WorldWideScience

Sample records for cachama colossoma macropomum

  1. Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) sous vide: characterization and quality parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiane de Cássia Pontes Ramos; Lúcia Fátima Henriques Lourenço; Maria Regina Sarkis Peixoto Joele; Consuelo Lúcia Sousa; Suezilde Conceição do Amaral Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physical and physico-chemical quality parameters of sous vide preparation of pen-reared tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). To prepare the tambaqui sous vide, 200 g of fillet, 50 g of basil sauce (1:4 fish fillet:sauce ratio) and 10 mL of 5% sodium lactate were used. The product was then vacuum-packaged, pasteurized at 65 ºC for 12.5 min and refrigerated. The presence of Salmonella spp., sulfite-reducing Clostridium and Listeria mo...

  2. ANÁLISIS ESTRUCTURAL DE FILETES SAJADOS DE HÍBRIDO DE CACHAMA Piaractus braquypomus x Colossoma macropomum UTILIZANDO BACTERIOCINAS PRODUCIDAS POR Lactobacillus plantarum LPBM10 EMPACADO AL VACÍO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Suárez M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine microstructure, texture and sensory changes in cut cachama hybrid fillets. Materials and methods. Hybrid fillets that were vacuum packed for 30 days at 3°C were analyzed after preservative treatments by crude bacteriocins extract, lactic acid, and control by light microscopy. Results. Space among the muscle fibers increased gradually and the architectural arrangement was altered in all treatments throughout the entire storage period. The lowest alteration in connective tissue degradation and lowest increment in spaces between the muscular fibers was observed with the crude bacteriocin extract treatment. The instrumental textural analysis showed no statistical difference in the stability loss of tissues from fillets among treatments. Sensory analysis indicated that the lancing treatment was effective in diminishing the negative effect of intramuscular bones. The best scores were for cutting fillets with the bacteriocin treatment. Conclusions. The meat texture of fillets was affected during the storage period. Lancing is a procedure that enables the use of fillets without encountering the intramuscular bone problem. The use of crude bacteriocins extract prolongs the shelf-life of fillets.

  3. [RNA/DNA ratio as an index of physiological condition of Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus branchypomus (Pisces: Characiformes) during embryonic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Humberto; Chung, Kyung S; Lemus, Mairin; Altuve, Douglas

    2003-06-01

    We evaluated RNA/DNA ratio as an index of physiological condition during larval development of a hybrid between the fishes Colossoma macropomum (cachama) and Piaractus brachypomus (morocoto). The samples were obtained by induced reproductive technology and the eggs were maintained in acrylic conical incubator with a continuous waterflow. Embryonic development, from egg fertilization to cell division and hatch out, took 12 hours 20 minutes at 29.5 degrees C, dissolved oxygen contents of 6.0 ppm and pH 7.5. Nucleic acids quantification was determined by fluorometry with ethidium bromide and Hoechst 33258 dyes. We observed significant changes of RNA/DNA ratios during all stages of the embryonic larval development. Therefore, RNA/DNA relation is an useful technique to evaluate physiological condition in short period and could be utilized as nutritional condition and/or instantaneous growth for routine check to verify the health status in early life of cultivated species. PMID:15264559

  4. RNA/DNA ratio as an index of physiological condition of Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces : Characiformes) during embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated RNA/DNA ratio as an index of physiological condition during larval development of a hybrid between the fishes Colossoma macropomum (cachama) and Piaractus brachypomus (morocoto). The samples were obtained by induced reproductive technology and the eggs were maintained in acrylic conical incubator with a continuous waterflow. Embryonic development, from egg fertilization to cell division and hatch out, took 12 hours 20 minutes at 29.5 degrees c, dissolved oxygen contents of 6.0 ppm and pH 7.5. nucleic acids quantification was determined by fluorometry with ethidium bromide and Hoechst 33258 dyes. We observed significant changes of RNA/DNA ratios during all stages of the embryonic larval development. Therefore, RNA/DNA relation is an useful technique to evaluate physiological condition in short period and could be utilized as nutritional condition and/or instantaneous growth for routine check to verify the health status in early life of cultivated species. (Author)

  5. Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum sous vide: characterization and quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane de Cássia Pontes Ramos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physical and physico-chemical quality parameters of sous vide preparation of pen-reared tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. To prepare the tambaqui sous vide, 200 g of fillet, 50 g of basil sauce (1:4 fish fillet:sauce ratio and 10 mL of 5% sodium lactate were used. The product was then vacuum-packaged, pasteurized at 65 ºC for 12.5 min and refrigerated. The presence of Salmonella spp., sulfite-reducing Clostridium and Listeria monocytogenes was not detected in the samples analyzed. The coliform count at 45 ºC and coagulase-positive staphylococci were below the limit (103 permitted by the law in vigor. Water retention capacity and chloride content analyses revealed that the tambaqui fillet differed significantly (P<0.05 from the sous vide because of the addition of basil sauce. The total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS content of the fillet and sous vide were below the limits established by the law, indicating good quality. The lightness (L* and yellow color (b* of the fillet and the sous vide did not differ significantly (P>0.05, but the red color (a* decreased in the sous vide, which is related to the addition of basil sauce. The chroma (C* and hue angle (ho differed significantly (P<0.05, and the fillet samples were lighter in color, whereas the sous vide was characterized by yellow color. The n-6/n-3 ratios found for the fillet and the sous vide are within the recommended values, which is important for human metabolism. The fillet and sous vide also had high calcium, zinc, magnesium and potassium concentrations. It is concluded that tambaqui sous vide is a good source of nutrients, rich in fatty acids and minerals essential for human health.

  6. Uji Toksisitas Akut Limbah Cair Industri Tahu Terhadap Ikan Bawal Air Tawar (Colossoma macropomum)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinurat, Mars Sella

    2016-01-01

    Changes of chemical and physic parameters of water will disrupt the organism life in it, one of the types of organisms is freshwater pomfret (Colossoma macropomum). Toxicity tests are used to determine the status of tofu industrial wastewater for the mortality rate of freshwater pomfret. Therefore, the required value of Lethal Concentration (LC50) 96 hours which is the concentration that causes 50% of test animals died within 96 hours of exposure time. This study aims to determine the LC50 va...

  7. Oxidative stress enzyme and histopathological lesions in Colossoma macropomum (pisces, ariidae) for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Dantas, Janaina Gomes; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    This study used oxidative stress enzyme (Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase), histopathological lesions (Branchial lesions) and biometric data in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in an Environmental Protection Area at São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations (A1 = contaminated area and A2 = reference site) within the protected area on four occasions. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in C. macropomum was compared with biometric data and histopathological lesions. Results have shown that biometric data decreased significantly in fish (p<0.05) at the contaminated site. The activity of CAT was higher in fish specifically caught in A1. A significant difference was observed in the GST activity in the liver of C. macropomum when comparing fish from the contaminated site and those from the reference site (p<0.05).

  8. Histopathological changes in the head kidney induced by cadmium in a neotropical fish Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Lugo, R; Vargas, A; Rojas, L; Lemus, M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cadmium (Cd) on the structure and function of the head kidney in the freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (C. macropomum). Juveniles were exposed to 0.1 mg/L CdCl2 for 31 days. Blood samples were examined using hematological tests and head kidney histology was determined by light microscopy. The concentration of Cd in the head and trunk kidneys was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cd produced histopathological changes in the head kidney, the most evident of these being: the thickening of the vein wall, an increase in the number of basophils/mast cells close to blood vessels and a severe depletion of hematopoietic precursors especially the granulopoietic series. In the blood, a decrease in the total leucocytes and hemoglobin concentration was observed. Cd-exposed fish showed higher Cd concentrations in the trunk kidney than the head kidney. In conclusion, exposure to Cd affected precursor hematopoietic cells in C. macropomum.

  9. Histopathological changes in the head kidney induced by cadmium in a neotropical fish Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Salazar-Lugo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of cadmium (Cd on the structure and function of the head kidney in the freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (C. macropomum. Juveniles were exposed to 0.1 mg/L CdCl2 for 31 days. Blood samples were examined using hematological tests and head kidney histology was determined by light microscopy. The concentration of Cd in the head and trunk kidneys was measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cd produced histopathological changes in the head kidney, the most evident of these being: the thickening of the vein wall, an increase in the number of basophils/mast cells close to blood vessels and a severe depletion of hematopoietic precursors especially the granulopoietic series. In the blood, a decrease in the total leucocytes and hemoglobin concentration was observed. Cd-exposed fish showed higher Cd concentrations in the trunk kidney than the head kidney. In conclusion, exposure to Cd affected precursor hematopoietic cells in C. macropomum.

  10. Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa in the circulating blood of Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa no sangue circulante de Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Oliveira Maciel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Myxosporea parasitize many organs in fresh and saltwater fish. Species of the genus Myxobolus parasitizing the gills and other organs of the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum have been described. In the present study, blood smears were made from juvenile tambaqui and were stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright in order to identify myxozoan parasites. Out of a total of 36 fish examined, one specimen (2.7% that was reared in a cage presented spores that were identified as M. colossomatis, whereas fish kept in 250 L tanks showed prevalence of 5.5%. This is the first report of M. colossomatis in the blood of farmed tambaqui in the Amazon region. These results indicate that myxozoan parasites should also be investigated in fish blood smears. Some myxosporean species may cause diseases in fish, and these species need to be identified so that adequate preventive sanitary control can be instituted.Mixosporídeos parasitam diversos órgãos de peixes de água doce e salgada, tendo sido descrita espécie do gênero Myxobolus parasitando brânquias e outros órgãos de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum. No presente trabalho, extensões sanguíneas de juvenis de tambaquis foram confeccionadas e coradas com May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright para identificação de parasitos myxozoários. Do total de 36 peixes examinados, um espécime (2,7% cultivado em tanque-rede apresentou esporos identificados como M. colossomatis, enquanto os peixes mantidos em tanques com 250 L apresentaram prevalência de 5,5%. Esse é o primeiro registro de M. colossomatis no sangue de tambaqui cultivado na Amazônia. Esses resultados indicam que parasitos Myxozoa devem ser também investigados em extensões sanguíneas. Algumas espécies de mixosporídeos podem causar doença em peixes, sendo necessária a identificação da espécie para um adequado manejo sanitário preventivo.

  11. Heparina e K3EDTA como anticoagulantes para tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1816 Heparin and K3EDTA as anticoagulants for tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1816

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Benites de Pádua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a eficácia da heparina sódica e do EDTA tripotássico como anticoagulantes e seus efeitos sobre os parâmetros hematológicos de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Foram utilizados dez indivíduos de tambaqui com médias de 384,9 ± 85,71 g de peso e 27,90 ± 2,10 cm de comprimento total para avaliação da heparina 5.000 UI e 100 UI, bem como do K3EDTA 10%. Foram analisados a inibição da coagulação por 10 h, eritrograma e teste de fragilidade osmótica dos eritrócitos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (P 0,05 na contagem de eritrócitos, hematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina e CHCM, no entanto, houve aumento do VCM (P The efficacy of sodium heparin and tripotassium EDTA as anticoagulant and their effect on the hematological parameters of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum were evaluated in this study. Ten fish weighing 384.9 ± 85.71 g and measuring 27.90 ± 2.10 cm were used for heparin 5.000 IU, heparin 100 IU and K3EDTA 10% evaluation. Clotting inhibition after 10 h, erythrogram and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes were observed. The results were submitted to variance analysis and means compared by Tukey test (P 0.05 in erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin and MCHC. On the other hand, an increase in MCV (P < 0.05 in samples kept with K3EDTA10% was observed. This anticoagulant provoked a significant increase (P < 0.01 in the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes when compared to pure heparin, diluted heparin and the control group. Heparin as an anticoagulant is more appropriate for tambaqui since it was effective in preventing coagulation for more than 10 h, without causing hemolysis, changes on hematological parameters or osmotic fragility of erythrocytes.

  12. [Histology of gill, liver and kidney in juvenile fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to three temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Luz-Marina; Mata, Claunis; Oliveros, Aridays; Salazar-Lugo, Raquel

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Histology of gill, liver and kidney in juvenile fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to three temperatures. Water temperature is an important factor that affects growth and antioxidant enzyme activities in fish, and when adverse, it may trigger diseases in fish populations. C. macropomum is a freshwater neotropical fish widely distributed in South America and abundant in river basins as the Amazon and Orinoco. It is highly used for intensive aquaculture development and is a very important product for the local riverside economy in Venezuela. The purpose of our study was to examine the water temperature effect on gills, liver and kidneys of juvenile fishes of C macropomum. Eighteen juveniles with biometrical index of 17.87 +/- 7.88 cm and 87.69 +/- 34.23 g were respectively exposed to three culture temperatures (T18, T29 and T35 degrees C) during a period of 21 days. Histological analyses on gills, liver and kidney were made according to standard methodologies. Our results showed that these tissues exhibited normal citoarchitecture at T29. On the contrary, T18-gills displayed brachiallipid droplets inside brachial epithelium; and disorganization in the brachial tissue was observed at T35. Furthermore, we observed two kinds of hepatocytes (dark and light) on T180 degrees C-liver. The T35-liver samples showed cytoplasmatic granulation and damages in cytoplasmatic membrane. Kidney samples from T18 observed alterations in the cellular distribution of the hematopoietic tissue; while, at T35, the most important feature observed was the disorganization of the glomerular structure. We concluded that T18 and T35 are respectively critical and severe temperatures to C. macropomum; besides, the most sensible tissues to changes induced by temperature in this species were the liver and gills.

  13. Loss of genetic variability at the transferrin locus in five hatchery stocks of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calcagnotto Daniela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and conservation of the genetic variability in stocks maintained as live gene banks have become a high priority task for Brazilian fish culture. The aim of the present survey was to assess the transferrin allelic diversity of five hatchery stocks of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. The tambaqui stock from Pentecoste, the oldest maintained in Brazilian hatchery stations, retained three of the six alleles detected in wild populations of tambaqui from the Amazon River. Other hatchery stocks, directly or indirectly derived from the Pentecoste stock, did not show transferrin allelic variability. Insufficient number of founders and genetic drift due to sampling errors seem to be the main causes leading to loss of genetic diversity in tambaqui hatchery stocks. Appropriate management strategies are required in order to improve the genetic potential of tambaqui stocks in Brazil.

  14. Efecto del cobre y del cadmio sobre la respuesta inmune innata del pez Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la respuesta inmunológica celular inespecífica del pez Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 expuesto a concentraciones subletales de cobre y cadmio, a través de la determinación de la viabilidad celular, la quimiotaxis, la fagocitosis y la muerte bacteriana en células inmunocompetentes extraídas del riñón cefálico, la sangre y el hígado. Los peces fueron expuestos por separado a 0,5 mg/L de cloruro de cobre y 1,0 mg/L de cloruro de cadmio durante 28 días; después de la exposición, se depuraron por el mismo período. La viabilidad celular se mantuvo entre 99-94%. La exposición al cadmio causó una reducción significativa en la respuesta quimiotáctica de granulocitos en los tejidos evaluados. Tanto los peces expuestos a cobre como los expuestos a cadmio presentaron una disminución significativa en la respuesta fagocítica de granulocitos. En sangre, el cadmio afectó la efectividad de los granulocitos de inducir muerte bacteriana; el cobre sin embargo, afectó la efectividad de inducir muerte bacteriana en los granulocitos provenientes del hígado. Los peces expuestos a cadmio presentaron un incremento significativo en los niveles de cortisol sérico y una disminución de esta hormona en los peces expuestos a cobre. Estos resultados demuestran que la exposición crónica a los metales cobre y cadmio produce una inhibición de la respuesta inmune inespecífica en el pez Colossoma macropomum.

  15. Morphometrical development of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Cuvier, 1818 under different photoperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pierro Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed with 160 tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum with average weight 11.01±2.08 g and total length 7.8±0.18 cm. Fishes were kept in sixteen aquariums with 56 L of water at 29.1±0.4 ºC of temperature, initial stocking density 1.97 g/L and constant aeration. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of photoperiod on fish performance. Treatments consisted of four photoperiods: T1 = 6 hours; T2 = 12 hours; T3 = 18 hours and T4 = 24 hours, with four replicates each. Fishes were fed twice a day with commercial extruded feed (28% of crude protein. The experiment was developed in closed circulation system, with volume of water renewal for each experimental unit equivalent to 40 times daily. Fish biometry was performed at the beginning of the experiment and at every 16 days, in order to follow the effects of treatments on juvenile development. Final weight, total length, standard length, height, feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, survival, specific growth rate, protein efficiency rate and protein retention efficiency were assessed. Statistical analysis of variables was performed with application of the software SAEG version 9.1, for analysis of variance, regression analysis and Pearson correlation. Positive influence of photoperiod was observed for the studied variables in this study. The studied variables enhanced as the photoperiod increased, mainly between 15 and 22 hours. The photoperiod has significant influence upon growth traits of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum.

  16. Functional integrity of Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816 sperm cryopreserved with enriched extender solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raycon Roberto Freitas Garcia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryoprotectant solutions are used to protect the sperm from alterations caused by the low temperature in the cryopreservation process. We evaluated the quality of Colossoma macropomum semen after freezing, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a cryoprotectant, combined with two extender solutions (T1 - Solution 1: Glucose 90.0 g/L, Sodium Citrate 6.0 g/L, EDTA 1.5 g/L, Sodium Bicarbonate 1.5 g/L, Potassium Chloride 0.8 g/L, Gentamycin Sulphate 0.2 g/L, and T2 - Solution 2: Glucose 90.0 g/L, ACP(r-104 10.0 g/L. Motility rate and motility time did not differ between T1 and T2 and were lower than fresh semen. The number of normal sperm was significantly different in treatments T1 (15.1% and T2 (21.9%, and both showed a reduction in the percentage of normal sperm compared to fresh semen (57.4%. The values found for the rates of fertilization and hatching, mitochondrial functionality and sperm DNA, did not differ between the treatments (T1 and T2. Regarding membrane integrity, there was a higher percentage of spermatozoa with intact membranes in T1 (53.4% than T2 (43.7%. The extender solutions, combined with 10% DMSO, maintained the sperm DNA intact in almost all the C. macropomumsperm cells, however there was a loss in their functionality.

  17. A preliminary market research about tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in Costa Rica (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon van Anrooy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to July 1995, a market trial was conducted in Costa Rica with the fresh water fish species. Colossoma macropomum, commonly named “tambaqui”. About 1200 fish with an average weight of 800g were obtained from the fish culture station of the Universidad Nacional near La Rita, Guápiles. About 20 fish were delivered each Monday initially to three and later to each of four fishdealers in Limón, Guápiles, San José and Heredia. The shopkeepers purchased the fish at a price of $1.40/kg, covering all production and transport costs, and sold it for $1.97/kg. The motivations of the consumers for purchasing the fish were: curiosity, low price, good taste and recommendations by the shopkeepers. Most of the participants appreciated the taste, meat texture, freshness, colour and appearance very much. Some repondents criticized the amount of intramuscular spines in the fish. Eighty nine percent of the consumers intended to purchase more of the fish and 38% preferred this fish species above all other species. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of gender, householdsize or income level on the responses of the costumers. Chinese costumers were the only group discernible in the survey. Almost all participants thought tambaqui could get a good market position in Costa Rica. This trial shows that the price can be increased a little without losing much customers, but promotion would be necessary to get the product more known among the Costa Rican Population. The production of tambaqui could meet part of the demand for low priced fish in Costa Rica.

  18. Acute and chronic toxicity of the benzoylurea pesticide, lufenuron, in the fish, Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaela Leão Soares, Priscila; Lucas Corrêa de Andrade, André; Pinheiro Santos, Thamiris; Caroline Barros Lucas da Silva, Stephannie; Freitas da Silva, Jadson; Rodrigues Dos Santos, Amanda; Hugo Lima da Silva Souza, Elton; Magliano da Cunha, Franklin; Wanderley Teixeira, Valéria; Sales Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrício; Bezerra de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz; Gonçalves Cadena, Pabyton

    2016-10-01

    Lufenuron is a benzoylurea insecticide that interfere in chitin synthesis in insects. Although lufenuron is widely used in agriculture and aquaculture, rare are studies described that relates to possible toxic effects in fish. This work aimed to evaluate acute and chronic toxic effects of benzoylurea pesticide (lufenuron) on biological parameters of Colossoma macropomum (Tambaqui). In the acute test, juveniles of Tambaqui were divided into control group and five experimental groups with exposure from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron for 96 h. Animals were also submitted to chronic toxicity test for four months in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L of lufenuron, the concentration used in the treatment of ectoparasites in fish and 50% of LC50 96 h, respectively. The presence of hemorrhages was observed in eyes, fins and operculum of fish exposed to 0.7 and 0.9 mg/L of lufenuron. Histological analysis showed changes in the morphology of fish gills submitted to acute toxicity test, as lamellar aneurysm and blood congestion inside lamellae. Lufenuron promoted damage in fish retina as in ability to respond to stimuli in photoreceptors and in ON-bipolar cells in acute test. In chronic test, blood glucose analysis and morphometric parameters showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). In general, Tambaqui exhibited behaviors associated with stress when exposed to lufenuron. Thus, lufenuron showed several toxic effects in relation to biological parameters in Tambaqui. This concerns about the use and discard of lufenuron, and indicates the requirement of environmental actions to prevent potential contamination of aquatic biota.

  19. Perulernaea gamitanae (Copepoda: Lernaeidae parasitizing tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum (Characidae and the hybrids tambacu and tambatinga, cultured in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tavares-Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The infestation rate in Colossoma macropomum, hybrid tambacu (C. macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus and hybrid tambatinga (C. macropomum x Piaractus brachypomum with Perulernaea gamitanae Thatcher and Paredes, 1985 from two fish farms in Amapá State, Brazil was studied. Lernaeid parasites (n=2887 were collected mainly on the tongue and the mouth cavity and also on cartilage of gill arches and filaments. Inflammation and fibrous nodules were observed on the attachment sites of the parasites. The infestation rate varied according to the fish farm and host. The prevalence of P. gamitanae was of 100% in hosts from one fish farm and was lower in the other fish farm. Higher intensity of P. gamitanae occurred in hybrids tambacu and tambatinga, but despite the high prevalence its intensity was moderate. This is the first report on epidemiology of P. gamitanae in cultured fishes from Brazilian Amazonia, and the occurrence of this crustacean parasite in two new hosts, the hybrids tambacu and tambatinga.

  20. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) Determination of insemination dose and embryonic development in the artificial fertilization of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)

    OpenAIRE

    L.V. Leite; M.A.P. Melo; F.C.E. Oliveira; J.P.S. Pinheiro; C.C. Campello; J.F. Nunes; C.S.B. Salmito-Vanderley

    2013-01-01

    Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento d...

  1. Estrutura morfológica do fígado de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever macro e microscopicamente o fígado do Tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, Teleósteo de água doce da Família Characidae, de grande interesse econômico da bacia Amazônica. Foram utilizados seis (6 exemplares jovens com idade entre seis meses e um ano, oriundos da Chácara Esteio, Alta Floresta, MT, que desenvolve principalmente a prática da piscicultura. O órgão foi fotodocumentado in situ e descrito macroscopicamente, em seguida procedeu-se a retirada de fragmentos deste, que foram processados pelas técnicas histológicas rotineiras para inclusão em parafina e coloração de HE. O fígado localizou-se ventral à bexiga natatória e craniodorsalmente ao estômago, apresentou coloração amarronzada a vermelho, constituído por três lobos hepáticos, o lobo lateral direito, o lobo lateral esquerdo e o lobo ventral. Microscopicamente, o parênquima era constituído por hepatócitos com formato que variou do arredondado irregular hexagonal ao redondo com núcleo grande e central, arranjados em cordões lineares limitados por sinusóides que irradiam para veias centrais, e com ausência de lóbulos hepáticos. As veias centrais estavam distribuídas pelo parênquima, enquanto que o espaço porta, na maioria das vezes, era constituído apenas por uma veia hepática e o ducto biliar, em outros locais foi observado, uma artéria e um ducto. Não foi observada a formação de tríades portais. Foram frequentemente observados melano macrófagos centrais dispersos pelo parênquima. O estudo morfofuncional do Aparelho Digestório de peixes da bacia Amazônica, se faz pertinente com vistas ao conhecimento do aproveitamento de ganho de peso e produção em alta escala para consumo humano e preservação da espécie, além da importância de estarem sendo utilizados como bioindicadores atualmente.

  2. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro, E-mail: deborabpsousa@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program of Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  3. An outbreak of myxozoan parasites in farmed freshwater fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 (Characidae, Serrasalminae in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Videira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is a native fish species that is farmed most frequently and in the largest quantities throughout Brazil. The high production of this species from fish farms has contributed to the occurrence of emerging parasites, which may compromise fish health and productivity. In a batch of 2500 tambaqui fry acquired for experimental farming procedures in Brazil, a mortality rate of 80% was observed, with the fish swimming erratically and gasping for air at the water surface. From among the specimens that were still alive, 60 individuals were selected at random. Organs or fragments of organs containing lesions and/or cysts were examined under an optical microscope to investigate for the presence of parasitic spores. Of the 60 specimens of tambaqui analyzed, 83.3% were found to be infected in different organs, such as the gills, liver, and gallbladder with myxosporidian species belonging to four genera, namely, Myxobolus, Ellipsomyxa, Henneguya and Thelohanellus. The parasite with the greatest prevalence was Myxobolus sp., located in the gills (70%, followed by Henneguya sp. in the gills region (68.3%, Myxobolus sp. in the liver (63.3%, Thelohanellus sp. in the liver (58.3%, and Ellipsomyxa in the gallbladder (50%. This is the first report of parasitic infection caused by the genera Ellipsomyxa and Thelohanellus in C. macropomum. The present study reported the second incidence of the occurrence of the genus Thelohanellus in South America. This study suggested that the mortality among C. macropomum specimens was caused by the outbreak of myxosporidians.

  4. Utilización de la proteína dietaría por alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Walter Gutiérrez; Máximo Quispe; Luz Valenzuela; Guadalupe Contreras; Javier Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Un experimento fue conducido para evaluar los efectos de cinco niveles de proteína (25,27, 29, 31 y 33%) sobre el comportamiento productivo de alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas (2,7 kcal de ED/g). Los parámetros medidos fueron ganancia de peso (GP), conversión alimenticia (CA), proteína retenida (PR), razón de eficiencia proteica (REP) y energía retenida (ER). En la preparación de las dietas experimentales se utilizaron como fuentes...

  5. VALOR AGREGADO DE LAS ESPECIES Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE y Agouti paca (MAJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doylith Vásquez Jurafo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo  la obtención de  productos mínimamente procesados (PMP de Brycon erythropterum (SÁBALO, Colossoma macropomum (GAMITANA, Arapaima gigas (PAICHE, y Agouti paca (MAJAS congelado y empacado al vacio. Para las especies piscícolas, se ha aplicado un diseño factorial de 32 con dos factores de estudios: concentración de NaCl en la solución osmótica con tres niveles (15, 20 y 25 % y temperatura de proceso  con tres niveles de estudio (5, 10 y 15 °C. Para el Agouti paca (majas se aplico un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado con tres factores de estudio: tiempo de proceso (30, 60 y 90 minutos, método de ahumado (ahumado líquido y ahumado en caliente y tipo de corte del músculo (partes y filetes. Para trabajar se ha diseñado y montado un deshidratador Osmótico teniendo en cuenta, diámetro de tubería, deshidratador propiamente dicho con doble chaqueta, capacidad del deshidratador en función del volumen de la Salmuera.  Todos los productos se obtuvieron  en procesos con 10 °C y tiempos entre 30 min y  90 min. El tiempo de vida en almacenamiento en las evaluaciones de aroma y color en majas tienen una vida útil de 4 meses de almacenados a -18 °C. Los análisis microbiológicos realizados a los PMP no pasan los límites de la NTS Nº 071 MINSA/DIGESA V01.

  6. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Determination of insemination dose and embryonic development in the artificial fertilization of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Leite

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento do blastóporo foi calculada a taxa de fertilização nas diferentes doses inseminantes. A porcentagem de fertilização aumentou de forma linear segundo a equação Ŷ =0,050 + 0,00000773X (R²=97,5, atingindo um platô em 84% na proporção de 102.486 espermatozoides/ovócito. Os embriões apresentaram segmentação meroblástica discoidal, típica de ovos telolécitos, com eclosão ocorrendo aos 357 horas-grau após a fertilização. Conclui-se que o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui obedece ao esperado para peixes com ovos telolécitos e recomenda-se o uso da dose inseminante de aproximadamente 100.000 espermatozoides/ovócito na rotina de fertilização artificial dessa espécie.The objective of this research was to determine the insemination dose for artificial fertilization and describe the embryonic development of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun. The gametes were collected from induced breeding hormonally. An artificial fertilization was performed with different sperm/oocyte ratios of D1-50666, D2-75999, D3-101 332, 126 665-D4, D5-151 998 sperm/oocyte. Embryonic development was monitored through periodic stereoscopic observations until hatching. When embryos reached the blastopore closure stage, the rate of fertilization in different insemination doses was calculated. A regression equation was estimated to determine the ideal proportion of the gametes. The fertilization rate increased linearly according to the equation Ŷ = 0

  7. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)

    OpenAIRE

    L.V. Leite; M.A.P. Melo; F.C.E. Oliveira; J.P.S. Pinheiro; C.C. Campello; J.F. Nunes; C.S.B. Salmito-Vanderley

    2013-01-01

    Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento d...

  8. Genetic variability of wild and captivity populations of Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.7149

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida-Val

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum is among the most important fish species of the Amazon and one of the most cultivated in Brazil. In the present work we have evaluated the genetic variability of wild and captivity populations of C. macropomum. Enzymatic markers were used to estimate the genetic variability of 41 specimens from a wild group; and 30, 33 and 45 from three captivity groups, which came from Pentecostes (Ceará State, Jaboticabal (São Paulo State and Itacoatiara (Amazonas State, respectively. Nine isoenzymic systems were used to evaluate the genetic variability of these populations. Using zimogram data we obtained the polymorphism level, allele number, allelic frequency, observed and expected heterozigosity, Wright F statistics (FIS, FST, genetic distance, level of similarity and group analysis. The isoenzymic data showed that, from the nine systems, six presented polymorphic loci (Fbp-2, G6pdh-2, G6pdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2 and Pgm-1. The populations from Pentecostes and Jaboticabal presented loss of genetic variability and low heterozigosity, compared to the wild population and to the artificial population acquired at Itacoatiara fish farm. Based on these results and on fish farmer information we could consider the population from Itacoatiara as recently derived from a wild population. Concluding, we suggest that the artificial populations of tambaqui, which contain animals originated from this funding population at Pentecostes, should be renewed with the introduction of a new group of individuals with genetic variability equivalent to the wild population.

  9. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA de la materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, lípido crudo(LC y energía bruta (EB de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g. En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las dietas prueba fueron suministradas a C. macropomum, criada a 27 ºC, 7 mg/L de oxígeno disuelto y pH entre 7,5. Las muestras fecales fueron colectadas por sifoneo. Los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB de la HPP fueron de 88,06 ± 0,83%, 87,08 ± 1,34%, 85,87 ± 2,69 y 87,29 ± 1,57% respectivamente. Igualmente los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB del MAD fueron de 82,38 ± 1,02%, 75,46 ± 1,53%, 76,17 ± 2,43% y 75,04 ± 1,80% respectivamente. La energía digestible aparente calculada fue de 3950 Kcal/kg para la HPP y 2830 kcal/kg para el MAD. Se concluye que C. macropomum digiere mejor las fracciones proteicas y energéticas de la HPP. Al mismo tiempo muestra que digiere también la fracción energética del MAD, proveniente de los carbohidratos solubles.

  10. Fauna parasitária de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum (Characidae cultivado em tanque-rede no estado do Amapá, Amazônia oriental Parasitic fauna of tambaqui Colossoma macropomum(Characidae farmed in cages in the State of Amapá, eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Freitas Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi estudar a parasitofauna e a relação hospedeiro- parasito em tambaqui Colossoma macropomum cultivados em tanques-rede no Rio Matapi, município de Santana, estado do Amapá, região da Amazônia oriental, Brasil. Foram examinados 60 tambaquis, dos quais 96,7% estavam parasitados por protozoários Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora e Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideas Mymarotheciun boegeri e Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae e sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. Os maiores níveis de parasitismo foram causados por protozoários I. multifiliis e P. pillulare e os menores por sanguessugas Glossiiphonidae gen. sp. Porém, os índices de infestação não tiveram efeitos na saúde dos peixes hospedeiros, uma vez que o fator de condição relativo (Kn não foi estatisticamente (pThe purpose of this paper was to evaluate the parasitic fauna and the host-parasite relationship in Colossoma macropomum farmed in cages of Matapi River, municipally of Santana, State of Amapá, in eastern Amazon, Brazil. Of 60 specimens of tambaqui examined, 96.7% were parasitized by protozoans Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida, monogenoideans Mymarotheciun boegeri and Anacanthorus spathulatus (Dactylogyridae, and leeches Glossiphoniidae gen. sp. (Hirudinea. The higher infestation levels were caused by protozoans I. multifiliis and P. pillulare, while the lower infestation levels were caused by leeches. No effects of parasitic infestation rates on fish health were observed. The relative condition factor (Kn was not correlated with the intensity of parasites found. This was the first record of I. multifiliis and P. pillulare in C. macropomum farmed in cages in the Brazilian Amazon.

  11. Effects of formation water from the Urucu petroleum plant on hematological parameters and ionic content of Colossoma macropomum and Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus; Influencia da agua de formacao da extracao de petroleo do Rio Urucu sobre aspectos hematologicos e conteudo ionico de Colossoma macropomum e Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Jose Teodoro Maco

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum plant activities in the Amazon result in a series of negative impacts on the natural resources. The formation water, a secondary product of oil production, carries high salt levels and its environmental release results in salinization of several water bodies in the Amazon. The effect of formation water on vegetal and animal physiology is unknown. This paper estimated the effects of formation water from the Urucu petroleum plant at different dilutions on the haematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, mean hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, blood oxygen content, partial pressure of oxygen, glucose and lactate levels, plasma and intra erythrocytic levels of Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, Phe and p Hi of Colossoma macropomum (Branchial breather) and Glyptoperichthys joselimaianus (facultative air breather). To maintain tissue oxygen supply the studied species adjusted several of these parameters. Cell swelling, high lactate levels, decrease in p He and p Hi have been observed in G. joselimaianus exposed to formation water. The decrease in p Hi result in a decrease of Hb-O{sub 2} affinity in the erythrocytes. On the other hand, an increase in p He and p Hi were observed in C. macropomum. Significant changes in ionic content, in particular plasma and erythrocytic levels of sodium, have been observed for both species exposed to formation water. A decrease of plasma potassium was observed in G. joselimaianus. The intra erythrocytic levels of calcium increased in Colossoma and Glyptoperichthys but no significant change in plasma levels of calcium was observed. The disturbance in blood ion levels resulted in a decreased of blood oxygen content. Colossoma seems to better buffer the effects of formation water exposure than Glyptoperichthys. (author)

  12. Efeito das cores dos tanques, verde clara e marrom escura, na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas de tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae Effect of light green and dark brown colored tanks on survival rates and development of tambaqui larvae, Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Sipauba-Tavares

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito da cor dos aquários na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de larvas de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum, num período de 20 dias. As larvas foram alimentadas “ad libitum” e diariamente foi realizada amostragem de quatro variáveis limnológicas. A temperatura da água oscilou de 24,0 a 27,8 oC no marrom- escuro e de 24,0 a 27,7oC no verde-claro; a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido permaneceu acima de 6,5 mg/L; o pH manteve-se alcalino e a condutividade, acima de 30 µS/cm. O tratamento marrom-escuro apresentou sobrevivência média significativamente menor (P The color effect on survival rate and development of tambaqui larvae, Colossoma macropomum, in fish tanks, during a 20 day period, was analyzed. Larvae were fed “ad libitum” and measurements of four limnological variables were conducted daily. Water temperature varied between 24 to 27.8C and 24.0 to 27.7C in the dark brown and light green colored tanks, respectively. Dissolved oxygen level remained over 6.5 mg/L, pH was alkaline and water conductivity higher than 30 µS/cm. The dark brown treatment displayed significantly (P < 0.05 lower survival rate compared to treatment with light green. Identical effect, however, was not reported with average weight, biomass and larvae total length. Results showed that tank color influences larvae survival rates, where the light green color makes it easier for the larvae to visualize the prey

  13. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgio Verdi-Olivares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con  tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  14. Biochemical and behavioral responses of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum to crude oil: the effect of oil layer on water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhann, Daiani; Meyersieck Jardim, Manoela; Valdez Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The largest Brazilian terrestrial province of petroleum mining is located at the margins of Urucu River, Amazonas. Mined crude oil is transported along 400 km across Solimões River to be refined in Manaus. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude oil exposure on biochemical, physiological and behavioral parameters of juveniles of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). The toxicity of water-soluble and insoluble oil fractions and the influence of a layer formed by the oil on the water surface from low and high concentrations of crude oil were analyzed. The results showed a strong physical effect of oil at the water surface and a significant effect on fish behavior. Swimming time and response to alarm substance decreased when fish was exposed for just one day to water insoluble fraction, and remain lower after 30 days of exposure, compared to control. Chronic exposure to water insoluble fraction of the inert oil also affected these two parameters. Critical swimming velocity decreased in fish exposed to both crude and inert oil water insoluble fraction. These reductions are possibly related to a decrease in aerobic capacity. Only exposure to high concentrations of petroleum water-soluble fractions induced transient alterations of the analyzed parameters. The exposure of fish to low and high concentrations of water insoluble fraction of Urucu oil caused a reduction of responses to alarm substance, spontaneous swimming activity and swimming capacity (Ucrit), decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase, and increased activity of alkaline phosphatase. Severe hypertrophy of lamellar epithelium and extensive lamellar fusion of the gills were also observed. Overall, these results show significant behavioral and physiological changes caused by the oil layer on the water surface, which means that toxicity of petroleum produced by its chemical components is, in fact, in this fish species, enhanced by the presence of an oil phase as a

  15. Determinação da dose inseminante e embriogênese na fertilização artificial de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Leite

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose inseminante para fertilização artificial e descreveu-se o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Os gametas foram coletados de reprodutores induzidos hormonalmente. Foi realizada fertilização artificial nas proporções de espermatozoides/ovócito de D1-50.666; D2-75.999; D3-101.332; D4-126.665; D5-151.998. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi acompanhado por meio de observações periódicas em estereoscópio até a eclosão dos ovos. Na fase de fechamento do blastóporo foi calculada a taxa de fertilização nas diferentes doses inseminantes. A porcentagem de fertilização aumentou de forma linear segundo a equação Ŷ =0,050 + 0,00000773X (R²=97,5, atingindo um platô em 84% na proporção de 102.486 espermatozoides/ovócito. Os embriões apresentaram segmentação meroblástica discoidal, típica de ovos telolécitos, com eclosão ocorrendo aos 357 horas-grau após a fertilização. Conclui-se que o desenvolvimento embrionário de tambaqui obedece ao esperado para peixes com ovos telolécitos e recomenda-se o uso da dose inseminante de aproximadamente 100.000 espermatozoides/ovócito na rotina de fertilização artificial dessa espécie.

  16. Nutritional characteristics of amazonian fish fat (Colossoma macropomum and its effect on lipid metabolism of rats fed hypercholesterolemic diets Características nutricionais do tambaqui (Colossoma Macropomum e seu efeito no metabolismo lipídico de ratos alimentados com dietas ricas em colesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Vicente de Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fat from tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, an Amazonian fish, on some nutritional and lipid parameters in rats were evaluated. Weaned Wistar rats were fed for 6 weeks with hypercholesterolemic diets containing 7.5% of soybean oil (SO, cod liver oil (CO, lard (LA, or tambaqui fat (TF. Food consumption, weight gain, and food conversion were measured weekly. Plasma triglycerides was determined at the beginning and on the 6th week of experiment. Plasma cholesterol was determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the sacrifice, hepatic lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol and plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL fractions were determined. Food consumption and weight gain were the same for all groups. There were no differences in plasma triglycerides among the four groups in the 1st and 6th weeks. Regarding the cholesterolemia, TF animals were similar to those fed SO diet, significantly lower than in LA group but higher compared to the CO group. The levels of very low density lipoprotein + low density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL were higher in the TF and LA groups compared to the CO and SO groups. However, TA fed animals had high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels higher than the CO group. The ratio (VLDL+LDL/HDL was higher in the LA group when compared with the remaining groups. In the TA group, the triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations in the liver were similar to the SO group. It may be concluded that tambaqui fat is a good dietary source of lipids as a substitute for lard and similar to soybean oil, as far as atherosclerosis risks is concerned.Os efeitos da ingestão da gordura de Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram analisados em relação a alguns parâmetros nutricionais e lipídicos. Para isso ratos Wistar recém desmamados alimentados por 6 semanas com dietas aterogênicas contendo 7,5% óleo de soja (SO, óleo de fígado de bacalhau (CO, sebo (LA, ou gordura de Tambaqui (TF foram utilizados. Consumo alimentar e

  17. Efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Effect of sodium chloride on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sal (NaCl sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Para isso, juvenis de tambaqui (42,38 ± 0,47 g; 13,90 ± 0,06 cm foram transferidos para tanques de 350L e aclimatados por um período de 24 horas. Os ensaios foram conduzidos utilizando as concentrações de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 g de sal comum L-1 de água, nos tempos de exposição de 30, 60 e 120 minutos, com três repetições por tratamento. A tolerância dos tambaquis ao sal e a eficácia deste sobre os helmintos monogenóides foi avaliada mediante análise dos indicadores fisiológicos (glicose, cloretos, sódio e potássio plasmático e parasitológicos (número total de parasitas e prevalência. Tambaquis expostos a 4 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos, 6 e 8 g NaCl L-1 por 60 e 120 minutos apresentaram maior elevação da glicose plasmática e na concentração de 8 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos maiores níveis de cloreto plasmático. A prevalência de monogenóides nas brânquias foi de 100% e todas as concentrações de sal avaliadas neste estudo não foram eficazes na redução dos helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of salt (NaCl on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Juveniles of tambaqui (42.38 ± 0.47 g; 13.90 ± 0.06 cm were transferred to 350L tanks and acclimated for a period of 24 hours. The assays were conducted using the concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g of NaCl L-1 of water, exposed to 30, 60 and 120 minutes, with three replicates in each treatment. The tambaqui tolerance to salt and the efficacy against monogenean were evaluated by physiological analysis (glucose, chloride, sodium and potassium plasmatic concentrations and parasitic indices (total number of parasites and prevalence. Tambaquis exposed to 4 g NaCl L-1 for 120 minutes, 6 and 8 g NaCl L-1 for 60 and 120

  18. Evaluación de la tasa de consumo de oxígeno de Colossoma macropomum en relación al peso corporal y temperatura del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tomalá

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Colossoma macropomum es una especie de la región amazónica perteneciente a la familia Characidae, la de mayor diversidad de peces de agua dulce. A nivel de laboratorio, se determinó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno (CO en metabolismo de rutina de C. macropomum a diferentes pesos corporales: 40, 60, 90, 140 y 250 g (expresados por unidad de masa corporal y temperatura del agua de 21, 26 y 31°C. El experimento se diseñó completamente al azar en arreglo factorial (5x3x3, utilizando un respirómetro de 20 L y una bomba de recirculación de agua. Las mediciones del CO fueron realizadas cada 5 min mediante el uso de un oxímetro digital. Los resultados indican que el CO mantiene relación directa con la temperatura del agua e inversa con el peso corporal de los organismos (P < 0,05. Las regresiones entre las variables independientes y el CO se ajustaron a ecuaciones potenciales: CO = 2844,9 P-0,734, CO = 2555,9 P-0,624 y CO = 1945,4 P-0,507 a 21, 26 y 31°C respectivamente; donde P se expresa en kg, obteniéndose altos coeficientes de correlación y determinación. La ecuación resultante del análisis multivariado de regresión lineal múltiple fue: CO = 4,839 - (0,708* P + (9,106* T. Los resultados ofrecen información para estimar la capacidad de un ambiente acuícola en base a la demanda de oxígeno de C. macropomum, aportando al desarrollo de una acuicultura con mayor sustento técnico.

  19. EFFECTS OF STOCKING DENSITY ON WATER QUALITY IN THAMBAQUI (Colossomamacropomum, CUVIER, 1818 RAISING DURING SECOND FINGERLING PERIOD IN FERTILIZED PONDS EFEITOS DA DENSIDADE DE ESTOCAGEM SOBRE A QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA NA CRIAÇÃO DO TAMBAQUI (Colossoma macropomum, CUVIER, 1818 DURANTE A SEGUNDA ALEVINAGEM, EM TANQUES FERTILIZADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Pales Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to analize the effect of three stocking den-sities on the water quality in tambaqui rearing (Colossoma macropomum, CUVIER, 1818 during the fingerling II re-aring in fertilized ponds. 3,120 fingerlings with initial wei-ght of 1.41 ± 0.49 g were stocked in three densities: 33, 43 and 53 fingerlings/m². These fingerlings were fed with a commercial ration, three times on day, ad     libitum. The following parameters were analyzed: dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, non-ionized ammonia and nitrite, using a chemical kit to water analyze and Secchi´s Disk to transparency. The data were analyzed in completely randomized desing in factorial diagram 3x5, with three stocking densities and five analyses. The hidrological variables studied stayied according with the standard of a good development of tambaqui in fertilized ponds, with exception of oxygen, that sowed values lower than literature regards, but this values didn’t damage the fish development.

    Key-words: Fingerling, hidrological variables, intensive system.

    Utilizaram-se 3.120 alevinos de tambaqui (Colos-soma macropomum, CUVIER, 1818, com pesos iniciais de 1,41 ± 0, 49 g, estocados nas densidades de 33, 43 e 53 alevinos/m2, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de três densidades de estocagem sobre a qualidade da água na criação do tambaqui durante a segunda alevinagem em viveiros fertilizados. Alimentaram-se os peixes com ração comercial, fornecida três vezes ao dia, ad libitum. Analisaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: oxigênio dissolvido, pH, alcalinidade total, amônia não ionizada e nitrito, utilizando-se kit químico de análise de água, e a transparência mediante o Disco de Secchi. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualisado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 5, com três densidades de estocagem e cinco análises.Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitiram concluir que, dentre as

  20. Aloe vera na criopreservação do sêmen de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.P. Melo-Maciel; L.V. Leite-Castro; J.S. Leite; M.S. Oliveira; P.S. Almeida-Monteiro; J. F. Nunes; C.S.B. Salmito-Vanderley

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the extract of Aloe vera (AV) associated or not with 10% Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in cryopreservation of tambaqui semen. For the formation of the pools (n= 14), 30 males were hormonally induced twice. Each pool had the objective motility, curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, average path velocity and morphology analyzed before and after cryopreservation of semen. The means for cryopreservation were constituted of Powder Coconut Water-104 diluent added DMS...

  1. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001). PMID:26628036

  2. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001).

  3. Efeito do volume do tanque-rede na produtividade de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) durante a recria Effect of cage volume on productivity of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) during second growth phase

    OpenAIRE

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Franmir Rodrigues Brandão; Edsandra Campos Chagas; Marcelo Frabizio Barroncas Ferreira; José Nestor de Paula Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo desta nota foi avaliar o efeito do volume do tanque-rede na produtividade de juvenis de tambaqui durante a recria. Juvenis de tambaqui foram criados por 60 dias, na densidade de 300 peixes/m³, em tanques-rede de dois diferentes volumes: 1 e 6 m³. Foram avaliados parâmetros de crescimento e de produtividade final. Não houve diferença no crescimento em peso e em comprimento. O coeficiente de variação do comprimento foi significativamente menor para os peixes do tanque-rede pequeno. A...

  4. A eficácia do mentol como anestésico para tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Characiformes: Characidae Efficacy of menthol as an anesthetic for tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ferreira Façanha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Os anestésicos são importantes na piscicultura para reduzir o estresse e a mortalidade no manejo. Este trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a eficácia do mentol para tambaqui durante o manejo. Na primeira série de testes, foi examinado o efeito da concentração de anestésico sobre indução à anestesia e o estresse de tambaqui. Na segunda série de testes, foi avaliada a recuperação dos peixes após a exposição a uma concentração de 150 mg/L de mentol por diferentes tempos. Na terceira série, foi avaliada se a melhor concentração encontrada para juvenil (150 mg/L também era adequada para peixes maiores. A melhor concentração para uma anestesia cirúrgica foi 150 mg/L, pois o tempo de indução é rápido, porém a recuperação é significativamente mais demorada do que para as menores concentrações testadas. Para uma anestesia, com finalidade de biometria, a melhor concentração foi 100 mg/L. Nesta concentração o tempo de indução à anestesia é prolongado, porém o tempo de recuperação está dentro da faixa considerada adequada. O tempo de recuperação do tambaqui quando exposto a 150 mg/L é significativamente igual para 10, 20 e 30 minutos de anestesia. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o mentol é um anestésico eficiente para o tambaqui.Anesthetics are important in fish culture to reduce handling stress and mortality. The objective of this work is to investigate menthol as an anesthetic for tambaqui. In the first series of tests, fish were exposed to various concentrations of menthol to evaluate induction time and stress responses. The second series examined the effect of exposure period to menthol at 150 mg/L on recovery time. The third assessed the best dosage for juveniles in larger tambaqui. The best concentration for surgical anesthesia is 150 mg/L. At this concentration the induction time is short, but their recovery time is significantly longer than that for lower concentrations. For biometry procedures, the best concentration is 100 mg/L. At this concentration the induction time is prolonged, but the recovery time is within the desired period. Recovery time for fish exposed to 150 mg/L is equal for 10, 20 or 30 minutes of exposure. The results confirmed that menthol is an adequate anesthetic for tambaqui.

  5. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Poleo; José Vicente Aranbarrio; Lismen Mendoza; Oneida Romero

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR), y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA). Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar ...

  6. Digestibilidad aparente de ingredientes de origen vegetal y animal en la cachama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wálter Vásquez-Torres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar los coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de materia seca (MS, proteína y energía de alimentos de origen animal y vegetal, utilizados en raciones para cachama (Piaractus brachypomus. Fueron formuladas 15 dietas experimentales, compuestas por 69,5% de una dieta referencia semipurificada, 0,5% de óxido de cromo y 30% del ingrediente a evaluar. En cada experimento, fueron utilizados 90 peces que se alimentaron durante cinco días con la correspondiente dieta; al quinto día, los animales fueron trasladados a tanques cónicos para recolección de heces. Los coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente (CDA de proteína variaron de 92,1 a 84,7% entre los ingredientes proteicos de origen vegetal, de 85,0 a 68,5% en los proteicos de origen animal, y de 83,7 a 57,6% entre los de origen vegetal con baja proteína. Los CDA de energía de torta de soya, gluten de maíz, harina de yuca integral y de todos los ingredientes de origen animal arrojaron valores superiores a 76%. Los máximos CDA de MS variaron entre 71 y 78% y fueron observados en gluten, harina de yuca y en los ingredientes de origen animal. La cachama tiene alta capacidad para aprovechar eficientemente ingredientes de origen animal y vegetal.

  7. Cultivo de cachama blanca en altas densidades y en dos sistemas cerrados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Poleo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia de la cachama blanca, Piaractus brachypomus, a cultivos en altas densidades en sistemas cerrados. Novecientos alevines de 44,3±26 g de peso, se distribuyeron en seis tanques de concreto, con 4,8 m³ de agua. Tres tanques presentaron cero recambio de agua (SCR, y en otros tres, el agua se hizo circular a través de un bioclarificador (SRA. Ambos tratamientos presentaron fuerte aireación para mantener los sólidos en suspensión y suministrar aire. Los peces se alimentaron a saciedad con pienso comercial por 192 días. Los parámetros de calidad de agua como: oxígeno disuelto, amonio total, nitritos, nitratos, alcalinidad, dureza, temperatura y pH, se midieron semanalmente. Los peces en el SCR crecieron a una tasa de 2,34±0,05 g por día, y tuvieron conversión alimenticia de 1,5±0,06, densidad final de 12,96±0,53 kg m-3, y peso final de 449,5±99 g. En el SRA, los peces crecieron 2,33±0,03 g por día, con conversión alimenticia de 1,6±0,07, densidad final de 12,13±1,12 kg m-3, y peso final de 446,5±10 g. La cachama blanca puede ser cultivada en sistemas cerrados con cero recambio de agua en altas densidades.

  8. CARACTERÍSTICAS HEMATOLÓGICAS DE JUVENIS DE TAMBAQUI (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO FARINHA DE FOLHA DE LEUCENA (Leucaena leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Pereira JUNIOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características hematológicas de juvenis de tambaqui alimentados com rações contendo farinha de folha de leucena. O estudo foi conduzido seguindo um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0%, 8%, 16% e24% de inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena e três repetições. Foram distribuídos 250 juvenis de tambaqui com peso inicial médio de 41,1 g, em 12caixas plásticas redondas. Após 60 dias de cultivo, seis peixes por tratamento foram capturados e anestesiados para a coleta de sangue da veia caudal e determinação dos parâmetros hematológicos. Os resultados mostraram que a inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena nas rações alterou significativamente (p<0,05os parâmetros hematológicos (hematócrito, eritrócito, hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio, concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e glicose plasmática dos peixes nos diferentes tratamentos. A conclusão desta pesquisa é que a inclusão de farinha de folha de leucena em rações para juvenis de tambaqui comprometeu as características hematológicas desta espécie.

  9. Change in physical and chemical characteristics related to the binomial time-temperature used in sous pasteurization see Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C.A. Kato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate sous vide fish and assess the influence of time and temperature on the pasteurization process through quality parameters. The raw material (tambaqui fillets and the sous vide underwent physical, physicochemical, and microbiological analyses. A sauce was prepared containing soy sauce, water, horseradish and garlic flakes. The product's pasteurization parameters of time and temperature were defined according to a 22 central composite rotatable design (CCRD, and the dependent variables were water holding capacity (WHC and instrumental texture aiming at obtaining high WHC values for the product to maintain the desired juiciness. The microbiological analysis required by legislation have indicated that the fish fillets and sous vide were within de standard. The values of total coliforms found in the samples (fillets and sous vide analyzed were below the critical level of 10² CFU/g. The counts of sulphite-reducing clostridia and psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria on plates in the samples were <1x10 CFU/g. In conclusion, temperature was the most important factor in the pasteurization process, significantly contributing to the quality of the final product. The mathematical models proposed were considered predictive for each response.

  10. EVALUACIÓN DE NUEVA TECNOLOGÍA PARA MITIGAR LAS ESPINAS INTRAMUSCULARES EN FILETES DE CACHAMA Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces: Characidae EVALUATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY TO MITIGATE INTRAMUSCULAR THORNS IN CACHAMA FILLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Suárez Mahecha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de espinas intramusculares en filetes de cachama dificulta la comercializacion y demanda por parte de los consumidores. Hasta el momento no existen tecnologías que permitan ofrecer filetes de cachama que garanticen condiciones de seguridad frente a las espinas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar una nueva tecnología para mitigar la presencia de espinas en filetes de cachama Piaractus brachypomus empacados al vacío y almacenados durante 30 días a 3±0,5 °C. A filetes en presentación lateral interna fueron realizados cortes profundos, paralelos y perpendiculares al eje longitudinal, a una distancia de 3 mm entre cada corte, en sentido dorso-ventral. Fueron realizados análisis microbiológico, fisicoquímico y sensorial. El análisis microbiológico muestra condiciones aceptables para el final del periodo de almacenamiento. Los valores obtenidos para este periodo, fueron de log UFC/g 7,07; 4,7 y 1100 NMP, 18 NMP para organismos psicrotrofilos, mesófilos, coliformes totales y coliformes fecales, respectivamente. No fue determinada presencia de Salmonella ni de organismos sulfito reductores. El análisis fisicoquímico mostró valores de 39,36 para BVT-N; 6,22 pH; 3,3% de pérdida de humedad 1,52; ácido tiobarbitúrico mg MA/kg. El efecto del sajado no incrementó los valores de oxidación de ácidos grasos, ni aumentó las BVT que pudiesen indicar degradación de la proteína. En el análisis sensorial los filetes sometidos a cocción fueron rechazados solamente a partir del día 25 del periodo de almacenamiento, para los atributos aroma y sabor. Durante la evaluación los panelistas no encontraron presencia de espinas, mostrando que la temperatura de cocción utilizada y los cortes en las espinas, permiten degradar la espina intramuscular evitando que sea detectada.The presence of pin bones in cachama fillets makes marketing and demand difficult by the consumers. So far, there are no technologies to provide cachama

  11. Physicochemical Evaluation of Cachama Fillets (Piaractus brachypomus) Preserved with Propolis during Storage / Evaluación Fisicoquímica de Filetes de Cachama (Piaractus brachypomus) Preservados con Propóleos durante el Almacenamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Suárez Mahecha; Álvaro Jiménez Toquica; Amanda Consuelo Díaz Moreno

    2014-01-01

    The bioactive compounds that propolis containspresent diverse components that can diminish the deterioration of compounds such as fat and certain microorganisms that can affect fish fillets during refrigerated storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preserving capacity of ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) in cachama fish fillets (Piaractus brachypomus). The treatments carried out were: (1) ethyl alcohol (96%) as the control; (2) 0.8% EEP; (3) 1.2% EEP; and (4) liquid smoke. Analys...

  12. Estudio histológico del sistema digestivo en diferentes estadios de desarrollo de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus)

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Mendoza R.; Jair Comas Corredor; Clara Stefany Romero Hurtado

    2013-01-01

    La cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) es la segunda fuente de producción piscícola en Colombia, después de la tilapia roja (Oreochomi ssp.) y antes de la trucha arcoíris (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Se destaca, además, como una de las especies con mayor potencial productivo en el país. Se realizó el estudio histológico del sistema digestivo de la Piaractus brachypomus a fin determinar la morfología normal en diferentes estadios de desarrollo. Para ello se clasificaron los animales según la edad...

  13. Toxicidad aguda del sulfato de cobre (CuSO4) en alevinos de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) bajo condiciones de aguas blandas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana M.; Gómez-Manrique, Wilson; Calderón-Bernal, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    To preliminarily determine acute CuSO4 toxicity in cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus) fingerlings, 110 individuals were exposed to seven different concentrations: 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 4.00 ppm using semi-static system aquariums. Water hardness in reference to CaCO3 wa...

  14. Physicochemical Evaluation of Cachama Fillets (Piaractus brachypomus Preserved with Propolis during Storage / Evaluación Fisicoquímica de Filetes de Cachama (Piaractus brachypomus Preservados con Propóleos durante el Almacenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Suárez Mahecha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds that propolis containspresent diverse components that can diminish the deterioration of compounds such as fat and certain microorganisms that can affect fish fillets during refrigerated storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preserving capacity of ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP in cachama fish fillets (Piaractus brachypomus. The treatments carried out were: (1 ethyl alcohol (96% as the control; (2 0.8% EEP; (3 1.2% EEP; and (4 liquid smoke. Analyses were carried out for total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN, thiobarbituric acid reactive species-TBARS, pH and water loss for 0, 8, 16 and 24 days of storage at 4 ºC with vacuum packaging. The results presented the highest values of the TBARS and TVBNanalyses for the liquid smoke treatment and the lowest values for the EEP treatments, demonstrating a significant difference between the treatments (P<0.05; however, the best water retention capacity was seen in the fillets treated with liquid smoke. The results for pH did not present significant differences between the treatments (P>0.05 during the storage period. The results suggest that EEP can preserve physicochemical characteristics during the shelf life of refrigerated, vacuum packed cachama fillets. / Los compuestos bioactivos contenidos en propóleos presentan diversos componentes, que pueden disminuir el deterioro de compuestos como la grasa, y la cantidad de ciertos microorganismos, que pueden afectar filetes de pescado durante el almacenamiento bajo refrigeración. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad conservante de extractos etanólicos de propóleos (EEP sobre filetes del pescado cachama (Piaractus brachypomus. Los tratamientos realizados fueron: (1 alcohol etílico (96% como control; (2 EEP 0,8%; (3 EEP 1,2% y (4 humo líquido. Fueron realizados análisis para bases volátiles totales (BVTN, especies reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico-TBARS, pH y pérdida de agua

  15. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus = Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Cuzini Lombardi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condições adequadas para alarvicultura nas duas fases. As larvas da primeira fase alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina obtiveram os melhores resultados em crescimento, sobrevivência e desempenho produtivo. Na segunda fase, o crescimento, a sobrevivência e o desempenho produtivo das larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina e ovo de Artemia salina foram semelhantes. Nas duas fases, o custo com alimento foi mais baixo nas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina. Os resultados obtidos mostram que nas duas fases de larvicultura testadas a oferta de náuplios de Artemia salina é a melhor estratégia alimentar por proporcionar boa sobrevivência, crescimento e bom desempenho produtivo, além de menor custo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the replacement of Artemia salina nauplii by inert food during larviculture of tambacu. On the first phase with duration of 12 days, the larvae were fed with one of the following foods: Artemia salina nauplii, cyclop-eeze or Artemia salina egg. On the second phase, with 10 days of duration, larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii were utilized in the first experiment and the same food treatments were tested. Water quality was adequate forlarvae rearing in both phases. The larvae from the first phase that fed with Artemia salina nauplii presented better growth, survival rate and yield. On the second phase, the growth, survival and yield of larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii and eggs were similar. On both phases, the food cost was lower for larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii. The obtained results shown that on the two rearing phases the use of Artemia salina nauplii is the better feeding strategies, as the survival, growth, yield were greater than in the others treatments, and also showed the lower cost.

  16. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus) = Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli Cuzini Lombardi; Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condiçõ...

  17. Estandarización de un proceso de extracción de colágeno a partir de los residuos de fileteo de tilapia (Oreochromis sp) y cachama (Piaractus brachypomus) / Standardization of a process for extracting collagen from filleting waste from tilapia (Oreochromis sp) and cachama (Piaractus brachypomus)

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Gaona, Jenifer Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Se estandarizó un proceso de extracción y purificación de colágeno ácido soluble a partir de pieles de tilapia (Oreochromis sp) y de cachama (Piaractus brachypomus) utilizando análisis estadísticos. Los resultados indicaron que el rendimiento de colágeno ácido soluble fue de 33,3% en base seca. El patrón de alto peso molecular utilizado para SDS – PAGE reveló que el colágeno obtenido de pieles de tilapia o de pieles de cachama es colágeno tipo I. La temperatura de desnaturalización (Td) del c...

  18. Estudio histológico del sistema digestivo en diferentes estadios de desarrollo de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Mendoza R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus es la segunda fuente de producción piscícola en Colombia, después de la tilapia roja (Oreochomi ssp. y antes de la trucha arcoíris (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Se destaca, además, como una de las especies con mayor potencial productivo en el país. Se realizó el estudio histológico del sistema digestivo de la Piaractus brachypomus a fin determinar la morfología normal en diferentes estadios de desarrollo. Para ello se clasificaron los animales según la edad, el tamaño y el peso en ovas embrionadas, larvas con saco vitelino, alevinos después de reabsorción de saco vitelino, juveniles (3-5 cm, 5-7 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm y adultos (300 g. La fijación de los tejidos se realizó en formaldehído al 3,7 % y se describió microscópicamente cavidad bucal, faringe, esófago, estómago, ciegos pilóricos, intestinos y las glándulas anexas, hígado y páncreas. Por último, se describió macroscópicamente la organización anatómica de este sistema.

  19. EFICIENCIA ANÉSTESICA DE 2-FENOXIETANOL, BENZOCAINA, QUINALDINA Y METASULFONATO DE TRICAINA EN ALEVINOS Y JUVENILES DE CACHAMA BLANCA (Piaractus brachypomus)

    OpenAIRE

    Yohana Velasco-Santamaría; Camilo Palacios-Ruiz; Pablo Cruz-Casallas

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad anestésica de 2-fenoxietanol, benzocaina, quinaldina y metanosulfonato de tricaina (MS-222) en alevinos y juveniles de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus). Materiales y métodos. Alevinos (7.3 ± 6.8 g) y juveniles (49.6 ± 28.4 g) fueron expuestos a 2-fenoxietanol (200, 400 y 600 ppm), benzocaina (50, 100 y 150 ppm), quinaldina (7.5, 15 y 30 ppm) o MS-222 (100, 150 y 200 ppm) (n=12), para evaluar la duración de la inducción y recuperación, frecuencia opercula...

  20. Desarrollo de metodología para la determinación de la digestibilidad de materias primas no convencionales en cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo Restrepo, Laura Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo pretendió, adaptar la metodología de stripping (masaje abdominal), para recolectar heces fecales de Cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus, y determinar la digestibilidad fecal aparente de combinaciones de cuatro materias primas no convencionales: caupí, bore, zapallo y yuca, en cuatro dietas, con un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, en la Granja Académica y Experimental El Cairo, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Orinoquia, en Arauca (Arauca). Durante su ...

  1. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835 Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condições adequadas para a larvicultura nas duas fases. As larvas da primeira fase alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina obtiveram os melhores resultados em crescimento, sobrevivência e desempenho produtivo. Na segunda fase, o crescimento, a sobrevivência e o desempenho produtivo das larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina e ovo de Artemia salina foram semelhantes. Nas duas fases, o custo com alimento foi mais baixo nas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina. Os resultados obtidos mostram que nas duas fases de larvicultura testadas a oferta de náuplios de Artemia salina é a melhor estratégia alimentar por proporcionar boa sobrevivência, crescimento e bom desempenho produtivo, além de menor custo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the replacement of Artemia salina nauplii by inert food during larviculture of tambacu. On the first phase with duration of 12 days, the larvae were fed with one of the following foods: Artemia salina nauplii, cyclop-eeze or Artemia salina egg. On the second phase, with 10 days of duration, larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii were utilized in the first experiment and the same food treatments were tested. Water quality was adequate for larvae rearing in both phases. The larvae from the first phase that fed with Artemia salina nauplii presented better growth, survival rate and yield. On the second phase, the growth, survival and yield of larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii and eggs were similar. On both phases, the food cost was lower for larvae fed with Artemia salina nauplii. The obtained results shown that on the two rearing phases the use of Artemia salina nauplii is the better feeding strategies, as the survival, growth, yield were greater than in the others treatments, and also showed the lower cost.

  2. Substituição de alimento vivo por alimento inerte na larvicultura intensiva do tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835 Replacement of live food for inert food on larviculture of tambacu (♀ Colossoma macropomum X ♂ Piaractus mesopotamicus) - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.3835

    OpenAIRE

    Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Danieli Cuzini Lombardi

    2009-01-01

    Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a substituição de náuplios de Artemia salina por alimentos inertes durante a larvicultura do tambacu. Na primeira fase, com duração de 12 dias, as larvas foram alimentadas com: náuplio de Artemia salina, cyclop-eeze e ovo de Artemia salina. Na segunda fase, com duração de dez dias, foram utilizadas larvas alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia salina provenientes da primeira fase e testados os mesmos três alimentos. A qualidade da água manteve-se em condiçõ...

  3. Evaluación del tiempo de evacuación gástrica de la cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818, utilizando diferentes frecuencias de alimentación y ayuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ader Gómez-Peñaranda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio estima el tiempo de vaciado del estómago de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus en el día de comienzo regular de alimentación posterior a un periodo de ayuno. Para el efecto, se recolectaron muestras de contenido estomacal en periodos de dos horas después del suministro de alimento (9:30 y 15:30 h hasta el primer indicio de vaciado. Se utilizaron cachamas con un peso de 360 ± 12 g dispuestas en cuatro tratamientos: (1 T1 = alimentación a saciedad durante 5 días y ayuno de 2 días, (2 T2 = alimentación a saciedad durante 6 días y ayuno de 1 día, (3 T3 = alimentación a saciedad durante 7 días, y (4 TC = alimentación siguiendo las tablas recomendadas por el fabricante del alimento. El análisis de datos se realizó mediante ANOVA de medidas repetidas, empleando como factores el tratamiento y el tiempo de vaciado, siendo cada repetición la unidad experimental. Las cachamas del tratamiento T1 presentaron mayor cantidad de alimento en el estómago en los muestreos posteriores al suministro de la primera y segunda ración. A diferencia del tratamiento T1, en los demás las cachamas vaciaron su contenido en el estómago en el periodo comprendido entre la primera y la segunda ración de alimentación y en el periodo posterior a la segunda ración. Por tanto, cuando el contenido estomacal fue mayor, debido a un mayor consumo de alimento en la ración, como en el caso del tratamiento (T1, el tiempo necesario para vaciar el estómago de las cachamas se incrementó.

  4. TOXICIDAD AGUDA Y LESIONES HISTOPATOLÓGICAS EN CACHAMA BLANCA (Piaractus brachypomus EXPUESTAS A LA MEZCLA DE HERBICIDA ROUNDUP® MÁS SURFACTANTE COSMOFLUX® 411F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Eslava M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la concentración letal 50 (CL50 y lesiones anatomopatológicas inducidas por la exposición a la mezcla del herbicida Roundup® más el surfactante Cosmoflux® 411F en juveniles de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus. Materiales y métodos. Ejemplares de 44.5 ± 3.7 g de peso fueron expuestos por 96 h a varias concentraciones de la mezcla herbicida más surfactante. Se registró la mortalidad al cabo de las 96 h y se tomaron muestras de tejidos para evaluación histopatológica. Resultados. La CL50 fue de 23.42 mg.l-1 para el Roundup® y de 0.19 mg.l-1 para el Cosmoflux® 411F (p<0.05 en la mezcla. En las branquias se hallaron lesiones necróticas proliferativas, y aneurismas y hemorragias en las lamelas. En el hígado se observaron procesos apoptóticos y necróticos de los hepatocitos, vacuolización lipídica y gotas hialinas citoplasmáticas en los mismos. En el telencéfalo se halló necrosis y apoptosis de cuerpos neuronales asociados y no asociados a células granulares eosinofílicas/células mast, y gliosis. En el intestino se evidenció vacuolización del borde apical de los enterocitos, e infiltración leucocitaria en la lámina propia. En la piel se halló hiperplasia e hipertrofia de células pavimentosas y células de moco, infiltración leucocitaria epidermal y acumulación subepidermal de pigmentos. En el riñón caudal se observaron hemorragias y lesiones necróticas multifocales. Conclusiones. La mezcla Roundup® más Cosmoflux® 411F ocasiona lesiones histopatológicas en branquias, piel, cerebro, hígado, intestino anterior y riñón caudal en juveniles de cachama blanca expuestos a las concentraciones y proporción evaluadas.

  5. Acute exposure to fenthion in juveniles of white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus: toxic effects, changes in cholinesterase activity and potential use in environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbón Javier F.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fenthion is an organophosphate insecticide used worldwide that may pollute waters after itsapplication causing potential problems in public health and poisoning in domestic and wildlifeanimals. Objective: to evaluate toxic effects, butyrylcholinesterase activity (BChE and use inenvironmental monitoring, 34 juveniles of white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus were distributedin 3 groups (control, 0,13 ppm and 2 ppm fenthion for 96 h. Materials and methods: fishwere exposed in 10-gallon tanks; symptoms, gross lesions post-mortem, viscerosomatic index(VSI and plasma BChE activity were evaluated. Mean comparisons for each variable amongtreatments were performed (ANOVA, α=0,05. Results: severe signs were seen in 3 specimens(3/11 of 2 ppm fenthion between 11 and 34 h of exposure. These signs were frantic swimming,muscle tremors and loss of swimming axis. In 0,13 ppm, mild to moderate signs (tremors andcaudal fin flapping were observed in some of the fish. The VSI (control = 5,3 ± 0,5; 0,13 ppm= 6,9 ± 0,3 and 2 ppm = 7,3 ± 0,6 was significantly different between exposed to fenthion andcontrols. BChE activity (control = 185,0 ± 20,4; 0,13 ppm = 12,5 ± 2,3 and 2 ppm = 9,8 ± 1,8nmoles / ml plasma / min showed significant inhibition in exposed to fenthion as compared tocontrols. Conclusions: the present work confirmed the toxic effects of fenthion in white cachamajuveniles. Results found in BChE activity suggest its use in environmental monitoring as a goodbiomarker of organophosphates waterborne exposure.

  6. EFICIENCIA ANÉSTESICA DE 2-FENOXIETANOL, BENZOCAINA, QUINALDINA Y METASULFONATO DE TRICAINA EN ALEVINOS Y JUVENILES DE CACHAMA BLANCA (Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana Velasco-Santamaría

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad anestésica de 2-fenoxietanol, benzocaina, quinaldina y metanosulfonato de tricaina (MS-222 en alevinos y juveniles de cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus. Materiales y métodos. Alevinos (7.3 ± 6.8 g y juveniles (49.6 ± 28.4 g fueron expuestos a 2-fenoxietanol (200, 400 y 600 ppm, benzocaina (50, 100 y 150 ppm, quinaldina (7.5, 15 y 30 ppm o MS-222 (100, 150 y 200 ppm (n=12, para evaluar la duración de la inducción y recuperación, frecuencia opercular y la sobrevivencia post-anestesia. Resultados. El desarrollo corporal y la concentración afectaron el periodo de inducción, siendo mayor en juveniles que en alevinos (p0.05, mientras que juveniles expuestos a MS-222 mostraron el menor tiempo de inducción con la menor concentración (p<0.05. El tiempo de recuperación fue inferior a 2 min, con 2-fenoxietanol, MS-222, quinaldina y 50 ppm de benzocaina; pero altas concentraciones de benzocaina mostraron largos períodos de recuperación. No se observó tendencia en la variación de la frecuencia opercular ni mortalidad durante o después de la exposición a los anestésicos. Conclusiones. En alevinos el 2- fenoxietanol (400 ppm y en juveniles el MS-222 (100 ppm, serían las sustancias de elección para procedimientos cortos, pero deberá recurrirse a altas concentraciones de benzocaina cuando el propósito de la anestesia sea un procedimiento prolongado.

  7. Optimum dietary crude protein requirement for juvenile cachama Piaractus brachypomus Exigência ótima de proteína bruta para juvenis de pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wálter Vásquez-Torres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A growth experiment was conducted to determine the optimal dietary protein requirement for juvenile cachama, Piaractus brachypomus. Six semi-purified isoenergetic experimental diets using casein and gelatin as protein sources were formulated to contain graded levels of protein (16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36%. Fish initially averaging 15.52±0.33g (mean±SD were randomly distributed into the tanks (500L as groups of 20 fish and fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 60 days. The results showed that feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, fish weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value were affected by dietary protein level (PO presente experimento foi realizado para determinar o requerimento ótimo de proteína em dietas para juvenis de pirapitinga, Piaractus brachypomus. Foram formuladas seis dietas experimentais semi-purificadas, iso-energéticas e com diferentes níveis de proteína (16, 20, 24, 28, 32 e 36% de PB usando caseína e gelatina como fontes de proteína. Os peixes com peso inicial 15,52±0,33g (média±SD foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em grupos de 20 animais por tanque; foram alimentados durante 60 dias, duas vezes/dia até aparente saciedade. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de alimento, taxa de conversão de alimento, ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico, taxa de eficiência de proteína e valores produtivos da proteína e da energia foram significativamente afetados pelos níveis de proteína das dietas (P<0,05. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na composição proximal da carcaça (P<0,05 entre tratamentos. A análise do ganho de peso em função dos níveis de proteína da dieta, realizada utilizando regressão polinomial de segundo grau, deu um requerimento de 31,6% de proteína para ótimo crescimento de juvenis de pirapitinga.

  8. Efecto de extracto de algas marinas sobre parámetros productivos de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus: ensayos en laboratorio y a escala comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Gutiérrez-Yara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar los posibles efectos de la administración de un extracto de algas marinas (EAM, sobre parámetros productivos de la cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus, 8994 dedinos de 7 ± 3 g de peso corporal y 6.8 ± 0.7 cm de longitud total, fueron utilizados para realizar ensayos a nivel de laboratorio y a escala comercial. Tanto a nivel de laboratorio (42 d como a escala comercial (150 días, utilizando un diseño completamente al azar, se evaluaron 4 tratamientos: TTO1 (control, TTO2 (EAM vía oral por 42 o 30 días, TTO3 (EAM inyectado 0.2 mL/pez, vía IP y TTO4 (EAM inyectado 0.2 mL/pez vía IP, más EAM vía oral por 42 o 30 días. La presentaciónoral del extracto fue suministrada mezclada con el alimento (30% PB en una proporción de 1 %, durante 42 o 30 días, a nivel de laboratorio o a escala comercial, respectivamente. A escala comercial, el peso corporal y la longitud total se evaluaron cada 15 días, muestreando c.a 10% de la población de cada réplica. Al final de los dos experimentos se evaluó la ganancia de peso corporal (GPC, tasa de crecimiento específica en peso (TCEP y en longitud (TCEL, factor de condición relativo (Kn, conversión alimenticia (CA y porcentaje de sobrevivencia (%S. En general, los resultados no revelaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos; sin embargo, a escala comercial, algunas variables productivas en los tratamientos que recibieron EAM vía oral, mostraron una tendenciaa ser superiores que los individuos control, especialmente durante el periodo que duró la administración del extracto. Adicionalmente, durante los primeros 45 d de cultivo, el GPC, TCEP y TCEL fueron mejores que el grupo control, sugiriendo que puede existir un posible efecto de la inmunoestimulación sobre estas variables.

  9. Análisis proximal, evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de carnes para hamburguesas elaboradas con cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus y soya (Glycine max texturizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus es una especie económicamente importante en la acuicultura continental de América Latina y una alternativa nacional de producción de pescado para la piscicultura, la industria y el consumo. El objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación fue caracterizar mediante análisis proximal, evaluación microbiológica y sensorial, carnes para hamburguesas elaboradas con pulpa de cachama y diferentes inclusiones porcentuales de harina de soya texturizada (HST (0, 3, 6 y 9 %. Se realizó análisis proximal a las carnes crudas y cocidas, se evaluó microbiológicamente a las crudas y sensorialmente las cocidas con 100 consumidores. En las carnes para hamburguesas a mayor adición de HST favoreció la retención de agua durante la cocción y se elevó el contenido de proteína, grasa y cenizas en las carnes crudas y cocidas (p < 0,05. El análisis microbiológico reveló inocuidad alimentaria en las carnes para hamburguesas crudas, encontrándose todos los valores por debajo de lo establecido en la norma venezolana COVENIN 2127-1998 para hamburguesa y otras normas de referencia. La blandura aumentó de manera proporcional al incremento porcentual en la inclusión de HST y las formulaciones con 0, 3 y 6 % de HST se diferenciaron significativamente (p < 0,05 de la formulación con 9 %. La apariencia de las carnes de hamburguesa agradó más en las formulaciones 6 y 9 %, la blandura en 9 %, y el sabor en el control (0 %, seguido de 3 %. Algunos consumidores hicieron asociaciones de sabor a carne de pollo, mariscos y hervidos de pollo.

  10. Estudo da vegetação relacionada com a alimentação do "pacu" (Colossoma mitrei-Berg(1895 no Pantanal mato-grossense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Os 102 aparelhos digestivos analisados foram provenientes de espécimes capturados no Pantanal de Mato Grosso, nos municípios do Poconé e Barão de Melgaço. O estudo da vegetação aquática, ciliar e de áreas inundáveis foi conduzido nas áreas onde os espécimes de "pacu" foram capturados. Foram considerados também dados biométricos do "pacu", tais como: comprimento total do esôfago, do intestino e do estômago.This study is part of the "pacu" (Colossoma mitrei Berg 1895 project of biotecnology. The studies were conducted in areas of Pantanal, municipalities of Poconé and Barão de Melgaço (Mato Grosso, Brasil. In conjunction with the vegetation study, the stomach contents od 102 espécimes of "pacu" were analized. The results indicate that Colossoma mitrei's custom feeding is herbivorous.

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE LA RESTRICCIÓN ALIMENTICIA SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO PRODUCTIVO Y FISIOLÓGICO EN JUVENILES DE CACHAMA BLANCA, Piaractus brachypomus, EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    muscular de proteína y energía. En cuanto al diseño experimental, este fue completamenteal azar, con cuatro tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones, cada una con cuatroindividuos. Se seleccionaron 64 individuos con 58,40 ± 6,56 g de peso (P y 14,65 ±0,75 cm de longitud total (LT, distribuidos aleatoriamente en 16 acuarios y sometidosdurante ocho semanas a los siguientes tratamientos: de control (T0: alimentación diaria;tratamiento 1 (T1: un día de ayuno y uno de alimentación; tratamiento 2 (T2:tres días de ayuno y dos días de alimentación, y tratamiento 3 (T3: dos días de ayunoy tres de alimentación. Se utilizó alimento de 35% de proteína, suministrado al 3%de la biomasa total dos veces al día. Al culminar el periodo experimental, los animalesexperimentales se anestesiaron y se les tomaron muestras de sangre para evaluar diferentesparámetros metabólicos y hormonales. Posteriormente, se sacrificaron, pesarony midieron; luego, se pesaron sus vísceras y una porción de músculo blanco se obtuvopara determinar el contenido de proteína y energía. Al final del ensayo, se calculó la sobrevivencia. Luego, de acuerdo con los resultados,se concluyó que no hubo diferencias significativas en la mayoría de los parámetrosanalizados, por lo que se infiere que los juveniles de cachama blanca son capaces deadaptarse metabólicamente a la carencia parcial de alimento y optimizar la respuesta en su desempeño.

  12. Acute toxicity and histopathological alterations of Roundup® herbicide on "cachama blanca" (Piaractus brachypomus Toxicidade aguda e alterações histopatológicas induzidas pelo herbicida Roundup® em pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson F. Ramírez-Duarte

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity of the glyphosate -N (phosphonomethyl glycine- herbicide, Roundup®, in juveniles of cachama blanca, (Piaractus brachypomus, was evaluated and the histopathological lesions were assessed. The 96 h lethal concentration 50 was 97.47mg.L-1 (PEste estudo avaliou a toxicidade aguda e as alterações histopatológicas induzidas pelo glifosato -N (fosfometil glicina, na formulação Roundup® em juvenis de pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus expostos durante 96 horas. A concentração letal 50 foi de 97.47mg.L-1 (P<0.05. Nas brânquias foram achadas lesões proliferativas e necróticas. No fígado foi observada congestão, processos degenerativos, gotas hialinas e presença de vacúolos lipídicos nos hepatócitos. No estomago e na pele foi detectada hiperplasia ligeira das células de moco. Nesta ultima, adicionalmente foi observado engrossamento da epidermes com lesões necróticas, infiltração de células leucocitárias e acumulação de melanina. No cérebro foram observados focos de degeneração de somas neurais na região do telencéfalo junto com gliose e infiltração de células granulais eosinofilicas/células mast. Concluindo, as brânquias, o fígado, a pele e o cérebro são órgãos suscetíveis ao Roundup®. Adicionalmente, os efeitos sobre o sistema nervoso central poderiam reduzir a olfação nos peixes, tanto como o comportamento grupal e individual, a performance reprodutivo e desta forma, repercutir no nível populacional.

  13. New host records and description of the egg of Anacanthorus penilabiatus (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona-Basilio, M C; Kohn, A; Feitosa, V A

    2001-07-01

    Anacanthorus penilabiatus is referred parasitizing the type-host Piaractus mesopotamicus (Serrasalmidae) and two new hosts, Colossoma macropomum and C. brachypomum (Characidae) from fish ponds of "Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas", Pentecoste, State of Ceará, Brazil. Table of measurements and the first description of the egg are presented. PMID:11500767

  14. A set of sustainability performance indicators for seafood : direct human consumption products from Peruvian anchoveta fisheries and freshwater aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Avadi, A.; Fréon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Different seafood products based on Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fisheries and freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum), contribute at different scales to the socio-economic development, environmental degradation and nutrition of the Peruvian population. Various indicators have been used in the literature to assess the performance of these industries regarding different aspects of sustainability, notably ...

  15. 越冬期淡水白鲳发病之病原细菌的研究%STUDY ON THE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF DISEASED COLOSSOMA BRACHYPOMUM IN WINTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文芳; 王文彬

    2000-01-01

    从越冬期淡水白鲳病鱼的肝脏内分离纯化到一细菌菌株CBZHG4, 用n(cell)=105~106 mL-1的菌液浓度在腹腔注射试验鱼后48 h内全部死亡, 证实为病原菌.CBZHG4经API 20NE系统鉴定为嗜水性气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila), 对卡那霉素多种抗生素和呋喃类药物敏感,对青霉素类、先锋霉素等抗生素、磺胺类药物和0/129不敏感.表2 参2%Strain CBZHG4, isolated from the liver of diseased Colossoma brachypomum, was determined as the fish pathogen. Following intraperitoneal injection of n(cell) 105~106 mL-1, fish developed clinical disease, with 100% mortalities within 48 h. Pathogen CBZHG4 was identified to be Aeromonas hydrophila using API 20 NE rapid idetification system. By sensitivity testing on drugs, CBZHG4 was sensitive to many antibiotics, such as kanamycin and furane, but not sensitive to some antibiotcs, e.g., penicillin,cephalexin,sulphadiazin and 0/129. Tab 2, Ref 2

  16. Extremely long-distance seed dispersal by an overfished Amazonian frugivore

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jill T.; Nuttle, Tim; Saldaña Rojas, Joe S.; Pendergast, Thomas H.; Flecker, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Amazonia, overfishing has decimated populations of fruit-eating fishes, especially the large-bodied characid, Colossoma macropomum. During lengthy annual floods, frugivorous fishes enter vast Amazonian floodplains, consume massive quantities of fallen fruits and egest viable seeds. Many tree and liana species are clearly specialized for icthyochory, and seed dispersal by fish may be crucial for the maintenance of Amazonian wetland forests. Unlike frugivorous mammals and birds, litt...

  17. Sperm motility and velocities of Characiformes fishes in different times post-activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Aline Parente Melo-Maciel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to observe the performance kinetics (motilities and velocities of the spermatozoa from Prochilodus brevis (curimatã, Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui and Piaractus brachypomus (pirapitinga species in different times post-activation. The sperm of P. brevis, C. macropomum and P. brachypomus species were collected after hormonal induction with carp pituitary extract. The samples with not contamination with water, urine or feces had motility subjective, morphology, osmolality and concentration analyzed. The samples selected were analyzed with Sperm Class Analyzer. Spermatozoa motility and velocities were captured at 10, 30, 60 and 120 s post-activation. No significant differences in total motility of P. brevis spermatozoa were observed between 10 s and 30 s post-activation. However, significant reduction was observed in 60 s. This reduction was more accentuated after 120 s. The same pattern of spermatozoa motility decline happened for C. macropomum and P. brachypomus. Velocities also followed the same pattern for the three species. There was significant reduction in velocities after 30 s; this reduction was more significant after 60 s. There was no significance difference between 60 s and 120 s post-activation. Sperm of C. macropomum and P. brachypomus show satisfactory sperm quality up to 60 s after activation. On the other hand, sperm of P. brevis up to 120 s after activation. These findings show that the rate of sperm motility in different times post activation is change for each species tested.

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES TAXAS DE POVOAMENTO SOBRE O GANHO DE PESO DE JUVENIS DE TAMBAQUI PRODUZIDOS EM PRESIDENTE MÉDICI - RONDÔNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Raniere Garcez Costa Sousa; Danieli Naomi de Souza Salles

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo confrontou as principais densidades de estocagem utilizadas atualmente pelos criadores de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) do município de Presidente Médici (Rondônia, Brasil), para verificar a influência destas, nos parâmetros de crescimento da espécie, no atual sistema de produção. Para tal, foi avaliado no período de maio a junho de 2014, um total de 1.800 exemplares de tambaqui, do final da fase II avançado até a fase de engorda. Durante o estudo, os peixes foram agrupado...

  19. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare. PMID:18660972

  1. Chromosome mapping of repetitive sequences in four Serrasalmidae species (Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Braga Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serrasalmidae family is composed of a number of commercially interesting species, mainly in the Amazon region where most of these fishes occur. In the present study, we investigated the genomic organization of the 18S and 5S rDNA and telomeric sequences in mitotic chromosomes of four species from the basal clade of the Serrasalmidae family: Colossoma macropomum, Mylossoma aureum, M. duriventre, and Piaractus mesopotamicus, in order to understand the chromosomal evolution in the family. All the species studied had diploid numbers 2n = 54 and exclusively biarmed chromosomes, but variations of the karyotypic formulas were observed. C-banding resulted in similar patterns among the analyzed species, with heterochromatic blocks mainly present in centromeric regions. The 18S rDNA mapping of C. macropomum and P. mesopotamicus revealed multiple sites of this gene; 5S rDNA sites were detected in two chromosome pairs in all species, although not all of them were homeologs. Hybridization with a telomeric probe revealed signals in the terminal portions of chromosomes in all the species and an interstitial signal was observed in one pair of C. macropomum.

  2. Efeito de banhos terapêuticos com formalina sobre indicadores de estresse em tambaqui Effect of formalin therapeutic bath on stress indicators in tambaqui

    OpenAIRE

    Lucelle Dantas de Araújo; Edsandra Campos Chagas; Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Franmir Rodrigues Brandão

    2004-01-01

    A formalina tem sido usada no controle de doenças parasitárias, porém existem poucas informações sobre o efeito secundário desse produto sobre os peixes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de concentrações terapêuticas de formalina na homeostase de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818) por meio de índices fisiológicos. Os banhos terapêuticos foram realizados em tanques de 100 L, com soluções de formalina a 0, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mg/L, em tempos de exposição de 0, 30, 60 e 12...

  3. Respostas fisiológicas de tambaqui a banhos terapêuticos com mebendazol Physiological responses of tambaqui to therapeutic baths of mebendazole

    OpenAIRE

    Edsandra Campos Chagas; Lucelle Dantas de Araújo; André Luiz Ferreira da Silva; Levy de Carvalho Gomes; Franmir Rodrigues Brandão

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas fisiológicas de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Cuvier 1818) a banhos terapêuticos com mebendazol. Juvenis de tambaqui (n = 108, massa média de 37,80±0,24 g) foram submetidos a banhos terapêuticos de mebendazol a 0, 100, 300 e 600 mg L-1, com três repetições, em exposições de 30, 60 e 120 minutos. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas para íons plasmáticos (sódio, potássio e cálcio) e parâmetros hematológicos - hematócrito, nú...

  4. A new species of Mymarothecium and new host and geographical records for M. viatorum (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae), parasites of freshwater fishes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Kohn, Anna

    2005-11-01

    Mymarothecium boegeri sp. n. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) is described from the gills of Colossoma macropomum Cuvier (Characidae), collected from the aquaria of the "Centro de Pesquisas em Aquicultura, Departamento Nacional de Obras Contra as Secas (DNOCS)", Pentecoste City, State of Ceará, Brazil. Mymarothecium viatorum Boeger, Piasecki et Sobecka, 2002 is reported from the type host, Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier) (Characidae) and from a new host, P. mesopotamicus (Holmberg) (Characidae), confirming the occurrence of M. viatorum in the Neotropical Region. The new species differs from the congeneric species in the structure of male copulatory complex; it is more closely related to M. viatorum by the presence of a posteromedial projection on ventral bar. PMID:16405294

  5. Efeito da vitamina C no ganho de peso e em parâmetros hematológicos de tambaqui Effect of vitamin C on weight and hematology of tambaqui

    OpenAIRE

    Edsandra Campos Chagas; Adalberto Luís Val

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietária com ácido L-ascórbico (vitamina C) no ganho de peso e em parâmetros hematológicos de juvenis de tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum. Após dez semanas, em que foram alimentados com dietas contendo 0, 100 e 500 mg de ácido L-ascórbico por kg de ração, os peixes foram capturados e imediatamente anestesiados para a coleta de sangue da veia caudal e determinação dos parâmetros hematológicos. Animais alimentados com maiores níveis ...

  6. Análise qualitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica de uma piscicultura em Alvorada d´Oeste, Rondônia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Lemes da Costa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A piscicultura é um dos segmentos da produção animal que mais cresce no cenário mundial. O levantamento da comunidade fitoplanctônica nestes ambientes permite estabelecer formas de manejo mais eficientes. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa realizar a análise qualitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica visando a compreensão da dinâmica ecológica aquática para subsidiar medidas de manejo para a produção piscícola. O estudo foi desenvolvido na Piscicultura Santa Helena, km 14, TN 13, GB 4, no município de Alvorada dâ´Oeste, Rondônia, Brasil, onde três hectares de lâmina d´água são destinados ao cultivo de Colossoma macropomum. A represa de abastecimento e três viveiros foram escolhidos para as análises. As coletas ocorreram bimestralmente entre agosto-2013 à maio-2014. Foram identificados 74 táxons. A classe com maior representatividade (23 táxons e de ocorrência nos viveiros (43% foi a Chlorophyceae, na represa de abastecimento onde não é cultivado Colossoma macropomum não houve dominância monoespecífica da comunidade fitoplanctônica. As Cianofíceas apesar de não terem sido a classe de maior diversidade de táxons se mostraram influentes na comunidade fitoplanctônica, com altas densidades do gênero Microcystis e Planktotrix que juntamente com o gênero Euglena (Euglenophyceae ocasionaram florações pontuais em outubro-2013 e fevereiro-2014

  7. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Senhorini, José Augusto; Foresti, Fausto; Martínez, Paulino; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers) to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus) and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus)×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming. PMID:24594674

  8. Characterization of catalytic efficiency parameters of brain cholinesterases in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Marcuschi, Marina; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Brain cholinesterases from four fish (Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum, Rachycentron canadum and Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized using specific substrates and selective inhibitors. Parameters of catalytic efficiency such as activation energy (AE), k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) as well as rate enhancements produced by these enzymes were estimated by a method using crude extracts described here. Despite the BChE-like activity, specific substrate kinetic analysis pointed to the existence of only acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain of the species studied. Selective inhibition suggests that C. macropomum brain AChE presents atypical activity regarding its behavior in the presence of selective inhibitors. AE data showed that the enzymes increased the rate of reactions up to 10(12) in relation to the uncatalyzed reactions. Zymograms showed the presence of AChE isoforms with molecular weights ranging from 202 to 299 kDa. Values of k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) were similar to those found in the literature.

  9. Cross-amplification of heterologous microsatellite markers in Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus elongatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Native fish species in Brazil are an asset in fish farming, but their natural stocks have been significantly reduced in recent years. To mitigate this negative impact, studies on fish conservation are being conducted and genetic tools for the discrimination of population parameters are increasingly achieving great importance. Current analysis evaluates a set of microsatellite heterologous primers in the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and in the piapara (Leporinus elongatus. Samples from the caudal fin of 15 broodstock from each species were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed with NaCl protocol and the integrity of the extracted DNA was checked with agarose gel 1%. Twenty primers developed for Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum, Prochilodus lineatus, Brycon opalinus and Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. Cross amplification of four primers of the B. opalinus and P. lineatus species (BoM12, Pli43 and Pli60 in R. quelen and BoM2, Pli43 and Pli60 in L. elongatus was assessed. Primers of P. mesopotamicus, C. macropomum and O. niloticus showed no cross amplification in the two species analyzed. Results revealed the possibility of using the four amplified heterologous primers in genetic studies for R. quelen and L. elongatus.

  10. Genetic identification of F1 and post-F1 serrasalmid juvenile hybrids in Brazilian aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Teruo Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Juvenile fish trade monitoring is an important task on Brazilian fish farms. However, the identification of juvenile fish through morphological analysis is not feasible, particularly between interspecific hybrids and pure species individuals, making the monitoring of these individuals difficult. Hybrids can be erroneously identified as pure species in breeding facilities, which might reduce production on farms and negatively affect native populations due to escapes or stocking practices. In the present study, we used a multi-approach analysis (molecular and cytogenetic markers to identify juveniles of three serrasalmid species (Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus brachypomus and their hybrids in different stocks purchased from three seed producers in Brazil. The main findings of this study were the detection of intergenus backcrossing between the hybrid ♀ patinga (P. mesopotamicus×P. brachypomus×♂ C. macropomum and the occurrence of one hybrid triploid individual. This atypical specimen might result from automixis, a mechanism that produces unreduced gametes in some organisms. Moreover, molecular identification indicated that hybrid individuals are traded as pure species or other types of interspecific hybrids, particularly post-F1 individuals. These results show that serrasalmid fish genomes exhibit high genetic heterogeneity, and multi-approach methods and regulators could improve the surveillance of the production and trade of fish species and their hybrids, thereby facilitating the sustainable development of fish farming.

  11. High-quality seed dispersal by fruit-eating fishes in Amazonian floodplain habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jill T; Saldaña Rojas, Joe; Flecker, Alexander S

    2009-08-01

    Seed dispersal is a critical stage in the life history of plants. It determines the initial pattern of juvenile distribution, and can influence community dynamics and the evolutionary trajectories of individual species. Vertebrate frugivores are the primary vector of seed dispersal in tropical forests; however, most studies of seed dispersal focus on birds, bats and monkeys. Nevertheless, South America harbors at least 200 species of frugivorous fishes, which move into temporarily flooded habitats during lengthy flood seasons and consume fruits that fall into the water; and yet, we know remarkably little about the quality of seed dispersal they effect. We investigated the seed dispersal activities of two species of large-bodied, commercially important fishes (Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus brachypomus, Characidae) over 3 years in Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve (Peru). We assessed the diet of these fishes during the flood season, conducted germination trials with seeds collected from digestive tracts, and quantified fruit availability. In the laboratory, we fed fruits to captive Colossoma, quantified the proportion of seeds defecated by adult and juvenile fish, and used these seeds in additional germination experiments. Our results indicate that Colossoma and Piaractus disperse large quantities of seeds from up to 35% of the trees and lianas that fruit during the flood season. Additionally, these seeds can germinate after floodwaters recede. Overexploitation has reduced the abundance of our focal fish species, as well as changed the age structure of populations. Moreover, older fish are more effective seed dispersers than smaller, juvenile fish. Overfishing, therefore, likely selects for the poorest seed dispersers, thus disrupting an ancient interaction between seeds and their dispersal agents. PMID:19466459

  12. EXTRACCIÓN DE PRODUCTOS EXTRACELULARES DE Aeromonas hydrophila Y SUS EFECTOS EN TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis spp. Y CACHAMA BLANCA (Piaractus brachypomus Aeromonas hydrophila Extracelullar Products Extraction and its Effects on Tilapia Roja (Oreochromis spp. and Cachama Blanca (Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J FIGUEROA

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo un extracto crudo toxigénico (ECT de A. hydrophila en diversos medios de cultivo como caldo BHI con extracto de levadura, soya tripticasa (TSB y medio de sales mínimas (MSM. Además, se usaron diversas técnicas de concentración como la precipitación con solventes ácidos y concentración por deshidratación a 4 ºC; como técnica integrada de cultivo y concentración se usó el cultivo sobre papel celofán. Los extractos se pasaron por columna de cromatografía (QAE-Sephadex A-50 y se les efectuó electroforesis en SDS-PAGE. Se midió la actividad biológica in vitro (actividad hemolítica y proteolítica e in vivo (toxicidad en peces. Los resultados indican que para la cepa de trabajo utilizada y bajo nuestras condiciones de cultivo (28 ºC el medio óptimo para la obtención de extracto es el MSM, y la técnica de concentración más adecuada es la deshidratación a 4 ºC. El extracto obtenido en TBS tuvo una actividad hemolítica de 128 UH/µL, proteolítica de 38,4 UP/µL, produjo alta mortalidad en peces y severas lesiones multiorgánicas. La electroforesis reveló bandas nítidas de 50 a 52 kDa y 63 a 68 kDa, que pueden corresponder a β hemolisina y a α hemolisina y otras tenues de 30 a 36 kDa que pueden corresponder a la metaloproteasa termoestable.A toxigenic raw extract of A. hydrophila was obtained from diverse culture medium (BHI with extract of yeast, (TSB y minimum salt medium (MSM and diverse concentration techniques. Extracts were processed by Sephadex A-50 (QAE and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Biological activity was measured in vitro (hemolytic and proteolitic activity and in vivo (toxicity in fish. The results indicate that the optimal culture condition was 28 ºC and MSM was the optimum medium to extract. Dehydration at 4 ºC was the most adequate concentration technique. TBS extract obtained had an hemolytic activity of 128 UH/µL and a proteolitic activity of 38.4 UP/µL and produced high fish mortality and severe multiorganic lesions. Electrophoresis revealed bands from 50 to 52 kDa y 63 to 68 kDa, that could correspond to the β hemolisina or α hemolisina y other from 30 to 36 kDa that could correspond to the thermostable metalloprotease.

  13. Avaliação do desembarque pesqueiro efetuado em Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil Evaluation of the Manacapuru fishing landings, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade comercial pesqueira na Amazônia Central é predominantemente direcionada para Manaus, porém o perfil das atividades pesqueiras efetuadas nos demais centros também é fundamental para o planejamento do setor. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa caracterizar o perfil da produção pesqueira que abastece a cidade de Manacapuru, um dos principais centros urbanos da Amazônia Central. Os desembarques ocorreram a partir de canoas a remo, canoas motorizadas, barcos de pesca e recreios. A média mensal de pescado desembarcado foi de 175,36 ± 39,50 t em 2001 e de 172,13 ± 18,88 t em 2002, não apresentando diferença significativa entre anos (P>0,05. Dos 35 nomes específicos comuns registrados, observa-se que curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., e tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram os itens mais importantes nos dois anos, e piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii em 2002. Sete sub-regiões foram visitadas pela frota pesqueira, destacando-se Baixo-Solimões e o rio Purus.The fishing commercial activity in Central Amazonia is mainly addressed for Manaus, even so the characteristics of the fishing activities directed to other important urban centers in the region are also fundamental for the planning of the sector. In this context, the present work seeks to characterize the profile of the fishing production that lands in the city of Manacapuru, one of the main urban centers of Central Amazon. Fish landings were done from non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes, fishing ships and pleasure boats. The monthly average of landed fish was of 175,36 ± 39,50 ton in 2001 and of 172,13 ± 18,88 ton in 2002, not presenting significant difference among years (P>0,05. Of the 35 registered common species names, it is observed that curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., and tambaqui (Colossoma

  14. Resistência ao estresse e crescimento de larvas de peixes neotropicais alimentadas com diferentes dietas Stress resistance and growth of larvae of neotropical fish feed with different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da alimentação na resistência ao estresse e no crescimento de larvas das espécies de peixes neotropicais: Astronotus ocellatus (Oscar, Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu e Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (pintado. As larvas receberam diferentes tipos de alimentos (Artemia sp., larvas de Colossoma macropomum e dieta artificial Fry Feed Kyowa. Foram realizados testes de exposição ao ar e a taxa de sobrevivência, determinada 24 horas depois. A fim de avaliar o crescimento, medidas de peso foram realizadas em larvas dos diferentes tratamentos. Larvas de A. ocellatus alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia sp. apresentaram tendência de maior peso e resistência ao estresse, quando comparadas com o uso de dieta artificial. Larvas de P. mesopotamicus apresentaram melhores valores de peso e taxas de resistência ao estresse, quando alimentadas com Artemia sp. ou alimentação mista (Artemia sp. + dieta artificial. Em P. coruscans, o uso de larvas forrageiras resultou em indivíduos mais resistentes aos testes de exposição ao ar do que os que receberam apenas Artemia sp. Valores de peso, nos dois manejos alimentares, foram semelhantes entre si. O alimento vivo desempenha importante atuação no crescimento em peso e na melhora da resistência ao estresse das espécies estudadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding on stress resistance and growth in larvae of neotropical fish of the species: Astronotus ocellatus, Piaractus mesopotamicus, and Pseudoplatystoma coruscans. Larvae received different types of food (Artemia sp., Colossoma macropomum larvae and artificial microdiet Fry Feed Kyowa. Resistance tests to air exposure were applied, and larvae survival was determined after 24 hours. To evaluate the growth, weight measures were performed during the different treatments. A. ocellatus larvae fed on Artemia sp. nauplii tended to better resistant and weight than others that received

  15. Variáveis hematológicas em tambaquis anestesiados com óleo de cravo e benzocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Benites de Pádua

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito anestésico de óleo de cravo e benzocaína sobre os parâmetros hematológicas e a fragilidade osmótica dos eritrócitos em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Trinta peixes adultos foram avaliados em três tratamentos: controle, sem anestesia; anestesia com óleo de cravo a 50 mg L-1; e anestesia com benzocaína a 100 mg L-1. O sangue dos peixes foi coletado para a determinação do hemograma, e o teste de fragilidade osmótica dos eritrócitos foi aplicado. As doses utilizadas de óleo de cravo e benzocaína não são adequadas para estudos hematológicos, para estabelecer valores de referência em tambaquis, pois causam alterações expressivas dos parâmetros hematológicos, tais como leucocitose e hemólise iatrogênica.

  16. Ethnoichthyological contribution to the official fisheries document concerning fisheries closure of some commercial fish categories in the western Brazilian Amazon, Guaporé River, Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Taciane Brasil de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicts among fishermen and local environmental protection agencies that regulate fishing in the area, concerning the official closure periods of the fisheries. The fishermen affirm that the dates established for protection of spawning do not correspond to the spawning season of the primary commercialized species, and that this could be hindering the local fish markets. This report compares the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK with information obtained from experimental fishery and scientific data covering the reproduction periods of the primary categories of fish market in the region. Of the 28 fish categories analyzed, 14 (50% were captured in experimental fishing and were evaluated. The TEK confirmed the experimental information for 10 categories of fish (72%. The results suggest the necessity of adjusting the official protection dates stipulated for the following fish categories: caparari (Pseudoplatystoma tigrinun, Sorubim (P. fasciatum, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, pescada (Plagioscion squamosissimus and tucunaré (Cichla ocellaris. The discussion deals with a possibly inadequate period of protection based on the information obtained from different basins applied to larger and more diverse areas of the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. This study confirms the refined biological knowledge that the fishermen have of the species they exploit and suggests that the traditional ecological knowledge can be useful to adjust political issues dealing with the regional protection agency of fishing.

  17. Efectos del parasitismo sobre el tejido branquial en peces cultivados: estudio parasitologico e histopatologico Effect of the parasitism on the gill tissue of cultivated fishes: parasitological and histopathological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Laterça Martins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred four out of 225 diagnosticated cases were myxosporidian, monogenean, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 and bacterial diseases in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 (pacu, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui and tambacu, at Aquaculture Center, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, between 1992 and 1995. The gills were fixed in 10% buffered formalin solution to posterior histologic routine. It was observed Henneguya sp. cysts into the capillaries of the secondary lamellae, encapsulated by the respiratory epithelium cells. It provoked adherence of the adjacent lamellae, hyperplasia, congestion, oedema and epithelium displacement. Monogeneans infestations by Anacanthorus penilabiatus Boeger, Husak & Martins, 1995 and Ancyrocephalinae sub-family caused light inflammatory reaction and hyperplasia. In severe infestations was observed hyperplasia of primary lamellae, necrosis, oedema, respiratory epithelium displacement, ruptured pillar cells and telangiectasis. Response to I. multifiliis was limited to surrounding epithelial cells in young fishes and hyperplasia, necrosis, inflammatory infiltrate and oedema in old fishes. Such lesions iniciate hyperplasic and oedematous process that with inflammation of the parasitic sites, provoked alterations over gases and ions interchange surface and consequently fish metabolism.

  18. Parasitic fauna in hybrid tambacu from fish farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronilson Macedo Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the parasitic fauna of hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum x Piaractus mesopotamicus from fish farms and the host-parasite relationship. A hundred and fourteen fish were collected from four fish farms in Macapá, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, 80.7% of which were infected by: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora; Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida; Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis, and Mymarothecium viatorum (Monogenoidea; Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Acanthocephala; Cucullanus colossomi (Nematoda; Perulernaea gamitanae (Lernaeidae; and Proteocephalidae larvae (Cestoda. A total of 8,136,252 parasites were collected from the examined fish. This is the first record of N. buttnerae, C. colossomi, N. janauachensis, M. viatorum, and Proteocephalidae for hybrid tambacu in Brazil. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most prevalent parasite, whereas endohelminths were the less. A positive correlation was observed between number of I. multifiliis and total length and weight of fish, as well as between number of P. gamitanae and total length. The infection by I. multifiliis had association with the parasitism by Monogenoidea. Low water quality contributes to high parasitism of hybrid tambacu by ectoparasites, which, however, does not influence the relative condition factor of fish.

  19. Qualidade de cortes congelados de tambaqui cultivado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maciel Cartonilho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição centesimal, o rendimento, a influência do tempo de congelamento sobre a qualidade e a relação tipo de corte por vida útil, dos cortes de costela, lombinho e posta de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum cultivado, durante 180 dias de estocagem. As amostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de polietileno e congeladas a -25ºC. Foram realizadas avaliações sensoriais e análises físicoquímicas e microbiológicas dos cortes. O pH e os teores de nitrogênio das bases voláteis totais e de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, bem como os resultados das análises microbiológicas, foram bons índices do frescor ao longo do tempo de estocagem. O corte de costela foi mais suscetível à oxidação do que os demais; no entanto, os cortes mantiveram-se adequados para o consumo durante todo o experimento, em condições de manipulação correta e com o uso de boas práticas de higiene, entre a colheita e o armazenamento.

  20. Lethal effects of elevated pH and ammonia on juveniles of neotropical fish Colosoma macropomum (Pisces, Caracidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croux, Parma; Julieta, Maria; Loteste, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is the main nitrogenous waste material excreted by gills, then is oxided first to nitrite and then to nitrate. The proportion of ionized-un-ionized ammonia depends on pH and temperature, when this variables increase in a solution containing ammonia the equation goes to left, so the proportion of NH3 increases and the solution becomes more toxic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute lethal effects of elevated pH and ammonia on tambaqui juveniles. With a constant ammonia concentration of 5.0 mg/l NH3, there was no mortality a pH of 6.0 (control) and 7.0; but was of 10-20% a pH of 8.0 and 100% at 9.0. The lethal effects of elevated pH and un-ionized ammonia should be recognized as a potential factor contributing to the variable success of tambaqui production ponds, but this species is highly resistant in comparison with other freshwater fish.

  1. Growth, yield, water and effluent quality in ponds with different management during tambaqui juvenile production Crescimento, produção e qualidade da água e do efluente em viveiro de tambaqui com diferentes manejos durante a recria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Dias da Silva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pond management on fish feed, growth, yield, survival, and water and effluent quality, during tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum juvenile production. Fish were distributed in nine 600 m² earthen ponds, at a density of 8 fish per m²; the rearing period was 60 days. Three different pond management were applied: limed and fertilized (LimFer, limed (Lim, and natural (Nat. Fish were fed with a commercial ration containing 34% crude protein three times daily. There were no significant differences in fish growth or yield. Three main items found in tambaqui stomach were insect, zooplankton and ration, without a significant difference among treatments in proportion. Alkalinity, hardness, and CO2 were greater in LimFer and Lim ponds. Chlorophyll a, transparency, ammonia, nitrite, temperature, and dissolved oxygen of pond water were not significantly different among treatments. Biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, ammonia, and nitrite were significantly greater in effluents from LimFer ponds. Pond fertilization should be avoided, because growth and yield were similar among the three pond management systems tested; besides, it produces a more impacting effluent.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do manejo de viveiro sobre a alimentação, crescimento, produtividade, sobrevivência, qualidade da água e do efluente, durante a recria do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Os peixes foram distribuídos em nove viveiros de 600 m², à densidade de 8 peixes por m², e criados por 60 dias. Foram aplicados três diferentes manejos de viveiro: com calagem e fertilizante (LimFer, com calagem (Lim e natural (Nat. Os peixes foram alimentados três vezes ao dia, com ração comercial com 34% de proteína bruta. Não houve diferença significativa no crescimento e na produtividade. Os três principais itens encontrados no estômago do tambaqui foram inseto, zooplâncton e ração. N

  2. Freshwater temperature in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, and its implication for fish culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Oliveira Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we verified data of water temperatures collected by CORSAN-RS from 1996 to 2004 in several cities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and analyzed the possibility of raising the most cultivated fish species in Brazil. The water temperature from 1996 to 2004 was 16 to 28ºC in summer, 17 to 23ºC in fall, 14 to 17ºC (down to 9ºC in the coldest months in winter and 14 to 21ºC in spring. Native species of this state, such as silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dorado (Salminus brasiliensis, pintado (Pimelodus maculatus, as well as carps (family Cyprinidae, are resistant to the low winter temperatures. These species have a lower growth rate in coldest months (winter/spring but a good development in warmer months (summer/fall, reaching a satisfactory performance throughout the year. In the periods of more intense cold, mortality of some introduced species, such as surubim from Amazon Basin (Pseudoplatystoma sp., pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus, pirarucu (Arapaimas gigas, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus may occur. In addition, as most tropical species have a thermal range for growth and reproduction between 20 to 28ºC, some species may have poor development even in fall. Therefore, water temperature in this state should be considered in the choice of fish species to be cultivated.Neste estudo verificaram-se dados de temperaturas de água coletados pela CORSAN-RS de 1996 a 2004, em várias cidades do estado do Rio Grande Sul, sul do Brasil, e analisou-se a possibilidade de criação das principais espécies de peixe cultivadas no Brasil. A temperatura da água de 1996 a 2004 foi de 16 a 28ºC no verão, de 17 a 25ºC no outono, 14 a 17ºC (chegando a 9ºC nos meses mais frios no inverno e 14 a 21ºC na primavera. Espécies nativas deste estado, como o jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dourado

  3. Efeito da vitamina C no ganho de peso e em parâmetros hematológicos de tambaqui Effect of vitamin C on weight and hematology of tambaqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação dietária com ácido L-ascórbico (vitamina C no ganho de peso e em parâmetros hematológicos de juvenis de tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum. Após dez semanas, em que foram alimentados com dietas contendo 0, 100 e 500 mg de ácido L-ascórbico por kg de ração, os peixes foram capturados e imediatamente anestesiados para a coleta de sangue da veia caudal e determinação dos parâmetros hematológicos. Animais alimentados com maiores níveis de ascorbato mostraram pesos corpóreos maiores, melhores taxas de conversão alimentar e sobrevivência. A asência de ácido L-ascórbico na ração, além de causar redução nos valores de hematócrito e no número de eritrócitos, que caracteriza anemia, provocou aumento no volume corpuscular médio, na hemoglobina corpuscular média e na concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Esses resultados revelam a importância do ácido L-ascórbico na dieta dos juvenis de tambaqui. O nível de 100 mg de ácido L-ascórbico/kg de ração é adequado, garantindo bom ganho de peso e manutenção da homeostase do organismo.The objective of this work was to estimate the effect of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C dietary supplementation on the body weight and on the hematology of juveniles tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum. After ten weeks receiving diets containing 0, 100 and 500 mg of L-ascorbic acid per kg of food, the fish were netted from the tanks, immediately anesthetized and blood was withdrawn from caudal vein for analysis of hematological parameters. Animals fed on higher ascorbate levels showed higher final body weight, better feed conversion rate and survival. Also, the L-ascorbic acid free-diet resulted in reduction of hematocrit and red blood cell count, characterizing anemia, and an increase of mean cell volume, mean cellular hemoglobin and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration. These results show the importance of L-ascorbic acid

  4. Microbiological water quality and gill histopathology of fish from fish farming in Itapecuru-Mirim County, Maranhão State=Qualidade microbiológica da água e histopatologia de brânquias de peixes provenientes de pisciculturas do município de Itapecuru-Mirim, Estado do Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas de Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the microbiological water quality and tissue lesions in gills from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and hybrid tambacu (Colossoma macropomum female x Piaractus mesopotamicus male. For this, water and gills were collected from fish farming at six locations in Itapecuru-Mirim County, Maranhão State. Microbiological water analyses revealed contamination by total coliforms, Escherichia coli and heterotrophic bacteria. In the gills, we observed a diversity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The tissue lesions were: lamellar fusion, interlamellar hyperplasia, sub-epithelial edema and telangiectasia. Inflammatory lesions were not observed. Significant statistical difference (p > 0.05 was not detected when comparing different gills lesions during rainy and dry season. The correlation between lesion and pond type was statistically different (p Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água e as alterações teciduais em brânquias de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e do híbrido tambacu (Colossoma macropomum fêmea x Piaractus mesopotamicus macho, coletou-se água de pisciculturas e brânquias de peixes de seis localidades do município de Itapecuru-Mirim, Estado do Maranhão. O exame microbiológico da água revelou poluição por coliformes totais, Escherichia coli e bactérias heterotróficas. Nas brânquias, observou-se uma variedade de bactérias Gram-positivas e negativas. As alterações teciduais observadas foram fusão de lamelas, hiperplasia interlamelar, edema subepitelial e telangiectasia, não sendo observadas lesões inflamatórias. Não houve diferença estatística (p > 0,05 quando se comparou diferentes tipos de lesões branquiais com os períodos de chuva ou de seca. A correlação de lesões e tipos de tanque demonstrou diferença estatística (p < 0,05 para fusão de lamelas e hiperplasia interlamelar que ocorreram com maior frequência em viveiro de terra. Quanto

  5. Níveis de mercúrio total em peixes de água doce de pisciculturas paulistas Mercury levels in freshwater fishes from piscicultures estabilished in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Morgano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os níveis de mercúrio total em amostras de peixes de água doce, procedentes de pesqueiros e pisciculturas de 39 regiões do estado de São Paulo. As espécies de peixes estudadas foram: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, piauçu (Leoporinum sp, matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum e carpa (Cyprinus carpis. Foram avaliadas três metodologias de digestão de amostras para a determinação de mercúrio total, variando-se o volume de mistura sulfonítrica utilizada e a concentração do permanganato de potássio, sendo que o uso de 10mL de mistura sulfonítrica e solução de permanganato de potássio a 7% (m/v na digestão da amostra foi a que forneceu as recuperações mais altas (96%, precisão de 1% e limite de quantificação de 0,3µg/kg. Após a validação do método, foram realizadas as determinações de teor de mercúrio total em 293 amostras de pescado, usando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão com fonte de plasma acoplado em gerador de hidretos. Os níveis médios de mercúrio encontrados variaram entre: tambaqui (0,0003-0,012mg/kg, carpa (0,063mg/kg, matrinxã (0,0003-0,074mg/kg, pacu (0,0003-0,078mg/kg, piauçu (0,0003-0,183mg/kg e tilápia (0,0003-0,217mg/kg. Os resultados mostraram que nenhuma das amostras procedentes das diferentes regiões e diferentes pesque-pagues, apresentaram níveis de mercúrio total acima do permitido pela legislação brasileira, que é de 0,5mg/kg para pescado não-predador.In this work, the levels of mercury were evaluated in samples of freshwater fish, coming from fishing-grounds and piscicultures of 39 regions of São Paulo State. The species of fish studied were: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, piauçu (Leoporinum sp, matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and carpa (Cyprinus carpis. Three digestion methodologies of sample were evaluated for the mercury determination, with

  6. Desenvolvimento de tambaqui submetido a períodos de privação alimentar Growth of tambaqui submitted to different feed deprivation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rabello Ituassú

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da privação alimentar em parâmetros de crescimento e composição corporal de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, 180 juvenis pesando 75,68±8,62 g foram distribuídos em 12 tanques de 180 L e submetidos a quatro períodos de privação (0, 14, 21 e 28 dias. A massa média dos peixes ao final do período de privação alimentar foi menor à medida que o tempo de privação aumentou. Ao final do experimento, somente peixes submetidos a 14 dias de privação alcançaram a massa dos peixes alimentados sem restrição. O fator de condição não revelou diferenças significativas entre tratamentos ao final do período de privação ou ao final do experimento. As taxas de crescimento específico e o índice hepatossomático foram similares entre todos os tratamentos. Os peixes submetidos à privação exibiram os maiores valores de consumo diário de ração e os menores valores de eficiência alimentar. As porcentagens de umidade e proteína corporal foram maiores quanto maior o tempo de privação, mas não houve variações significativas dos níveis de extrato etéreo. Juvenis de tambaqui apresentam crescimento compensatório quando submetidos à privação alimentar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed deprivation on juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum growth parameters and body composition. In a complete randomized design, one hundred and eighty fishes, weighting 75.68±8.62 g were maintained in twelve 180-L tanks and submitted to four feed deprivation periods (0, 14, 21 and 28 days. Average fish weight at the end of feed deprivation period tended to be lower as deprivation period increased. At the end of the experiment only the fishes submitted to 14 days of feed deprivation attained similar weight to fish fed without restriction. Condition factor did not show any differences among treatments at the final of the

  7. Ionoregulatory Aspects of the Osmorespiratory Compromise during Acute Environmental Hypoxia in 12 Tropical and Temperate Teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lisa M; Val, Adalberto Luis; Almeida-Val, Vera F; Wood, Chris M

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional osmorespiratory compromise, as seen in the hypoxia-intolerant freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the branchial modifications that occur to improve O2 uptake during hypoxia result in unfavorable increases in the fluxes of ions and water. However, at least one hypoxia-tolerant freshwater species, the Amazonian oscar (Astronotus ocellatus), shows exactly the opposite: decreased branchial flux rates of ions, water, and nitrogenous wastes during acute hypoxia. In order to find out whether the two strategies were widespread, we used a standard 2-h normoxia, 2-h hypoxia (20%-30% saturation), 2-h normoxic recovery protocol to survey 10 other phylogenetically diverse tropical and temperate species. Unidirectional influx and efflux rates of Na(+) and net flux rates of K(+), ammonia, and urea-N were measured. The flux reduction strategy was seen only in one additional species, the Amazonian tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), which is similarly hypoxia tolerant and lives in the same ion-poor waters as the oscar. However, five other species exhibited evidence of the increased flux rates typical of the traditional osmorespiratory compromise in the trout: the rosaceu tetra (Hyphessobrycon bentosi rosaceus), the moenkhausia tetra (Moenkhausia diktyota), the bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), the zebra fish (Danio rerio), and the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Four other species exhibited no marked flux changes during hypoxia: the cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi), the hemigrammus tetra (Hemigrammus rhodostomus), the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), and the Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus). Overall, a diversity of strategies exist; we speculate that these may be linked to differences in habitat and/or lifestyle. PMID:26052633

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TAMBAQUI SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sleder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, fish are sold in retail fresh or frozen, whole, or gutted. To increase consumption, convenient products with good sensory attributes should be offered. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize, through physicochemical, microbiologica, and sensory traits, a fresh sausage of tambaqui fish (Colossoma macropomum. Three formulations, with different percentages of fat (0, 4.5, and 9% were developed. To determine shelf life, samples of the products were refrigerated at 4 ºC for 12 days and microbiological analyses were performed on days 0, 3, 7, and 12. Analyses of centesimal composition, shear force, cooking weight loss, and water-holding capacity were carried out. The shelf life of the fresh sausages was estimated at 7 days of storage. The sensory attributes evaluated were aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture, and overall appearance. All treatments showed high acceptance rates, above 80%. The treatment with 9% fat showed the highest mean values in the evaluated attributes, with 86.6%, 83.4%, 92%, 88.2%, 87.2%, and 85.8% for aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture and overall appearance, respectively. The centesimal composition of the treatments showed the following variations in g.100 g-1: moisture, 72.73 to 68.82; protein, 18.85 to 18.90; lipids, 2.90 to 8.33; and ash, 3.86 to 4.20. Shear force varied from 5.92 to 8.14 N; water-holding capacity varied from 71.83 to 74.71% and cooking weight loss, from 24.21 to 26.59%.

  9. Fish farming characterization of space in Basin River Cuiabá/MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli Assunção Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to know the spatial distribution of the fish culture, size, water sheet area, cultivated species and the estimated production of fish culture business, defined into Cuiabá river basin. The fish farming secondary data were provided by the Environment State Secretary and systematizated in terms of the spatial distribution using techniques like geoprocessing. Data showed that from 490 registered fish culture, 26.1% didn’t say the geographical coordinates. About 74.3% of the fish culture defined into are micro business, 16.6% are little size, 3.9% are medium size, 0.8% are big size and 4,4% didn’t say the area in the in the register. The basin represents 1,395 ha of water sheet area, with estimated production of 9,128.87 ton year-1. Várzea Grande has the major water sheet area (60.4%, followed by Cuiabá (12.7%, and Nossa Senhora do Livramento (10%, totalizing more than 83%, compared to other cities into the basin. Piaractus mesopotamicus is the favorite specie for the cultive (36.7% as first category, followed by other species like Colossoma macropomum (female + Piaractus mesopotamicus (male, 20.9%; Brycon microleps, second category (10%; tambaqui (allochthonous specie and other categories (12.3%. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans represents 2.5% and Salminus maxillosus, 0.4%. The other species, with 5.6% and 5.2% (NI, didn’t reported. Várzea Grande has the higher percentage in the estimative of fish production, with 53.9%, followed by Cuiabá, with 20.1%.

  10. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

  11. Studies on cold-induced apoptosis in Colossoma brachypomum cells%低温诱导淡水白鲳细胞凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞宏; 朱敏杰; 严文静; 张铭

    2006-01-01

    为探讨10℃低温导致淡水白鲳尾鳍细胞系CBT死亡的原因及其可能机制.采用CCK-8试剂盒法检测细胞存活率,荧光染料H2DCFDA染色测定细胞内活性氧(ROS)含量,亚二倍体峰和Tunel分析检测细胞凋亡,琼脂糖凝胶电泳进行DNA片段分析,Hoechst33258染色观察凋亡细胞核形态变化,比色法测定乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)释放率.结果表明随CBT细胞受10℃低温作用时间的延长,细胞存活率显著下降,细胞内ROS含量和LDH释放率显著增加(P<0.01).低温处理3 d的CBT细胞经流式细胞仪检测出现亚二倍体峰,凋亡率为13%.再经32℃复温12 h后,琼脂糖凝胶电泳显示DNA凋亡梯带;Tunel检测,低温处理3、4和5 d的CBT细胞分别有23.49%,27.72%和35.10%发生凋亡.低温处理5 d的CBT细胞核分裂成多个小核,呈现出典型的凋亡小体.因此10℃低温能诱导CBT细胞凋亡.ROS参与了10℃低温致CBT细胞损伤及凋亡过程.

  12. Economic analysis of rural and artisanal aquaculture in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Recalde Ruiz, Jose Renato

    2009-01-01

    Three different types of culture and conditions were tested to determine the profitability of Rural and Artisanal Aquaculture Project in Ecuador: monoculture of the freshwater fish named locally cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), monoculture of red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) and polyculture tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) – cachama (Piaractus brachypomus). The economic models used for this particular analysis were Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). Using these meth...

  13. AVALIAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES TAXAS DE POVOAMENTO SOBRE O GANHO DE PESO DE JUVENIS DE TAMBAQUI PRODUZIDOS EM PRESIDENTE MÉDICI - RONDÔNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raniere Garcez Costa Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo confrontou as principais densidades de estocagem utilizadas atualmente pelos criadores de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum do município de Presidente Médici (Rondônia, Brasil, para verificar a influência destas, nos parâmetros de crescimento da espécie, no atual sistema de produção. Para tal, foi avaliado no período de maio a junho de 2014, um total de 1.800 exemplares de tambaqui, do final da fase II avançado até a fase de engorda. Durante o estudo, os peixes foram agrupados em cinco repetições com densidades de 60, 80, 100 e 120 indivíduos, que foram posteriormente distribuídos aleatoriamente em 20 tanques de 10 m2. Os peixes foram alimentados diariamente três vezes, com ração extrusada a 36% de proteína bruta. Paralelamente, em intervalos de sete dias, os parâmetros físico-químicos da água e a biometria dos indivíduos foram mensurados, este último para os cálculos de biomassa e conversão alimentar. As variáveis limnológicas, quando analisadas estatisticamente entre os tratamentos, não diferiram significativamente (p>0,05 homogeneizando os parâmetros do ambiente de cultivo. Do mesmo modo, não foram significantes as diferenças entre as variáveis de crescimento dos grupos analisados. No entanto, verificou-se que a densidade de 12 peixes/m2 apresentou maior biomassa (2,35 ± 0,25 kg/m2, indicando ser esta a mais recomendada para a recria de juvenis de tambaqui. Palavras-chave: Piscicultura, recria, densidade de estocagem. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v5n4p97-101

  14. Environmental performance of aquaculture in Rondônia state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Ferreira Borges

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the environmental performance of aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia State, Brazil. Fifteen fish farmers were interviewed. For data collection, structured interviews were carried out, using a questionnaire based on information supplied by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. The questionnaire considered 12 items, organized into three main topics: a social and legal standards b environmental standards c standards of food safety and hygiene. Aquaculture in the city of Colorado do Oeste, Rondônia presents two fish production systems: extensive and semi-intensive. In the semi-intensive system, stocking rate was one fish per m3, on average; tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, tilapias (Oreochromis spp., pirarucu (Arapaima gigas and pintado (Pseudoplatystoma spp. were the species farmed at the largest number. The rate of water renewal was due to the greater availability of natural food in this system. Water renewal was constant in the ponds (1,500 liters per minute. In the semi-intensive system using dug ponds, alevins were stocked and fed during the entire rearing time with natural and exogenous food. The extensive system relied on the natural production of the pond, with stocking density limited by the production of natural food. The little renewal of water made the cultivation tank itself acted as a decantation lake, with the occurrence of oxidation and sedimentation of residual organic matter, consisting of feces, debris and organic fertilizer. Production of reduced effluent volume took place in the extensive system, compared to the cultivation area. In addition, there was high water turbidity, caused by high concentration of planktonic organisms, and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the water

  15. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Colombian pisciculture is based on red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Linnaeus), Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier), which currently represent around 96% of the total national production. The remaining 4% comes from other farmed species such as bocachico...

  16. Aplicación de recubrimiento comestible adicionado con extractos etanólicos de propóleo y aceites esenciales a un producto cárnico tipo “luncheon fish”

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Triviño, Andrea Paola

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la funcionalidad tecnológica y el potencial conservante de recubrimientos comestibles a base de propóleo y aceites esenciales de la carne proveniente de especies dulceacuícolas: Cachama (Piaractus brachypomus), Yamú (Brycon amazonicus), Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) y Bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae), se planteó la obtención de un producto cárnico tipo “Luncheon fish” a partir de carne de las especies. Para lo anterior se procedió con la determin...

  17. [Nutritional characterization of produced fish for human consumption in Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Aide; Gómez, Elieth; Mayorga, Yamile; Triana, Cora Yohanna

    2008-03-01

    This research involves the nutritional characterization of the most commonly cultivated fish in the region. The species under study were: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), tilapia roja (Oreocliromis sp), cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), bocachico (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae) and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma faciatum). A sea fish, coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), was used as reference because it is the imported species most used in the region, and it also contains n-3 fatty acids. For each fish sample moisture, ash, protein content, total fat, minerals (iron, calcium and phosphorous) and a fatty acid profile were determined. Results show a total protein content in between 16.4 and 22.6 g/100 g fillet for fresh water fish. Total fat amounts for trout are the highest (8.1 g/100 g fillet), while catfish has the lowest fat content (0.4 g/100 g fillet). Trout was found to be the most important source of n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) and phosphorous, with values ranging from 0.25% to 0.52%, and 250 to 346 mg/100 g fillet, respectively. Catfish and trout exhibited the highest iron content, with values ranging from 3 to 6mg/100 g fillet. Salmon, on the other hand, showed a high n-3 fatty acid content of 1.16% to 2.25%, when compared to fresh water fish. Calcium content is low in all species under scrutiny. Fresh water fish, other than trout, show no significant amount of n-3 fatty acids. However, all of them are a good source of protein. The obtained results allowed to determine the profile of oily acids of produced fish for human consumption in the region, demonstrating that the trout is the species with major quantity of oily acids n-3 specially DHA and of the minerals the phosphorus. Other species (kinds) catfish, bocachico, tilapia and cachama, are not a source of oily acids n-3, but they are an important source of protein. PMID:18589578

  18. Alianza y conflicto interracial en los Llanos de Casanare (Virreinato del Nuevo Reino de Granada. El caso del adelantado Juan Francisco Parales, 1795-1806

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Rueda Enciso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo narra y analiza los hechos de violencia interétnica sucedidos en los Llanos de Arauca, Casanare y Meta entre 1795 y 1806, cuando el adelantado Juan Francisco Parales, afrodescendiente de Barinas, Venezuela, intentó dos reducciones de indígenas guahibo-chiricoas en los sitios de Las Cachamas y el Zumi, las cuales, al menos en un principio, contaron con el apoyo de los hacendados y los pobladores de la zona, y luego, por el contrario, fueron violentamente atacadas por ellos mismos, lo cual generó permanentes hechos de violencia que derivaron en odio y resentimiento contra los indígenas de la mencionada etnia, y en una odiosa práctica cultural, conocida como "la guahibiada", que desde entonces y hasta años recientes estuvo presente en la región. Parales no solo logró organizar a los guahibo-chiricoas, sino que a las bandas de indígenas se unieron blancos pobres, mestizos y mulatos que pusieron en aprietos a las autoridades.

  19. Valores de DL50 em peixes e no rato tratados com pó de raízes de Derris spp e suas implicações ecotoxicológicas LD50 in fish and rat produced by powdered roots of Derris spp and ecotoxicological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.C.P. Mascaro

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Os "timbós verdadeiros" (plantas do gênero Derris, originários da Amazônia Brasileira, tem demonstrado importância crescente por produzirem uma classe de compostos flavonoídicos relacionados à rotenona, que possuem atividade tóxica para peixes e mamíferos. Neste estudo foi determinado a dose letal 50% (DL50 do extrato alcoólico do pó de Derris spp para três espécies de peixes filogeneticamente diferentes e um mamífero roedor (rato. As DL50 de 2,6 microgramas/ml para Collosoma macropomum (tambaqui, 4,8 microgramas/ml para Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia, 14,2 microgramas/ml para Plecostomus sp (cascudo e DL50 de 100,0 mg/kg para Rattus norvegicus (rato denotam acentuadas diferenças entre os valores de DL50, principalmente entre os peixes e o rato. Isto possivelmente é devido a fatores farmaco-cinéticos que se relacionam com as diferentes barreiras teciduais encontradas pelos rotenóides quando administrados pela via oral em mamíferos.True "timbós" from the Brazilian Amazon region, plants belonging to the genus Derris of the Leguminosae family, have there considerable importance, because they contain rotenoids which are toxic to fish and mammals. The aim of the study was to establish the lethal doses (LD50 for three phylogenetical different species of fish and also for the rat. The lethal dose for Collosoma macropomum (tambaqui was 2.6 mg/ml, for Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia 4.8 mg/ml, for Plecostomus sp (cascudo 14.2 mg/ml and for Rattus norvegicus 100 mg/kg. The large differences between the lethal doses for the fish and the one for the rat are possibly due to different barrier tissues against the action of rotenoids in the mammal when given orally.

  20. EFECTO DE LA RESTRICCIÓN ALIMENTICIA Y LA REALIMENTACIÓN SOBRE LA COMPOSICIÓN DEL MÚSCULO BLANCO DE Piaractus brachypomus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Y. Riaño

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de la restricción alimenticia y la realimentación sobre la composición del músculo blanco de cachama blanca, se aplicaron dos protocolos de restricción alimenticia durante 84 días, cada uno dividido en un periodo de restricción alimenticia y un periodo de realimentación. En el primer protocolo, se aplicó una restricción alimenticia moderada (33,3%, y en el segundo, una restricción severa (50%; ambos grupos fueron comparados con un grupo control que recibió una ración alimenticia igual a la suministrada bajo condiciones de un cultivo comercial. Al finalizar el ensayo, ninguno de los tiempos de restricción alimenticia tuvo efectos significativos (p > 0,05 sobre el porcentaje de proteína del filete. Sin embargo, se observaron efectos significativos (p < 0,05 sobre los porcentajes de lípidos, cenizas y energía. Con respecto al porcentaje de cenizas musculares, se observó que la restricción alimenticia tendió a aumentar su valor, mientras que para el porcentaje de lípidos y los niveles de energía, se encontró el efecto contrario. No obstante, cuando los individuos finalizaron el periodo de realimentación, se observó un restablecimiento en los niveles de nutrientes comparados con los individuos no restringidos. En cuanto al perfil de ácidos grasos, el grupo control mostró con diferencias significativas (p < 0,05 mayor porcentaje de omega-3 (n-3. Estos resultados permiten concluir que los protocolos de alimentación aplicados estimularon, en Piaractus brachypomus, movilización de nutrientes musculares y su posterior restablecimiento, sin afectar la integridad del músculo blanco.

  1. El desarrollo sostenible de la acuicultura en América Latina (The sustainable development of the acuicultura in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available América Latina y el Caribe han experimentado una rápida expansión en su producción acuícola (16.4% anual durante la década de los 90. El presente trabajo tiene la finalidad de hacer un análisis de la situación de la región y determinar sus perspectivas de acuerdo al comportamiento actual de la industria. Chile presenta el crecimiento más rápido en la región con un crecimiento anual de casi 20%. La producción acuícola se concentra en los salmónidos principalmente en Chile y en los camarones marinos en el Ecuador, México, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Panamá y Belice, estos productos son principalmente para la exportación. El cultivo de la tilapia en Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, México y Jamaica tiene la tasa de crecimiento más alta en la región y se exporta el 50%. La producción de carpa es importante en Brasil, Cuba y México. El pez nativo que más ha aumentado su producción es el Colossoma spp en Brasil, Colombia y Venezuela.. Pero también, se debe de revalorar la acuicultura de subsistencia y semicomercial como una estrategia nacional para generar empleos directos e indirecto a las zonas marginadas, contribuir a la producción de proteína de alto valor nutricional y disminuir la pobreza. Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced a quick expansion in their aquatic production (16.4 annual% during the decade the 90. The present work has the purpose to make an analysis of the situation the region and to determine its perspectives according to the current behavior gives the industry. Chile presents the quickest growth in the region with an annual growth 20%.The aquatic production concentrates mainly on the salmon in Chile and in the marine shrimps in the Ecuador, Mexico, Honduras, Colombia, Peru, Panama and Belize, these products are mainly for the export. The cultivation the tilapia in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Jamaica has the highest rate of growth in the region and 50% is

  2. Avaliação dos efeitos da adição de sal e da densidade no transporte de tambaqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Levy de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram testar a eficiência do sal como redutor de estresse e verificar a melhor densidade de transporte de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomun em caixas de plástico adaptadas. No primeiro experimento foram testadas diferentes concentrações de sal de cozinha (NaCl na água; no segundo, o transporte foi realizado por três horas em caixas de plástico de 200 L estocadas com diferentes densidades de peixe, com 8 g de sal/L de água. O cortisol plasmático dos peixes sofreu aumento significativo após o transporte no tratamento sem sal e com 2 g de sal/L de água, retornando para níveis normais após 96 horas. A glicose plasmática dos peixes sofreu aumento após o transporte em todas as concentrações de sal testadas, com exceção da com 8 g/L de água, retornando para níveis normais em 24 horas. Nos peixes transportados no segundo experimento, com 8 g de sal/L de água, não foi verificada mudança significativa no cortisol plasmático, mas a glicose aumentou significativamente em todas as densidades após o transporte, retornando para níveis normais em 24 horas. Houve mortalidade de 11% em uma das repetições da densidade de 200 kg/m³ de água. Para o transporte com 8 g de sal/L de água, a densidade máxima deve ser de 150 kg/m³ de água. Nesta densidade os parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade de água se mantêm com características adequadas, as respostas ao estresse são mínimas e não há mortalidade.

  3. ESTADO DEL CONOCIMIENTO DE LAS CONCENTRACIONES DE MERCURIO Y OTROS METALES PESADOS EN PECES DULCEACUÍCOLAS DE COLOMBIA Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉSTOR JAVIER MANCERA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-06-01

    fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis y Grundulus bogotensis.One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher than that in the surrounding environment (water, therefore, their concentration are important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.

  4. Estado del conocimieno de las concentraciones de mercurio y otros metales pesados en peces dulceacuícolas de Colombia Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-León Ricardo

    2006-06-01

    fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis y Grundulus bogotensis.One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.