has relied upon the sequencing services provided by the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, and the informatics support from BOLD, the Barcode of Life Data Systems, major tools developed by the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics at the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, and available to all through couriers and the internet. As biodiversity information flows from these many thousands of undescribed and often look-alike species through their transformations to usable product, we see that DNA barcoding, firmly married to our centuries-old morphology-, ecology-, microgeography-, and behavior-based ways of taxonomizing the wild world, has made possible what was impossible before 2004. We can now work with all the species that we find, as recognizable species-level units of biology. In this essay, we touch on some of the details of the mechanics of actually using DNA barcoding in an inventory.

  6. POLYTOMOUS QUANTAL RESPONSE OF CROCIDOLOMIA PAVONANA (F. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE TO EXTRACTS OF AGLAIA SPP. AND DYSOXYLUM SPP. (MELIACEAE

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    Djoko Prijono .

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polytomous Quantal Response of Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae to Extracts of Aglaia spp. and Dysoxylum spp. (Meliaceae.  This work was done to study the polytomous binary response of the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana (F. to extracts of two species each of Aglaia and Dysoxylum (Meliaceae. Second-instar larvae C. pavonana were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves for 2 days and then the surviving larvae were maintained on untreated leaves until pupation.  Relationship between extract concentration and the number of dead larvae in different instars was analyzed using polytomous quantal response analysis based on the conditional logit model.  The results showed that twig extract of Dysoxylum acutangulum and seed extract of D. mollissimum possessed strong insect growth regulating activity against C. pavonana larvae as reflected by highly significant responses in the later insect life stages after the feeding treatment was removed, including the significant occurrence of malformed pupae. On the contrary, the feeding treatment with twig extract of Aglaia odorata and seed extract of A. odoratissima resulted in highly significant responses only in the treated larval instar, and after the feeding treatment was removed, responses in the later life stages were insignificant or much less significant. Overall, the above results suggest that Dysoxylum extracts interfered with hormonally-controlled insect development and metamorphosis, whereas the activity of Aglaia extracts was more insecticidal rather than insect growth regulating.

  7. ACEPTACIÓN DE UNA DIETA ARTIFICIAL POR LARVAS DE LA MARIPOSA Battus polydamas polydamas (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE

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    RICARDO A. CLARO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúo la aceptabilidad de dietas artificiales para la alimentación de larvas de la mariposa Battus polydamas polydamas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. A las larvas se les ofrecieron dietas en diferentes presentaciones y com- posiciones: en discos, vertida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero y plantas hospedero como control. La composición de la dieta se realizó de acuerdo con ensayos previos y con los análisis nutricionales desarrollados a larvas maduras y a hojas de la planta hospedera Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae. La longevidad de las larvas, criadas en laboratorio, se vió afectada significativamente por los diferentes tratamientos de alimentación. Solo se finalizó el ciclo de desarrollo entre las larvas alimentadas con hojas jóvenes de la planta (control y con dieta esparcida como suplemento sobre hojas del hospedero; las curvas de sobrevivencia no presentaron diferencias significativas entre las larvas sostenidas con estos dos tratamientos. En contraste, las tasas de creci- miento larval, fueron significativamente afectadas según el tratamiento, obteniéndose mayor biomasa en las alimentadas con hojas con suplemento. Se sustenta la cría de ma- riposas de la especie B. polydamas bajo una dieta artificial como suplemento esparcido sobre hojas del hospedero bajo condiciones de temperatura, humedad y luminosidad controlada, con propósitos de investigación o futuros planes de manejo y conservación.

  8. Oviposition behavior and performance aspects of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

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    Catta-Preta Patrícia Diniz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Host part selection by ovipositing females of Ascia monuste (Godart, 1919 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae on kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala was determined in greenhouse and field. Performance of offspring (larval period, efficiency of food utilization, number of eggs/female and others was investigated under laboratory conditions. In the field, the number of A. monuste egg clutches on the apical and medium parts of kale leaves was greater than on the basal part. In greenhouse, A. monuste exhibited a strong preference for the apical part of kale leaves for ovipositing. The best results on food utilization indices, pupal mass and female wing size were obtained with the leaf apical part. This part of kale leaves exhibited the highest nitrogen and protein concentration and the smallest water content, when compared to the other leaf parts. However, the apical part of the leaves seems not to provide ovipositing females with enough protection against birds, making them easy preys in the field. We suggest that good relationship between oviposition preference and performance of offspring was hindered by predation in field conditions.

  9. Ithome lassula Hodges (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae, una nueva especie para Cuba asociada a Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit

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    O Alonso

    Full Text Available El nuevo informe para Cuba de Ithome lassula Hodges (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae, especie asociada a la planta forrajera Leucaena leucocephala, se confirmó con la identificación de los adultos, mediante la utilización de una clave basada en la maculación de las escamas en la zona de la cabeza del insecto. Los adultos emergieron en el laboratorio, de las larvas colectadas en las inflorescencias; estas procedían de los diferentes sistemas ganaderos que se muestrearon en las provincias Matanzas y Mayabeque, los cuales estaban compuestos indistintamente por las cuatro variedades comerciales de la leguminosa y por gramíneas pratenses. Por otra parte, la detección de las lesiones que causaron las larvas de este cosmopterígido en las inflorescencias, y su repercusión en la producción de semillas de leucaena, constituyó el elemento más importante que se debía considerar para valorar su potencialidad como plaga y al estimar las posibles pérdidas en los sistemas ganaderos evaluados.

  10. Azadirachtin-induced effects on various life history traits and cellular immune reactions of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Er Aylin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the botanical insecticide azadirachtin were examined on the life history traits, fecundity and immune parameters of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. We determined that for the topical application of azadirachtin, the LC50 was 16.564 ppm; at 100 ppm the adult emergence time was prolonged, however the longevity of adults remained unchanged above sublethal concentrations. The mean number of healthy eggs and the fecundity of adults decreased, whereas the number of defective eggs increased with azadirachtin treatment. At concentrations >50 ppm female G. mellonella adults laid no eggs. Azadirachtin reduced total hemocyte counts at 24 and 48 h posttreatment, however the alterations in differential hemocyte counts were only significant at 100 ppm. Laminarin-induced nodulation response and the spreading ability of hemocytes were also suppressed with azadirachtin treatment. Our results suggest that azadirachtin, as a good candidate for integrated pest control, has the capability to affect the biological parameters and cellular immunity of the model insect G. mellonella.

  11. Effects of X-ray irradiation on different stages of Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan Aksoy, Hatice; Yazıcı, Nizamettin; Erel, Yakup

    2017-01-01

    The corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important corn pest in the Mediterranean countries. In this study, we investigated the influence of X-ray irradiation on different developmental stages, reproduction and DNA damage to the insect. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (5th instar), pupae (5 days after pupation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with X-ray irradiation at target doses of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Eggs irradiated at all doses did not hatch. When 5th instar were irradiated pupation and adult emergence significantly decreased. Fecundity of adults from irradiated pupae was inhibited and no eggs were laid. Moreover, adult longevity decreased after irradiation compared to control. Larvae, pupae, and adults of S. nonagrioides were studied using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet) directly after irradiation. X-ray irradiated larvae, pupae, and adults showed typical DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner compared with cells from non-irradiated groups. The amount of DNA damage increased as doses increased and possibly could be used to estimate dose applied in commercial phytosanitary irradiation treatments. Furthermore, irradiation would be an effective phytosanitary treatment for shipped commodities at risk infestation with S. nonagrioides.

  12. Forecasting Spring Emergence of the Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), Based on Postdiapause Development Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Gyu; Seo, Bo Yoon; Jung, Jin Kyo; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Lee, Si-Woo; Seong, Ki Yeong

    2017-12-05

    This study was conducted to develop temperature-dependent postdiapause development models of overwintering larvae of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and to evaluate the models' forecasting accuracy using spring adult emergence data. Overwintering larvae were collected at three different times: 24 February (first), 23 March (second), and 25 April (third), 2005. The developmental periods of each collection colony were measured at eight constant temperatures, and those developmental rates were modeled with linear and nonlinear regression. One linear and three nonlinear models provided good fits of developmental rate to temperature across all colonies (r2 = 0.96-0.99). The distribution of development completion time was modeled with a Weibull equation that fit data from the second (r2 = 0.92) and third (r2 = 0.97) colonies better than the first (r2 = 0.87). A Lactin 2 model based on data from the first colony was statistically the best model to describe the relationship between temperature and the postdiapause development rate of O. furnacalis (r2adj = 0.99). However, validation results based on the field data showed that the Logan 6 model combined with the Weibull model (based on the second colony) was well describing spring adult emergence patterns up to 50% cumulative emergence date. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Juvenile hormone analog technology: effects on larval cannibalism and the production of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Sonia; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2010-06-01

    The production of a multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has been markedly increased by using juvenile hormone analog (JHA) technology to generate a supernumerary sixth instar in the species. In the current study we compared the incidence of cannibalism in S. exigua fifth and sixth instars reared at low (two larvae per dish) and a high density (10 larvae per dish). The incidence of cannibalism was significantly higher in fifth instars compared with sixth instars and increased with rearing density on both instars. Infected larvae were more prone to become victims of cannibalism than healthy individuals in mixed groups comprising 50% healthy + 50% infected larvae in both instars reared at high density. Instar had a marked effect on occlusion body (OB) production because JHA-treated insects produced between 4.8- and 5.6-fold increase in OB production per dish compared with fifth instars at high and low densities, respectively. The insecticidal characteristics of OBs produced in JHA-treated insects, as indicated by LD50 values, were similar to those produced in untreated fourth or fifth instars. Because JHA technology did not increase the prevalence of cannibalism and had no adverse effect on the insecticidal properties of SeMNPV OBs, we conclude that the use of JHAs to generate a supernumerary instar is likely to be compatible with mass production systems that involve gregarious rearing of infected insects.

  14. Feeding and maturation by soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on soybean affected by weed, fungus, and nematode pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Russin, John S; Boethel, David J; Griffin, James L; McGawley, Eduward C

    2004-02-01

    Feeding and maturation by the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in a 2-yr study on 'Davis' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grown alone and combined with the weed hemp sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rybd. ex. A. W. Hill, the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, and the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Of the three pests, hemp sesbania had the greatest effects on plant growth and insect feeding and maturation. When fed foliage from soybean stressed by hemp sesbania, soybean looper larvae remained longer in feeding stages, consumed more foliage, and showed altered weight gain compared with larvae fed control foliage. Results suggest that nutrient (s) critical for proper development of larvae may have been limited in weed-stressed soybean foliage. Less dramatic results were observed when larvae fed on foliage from soybean with roots colonized by the charcoal rot fungus. Such larvae consumed more foliage, weighed more, and showed a slight increase in larval feeding period, but only in 1 yr of the study. Colonization of soybean roots by the root-knot nematode had no consistent effects on either the soybean host or insect.

  15. Annona crassiflora Mart. (Annonaceae: effect of crude extract of seeds on larvae of soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Angélica Massarolli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of a crude extract of Annona crassiflora was evaluated on larvae of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in different stages of larval development. The extract was prepared with seeds of A. crassiflora fruits collected in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The extract was diluted in water and solubilizer agent at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0%; it was tested by ingestion of treated leaves and contact. The mortality rate of topically treated caterpillars of first, third, and fifth instars was significantly higher than that of the control group. For first instar caterpillars, mortality was observed within the first 24 h after application, while, for the remaining instars, it was significant after 72 h. For caterpillars fed treated leaves, no differences in mortality rates were observed within the first 120 h. These caterpillars were monitored until the end of the larval stage, during which mortality rates increased for first and third instar caterpillars. The mortality rate of fifth instar larvae was not significantly different between treatments. The treatment by ingestion was not efficient over a short period of time, but reduced the number of caterpillars that completed their development, decreasing the number of insects in the following generation. We concluded that the crude extract of A. crassiflora affected the development of C. includens and is a promising compound for the control of this pest.

  16. Дополнения и уточнения к фауне чешуекрылых (Lepidoptera) Тульской области. 1 = Additions and corrections to the fauna of Lepidoptera of the Tula Province. 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolshakov, L.V.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Piskunov, V.I.; Lovtsova, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    Additions and corrections to the lists of Lepidoptera of Tula Province are given, which contain 40 species, 36 of which species are listed for the province for the first time, 9 species (Stigmella naturnella (Klimesch, 1936), Stigmella tiliae (Frey, 1856), Stigmella microtheriella (Stainton, 1854),

  17. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of a general odorant-binding protein 2 gene of the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z-J; Zhou, W-W; Yu, H-Z; Mao, C-G; Zhang, C-X; Cheng, J A; Zhu, Z-R

    2009-06-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding a general odorant binding protein 2 (GOBP2) was cloned from the antennae of the rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), by the combination of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RACE-PCR). The cDNA contains a 489 bp open reading frame, which encodes a 162 amino acid protein, termed as Ch. suppressalis GOBP2 (CsupGOBP2). CsupGOBP2 is similar in the number of amino acids and protein sequence to GOBP2s in other species of Lepidoptera. RT-PCR results showed that CsupGOBP2 mRNA was highly expressed in the adult antennae of both females and males, as was CsupGOBP2 protein as revealed by Western blot analysis. CsupGOBP2 expressed in Escherichia coli was purified by affinity chromatography, refolding and gel filtration from the inclusion body. Fluorescence emission spectra and competitive binding assays by using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as first binding ligand and odorants as potential competitors revealed that the CsupGOBP2 protein has significant affinity to cis-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), the main component of Ch. suppressalis pheromone and to laurinaldehyd and benzaldehyde, two general plant volatile aldehydes.

  18. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  19. Two psammophilic noctuids newly associated with beach plum, Prunus maritima (Rosaceae): The Dune Noctuid (Sympistis riparia) and Coastal Heathland Cutworm (Abagrotis benjamini) in Northeastern North America (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Paul Z; Nelson, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    Beach plum, Prunus maritima Marshall, 1785 not Wangenh., 1787 (Rosaceae), currently under development as a potential crop, represents an under-acknowledged host plant for several Lepidoptera that have undergone declines in the northeastern USA. The Coastal Heathland Cutworm, Abagrotis nefascia (Smith, 1908), and the Dune Noctuid, Sympistis riparia (Morrison, 1875), are unrelated species of psammophilic noctuines (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) regularly encountered on a localized basis in coastal southern New England and New York, and whose precise life history requirements are undocumented. We inferred and, based on field observation and rearing, corroborated beach plum as a larval host for these species in Massachusetts; the plant's role in sustaining other moths with limited or contracting regional distributions is discussed. Sympistis riparia, belonging to a widely distributed complex of closely related species, has been associated specifically with both maritime and freshwater dunes. The eastern populations of Abagrotis nefascia represent a conspicuous range disjunction, separated from the nearest western populations by more than 2000 miles, and originally described by Franclemont as race benjamini of Abagrotis crumbi, both later synonymized with Abagrotis nefascia. Following examination of types and other material, an evaluation of putatively diagnostic features from both the original description and our own observations, genitalic characters, and the results of provisional barcode analyses, Abagrotis benjamini Franclemont, stat. rev., is elevated to the rank of a valid species rather than representing eastern populations of Abagrotis nefascia (=crumbi) to which it originally referred.

  20. Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae on organically grown Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae sobre Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae cultivada organicamente

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    M.A. Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae larvae can avoid foraging on plants of Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae after the issuance of floral buds, when the prey of Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this plant. This reduces the predation and favors increasing the number of adults and eggs of this defoliator on crops of this plant. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate some biological and ecological aspects of C. externa and U. ornatrix on the organic crop of C. juncea in the EMBRAPA Maize and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chrysoperla externa and U. ornatrix were more abundant in the vegetative and flowering stages of C. juncea, respectively, with caterpillars of this defoliator feeding on leaves and seeds of this plant. The duration of the stages/instars, survival, lifetime fecundity, and oviposition showed that the branches of C. juncea are a suitable food for U. ornatrix. The abundance of adults and larvae of C. externa was lower in the flowering and pods stages of C. juncea, respectively, when the postures of U. ornatrix are present, probably due to the toxicity of the eggs of this prey to this predator. During these stages, C. externa may be reared with alternative hosts, and when the crops of C. juncea are scarce, an artificial diet should be used for rearing this defoliator in the laboratory for biological research and the development of biological control tactics.Larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae podem evitar o forrageamento sobre plantas de Crotalaria juncea (Fabaceae após a emissão de botões florais, quando presas de Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae incorporam alcalóides pirrolizidínicos tóxicos dessa planta. Isso reduz a predação e favorece o aumento do número de adultos e ovos desse desfolhador sobre cultivos dessa planta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos e ecológicos de C

  1. Aspectos biológicos e morfológicos de Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla Biological and morphological aspects of Mimallo amilia (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae in Eucalyptus urophylla leaves

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    Teresinha Vinha Zanuncio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae foi estudada em folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla em laboratório a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 12 horas de luz e 12 horas de escuro. Essa espécie teve duração da fase larval de 34,88 dias e cinco estádios larvais. Houve mortalidade de lagartas no primeiro, terceiro e quarto estádios com 5,00; 7,89; e 14,28%, respectivamente. Os períodos de pré-pupa e de pupa foram de 4,33 ± 0,33 e 3,90 ± 0,23 e de 18,78 ± 0,69 e 18,82 ± 0,41 dias para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Cada fêmea de M. amilia depositou 4,86 ± 0,48 posturas com 19,84 ± 1,76 ovos por postura. O período de incubação dos ovos foi de 8,60 ± 0,24 dias, com viabilidade de 88,63%. A longevidade de adultos foi de 5,66 ± 0,61 e 9,22 ± 0,79 dias, com envergadura das asas de 42,70 ± 0,32 e 49,70 ± 0,17 mm para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente, e razão sexual de 0,56. As lagartas dessa espécie apresentaram tamanho de 0,90 ± 0,01 mm no primeiro estádio a 4,40 ± 1,42 mm no último.The biology of Mimallo amilia Cramer (Lepidoptera: Mimallonidae was studied on Eucalyptus urophylla leaves in laboratory conditions (25 ± 2ºC, 60 ± 10% relative humidity and 12L:12D photoperiod. This species showed 33.88 day for the larval stage with five larval instars. Larval mortality occurred during first, third and fourth instars with 5.00, 7.89 and 14.28%, respectively. Pre-pupa and pupa stages lasted 4.33 ± 0.33 and 3.90 ± 0.23, and 18.78 ± 0.69 and 18.82 ± 0.41 days for males and females, respectively. Each female laid 4.86 ± 0.48 egg masses with 19.84 ± 1.76 eggs per egg mass. Incubation period lasted 8.60 ± 0.24 days with 88.63%. egg viability. Adult longevity was 5.66 ± 0.61 and 9.22 ± 0.79 days with adult wingspan of 42.70 ± 0.32 and 49.70 ± 0.17 mm for males and females, respectively, with 0.56 sex ratio. Length of this species' caterpillars was 0.90 ± 0.01 mm at the

  2. Evaluación, en condiciones de laboratorio, de la actividad insecticida de extractos Etanolicos de cinco especies de plantas sobre Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae Laboratory evaluation of the insecticidal activity of five plant species on Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

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    Castillo Gonzalo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En el laboratorio de Control Biológico de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá, se realizó un experimento con el objeto de evaluar la actividad insecticida de extractos etanólicos de las plantas Berberis samacana, Berberis saboyana, Nycandria physaloides, Eucaliptus globulus y Salpicroa difussa, cuando son usados en  concentraciones de 100, 1.000 y 10.000 ppm, con el fin de determinar efectos favorables o desfavorables para el desarrollo de Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. Se usó un Diseño Completamernte al Azar, tomando como unidad experimental 500 gramos de papa criolla Solanum phureja, a los cuales se aplicaron los tratamientos, consistentes en sumergir los tubérculos en los extractos por un tiempo de 5 minutos e infestando cada unidad con 15 larvas de primer instar, luego de comprobada la evaporación del solvente. Se midieron las variables porcentaje de empupamiento, días a empupamiento, emergencia de adultos y nivel de daño en los tubérculos.
    Se encontró que la actividad de los extractos se registra a partir de 1.000 ppm y que los extractos de E globulus, B samacana y N physaloides afectan la tasa de empupamiento; el mayor nivel de daño se registró en los niveles 1 y 2 ( O- 25% y 26 - 50% respectivamente. En las unidades tratadas
    con el extracto de B samacana se presentaron valores similares en las tasas de empupamiento para los períodos de 20 y 25 días después del tratamiento (ddt: no hubo diferencias en la emergencia de adultos por causa de los extractos.
    At the Laboratory of Biological Control of the Agronomy Facultity at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, in Bogotá, the insecticidal activity of an ethanolic extract from Berberis samacana, Berberis saboyana, Nycandra physaloides, Eucaliptus globulus and Salpichroa diffussa was evaluated.
    Extract were used 100, 1.000 and 10.000 ppm,to determine effects on the development of Tecia solanivora

  3. Ultramorphology of digestive tract of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae at final larval development/ Ultramorfologia do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae no final do desenvolvimento larval

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    Luis Antônio Toledo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tract of insects is an important natural, physical, and chemical defense barrier against pathogen invasion. Certain lepidopteran caterpillars are serious pests of agricultural crops and their biology has received much attention, but little is known about the larval noctuid gut. The morphological analysis of the digestive tract in Anticarsia gemmatalis under scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a good model for studies about its defense mechanism. The material was fixed (2,5% glutaraldehyde solution; 0.1M-phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, post-fixed (1% osmium tetroxide in the same buffer, dried at critical point, gold coated and analyzed in a SEM 515-Philips. A. gemmatalis digestive tract consists of a straight duct of varying length and diameter, subdivided in three main regions: the foregut formed by the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and crop; the midgut that is the largest portion of the digestive tract without noticeable morphological differentiation along its length; and the hindgut that is morphologically differentiated in pylorus, ileum, colon, and rectum. Although the general morphology of the A. gemmatalis digestive tract is quite similar to the other Lepidoptera species, the anatomical array of the crop muscular layers is quite different comparing with the description for other larval insect.O trato digestivo dos insetos constitui uma importante barreira físico-química natural contra invasão de patógenos. Algumas larvas de lepidópteros são consideradas pragas agrícolas potenciais e sua biologia tem recebido muita atenção; no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do sistema digestivo. A análise morfológica do trato digestivo de Anticarsia gemmatalis em nível ultraestrutural é um método bastante eficaz para o estudo dos seus mecanismos de defesa. Os materiais foram fixados (solução de glutaraldeído 2,5%; 0.1M tampão fosfato, pH 7.3, pós-fixados (tetróxido de ósmio 1% no mesmo tampão, desidratados em

  4. Controle de Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae com reguladores de crescimento de insetos Control of Anticarsia gemmatalis hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae with insect growth regulators

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    Mauro Tadeu Braga da Silva

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-da-soja, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, é uma praga importante na cultura da soja no Brasil. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes inseticidas, reguladores de crescimento, para o controle dessa praga. Os inseticidas diflubenzuron (15g i.a. ha-1, lufenuron (7,5g i.a. ha-1, metoxifenozide (21,6g i.a. ha-1 e teflubenzuron (7,5g i.a. ha-1 foram aplicados com pulverizador costal de precisão, equipado com pontas tipo leque 110, 02, numa pressão de 1 bar e volume de calda de 100l ha-1. No dia da aplicação dos inseticidas, as plantas de soja (cv. Fundacep 33 estavam com 0,90m de altura, no estádio R3.1, e infestação média de 95 lagartas pequenas e de 33 lagartas grandes por dois metros de fileira. A eficiência dos inseticidas foi determinada através da contagem do número de lagartas vivas pequenas e grandes aos 0, 2, 4, 7 e 10 dias após a aplicação (DAA; da percentagem de desfolha aos 15 DAA e da produção de grãos. Foi observado efeito de choque do inseticida metoxifenozide tanto em lagartas pequenas quanto em grandes. Os inseticidas diflubenzuron, lufenuron e teflubenzuron controlaram eficientemente as lagartas a partir de 4 DAA. As infestações de lagartas nas parcelas testemunhas aumentaram a desfolha em 75,8% e reduziram produtividade para 2371 kg ha-1. Nas parcelas tratadas com inseticidas desfolha variou de 34,7% a 50,7% e a produtividade entre 3255kg ha-1 e 3585kg ha-1.The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is an important soybean pest in Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate growth regulators insecticides. A precision sprayer equipped with 110 02 nozzles, working at a constant pressure of 1 bar and volume of 100 liters per hectare was used to apply the insecticide treatments (diflubenzuron at 15g a.i. per hectare, lufenuron at 7.5 g a.i. per hectare, metoxyfenozide at 21.6g a.i. per hectare and teflubenzuron at 7.5g a.i. per hectare

  5. Morphology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on neem-treated leaves; Morfologia do canal alimentar de lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) alimentadas com folhas tratadas com nim

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    Correia, Alicely A.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Oliveira, Jose V. de; Torres, Jorge B. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola]. E-mail: aliceliac@yahoo.com.br; valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal

    2009-01-15

    Research involving plants with insecticide activity evolved significantly in the last decades. Among these plants, the neem tree, Azadirachta indica, is commonly used against several insects, mainly Lepidoptera. The neem efficiency depends on the target insect and on the concentration used. A barrier against potential toxic agents ingested together with the food is the alimentary canal. Thus, this research aimed to describe the histology of the alimentary canal of Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) larvae fed on leaves treated with neem (Neemseto{sup R}) at a concentration of 0.5% and 1.0% and non treated, at different intervals (48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h), by quantifying the regenerative cells and analyzing the secretion of the mesenteron histochemically. Larvae were immobilized at low temperatures (-4 deg C), the alimentary canal was removed, fixed in Bouein's aqueous, embedded in paraplast and historesin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid- Schiff. The histology of the alimentary canal of S. frugiperda was similar to other lepidopterans. Neem effects on morphology were seen only in the mesenteron, depending on the time and concentration used, such as: epithelium, reduction on regenerative cells and on the secretory activity in this region, confirmed by the histochemistry in both neem concentrations. These alterations were observed after 96 h at 1.0%, and 144 h at 0.5%. These results indicate that neem (Neemseto{sup R}), at the concentrations studied, may be effective to control S. frugiperda because it promotes meaningful morphological alterations in the mesenteron. (author)

  6. Population dynamics and gene flow of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton and grain crops in the Murrumbidgee Valley, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Leon J; Lawrence, Nicole; Lange, Corinna L; Graham, Glenn C; Hardwick, Scott; Rossiter, Louise; Dillon, Martin L; Scott, Kirsten D

    2006-02-01

    The population dynamics of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Murrumbidgee Valley, Australia, has been characterized using five highly variable microsatellite loci. In the 2001-2002 growing season, there were very high levels of migration into the Murrumbidgee Valley with no detectable genetic structuring, consistent with previous analyses on a national scale. By contrast, there was significant genetic structuring over the 2002-2003 growing season, with three distinct genetic types detected. The first type corresponded to the first two generations and was derived from local individuals emerging from diapause and their progeny. The second genetic type corresponded to generation 3 and resulted from substantial immigration into the region. There was another genetic shift in generation 4, which accounts for the third genetic type of the season. This genetic shift occurred despite low levels of immigration. During the third generation of the 2002-2003 growing season, different population dynamics was characterized for H. armigera on maize, Zea mays L., and cotton Gossipium hirsutum L. Populations on cotton tended to cycle independently with very little immigration from outside the region or from maize within the region. Maize acted as a major sink for immigrants from cotton and from outside the region. If resistance were to develop on cotton under these circumstances, susceptible individuals from maize or from other regions would not dilute this resistance. In addition, resistance is likely to be transferred to maize and be perpetuated until diapause, from where it may reemerge next season. If low levels of immigration were to occur on transgenic cotton, this may undermine the effectiveness of refugia, especially noncotton refugia.

  7. Individual and Combined Effects of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Azadirachtin on Plodia Interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Borzoui, Ehsan; Abdolmaleki, Arman; Abedi, Zahra; George Kamita, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major stored product pest that is found throughout the world. In this study, the effect of oral exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) subsp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) and azadirachtin was evaluated in third instar P. interpunctella under laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of Bt and azadirachtin on third instars was 490 and 241 μg a.i./ml, respectively. The median lethal time (LT50) of these insecticides was the same (4.5 d following exposure to 750 or 400 μg a.i./ml of Bt or azadirachtin, respectively). When the larvae fed on diet containing LC30 concentrations of both Bt and azadirachtin an additive interaction in terms of mortality was found. A synergistic interaction was found when the larvae fed on diet containing LC50 concentrations of both insecticides. Larvae that fed on insecticide-containing diet (either Bt or azadirachtin at an LC30 concentration, or both insecticides at LC30 or LC50 concentrations) showed lower glycogen and lipid levels, and generally lower protein content in comparison to control larvae. Larvae that fed on diet containing both Bt and azadirachtin showed reduced weight gain and nutritional indices in comparison to control larvae or larvae fed on the diet containing only one of the insecticides. Finally, exposure to both insecticides, either individually or in combination, reduced the level of digestive enzymes found in the midgut. Our findings indicate that both Bt and azadirachtin, either individually or in combination have significant potential for use in controlling of P. interpunctella. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Life tables of Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Anagasta kuehniella and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effect of host density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Stathas, G J

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive performance of the parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against the moths Anagasta kuehniella Zeller and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied in the laboratory. The analysis was based on the comparison of parasitoid's life table parameters related to those of its hosts at various conditions of host density (daily supply of 1, 5, 15, and 30 full-grown host larvae). The estimated parameters were the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0), the mean generation time (G), the finite capacity of increase (lambda), the gross reproductive rate (GRR), the doubling time (DT), the reproductive value (Vx), and the life expectancy (ex). The rm of H. hebetor proved to be significantly higher than those of its hosts at all host densities. When only one host per day was supplied, the wasp had the lowest reproductive potential, whereas it was maximized when 15 hosts per day were exposed. Maximum values of R0 and GRR were obtained at densities > or =15 host larvae per day. Any increase in host supply above this threshold did not cause significant changes in life table parameters. Variation of rm as a function of host density can be described by the linear regression. Sex ratio of wasp progeny (females/total) ranged from 0.36 to 0.42, irrespective of host density or species. Newly emerged adults recorded maximum ex and Vx. The results of this study can be used to improve mass rearing programs and inoculative release applications of H. hebetor against moth pests of stored products.

  9. Characterization of transcriptome in the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and gene expression analysis during developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-An; Wu, Hai-Jing; Xue, Hao; Ju, Xing-Rong; Song, Wei; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2017-07-30

    The Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a worldwide pest that causes serious damage to stored foods. Although many efforts have been conducted on this species due to its economic importance, the study of genetic basis of development, behavior and insecticide resistance has been greatly hampered due to lack of genomic information. In this study, we used high throughput sequencing platform to perform a de novo transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses across four different developmental stages of P. interpunctella (egg, third-instar larvae, pupae and adult). We obtained approximate 9gigabyte (GB) of clean data and recovered 84,938 unigenes, including 37,602 clusters and 47,336 singletons. These unigenes were annotated using BLAST against the non-redundant protein databases and then functionally classified based on Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases (KEGG). A large number of differentially expressed genes were identified by pairwise comparisons among different developmental stages. Gene expression profiles dramatically changed between developmental stage transitions. Some of these differentially expressed genes were related to digestion and cuticularization. Quantitative real-time PCR results of six randomly selected genes conformed the findings in the DGEs. Furthermore, we identified over 8000 microsatellite markers and 97,648 single nucleotide polymorphisms which will be useful for population genetics studies of P. interpunctella. This transcriptomic information provided insight into the developmental basis of P. interpunctella and will be helpful for establishing integrated management strategies and developing new targets of insecticides for this serious pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  11. Sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulation for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Australian peach and pear orchards.

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    Il'Ichev, A L; Stelinski, L L; Williams, D G; Gut, L J

    2006-12-01

    Areawide mating disruption treatments have been effective in controlling infestation of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Australian pome and stone fruit orchards. Although successful, the areawide mating disruption program has been an expensive approach by using hand-applied Isomate dispensers. Sprayable microencapsulated (MEC) pheromone formulations that can be applied with standard spray equipment could substantially reduce the cost of application. Field trials conducted during two consecutive seasons (2002-2004) demonstrated that monthly applications of MEC-OFM phase V (3M Canada, London, Ontario, Canada) at a rate of 125 ml/ha (37.1 g [AI]/ha) in replicated 2-ha blocks of both peaches and pears reduced oriental fruit moth shoot tip and fruit damage as effectively as a single application of Isomate OFM Rosso hand-applied dispensers (500 dispensers per ha) and as or more effectively than standard broad-spectrum insecticide sprays. Fruit protection was achieved despite high oriental fruit moth population densities in both crops as measured by moth catches in terpinyl acetate food and pheromone traps. Similar numbers of oriental fruit moths were captured among all treatments in food traps but captures of males in pheromone traps were disrupted (96-99%) in pheromone-treated blocks relative to controls. The results of this study suggest that microencapsulated formulations of pheromone could be effectively used in areawide mating disruption programs for oriental fruit moth in Australia as a cost-saving alternative to reservoir-style dispensers requiring labor-intensive hand application.

  12. Effect of four varieties of mulberry on biochemistry and nutritional physiology of mulberry pyralid, Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    M. Oftadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of four mulberry varieties (Kenmochi, Ichinose, Shin Ichinose, Mahalii on nutritional indices and digestive proteolytic and amylolytic activities of Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were determined at 24±1°C, 75±5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 L:D. Fifth instar larvae reared on Shin Ichinose showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (3.82±0.16% and 3.11±0.07%, respectively. Approximate digestibility values of the fourth instar larvae were highest (95.23±0.73% and lowest (91.77±1.45% on Kenmochi and Shin Ichinose, respectively. The fifth instar larvae fed on Kenmochi had the highest consumption index (4.6±0.73 and lowest relative growth rate (0.03±0.10, respectively. Our results showed that the highest protease activity in optimal pH was on Malalii variety (0.97 U/mg and the lowest was on Kenmochi (0.75 U/mg. In addition, the highest amylase activity in optimal pH was on Mahalii (0.17 U/mg and lowest on Kenmochi (0.103 U/mg. Specific proteolytic analysis showed that larvae feeding on Mahalii had the highest activity of trypsin and elastase (2.30 and 2.13 U/mg, respectively. This research showed that plasticity in food utilization and enzyme activity is functionally relevant to host plant cultivars. The results of nutritional indices and activity of digestive enzymes indicated that Kenmochi was an unsuitable host for feeding of Glyphodes pyloalis.

  13. Identification and RNA Interference of the Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) in the Common Cutworm Moth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

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    Lu, Qin; Huang, Ling-Yan; Chen, Peng; Yu, Jin-Feng; Xu, Jin; Deng, Jian-Yu; Ye, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Spodoptera litura F. is one of the most destructive insect pests of many agricultural crops and notorious for developing insecticide resistance. Developing environmental friendly control methods such as novel pheromone and RNAi-related control strategies is imperative to control this pest. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding the diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) was identified and characterized in S. litura. This 809-bp transcript contains a 573-nucleotide ORF encoding a 191-amino acid protein, from which five putative neuropeptides, including PBAN, DH, and α-, β-, and γ-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides, were derived. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both the whole protein and each of the five neuropeptides have high similarities to those of DH-PBANs from other insect orders particularly Lepidoptera. Females treated with TKYFSPRLamide (the active core fragment of PBAN) produced significantly more four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. RNA interference by injection of PBAN dsRNA significantly reduced the relative expression levels of this gene in adult females (approximately reduced by 60%). As a consequence, females treated with PBAN dsRNA produced significantly less four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. These results suggest that PBAN function in activating sex pheromone biosynthesis and the RNAi of DH-PBAN gene can be induced by the injection of dsRNA into the body cavity in S. litura. This study suggests the possibility of novel pheromone-related pest control strategies based on RNAi techniques. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Trans-regional migration of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, in North-East Asia.

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    Xiaowei Fu

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is a serious polyphagous insect pest worldwide. This species is known as a long-distance migrant, and previous studies on its migration have been mostly carried out in regions where it can overwinter. However, what pattern of seasonal migration this species exhibits in regions where it cannot overwinter (i.e., the 'summer breeding region' remains unknown. Here, we present data from 14-years of monitoring on a small remote island located in the center of the Bohai Strait, in northern China, by means of searchlight trapping and ovarian dissection. We found that the population size of this overseas migration varied significantly among years, with very large migrations in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2014 that resulted in annual total catches of more than ten thousand individuals. In addition, nightly catches exhibited a significant inter-month variability, with the vast majority of S. exigua moths being trapped in August and September, (81.1 ± 3.6%, making S. exigua one of the most frequently encountered species in that period. The mean time from the earliest trap capture to the latest capture within a given year was 113 ± 22 d (range 57 d [2003] to 138 d [2008]. The sex ratio (females: males was significantly less than 1:1 in each month, but the proportion of females showed an upward trend from June to October. The majority of trapped females in summer were mated (94.4 ± 10.7% in June, 80.0 ± 6.4% in July and sexually mature (88.9 ± 11.1% in June, 61.8 ± 12.3% in July, suggesting the onset of mating and/or sexual maturation does not terminate the migration behavior in this species. These findings provide a good starting point for study of the trans-regional migration of S. exigua across different climate zones.

  15. Actividad biológica de extractos de Melia azedarach sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    María R. ROSSETTI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de compuestos botánicos con potencial uso insecticida, se evaluó la actividad de extractos de fruto maduro y hojas senescentes de Melia azedarach L. (2, 5 y 10%, sobre larvas de Spodoptera eridania Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae especie polífaga considerada plaga esporádica de importantes cultivos. Mediante pruebas de elección, se registró el consumo y se calculó un índice de inhibición alimentaria. En pruebas sin posibilidad de elección se estimó el consumo, la mortalidad, el peso de larvas y excretas, y se calcularon índices nutricionales. Cuando las larvas pudieron optar, se observó un fuerte efecto antialimentario de los extractos. En los ensayos de alimentación obligada, los extractos de fruto y hoja redujeron fuertemente el consumo y peso larval respecto al control, excepto la menor dosis de fruto. Ninguna oruga llegó a pupar al entregarle alimento rociado con extracto de hoja o con extracto de fruto en ldosis más altas. Los índices nutricionales corroboraron la actividad antialimentaria, revelando efectos negativos de los extractos sobre las tasas relativas de consumo y crecimiento, y sobre la eficiencia de utilización del alimento ingerido y digerido, aunque la digestibilidad no fue afectada. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos de M. azedarach podrían ser incorporados en programas de manejo de este insecto plaga.

  16. Age-specific life table of swallowtail butterfly Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons

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    SUWARNO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suwarno. 2012. Age-specific life table of swallowtail butterfly Papilio demoleus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae in dry and wet seasons. Biodiversitas 13: 28-33. Age-specific life table of Papilio demoleus L. in dry and wet seasons was investigated in the Tasek Gelugor, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Development of P. demoleus was observed from January to March 2006 (dry season, DS, April to July 2006 (secondary wet season, SWS, and October to December 2006 (primary wet season, PWS. Survivorship of P. demoleus in the DS was lower than in the SWS and in the PWS. The mortality (qx of the fifth instar larvae P. demoleus in all seasons was higher than in other stages. Predators, parasitoids, and rainfall were the most important factors of mortality in immature stages of P. demoleus. Predators caused the highest mortality in all stages of P. demoleus, except the pupal stage. Predation in the DS (94.39% was higher than in the SWS (90.88% and PWS (84.04% but no significantly different among the seasons. Meanwhile there was significantly different of mortality caused by parasitoids and the rain among the seasons. Spiders were the important mortality agent in the eggs and young larvae, meanwhile in the older larvae were S. dichotomus and Podisus sp. Ooencyrtus papilioni and Pteromalus puparum were the important parasitoids for the eggs and pupae of P. demoleus, respectively. In summary, the season influenced the survivorship of P. demoleus in citrus plantation. P. demoleus had the highest survival in the wet primary season (PWS, while the lowest survival was observed in the dry season (DS.

  17. Comparative fitness of irradiated light brown apple moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in a wind tunnel, hedgerow, and vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David M; Stringer, Lloyd D; Mitchell, Vanessa J; Sullivan, Thomas E S; Sullivan, Nicola J; Simmons, Gregory S; Barrington, Anne M; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2011-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the target of the sterile insect technique, but reduced moth fitness from irradiation lowers the effective overflooding ratio of sterile to wild moths. New measures of insect quality are being sought to improve field performance of irradiated insects, thus improving the cost effectiveness of this technique. Male pupae were irradiated at intervals between 0 and 300 Gy, and adult flight success was assessed in a wind tunnel equipped with flight track recording software. A dose response was evident with reduced successful search behaviors at higher irradiation doses. Irradiation at 250 Gy reduced arrival success to 49% of untreated controls, during 2-min assays. Mark-release-recapture of males irradiated at 250 Gy indicated reduced male moth recapture in hedgerows (75% of control values of 7.22% +/- 1.20 [SEM] males recaptured) and in vineyards (78% of control values 10.5% +/- 1.66% [SEM] recaptured). Males dispersed similar distances in both habitats, and overflooding ratios dropped off rapidly from the release point in both landscapes. Transects of traps with central releases proved to be an efficient method for measuring the quality of released males. Relative field performance of moths was greater than suggested by wind tunnel performance, which could be due to time differences between the two assays, two-minute wind tunnel tests compared with days in the field treatments. Release strategies involving ground releases should consider the effect of limited postrelease dispersal. Aerial release could solve this problem and warrants investigation.

  18. Potential of Trichogramma achaeae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in Biological Control of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Azorean Greenhouse Tomato Crops.

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    Oliveira, Luísa; Durão, Ana C; Fontes, João; Roja, Inês S; Tavares, João

    2017-10-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an important pest of tomato crops. It is native to South America and has rapidly extended its range into Mediterranean countries. The parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) has been recommended as a possible biological control agent of this invasive pest. The pest and parasitoid were accidentally introduced into the Azores Islands and became well-established owing to the climate conditions of the region. During an undertaken survey to determine the presence of natural parasitism, 2.5% of the T. absoluta eggs were found to be parasitized by Tr. achaeae, and no other egg parasitoid was observed. Other Trichogramma species, Trichogramma cordubensis Vargas & Cabello, was also selected to test, along with Tr. achaeae, against T. absoluta on caged tomato plants (microhabitats), and the effectiveness of these parasitoids in limiting the T. absoluta populations was assessed. The results revealed that Tr. achaeae had a high parasitism and emergence rate (29.6% and 65.9%, respectively), relative to those rates observed for T. cordubensis (6.1% and 39.3%, respectively). Greenhouse assays were also carried out between May and July in 2013 and 2014 on commercially produced tomatoes with the aim of evaluating the potential of Tr. achaeae mass releases for the control of T. absoluta under these conditions. In the second year, we observed a reduction in the mean number of leaf mines and of eggs, larvae, and pupae of T. absoluta per leaflet, and an increase in the Tr. achaeae parasitism rate. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Bioactivity of compounds from Acmella oleracea against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and selectivity to two non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Carvalho, Geraldo A; Picanço, Marcelo C; Morais, Elisangela G F; Pereira, Rogério M

    2012-03-01

    Tropical plants are recognised sources of bioactive compounds that can be used for pest control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of compounds present in Acmella oleracea (Asteracea) against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), which is the main pest of tomato crops in Latin America. The selectivity of these compounds to the predator Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and to the pollinator Tetragonisca angustula (Latr.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) was also of interest. A bioassay screening with hexane and ethanol extracts from 23 plants was performed. The hexane extract of A. oleraceae was the most active of the extracts and was selected for further study. The following three alkamides were isolated from a hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea: spilanthol, (E)-N-isobutylundeca-2-en-8,10-diynamide and (R, E)-N-(2-methylbutyl)undeca-2-en-8,10-diynamide. All of the isolated compounds showed insecticidal activity, with spilanthol being the most active (LD(50) = 0.13 µg mg(-1) ) against T. absoluta. The alkamides were selective to both beneficial species studied. The crude hexane extract of A. oleraceae showed high insecticidal activity and can be used to control T. absoluta in organic or conventional crops. Quantification of LD(50) values of isolated compounds against T. absoluta showed that alkamides could serve as potent insecticides for T. absoluta control programmes. Spilanthol was the main alkamide active isolated. This alkamide is the most promising as it has the highest insecticidal activity and is selective to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Aroga moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) populations and damage to sagebrush in shrub steppe across varying elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakova, Virginia L J; Evans, Edward W

    2014-12-01

    Spatial and temporal variation in the density of the Aroga moth, Aroga websteri Clarke (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and in its damage to its host plant, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nuttall), were examined at 38 sites across a shrub steppe landscape in mountain foothills of northern Utah. Sites were sampled from 2008 to 2012 during and after an outbreak of the moth, to assess whether and how local variation in moth abundance, survivorship, and damage to the host plant was accounted for by sagebrush cover, elevation, slope, aspect, or incident solar radiation. As moth numbers declined from a peak in 2009, individual sites had a consistent tendency in subsequent years to support more or fewer defoliator larvae. Local moth abundance was not correlated with sagebrush cover, which declined with elevation, and moth survivorship was highest at intermediate elevations (1,800-2,000 m). North-facing stands of sagebrush, characterized by lower values of incident solar radiation, were found to be especially suitable local habitats for the Aroga moth, as reflected in measures of both abundance and feeding damage. This high habitat suitability may result from favorable microclimate, both in its direct effects on the Aroga moth and in indirect effects through associated vegetative responses. North-facing sites also supported taller and more voluminous sagebrush plants in comparison to south-facing sites. Thus, the moth is reasonably predictable in the sites at which it is likely to occur in greatest numbers, and such sites may be those that in fact have most potential to recover from feeding damage.

  1. Biology and developmental strategies of the Palaearctic parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the neotropical moth Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

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    Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Siscaro, Gaetano; Zappalà, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    During the years after the invasion of Western Palaearctic tomato crops by the South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous generalist parasitoids have been recorded on this new host. Among these, Bracon nigricans Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region, and has been frequently recovered from South American tomato leafminer. However, most of the available data on this species deal with taxonomic aspects and its recovery in faunistic surveys. The current study documents the biology of B. nigricans on South American tomato leafminer, and provides a scientific basis for its inclusion in South American tomato leafminer management programs in Afro-Eurasia. We studied several B. nigricans life-history traits relevant to juvenile development and reproduction by females. B. nigricans proved to be an idiobiont and a synovigenic ectoparasitoid of mature South American tomato leafminer larvae. Several B. nigricans reproductive traits were influenced by the age of the mothers; on average, the progeny had a slightly male-biased sex ratio (60% males) and a low rate of successful development (37%). Adult females lived 42.8 d and produced an average of 29.8 offspring. These biological parameters yielded an intrinsic rate of increase of 0.052. Females showed behavioral plasticity in host use, as initial host paralysis was followed by host-feeding, oviposition, or host rejection, with a consequent high mortality rate among hosts exposed to parasitism. Although further field studies are needed, these data, obtained in laboratory conditions, suggest that B. nigricans should be considered as a potential biological control agent of in newly invaded areas of the Palaearctic region.

  2. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae.

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    María G Luna

    Full Text Available Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1 to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae early immature stages (egg and larva encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and 2 to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid.

  3. Comparative life history and fecundity of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on leaves and tubers of different potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, A; Esmaeili, N

    2012-10-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a noxious pest of the potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in both field and storage in tropical and subtropical regions. Survival, development and reproduction of the potato tuberworm was compared on leaves and tubers of 10 common cultivated potato cultivars including Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox at 25 +/- 1 degree C, 65 +/- 5% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the larval, pupal, and total developmental periods on the various potato cultivars. The total developmental periods varied from 26.6 (on Baneba) to 29.5 d (on Marfona),and ranged from 27.9 (on Marfona) to 30.5 d (on Agria) in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. Immature survival rates were lowest on Agria (44.1%) and Marfona (40.6%) on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The highest total fecundity was observed on Arinda (78.3 eggs) and Ramus (154.8 egg) on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. Significantly fewer eggs were laid on Marfona cultivar's leaves (44.6 eggs) and tubers (72.9 eggs) than any of the other tested potato cultivars. The female reproduction potential on potato leaves was significantly lower than on potato tubers. Cluster analysis of the biological parameters of P. operculella on different potato cultivars demonstrated that Marfona is partially resistant to potato tuberworm. The findings on the susceptibility or resistance of potato cultivars could be a fundamental component of integrated pest management programs for potato tuberworm.

  4. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, María G; Desneux, Nicolas; Schneider, Marcela I

    2016-01-01

    Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old) was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid.

  5. Impact of Field Densities of the Naturalized Defoliator Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on the Invasive Weed Chinese Tallowtree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, G S; Hight, S D; Wright, S A

    2017-12-08

    Chinese tallowtree, Triadica sebifera (L.) Small (Euphoriaceae), is one of the most aggressive weeds of coastal wetlands and forests of the southeastern United States. The lack of specialist herbivores in the invaded range may be one of the factors that contribute to the invasive nature of this weed. Chinese tallowtree has been the target of a classical biological control project since 2006. Several herbivore species are being tested for biological control of Chinese tallowtree. Concurrently, an adventive herbivore, Caloptilia triadicae Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was found feeding on Chinese tallowtree in the southeastern United States in 2004 and now occurs throughout the invaded range. Field populations of C. triadicae from two sites caused extensive mining damage to the Chinese tallowtree leaves. The greatest damage occurred after 30 d of exposure to C. triadicae in the herbivory treatment and amounted to about 25-30 leaf mines (early instars) and leaf rolls (late instars) per plant. Insecticide-treated plants had atmost 5-10 leaf mines and rolls per plant. Despite this difference, plant growth in height, number of new branches, and leaves did not differ significantly from plants protected from herbivory. Analysis of harvested plant results suggested that, in general, herbivory had little impact on biomass. However, there was a slight reduction in trunk weights in the unrestriced herbivory treatment compared with the insecticide-treated plants. Although this study exposed experimental plants to only 60 d of herbivory, these results suggested that C. triadicae alone will not exert sufficient control of invasive populations of Chinese tallowtree. Furthermore, they indicated that continued development of biological control agents that target Chinese tallowtree are needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Resistance Monitoring of Four Insecticides and a Description of an Artificial Diet Incorporation Method for Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuijin, Huang; Qiong, Chen; Wenjing, Qin; Yang, Sun; Houguo, Qin

    2017-10-16

    Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most damaging rice pests in China. Insecticides play a major role in its management. We describe how we monitored the resistance of C. suppressalis to four insecticides in seven field populations from Jiangxi, Hubei, and Hunan Provinces, China, in 2014-2016. The topical application method for resistance monitoring was suitable for triazophos, monosultap, and abamectin. The conventional rice seedling dipping method proved ineffective for testing chlorantraniliprole so the new artificial diet incorporation method was substituted. This new method provided more consistent results than the other methods, once baseline toxicity data had been established. All populations had moderate to high resistance to triazophos from 2014 to 2016. Monosultap resistance in two populations increased from low in 2014 to moderate in 2016 and the other five populations showed moderate to high-level resistance throughout. Abamectin resistance in three populations increased from sensitive or low in 2014 to moderate in 2015-2016, and the other populations had moderate to high levels of resistance. Resistance to chlorantraniliprole increased from sensitive or low in 2014 to moderate to high in 2016. These results suggested that resistance management strategies should be developed according to the needs of a specific location. It was suggested that, in these localities, organophosphate insecticides should be prohibited, the application of nereistoxin, macrolide antibiotic, and diamide insecticides should be limited, and other insecticides, including spinetoram and methoxyfenozide, that exhibited no resistance should be used rationally and in rotation to delay resistance development. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Sexual dimorphism in the alpine butterflies Boloria pales and Boloria napaea: differences in movement and foraging behavior (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehl, Stefan; Hostert, Katharina; Korsch, Jana; Gros, Patrick; Schmitt, Thomas

    2017-06-15

    Sexual dimorphism is a widespread phenomenon in Lepidoptera. It is reflected in differences in life history, behavior and morphology. Analyses of differences in behavior are mostly difficult and time-consuming, especially in high mountain ecosystems. To enhance our knowledge on sexual dimorphisms of alpine butterflies, we performed a mark-release-recapture study on 2 species common in the Alps: Boloria pales and Boloria napaea. We analysed movement and foraging behavior to investigate differences between sexes. Both sexes were mostly sedentary and the movement distances of males and females similar. However, obvious differences in dispersal behavior between the sexes were found in the movement patterns. Three different patterns were distinguished. Most males showed intensive flight activity, but mostly flew only in a limited part of the entire habitat (i.e., their individual home range) searching for females, whereas females were less flight active and flew only to find places for oviposition or feeding. The third pattern, where individuals flew larger distances, was only observed in a small number of males, which always returned to their home range. Nearly all feeding was observed on Asteraceae. However, males preferred the genera Leontodon and Crepis, while females preferred Leontodon and Carduus. Apart from this sexual difference in foraging, individuals of both sexes were found to be more or less specialised on nectar sources. Flight activity was generally greater in males than females. Therefore, we think that sex-specific requirements in nectar ingredients exist, that is, sugar for the intensive flight activity of males and amino acids for egg production of females. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Geographical variation in larval host-plant use by Heliconius erato (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae and consequences for adult life history

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    RODRIGUES D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult body size, one of the most important life-history components, varies strongly within and between Heliconius erato phyllis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae populations. This study determines if this variation is caused by geographical changes in host-plant used by the larval stage, whose reproductive parameters are influenced by female body size, with estimates of the corresponding heritability. The variation in adult body size was determined together with a survey of passion vine species (Passifloraceae used by the larvae in seven localities in Rio Grande do Sul State: three located in the urban area of Porto Alegre and Triunfo Counties, two within Eucalyptus plantations (Barba Negra Forest, Barra do Ribeiro County, and Águas Belas Experimental Station -- Viamão County, one in a Myrtaceae Forest (Itapuã State Park -- Itapuã County and one in the Atlantic Rain Forest (Maquiné Experimental Station -- Maquiné County. Effects of female body size on fecundity, egg size and egg viability were determined in an outdoor insectary. Size heritability was estimated by rearing in the laboratory offspring of individuals maintained in an insectary. The data showed that adults from populations where larvae feed only upon Passiflora suberosa are smaller than those that feed on Passiflora misera. The larvae prefer P. misera even when the dominant passion vine in a given place is P. suberosa. Fecundity increases linearly with the increase in size of females, but there is no size effect on egg size or viability. Size heritability is null for the adult size range occurring in the field. Thus, the geographical variation of H. erato phyllis adult size is primarily determined by the type, corresponding availability and quality of host-plants used by the larval stage. Within the natural size range of H. erato phyllis, the variation related to this caracter is not genetically based, thus being part of H. erato phyllis phenotypic plasticity.

  9. HACIA UNA SÍNTESIS DE LOS PAPILIONOIDEA (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA DE GUATEMALA CON UNA RESEÑA HISTÓRICA

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    Salinas José Luis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La riqueza biológica de Mesoamérica es enorme. Dentro de esta gran área geográfi ca seencuentran algunos de los ecosistemas más diversos del planeta (selvas tropicales, asícomo varios de los principales centros de endemismo en el mundo (bosques nublados.Países como Guatemala, en esta gran área biogeográfi ca, tiene grandes zonas de bosquehúmedo tropical y bosque mesófi lo, por esta razón es muy importante para analizarla diversidad en la región. Lamentablemente, la fauna de mariposas de Guatemalaes poco conocida y por lo tanto, es necesario llevar a cabo un estudio y análisis dela composición y la diversidad de las mariposas (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea enGuatemala. Este es el primer esfuerzo en reunir diferentes tipos de información yaumentar el conocimiento de las mariposas en Guatemala y el Neotrópico. La lista estáintegrada por 761 taxones del nivel especie, con registros de colecciones biológicas,literatura, recolectas de campo, datos inéditos y bases de datos. Se comentan algunosaspectos de la diversidad, la composición de especies y la distribución geográfi ca delas mariposas en Guatemala y con respecto a otras unidades geográfi cas. Otra partepresenta un bosquejo histórico. Hoy en día el conocimiento de las mariposas de estepaís está aumentando y éste es uno de los muchos estudios en marcha.

  10. Genetic and Biological Characterization of Four Nucleopolyhedrovirus Isolates Collected in Mexico for the Control of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Avilés, N; Murillo, R; Lasa, R; Pineda, S; Figueroa, J I; Bravo-Patiño, A; Díaz, O; Corrales, J L; Martínez, A M

    2017-08-01

    This study describes four multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates recovered from infected larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on crops in two different geographical regions of Mexico. Molecular and biological characterization was compared with characterized S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) isolates from the United States (SeUS1 and SeUS2) and Spain (SeSP2). Restriction endonuclease analysis of viral DNA confirmed that all Mexican isolates were SeMNPV isolates, but molecular differences between the Mexican and the reference isolates were detected using PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Amplification of the variable region V01 combined with RFLP distinguished the two Mexican isolates, SeSLP6 and SeSIN6. BglII digestions showed that the majority of the isolates contained submolar bands, indicating the presence of genetic heterogeneity. Amplification of the variable regions V04 and V05 distinguished between American and the Spanish isolates. Biological characterization was performed against two laboratory colonies of S. exigua, one from Mexico, and another from Switzerland. Insects from the Mexican colony were less susceptible to infection than insects from Se-Swiss colony. In the Se-Mex colony, SeSP2 was the most pathogenic isolate followed by SeSIN6, although their virulence was similar to most of the isolates tested. In Se-Swiss colony, similar LD50 values were observed for the five isolates, although the virulence was higher for the SeSLP6 isolate, which also had the highest OB (occlusion body) yield. We conclude that the Mexican isolates SeSIN6 and SeSLP6 possess insecticidal traits of value for the development of biopesticides for the control of populations of S. exigua. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of three dispenser distribution patterns for pheromone mating disruption of Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Rufus; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luis A F; Loeb, Greg; Hesler, Steve; Weigle, Tim; Muza, Andy; Timer, Jody; Saunders, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Over two growing seasons, Isomate GBM-Plus tube-type dispensers releasing the major pheromone component of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were evaluated in vineyards (Vitis spp.) in Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania. Dispensers were deployed in three different density-arrangement treatments: 124 dispensers per ha, 494 dispensers per ha, and a combined treatment with 124 dispensers per ha in the vineyard interior and 988 dispensers per ha at the vineyard border, equivalent to an overall density of 494 dispensers per ha. Moth captures and cluster infestation levels were compared at the perimeter and interior of vineyards receiving these different pheromone treatments and in vineyards receiving no pheromone. Orientation of male moths to pheromone-baited traps positioned at the perimeter and interior of vineyards was reduced as a result of mating disruption treatments compared with the nontreated control. These findings were consistent over both years of the study. Disruption of male moth captures in traps varied from 93 to 100% in treated vineyards, with the 494 dispensers per ha application rates providing significantly higher level of disruption than the 124 dispensers per ha rate, but only in 2007. Measurements of percentage of cluster infestation indicated much higher infestation at perimeters than in the interior of the vineyards in all three regions, but in both sample positions there was no significant effect of dispenser density on cluster infestation levels in either year. The contrasting results of high disruption of moth orientation to traps in vineyards that also had low levels of crop protection from this pheromone treatment are discussed in the context of strategies to improve mating disruption of this tortricid pest.

  13. PLANTAS HOSPEDEIRAS DE Thyrinteina arnobia (LEPIDOPTERA: GEOMETRIDAE AFETAM O DESENVOLVIMENTO DO PARASITOIDE Palmistichus elaeisis (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE1

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    Silma da Silva Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do parasitismo e a biologia da prole do parasitoide Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare e La Salle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae em pupas de Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae quando criadas em plantas de Psidium guajava ou Eucalyptus cloeziana. Ovos de T. arnobia foram coletados e colocados em sacos de tecido tipo organza envolvendo galhos de plantas de P. guajava (T1 e E. cloeziana (T2 até as lagartas alcançarem a fase de pupa. Trinta pupas de cada tratamento foram individualizadas em tubos de vidro e expostas ao parasitismo por quatro fêmeas de P. elaeisis por 24 h. Avaliaram-se a emergência da progênie do parasitoide por pupa; a porcentagem de parasitismo, pupas mortas e de adultos de T. arnobia emergidos; a duração do ciclo de vida (ovo-adulto;a longevidade; a razão sexual; e o tamanho da cápsula cefálica e do corpo do parasitoide. A porcentagem de parasitismo, a emergência de P. elaeisis por pupa, a longevidade das fêmeas e o tamanho da cápsula cefálica e do corpo dos machos do parasitoide foram menores quando seu hospedeiro foi criado em plantas de eucalipto. Isso pode ter ocorrido devido à grande quantidade de compostos do metabolismo secundário presentes nesta planta, que podem ser acumulados no corpo do herbívoro ao se alimentar, afetando negativamente o inimigo natural. Palmistichus elaeisis mostrou-se mais adaptado à mirtácea nativa da América P. guajava.

  14. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae.

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    Pascaline Dumas

    Full Text Available Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence. As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808, S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833 and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904 with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852. They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858 and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities.

  15. Perspective of using the sterile insect technique for Tobacco Budworms Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton crop as an alternative method of control; Perspectiva de utilizacao da Tecnica do Inseto Esteril para lagarta da maca Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e lagarta do velho mundo Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) na cultura do algodoeiro como um metodo alternativo de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Gianni Queiroz

    2017-07-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists have used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, which are released in nature to mate, but without any progeny. Known as the sterile insect technique (TIE), this method of insect control has traditionally used ionizing radiation to sterilize insects, a technique that does not generate residues, and can act in synergy with the other techniques within integrated pest management. For several years, Brazil has been fighting against the increase of pests, introducing new tactics and techniques within the IPM programs, to overcome the resistance of chemical products, such as: reducing the residues of agrochemicals; For some important crops of our country, we have a wide spectrum of pests occurring from the beginning to the end of the harvest, one of them is the cotton crop and among the key pests of this crop, we have some extremely important caterpillars, among them Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera These species are morphologically similar, the second being identified a few years ago in Brazil. There are still no studies in Brazil using TIE as an additional tool for Lepidoptera, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of doses of gamma radiation in the different phases of the evolutionary cycle of Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa armigera, as well as to evaluate the sterility in generation P And the ability of insects to irradiate with non-irradiated insects. The pupal phase presented the best result because 75 Gy achieved sterility in Heliothis virecens and 100 Gy sterilized Helicoverpa armigera, therefore it contemplated the phase and dose chosen to evaluate the competition between the irradiated insects and the normal insects of both species. Both Heliothis virecens and Helicoverpa armigera presented a satisfactory result, as the irradiated insects managed to significantly reduce the viability of the eggs in a ratio of 9: 1: 1. (author)

  16. Evaluación de aislamientos nativos de Beauveria Spp. sobre Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in vitro

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    Jorge Enrique Villamil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficacia de hongos entomopatógenos nativos en el biocontrol de Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in vitro. Los aislamientos fueron obtenidos de larvas y adultos de gusano blanco Premmotrypes vorax, barrenador del curubo Aepytus sp, picudo de la palma Rinchophorus palmarum, broca del café Hypothenemus hampei, polilla guatemalteca Tecia solanivora y palomilla de la papa Phthorimaea operculella infectados, de los municipios de Ventaquemada, Umbita, Coper (Boyacá y San gil (Santander. El trabajo se realizó en el laboratorio de control biológico del Grupo Manejo Biológico de Cultivos en Tunja, Colombia. Se seleccionaron in vitro, de forma preliminar cinco de los siete aislamientos de hongos obtenidos: Bv01, Bv03, Bv04, Bv05 y Bv07, los cuales ocasionaron mortalidades superiores al 10%. De acuerdo con la caracterización morfológica realizada, los hongos encontrados pertenecen al género Beauveria. La evaluación de su eficacia se realizó con 10 larvas de T. solanivora desinfectadas y sumergidas en suspensión de 1x107esporas.mL-1, las cuales se observaron durante 32 días, registrando cada 8 días la mortalidad. Se empleó un diseño completamente al azar, con 6 tratamientos, 4 repeticiones y una prueba de separación de medias de Tukey. Los resultados mostraron que 32 días después de la inoculación los aislamientos Bv03 y Bv05 fueron los que produjeron la mayor mortalidad acumulada (7,4 y 8,5%, respectivamente. Se confirma el bajo potencial de los hongos entomopatógenos nativos para el control de larvas de T. solanivora.

  17. A transcontinental challenge--a test of DNA barcode performance for 1,541 species of Canadian Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera.

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    Reza Zahiri

    Full Text Available This study provides a first, comprehensive, diagnostic use of DNA barcodes for the Canadian fauna of noctuoids or "owlet" moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea based on vouchered records for 1,541 species (99.1% species coverage, and more than 30,000 sequences. When viewed from a Canada-wide perspective, DNA barcodes unambiguously discriminate 90% of the noctuoid species recognized through prior taxonomic study, and resolution reaches 95.6% when considered at a provincial scale. Barcode sharing is concentrated in certain lineages with 54% of the cases involving 1.8% of the genera. Deep intraspecific divergence exists in 7.7% of the species, but further studies are required to clarify whether these cases reflect an overlooked species complex or phylogeographic variation in a single species. Non-native species possess higher Nearest-Neighbour (NN distances than native taxa, whereas generalist feeders have lower NN distances than those with more specialized feeding habits. We found high concordance between taxonomic names and sequence clusters delineated by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system with 1,082 species (70% assigned to a unique BIN. The cases of discordance involve both BIN mergers and BIN splits with 38 species falling into both categories, most likely reflecting bidirectional introgression. One fifth of the species are involved in a BIN merger reflecting the presence of 158 species sharing their barcode sequence with at least one other taxon, and 189 species with low, but diagnostic COI divergence. A very few cases (13 involved species whose members fell into both categories. Most of the remaining 140 species show a split into two or three BINs per species, while Virbia ferruginosa was divided into 16. The overall results confirm that DNA barcodes are effective for the identification of Canadian noctuoids. This study also affirms that BINs are a strong proxy for species, providing a pathway for a rapid, accurate estimation of animal diversity.

  18. Mortality of Eggs and Newly Hatched Larvae of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Exposed to High Temperatures in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaeian Moosavi, F; Cargnus, E; Pavan, F; Zandigiacomo, P

    2017-06-01

    The hypothesis that bunch-zone leaf removal reduces infestations of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by increasing egg and larval mortality owing to sunlight exposure was evaluated in the laboratory by subjecting different egg stages (white, red-eyes, and black-head) and newly hatched larvae to high temperatures. Based on temperatures recorded in a northern Italian vineyard on sun-exposed berries belonging to south-west facing bunches, eggs were subjected to constant temperatures of 40 °C and 37 °C for one or two periods of 3 or 6 h, and to 24-h temperature cycle with peak of 40 °C. Larvae were exposed to 24-h high-temperature cycles with peaks of 35, 37, and 40 °C. The results showed partial egg mortality at 40 °C, increasing with exposure hours and periods, and as eggs matured. Egg mortality was not affected by exposure to 37 °C. Larval survival already decreased significantly at 37 °C and was even lower at 40 °C. These laboratory data are in agreement with the hypothesis that temperatures reached by berries exposed to sunlight cause egg and larval mortality. Data on egg and larval susceptibility to high temperatures have also implications for species distribution and effects of climate change. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

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    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  20. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.