WorldWideScience

Sample records for cacao var guasare

  1. Evaluating the gas content of coals and isolated maceral concentrates from the Paleocene Guasare Coalfield, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results from evaluating the gases sorbed by coal samples extracted from the Paleocene Guasare Coalfield (Marcelina Formation, northwestern Venezuela), as well as by their distinct maceral concentrates. The aim of this work has been to obtain an initial experimental main value of the gas content per unit weight of high volatile bituminous A coal samples from the open-pit Paso Diablo mine. An additional goal was to study differences in the CH4 storage ability of the distinct maceral groups forming part of the coal matrix. Both the coal samples and the maceral concentrates were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in order to determine the temperature to be used in subsequent experiments. On-line analyses of hydrocarbons (C1, C2, C3) and CO2 yielded gas concentrations, plus δ13C values. Thermogenic gas is prevalent in the Guasare coals with vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) values from 0.65% to 0.88%. The amount of gas retained in the coals and maceral concentrates was measured with a special device that allows determination of the volume of gas sorbed by a solid sample subjected to controlled thermal treatment. The average coalbed gas concentration obtained was 0.51 cm3/g. The following list of maceral concentrates shows the relative capacity for the volume of sorbed gas per unit weight: inertinite > low-density vitrinite > liptinite ∼ high-density vitrinite. It is concluded that the gas volumes retained in the distinct maceral concentrates are not controlled by porosity but rather by their microscopic morphology.

  2. Organic geochemical investigation and coal-bed methane characteristics of the Guasare coals (Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, K.; Martinez, M.; Hackley, P.; Marquez, G.; Garban, G.; Esteves, I.; Escobar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out a geochemical study of channel samples collected from six coal beds in the Marcelina Formation (Zulia State, western Venezuela) and to determine experimentally the gas content of the coals from the Paso Diablo mine. Organic geochemical analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and isotopic analyses on-line in coalbed gas samples were performed. The results suggest that the Guasare coals were deposited in a continental environment under highly dysoxic and low salinity conditions. The non-detection of 18??(H)-oleanane does not preclude that the organic facies that gave rise to the coals were dominated by angiosperms. In addition, the presence of the sesquiterpenoid cadalene may indicate the subordinate contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) in the Paleocene Guasare mire. The average coalbed gas content obtained was 0.6 cm3/g. ??13C and D values indicate that thermogenic gas is prevalent in the studied coals. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  3. Glomeromycota recovered from cacao soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kartini - Kramadibrata

    2009-01-01

    KRAMADIBRATA, K. 2009. Glomeromycota recovered from cacao soil. Reinwardtia 12(5): 357–371. ⎯ Glomeromycotan fungi were studied from several cacao plantations in Indonesia (Java and Bali) and Ecuador. The identity of 28 species of Glomeromycota associated with cacao is presented.

  4. Informe sobre Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés O. Carlos

    1944-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de cacao del Dpto. del Huila confrontan una situación casi análoga a la de los del res to del País; iniciados desde hace muchos años sin técnica ni cuidado alguno muestran como es lógico un estado de decadencia agudizado por el inevitable problema de las enfermedades de causas parasitarias. El desconocimiento total de las condiciones que requiere el desarrollo del árbol de cacao y la pasiva resistencia del cultivador a los cambios que van contra su modalidad rutinaria han traído como consecuencia del establecimiento de un sistema de cultivo por demás inapropiado cuando se quieren .obtener resultados halagadores que correspondan a la utilidad que ha de rendir el cultivo de una planta como el cacao, que responde con creces a los cuidados que se le otorgan

  5. Genetic diversity and spatial structure in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop widely cultivated in the Bolivian Amazon. The germplasm group used by the Bolivian farmers was called “Cacao Nacional Boliviano” (CNB). Wild cacao populations are also found in the Beni River and in the valleys of Andes foot hills. Using DNA...

  6. Genetic characterization of the cacao cultivar CCN 51: its impact and significance on global cacao improvement and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in tropical growing regions of the world and particularly for small cacao farmers. Cacao production in the Americas constitutes ˜13.0% of global production. Ecuador is the second-largest cacao producer in South America and its Nacional beans are...

  7. Lipid composition of wild ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum Mart. seeds and comparison with two varieties of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, R; Bianchini, E; Bettarello, L; Sacchetti, G

    2000-03-01

    The present work analyzes the lipid fraction from seeds of wild Ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum and selected commercial varieties of Theobroma cacao from Mexico (var. Criollo) and Ecuador (var. Arriba). The lipid fraction was obtained from the seeds through supercritical fluid extraction and analysis performed by preparatory thin-layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. The results revealed that in T. subincanum the triglycerides contain fatty acids with longer chains. The melting point and peroxide and saponifiable numbers were determined for each Theobroma sample. The results lead to the conclusion that T. subincanum would produce a poorer quality butter than T. cacao. Nevertheless, the results do point toward a significant commercial use of T. subincanum for low-profile products.

  8. Propagación del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Alvarado, Rocío

    2012-01-01

    México día a día presenta un desafío en la investigación agropecuaria y forestal; porque implica el desarrollo de tecnología rentable, efectiva y práctica, que propicie el aumento de la producción en forma sostenible. Por ello, en el presente trabajo se muestran técnicas para rejuvenecer plantaciones viejas e improductivas de cacao, como alternativas viables, económicas y ecológicas, permitiendo a los productores aumentar la producción e incrementar la rentabilidad del cultivo. La rentabilid...

  9. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamayor, J C; Risterucci, A M; Lopez, P A; Ortiz, C F; Moreno, A; Lanaud, C

    2002-11-01

    Criollo cacao (Theobroma cacao ssp. cacao) was cultivated by the Mayas over 1500 years ago. It has been suggested that Criollo cacao originated in Central America and that it evolved independently from the cacao populations in the Amazon basin. Cacao populations from the Amazon basin are included in the second morphogeographic group: Forastero, and assigned to T. cacao ssp. sphaerocarpum. To gain further insight into the origin and genetic basis of Criollo cacao from Central America, RFLP and microsatellite analyses were performed on a sample that avoided mixing pure Criollo individuals with individuals classified as Criollo but which might have been introgressed with Forastero genes. We distinguished these two types of individuals as Ancient and Modern Criollo. In contrast to previous studies, Ancient Criollo individuals formerly classified as 'wild', were found to form a closely related group together with Ancient Criollo individuals from South America. The Ancient Criollo trees were also closer to Colombian-Ecuadorian Forastero individuals than these Colombian-Ecuadorian trees were to other South American Forastero individuals. RFLP and microsatellite analyses revealed a high level of homozygosity and significantly low genetic diversity within the Ancient Criollo group. The results suggest that the Ancient Criollo individuals represent the original Criollo group. The results also implies that this group does not represent a separate subspecies and that it probably originated from a few individuals in South America that may have been spread by man within Central America.

  10. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  11. Regional selection of hybrid Nacional cacao genotypes in Coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent international demand for “nacional” flavour cacao has increased the need for local cacao producers in Ecuador to use high-yielding “nacional” hybrid genotypes. The relative potential of cacao genotypes over various environments needs to be assessed prior to final selection of potential candid...

  12. Presence of heavy metals in organic cacao (theobroma cacao l.) crop

    OpenAIRE

    HuamanI-Yupanqui, Hugo Alfredo; Huauya-Rojas, Miguel Ángel; Mansilla-Minaya, Luis Germán; Florida-Rofner, Nelino; Neira-Trujillo, Gilmer Milton

    2013-01-01

    La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron...

  13. Presencia de metales pesados en cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) orgánico

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Alfredo Huamaní-Yupanqui; Miguel ángel Huauya-Rojas; Luis Germán Mansilla-Minaya; Nelino Florida-Rofner; Gilmer Milton Neira-Trujillo

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron...

  14. Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Cuéllar G.; Gloria Guerrero A.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de difusión en agar de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao, empleando cepas autóctonas y de referencia ATCC. Posteriormente, se hizo un análisis de estas fracciones por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. La ...

  15. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  16. INVENTARISASI SERANGGA PADA PERKEBUNAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO) LABORATORIUM UNIT PERLINDUNGAN TANAMAN DESA BEDULU, KECAMATAN BLAHBATUH, KABUPATEN GIANYAR, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. A. PRADANA PUTRA; NI LUH WATINIASIH; NI MADE SUARTINI

    2011-01-01

    Bali has the potency to grow plantation, particularly cacao plants (Theobroma cacao). The increase of cacao production is supported by the increase of the number of productive cacao plants, but the production rate per hectare per year decreased at some districts. One reason of the decreasing cacao production was due to the attack of Plant Disease Organism. This research aimed to investigate the insect families associated with cacao plantations and the fuctions of the insects on cacao plants, ...

  17. Coffee vs. Cacao: A Case Study from the Vietnamese Central Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dang Thanh; Shively, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Nam, the vice chair of a village in Dak Lak province of Vietnam, was keen to protect farmers in his village from the sharp decline in prices of coffee ("Coffea canephora" Pierre ex Froehner). He did this by encouraging farmers in his village to plant cacao ("Theobroma cacao" L. subsp. "cacao"). Cacao was suitable to the soil and climate of the…

  18. Productividad y rentabilidad potencial del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) en el trópico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Espinosa-García; Jesús Uresti-Gil; Alejandra Vélez-Izquierdo; Georgel Moctezuma-López; Héctor Daniel Inurreta-Aguirre; Sergio Fernando Góngora-González

    2015-01-01

    Con el objetivo de identificar el potencial productivo del cultivo del cacao a nivel de unidad de respuesta hidrológica (URH), cuenca y estado, considerando el rendimiento y la relación beneficio costo (R B/C), se realizó este trabajo, en los principales estados productores del Trópico Húmedo de México. Para ello se simuló y cartografió el rendimiento potencial de biomasa aérea total y grano de cacao en 9 estados del Sur-sureste de México y se identificaron las áreas con mayor potencial para ...

  19. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarriaga. Eduardo

    1940-09-01

    Full Text Available El sombrío constituye uno de los problemas que se presentan en el cultivo del cacao, de necesaria resolución para ayuda del agricultor en su labor al producir tan importante grano. Contribuye a la economía del cultivo un conocimiento amplio de la cuestión que debe preocupar al productor inquiriendo no solamente por lo acostumbrado en la región, sino por lo que en otras partes se conoce sobre el particular, para abandonar un poco el emperismo y hacer una industria cada día más próspera. Como razón a favor del sombrío, tenemos los países en donde se produce cacao de fina calidad; Trinidad, Venezuela. Nicaragua, siempre acostumbran la sombra; y sin ir muy lejos, en el Valle del Cauca, donde no se cultiva a pleno sol y se obtienen plantaciones de larga duración y producto superior, es bien conocido el beneficio de ella; allí, los agricultores conocen los desastrosos efectos que ocasiona la falta de sombra, cuando por cualquier causa mueren los árboles que la suministran. Por tanto, en este estudio indicaremos el uso de la sombra para el cacao, como el medio de conservar la fertilidad y buenas condiciones del suelo, obtener buenos rendimientos y asegurar larga vida a la plantación.

  20. A genetically anchored physical map of the cacao genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars Incorporated and the United States Department of Agriculture have undertaken the sequencing of the genome of Theobroma cacao, which produces cocoa beans, the key ingredient in chocolate. Genetic information, such as whole genome sequence is necessary to better understand and improve cacao. In m...

  1. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure in wild stands of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims The native cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana represent an important fraction of genetic diversity of this species. Several scientific surveys have led to the collection of germplasm accessions from south-eastern French Guiana, which provides an ideal opportunit...

  3. Comparison of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones for the effect of pollination intensity on fruit set and seed content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falque, M.; Lesdalons, C.; Eskes, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    We compared the influence of pollination intensity (PI) on fruit set and seed number per pod in two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones, IFC5 (Forastero Lower-Amazon Amelonado), which is self-compatible and known to produce a high number of seeds per pod under open pollination, and SCA6 (Forastero Upp

  4. Presencia de metales pesados en cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. orgánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alfredo Huamaní-Yupanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron análisis de correlación de Pearson entre los contenidos de plomo y cadmio disponibles en el suelo con variables foliares (P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Pb y del suelo (arena, arcilla y K. En los suelos, sólo en el caso de potasio se presentan deficiencias; mientras que en el tejido foliar se presentaron deficiencias de N, P, K, Mg y Zn. Los valores promedio de cadmio y plomo disponible en los suelos fueron 0.53 y 3.02 ppm y en las hojas de cacao de 0.21 y 0.58 ppm respectivamente.

  5. Genetic diversity of naturalized cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of genetically diverse cacao with disease resistance, high productivity and desirable organoleptic traits is vitally important to the agricultural crop’s long-term sustainability. Environmental changes, pests and diseases as well as nation’s sovereign property rights have led to a de...

  6. The interaction of Theobroma cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease, during parthenocarpy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of Theobroma cacao L. flower cushions by Moniliophthora perniciosa induces parthenocarpy. Healthy and parthenocarpic immature cacao pods were obtained from seven cacao clones. Microscopic observations of parthenocarpic pods confirmed fruits lack viable seed. Septate mycelium colonized part...

  7. Evidence of cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2009-02-17

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of ceramic vessels from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reveal theobromine, a biomarker for cacao. With an estimated 800 rooms, Pueblo Bonito is the largest archaeological site in Chaco Canyon and was the center of a large number of interconnected towns and villages spread over northwestern New Mexico. The cacao residues come from pieces of vessels that are likely cylinder jars, special containers occurring almost solely at Pueblo Bonito and deposited in caches at the site. This first known use of cacao drinks north of the Mexican border indicates exchange with cacao cultivators in Mesoamerica in a time frame of about A.D. 1000-1125. The association of cylinder jars and cacao beverages suggests that the Chacoan ritual involving the drinking of cacao was tied to Mesoamerican rituals incorporating cylindrical vases and cacao. The importance of Pueblo Bonito within the Chacoan world likely lies in part with the integration of Mesoamerican ritual, including critical culinary ingredients.

  8. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer varieties of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) from Honduras and Nicaragua as revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the main source for chocolate with an annual production of four million tons worldwide. This Neotropical tree crop was domesticated in Mesoamerica as far back as 3,000 years ago. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure in farmer varieties of cacao in the...

  9. Apuntes Sobre el Cultivo del Cacao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Horacio Ochoa

    1940-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se hablara del proceso de fermentación del cacao, pero antes de entrar a detallar este proceso, es conveniente dar algunas anotaciones sobre los sistemas de recolección o “cosecha” empleados en distintos lugares, pues ellos tienen sus diferencias y en ocasiones no se efectúan con todo el cuidado necesario tanto para el árbol como para el producto que irá a los depósitos de fermentación.

  10. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fupeng Li; Chaoyun Hao; Lin Yan; Baoduo Wu; Xiaowei Qin; Jianxiong Lai; Yinghui Song

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  11. PROCESADORA Y COMERCIALIZADORA DE PASTA DE CACAO Y SUS DERIVADOS EN ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Pabón-Andrade, Johana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de fin de master tiene como objetivo realizar un plan de negocios de una empresa dedicada al procesamiento y comercialización de pasta de cacao y sus derivados en Ecuador. Las actividades de la empresa consistirán en comprar cacao, sin ningún procesamiento y transformarlo en pasta de cacao. A lo largo de este proceso se producen derivados como manteca de cacao, pulpa de cacao, cascara, ceniza de cacao, que junto con las pasta serán comercializados tanto dentro como fuer...

  12. Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cuéllar G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de difusión en agar de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao, empleando cepas autóctonas y de referencia ATCC. Posteriormente, se hizo un análisis de estas fracciones por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. La fracción clorofórmica presentó actividad antibacteriana frente a Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 y Streptococcus agalactiae (autóctona, con porcentajes de inhibición de 34.90% (100 μg/μl y 52.40% (100 μg/μl respectivamente. También se evidenció una concentración mínima inhibitoria de 512 μg/ml frente a Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 y de 128 μg/ml frente a Streptococcus agalactiae. Conclusiones. Este trabajo es el primer reporte a saber en Colombia sobre actividad antibacteriana in vitro de la cáscara de cacao, el cual resulta ser un avance importante para esta agroindustria. Esta investigación abre paso a otros estudios relacionados para establecer el espectro de inhibición frente a otros microorganismos.

  13. Evidence of cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Crown, Patricia L.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of ceramic vessels from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reveal theobromine, a biomarker for cacao. With an estimated 800 rooms, Pueblo Bonito is the largest archaeological site in Chaco Canyon and was the center of a large number of interconnected towns and villages spread over northwestern New Mexico. The cacao residues come from pieces of vessels that are likely cylinder jars, special containers occurring almost solely at Pueblo ...

  14. Biodiversity of small mammals in cacao agroforests in Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Paterová, Linda

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of the deforestation of tropical rain forests is caused by small-scale farmers. Traditional slash-and-burn systems with prolonged fallow periods are no longer feasible in most parts of the tropics. However, agroforests could have great potential to increase the productivity of farming systems and sustain continuous crop production. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests that maintains a high proportion of shade trees in a diverse structure is being viewed as a sustainable land...

  15. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi

    1980-09-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cacao swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed.

  16. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarriaga Eduardo

    1940-06-01

    Full Text Available Se acostumbra en las empresas de cacao adoptar diferentes sistemas de siembra en las plantaciones, de acuerdo con la región y conocimientos del empresario. Uno de ellos es sembrar directamente la semilla en su lugar definitivo, sin más cuidados que hacer un pequeño hoyo donde se deposita el grano y algunas veces dos o más. Con esto se busca economizar los gastos de almácigos y trasplante, ahorro que no compensa las pérdidas que se tienen por el poco cuidado que se da a las planticas, por las resiembras constantes y el atraso en su desarrollo. La planta de cacao es muy delicada y requiere cuidados especiales para defenderla de sus enemigos naturales del mal tiempo y favorecerla en su desarrollo, Estos no pueden prestarse a las plantas en el campo por la extensión de éste; no se puede combatir con facilidad una enfermedad o plaga, ni mantener el terreno libre de malezas, pues la desyerba mensual sería arruinadora y el cuidado para estar al tanto de su desarrollo y corregir los desperfectos sería tarea laboriosa y lenta. Una planta pequeña en un campo extenso se destruye fácilmente por el tránsito de los trabajadores que cosechan los cultivos auxiliares; la pérdida de una de ellas significa un retraso de meses en el desarrollo de la nueva que la repone y una desigualdad en el cultivo. Por estas razones y otras causas, una plantación iniciada en su lugar definitivo es de un crecimiento lento desesperante, y sólo después de muchos meses de lucha, planticas aisladas empiezan a mostrar un desarrollo aceptable.

  17. Cacao yield in different planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Spaggiari Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of six planting densities on cacao yield of a commercial hybrid mixture as well as the interaction of planting densities with the years were investigated. Crop data collected over a 14-year period (1977-1990 showed that it was possible to optimise the regional cacao yields by implementing high planting densities (2500 and 1736 trees ha-1. This was however only true for the first half of the crop period. In the second half, low planting density (1059 trees ha-1 attained the best yields. This change in the ranking of planting densities over the years confirmed the presence of density-year interaction. Alternatives to achieve high productivity in high planting density systems were presented and discussed.O efeito de seis densidades de plantio sobre a produção de um híbrido comercial de cacau, bem como a interação das densidades com os anos, foi investigado. Dados coletados do cultivo por 14 anos (1977-1990 mostraram que é possível otimizar a produção de cacau da região implementando uma alta densidade populacional (2500 e 1736 plantas ha-1. Todavia, isto se verificou apenas para a primeira metade do período de cultivo. Na segunda metade, a baixa densidade (1059 plantas ha-1 foi superior em produção. Esta mudança na densidade com o passar dos anos foi confirmada pela presença da interação densidades por anos. Alternativas para alcançar elevadas produtividades nos sistemas com altas densidades foram apresentadas e discutidas.

  18. Optimization of a SNP assay for Genotyping Theobroma cacao under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical tree crop Theobroma cacao L. is grown commercially for its beans, which are used in the production of cocoa butter and chocolate. Although the upper Amazon region is the center of origin for cacao, 70% of the world’s supply of cacao beans currently comes from small farms in West Africa...

  19. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium contaminated soils under cacao plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils...

  20. Cacao Intensification in Sulawesi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-09-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates techniques to improve cacao farming in Sulawesi Indonesia with an emphasis on Farmer Field Schools and Cocoa Development Centers to educate farmers and for train the trainer programs. The study estimates the economic viability of cacao farming if smallholder implement techniques to increase yield as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  1. ¿Cuál Variedad de Cacao Debemos Sembrar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarriaga Misas Eduardo

    1941-08-01

    Full Text Available A mediados del año 34 se comenzaba a despertar el interés entre los agricultores una variedad de cacao denominada "injerto". También se iniciaban campañas en diferentes regiones del país para fomentar la siembra de caco "Pajarito" de Antioquia. Estas dos y el tipo "criollo" como pudiera llamarse la variedad que se ha tenido en cultivo en el Cauca, son es nuestro concepto las que han de bajarse en la discusión que se establezca alrededor del tema "¿Cuál variedad de cacao debemos sembrar?

  2. ¿cuál variedad de cacao debemos sembrar?

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarriaga Misas Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A mediados del año 34 se comenzaba a despertar el interés entre los agricultores una variedad de cacao denominada "injerto". También se iniciaban campañas en diferentes regiones del país para fomentar la siembra de caco "Pajarito" de Antioquia. Estas dos y el tipo "criollo" como pudiera llamarse la variedad que se ha tenido en cultivo en el Cauca, son es nuestro concepto las que han de bajarse en la discusión que se establezca alrededor del tema "¿Cuál variedad de cacao debemos sembrar?

  3. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  4. Study of Seed Germination by Soaking Methode of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of germination methods conduct to get information about seed viability based on germination rate, percentage of germination and vigority. Germination methods was studied to get the efficiency and effectivity of germination, easy to handle, low costs with high vigority. Sand and gunny sack methods  for germination, need extensive place  and 3-4 days germination period after planting. This research will study the alternative of germination method with soaking. This method can be accelerating  germination rate and effectively place usage without decreasing the quality of cacao seedling.The research was done at Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institue. This research consist of two experiment was arranged based on factorial completely random design. First experiment will observed to compared germination rate and the second experiment will observed seedling quality between soaking and wet gunny sack germination method.The results showed that length of radicel on soaking method longer than wet gunny sack method. Growth of radicel started from 2 hours after soaking, moreover length of radicel at 4 hours after soaking have significant different value with gunny sack method. On 24 hours after soaking have 3,69 mm and 0,681 mm on wet gunny sack treatment. Except lengt of hipocotyl, there is not different condition between seedling that out came  from soaking and wet gunny sack method. Length of hipocotyl on 36 hours after soaking have 9,15 cm and significant different between wet gunny sack germination method that have 5,40 cm. Keywords : seed germination, soaking method, Theobroma cacao L., cocoa seedlings

  5. Intersterility, morphology and taxonomy of Ceratocystis fimbriata on sweet potato, cacao and sycamore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Christine J Baker; Harrington, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a large, diverse complex of species that cause wilt-type diseases of many economically important plants. Previous studies have shown that isolates in three monophyletic lineages within the Latin American clade of C. fimbriata are host-specialized to cacao (Theobroma cacao), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and sycamore (Platanus spp.), respectively. We paired testers of opposite mating type from isolates of these lineages to find intersterility groups. Two intersterility groups corresponded to the sweet potato and sycamore lineages, respectively. The cacao lineage contained two intersterility groups, corresponding to two genetic sublineages centered in western Ecuador and Brazil/Costa Rica/Colombia. Six isolates from cacao that were not members of the cacao lineage and were not pathogenic to cacao in an earlier study also were intersterile with members of the two cacao intersterility groups. Some pairings between testers from different lineages or sublineages yielded perithecia from which a few abnormal progeny could be recovered, typical of interspecific hybrids. These progeny showed abnormal segregation of the MAT-2 gene and mycelial morphology, showing that they were indeed the result of crosses. Isolates of the sweet potato, cacao, and sycamore lineages were indistinguishable morphologically except for the presence or absence of a doliform (barrel-shaped) conidial state and minor differences in size of perithecial bases and necks and ascospores. C. fimbriata originally was described from sweet potato. We describe the cacao pathogen as a new species, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta and we raise the sycamore pathogen from a form to species Ceratocystis platani.

  6. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  7. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authenticity and traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important tropical crop since it is the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industry. Production and marketing of premium high-value fine flavored cacao provide opportunities for cacao growers, the chocolate industry and consumers. The higher far...

  8. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Horacio

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available Por muchos años permaneció el cultivo del cacao en nuestro país, en un deplorable atraso técnico; el agricultor a duras penas si tenía conocimientos generales de su explotación y, de una industria que tuvo su auge debido a la extensividad de las plantaciones, hoy sólo resta una reducida porción de ella. ¿Qué factores operaron esa tan notoria reducción hasta el punto de que exportadores en otros tiempos nos convertimos en importadores obligados de ese producto? Hay muchas razones de orden técnico y de orden económico. Los cacaotaleros obtenían halagadoras retribuciones cuando el jornal consistía en la alimentación que se le daba a la peonada y cuando, generoso, añadía una sobretasa en dinero. Bajo ese sistema de explotación, el descuadre que pudiera ocasionar tanto las enfermedades criptogámicas como los plagas, no era suficiente como para provocar el pesimismo en el hacendado y por tanto inducirlo al abandono de la plantación. A medida que las condiciones sociales del campesino se fueron modificando y su standard de vida aumentaba, cambió fundamentalmente el mecanismo de la industria Se observó entonces que los árboles morían y que era pobre la producción; que lo que en tiempos pasados fuera un negocio lucrativo, se les había convertido en una actividad improductiva y, para controlar estos fenómenos que se generalizaban en todas las zonas cacaotaleras, opusieron la ignorancia, el rutinarismo y la desidia. Lentamente se han ido modificando los conceptos antiguos sobre el trabajo cultural y los cuidados que con relación a las enfermedades y plagas requiere este delicado cultivo; la rutina está echando paso atrás y las experiencias científicas que procuran la prosperidad del plantío, se ponen en práctica en algunas zonas . Esto da esperanza para la reconstitución de la industria cacaotalera en nuestro país, que cuenta con inmensas regiones de óptima calidad para hacerla florecer sobre bases nuevas, con

  9. Cacao in México: Restrictive factors and productivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz-José

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. represents one of the most important agricultural crops of the humid Mexican tropics. In the last 10 yr, approximately 23.000 t of this grain were no longer produced per cycle. The objective of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that restrict production in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. A survey was applied to obtain information about 184 producers and their plantations by two-stage sampling. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multilevel models were adjusted to analyze the information. Results show that there are differences (P < 0.05 in cacao yield between municipalities (380 kg ha-1 + u,o j is the estimated residual for each municipality. Crop productivity levels are higher in the state of Tabasco than in Chiapas (644 and 344 kg ha-1, respectively. Incidence of frosty pod rot of cacoa, also known as moniliasis, induced by Moniliophthora roreri [(Cif H.C. Evans, Stalpers, Samson & Benny 1978] is significantly greater (P < 0.05 in the state of Chiapas (60% than in Tabasco (48%.Producers who carry out more crop management practices increase yields and decrease the pathogen's impact on their plantations. Results suggest the need to apply differentiated public policies to promote production within each region or municipality.

  10. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ~4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification pr...

  11. Foraging ecology of howler monkeys in a cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantation in Comalcalco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Estrada, Alejandro; Naranjo, Eduardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2006-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that primate populations may persist in neotropical fragmented landscapes by using arboreal agroecosystems, which may provide temporary habitats, increased areas of vegetation, and connectivity, among other benefits. However, limited data are available on how primates are able to sustain themselves in such manmade habitats. We report the results of a 9-month-long investigation of the feeding ecology of a troop of howler monkeys (n = 24) that have lived for the past 25 years in a 12-ha cacao plantation in the lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. A vegetation census indicated the presence of 630 trees (> or =20 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)) of 32 shade species in the plantation. The howlers used 16 plant species (13 of which were trees) as sources of leaves, fruits, and flowers. Five shade tree species (Ficus cotinifolia, Pithecellobium saman, Gliricidia sepium, F. obtusifolia, and Ficus sp.) accounted for slightly over 80% of the total feeding time and 78% of the total number trees (n = 139) used by the howlers, and were consistently used by the howlers from month to month. The howlers spent an average of 51% of their monthly feeding time exploiting young leaves, 29% exploiting mature fruit, and 20% exploiting flowers and other plant items. Monthly consumption of young leaves varied from 23% to 67%, and monthly consumption of ripe fruit varied from 12% to 64%. Differences in the protein-to-fiber ratio of young vs. mature leaves influenced diet selection by the monkeys. The howlers used 8.3 ha of the plantation area, and on average traveled 388 m per day in each month. The howlers preferred tree species whose contribution to the total tree biomass and density was above average for the shade-tree population in the plantation. Given the right conditions of management and protection, shaded arboreal plantations in fragmented landscapes can sustain segments of howler monkey populations for many decades. PMID:16429417

  12. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  13. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-01

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate. PMID:27020745

  14. Karakteristik Kimia Biji Kakao terhadap Posisi Buah di Pohon Kakao Lindak (Theobroma Cacao L)

    OpenAIRE

    Langkong, Jumriah

    2014-01-01

    Cacao has flavor and specific aroma. The society can be consumed in food industry that needs specific details in cacao processing. The aim of the research was to find out cauliflora and reamiflora fruit towards the fruit location that produced on advanced processing. There are treatments for branch, tree and twig, The analyzed treatments specially for water content, fat content, ash content and pH to find out cacao qualities and location. The result achieved of water content (5.08%-5.36%), fa...

  15. Organic cacao chain for development: The case of the Talamanca small-farmers association

    OpenAIRE

    Slingerland, M.A.; Díaz Gonzalez, E.

    2006-01-01

    In de Talamanca region in Costa Rica cocoa production was abandoned in the late 1970s when yields dropped to zero due to Monilia. In the early 1990s, the Talamanca Small-Farmers association (APPTA) gained success in promoting its revival. By creating contacts with buyers of organic cacao in the United States, APPTA was able to certify a significant area of cacao and to start exporting to the USA. Organic cacao had positive effects on farmers¿ income and on the environment. Recently a number o...

  16. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.)Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye; A.S Ogunlowo; O.J. Olukunle

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster dryi...

  17. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  18. ADMINISTRATION OF CACAO BEANS (Theobroma cacao L. EXTRACTS DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASE BLOOD NOx CONCENTRATION IN WHITE RAT (Ra"us norvegicus INDUCED BY PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Wiryanthini IA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS causing accumulation of oxidative damage caused by exceeding anti oxidant capacity in the body. Psychological stress as psychosocial stress can induce oxidative stress which subsequently cause increase blood malondialdehyde (MDA and decrease blood nitrate and nitrite (NOx concentration as intermediate product of nitric oxide (NO. Cacao beans extracts contained anti oxidant flavanols consist of catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aims of this study is to investigate the effect of cacao beans (Theobroma cacao L. extracts for decreasing MDA and increasing NOx concentration in white rat (Ra$us norvegicus blood in stress oxidative state induced by psychosocial stress. It is an experimental study with Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. This study revealed decrease MDA concentration in group P1 (11.47 vs 8.04, P2 (11.92 vs 5.44 and P3 (11.69 vs 2.87 with P = 0.000 and increase NOx concentration in oxidative stress white rat induced by psychosocial stress a[er administration of cacao beans extract in group P1 (1909.83 vs 2085.16, P2 (1912.5 vs 2231.83 and P3 (1871.5 vs 2339.83 with P = 0.005. This study showed that cacao beans extract can inhibit oxidative stress caused by psychosocial stress.

  19. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-15

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application.

  20. Production and robustness of a Cacao agroecosystem: effects of two contrasting types of management strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Sabatier

    Full Text Available Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer. Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation.

  1. Production and Robustness of a Cacao Agroecosystem: Effects of Two Contrasting Types of Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Wiegand, Kerstin; Meyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella) and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer). Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation. PMID:24312469

  2. Suppressive effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Midori; Baba, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that the cacao polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin and its oligomers, prevent in vitro and ex vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by free radical generators and metal ions and also reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice. Mice aged 8 weeks (n = 90) were randomized into three groups, and fed either normal mouse chow (controls) or chow supplemented with 0.25 or 0.40 % cacao polyphenols for 16 weeks. The mean plaque area in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk was measured and found to be lower in the 0.25 % cacao polyphenol group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Pathological observations showed that accumulation of cholesterol crystals in the plaque area was greater in the control group compared with the 0.40 % cacao polyphenol group (p < 0.05). Immunochemical staining in the 0.25 and 0.40 % groups showed that expression of the cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) and production of oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal, hexanoyl-lysine, and dityrosine) were reduced in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  3. Antitumor activity against murine lymphoma L5178Y model of proteins from cacao (Theobroma cacao L. seeds in relation with in vitro antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugo Eugenia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, proteins and peptides have become an added value to foodstuffs due to new knowledge about its structural analyses as related to antioxidant and anticancer activity. Our goal was to evaluate if protein fractions from cacao seeds show antitumor activity on lymphoma murine L5178Y model. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was also evaluated with the aim of finding a correlation with the antitumor activity. Methods Differential extraction of proteins from unfermented and semi-fermented-dry cacao seeds was performed and characterized by SDS-PAGE and FPLC size-exclusion chromatography. Antitumor activity was evaluated against murine lymphoma L5178Y in BALB/c mice (6 × 104 cells i.p., with a treatment oral dose of 25 mg/kg/day of each protein fraction, over a period of 15 days. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS+ and ORAC-FL assays. Results Albumin, globulin and glutelin fractions from both cacao seed type were obtained by differential solubility extraction. Glutelins were the predominant fraction. In the albumin fraction, polypeptides of 42.3 and 8.5 kDa were found in native conditions, presumably in the form of two peptide chains of 21.5 kDa each one. The globulin fraction presented polypeptides of 86 and 57 kDa in unfermented cacao seed that produced the specific-cacao aroma precursors, and after fermentation the polypeptides were of 45 and 39 kDa. The glutelin fraction presented proteins >200 kDa and globulins components Conclusion This study is the first report on the biological activity of semifermented-dry cacao protein fractions with their identification, supporting the traditional use of the plant. The albumin fraction showed antitumor and free radical scavenging capacity, however both activities were not correlated. The protein fractions could be considered as source of potential antitumor peptides.

  4. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao) y coco (Cocos nucifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Román Jiménez Vera; Nicolás González Cortés; Arturo Magaña Contreras; Alma Corona Cruz

    2010-01-01

    El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco), aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de ferme...

  5. Evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias diazótrofas aisladas de suelos con cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Zulay Argüello-Navarro; Laura Yolima Moreno-Rozo

    2014-01-01

    La adaptabilidad del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) en condiciones adversas permite sugerir que la microbiota asociada con la rizosfera desempeña una función importante para la nutrición y el desarrollo de la planta. En el trabajo se evaluó el potencial biofertilizante de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno (diazótrofas) aisladas de suelos cacaoteros por la técnica de diluciones seriadas. Las bacterias se aislaron en medios semiselectivos (NFb, JMV, LGI, JNFb). Los aislados puros se caracterizaron m...

  6. BASES PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA EN EL CULTIVO DEL CACAO (Theobroma cacao, Lin) POR MEDIO DEL CRITERIO DE EXPERTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Giclis M. Suárez; René Florido Bacallao; Francisco Soto Carreño; Alberto Caballero Núñez

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cacao (Theobroma cacao, Lin) por medio del criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi. Se seleccionaron expertos de diferentes esferas y se determinó el nivel de experticia y el nivel de competencia de cada experto respecto a la problemática relacionada con la definición de los factores que definen la ubicación del cultivo. Para ello se elaboró y aplicó un sistema de rondas de preguntas o cues...

  7. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate and is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao in the Americas. This Basidiomycete only infects cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty ...

  8. Nutritional content explains the attractiveness of cacao to crop raiding Tonkean macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin P.RILEY; Barbara TOLBERT; Wartika R.FARIDA

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional ecology has been linked to crop raiding behavior in a number of wildlife taxa.Here our goal is to explore the role nutrition plays in cacao crop raiding by Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana in Sulawesi,Indonesia.From June-Sept.2008 we collected fruit samples from 13 species known to be important Tonkean macaque foods and compared their nutritional value to that of cacao Theobroma cacao,an important cash crop in Sulawesi.Cacao pulp was significantly lower in protein,but lower in dietary fiber,and higher in digestible carbohydrates and energy content compared to forest fruits.These fmdings,combined with the fact that cacao fruits are spatially concentrated and available throughout the year,likely explain why Tonkean macaques are attracted to this cultivated resource.We use these data along with published feeding ecology data to propose strategies to minimize human-macaque conflict.Namely,we recommend the deliberate protection of Elmerillila tsiampaccca,Ficus spp.and Arenga pinnata,fruit species known to be regularly consumed and of considerable nutritional value.We also identify the A.pinnata palm as a potential buffer resource to curb cacao crop raiding by macaques.Cacao is a hard-to-process food because the pods have a thick outer skin that encases the seeds and pulp.Aren palm fruit,although lower in digestibility,is easier-to-process,higher in protein,and also available year round.In addition,because the palm has considerable cultural and economic significance for local people,the strategy of planting Aren palm in a buffer corridor is likely to garner local community support.

  9. Immunomodulatory properties of cacao extracts – potential consequences for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eBecker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory properties of cacao, fruits of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae, are well documented, and therapeutic applications are described for gastrointestinal, nervous and cardiovascular abnormalities. Most, if not all of these disease conditions involve inflammation or immune activation processes. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ and related biochemical pathways like tryptophan breakdown by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and neopterin formation are deeply involved in their pathogenesis. Neopterin concentrations and the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an estimate of IDO activity are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with virus infections, cancer, autoimmune syndrome, neurodegeneration and coronary artery disease. Moreover, higher neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations are indicative for poor prognosis. When investigating the effect of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of cacao on IFN-γ, neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations in mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, breakdown of tryptophan by IDO and formation of neopterin and IFN-γ were dose-dependently suppressed. The effects observed in the cell-based assays are associated with the antioxidant activity of the cacao extracts as determined by the cell-free oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC assay. The influence of cacao extracts on IDO activity could be of particular relevance for some of the beneficial health effects ascribed to cacao: tryptophan breakdown by IDO is strongly involved in immunoregulation, and the diminished availability of tryptophan limits the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter serotonin. The inhibition of tryptophan breakdown by cacao constituents could thus be relevant not only for immune system restoration in patients, but also contribute to mood elevation and thereby improve quality of life. However, the available data thus far are merely in vitro only and future studies need to be investigated.

  10. Nutritional content explains the attractiveness of cacao to crop raiding Tonkean macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P. RILEY, Barbara TOLBERT, Wartika R. FARIDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ecology has been linked to crop raiding behavior in a number of wildlife taxa. Here our goal is to explore the role nutrition plays in cacao crop raiding by Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana in Sulawesi, Indonesia. From June – Sept 2008 we collected fruit samples from 13 species known to be important Tonkean macaque foods and compared their nutritional value to that of cacao Theobroma cacao, an important cash crop in Sulawesi. Cacao pulp was significantly lower in protein, but lower in dietary fiber, and higher in digestible carbohydrates and energy content compared to forest fruits. These findings, combined with the fact that cacao fruits are spatially concentrated and available throughout the year, likely explain why Tonkean macaques are attracted to this cultivated resource. We use these data along with published feeding ecology data to propose strategies to minimize human-macaque conflict. Namely, we recommend the deliberate protection of Elmerillila tsiampaccca, Ficus spp. and Arenga pinnata, fruit species known to be regularly consumed and of considerable nutritional value. We also identify the A. pinnata palm as a potential buffer resource to curb cacao crop raiding by macaques. Cacao is a hard-to-process food because the pods have a thick outer skin that encases the seeds and pulp. Aren palm fruit, although lower in digestibility, is easier-to-process, higher in protein, and also available year round. In addition, because the palm has considerable cultural and economic significance for local people, the strategy of planting Aren palm in a buffer corridor is likely to garner local community support [Current Zoology 59 (2: 160–169, 2013].

  11. Determinacion de parámetros y simulación matemática del proceso de secado de cacao (Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Villamizar de Borrero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio sobre la producción de cacao en Colombia, y el incremento notable, debido principalmente al aumento en el área cultivada y a los mayores rendimientos por hectárea obtenidos.

  12. POPULATION OF HELICOTYLENCHUS sp AND APHELENCHUS sp NEMATODES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF CACAO (Theobroma cacao L.) UNDER TRADITIONAL AND IMPROVED FOREST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode population associated with cocoa rhizosphere was investigated at field experiment at Tropical Crop Institute (ICT) Tarapoto, San Martin-Peru. This study was carried out under two cacao management systems: traditional management system (ST) and under improved forest management system (SBB). ...

  13. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  14. Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

  15. Photosynthetic photon flux density, carbon dioxide concentration, and vapor pressure deficit effects on photosynthesis in cacao seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a shade plant, native to the under-story of the evergreen rain forest of the Amazon basin and adapted to low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The influence of PPFD, leaf to air water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and external carbon dioxide concentration...

  16. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  17. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg−1) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg−1, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg−1. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg−1), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg−1, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil Cd contamination is likely

  18. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-López, Nidia; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos H; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations) and genetic origin (based on a previous study). We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels) types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038). Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80) with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1) for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach) and four genetic groups (genetic approach). This common haplotype (ancient) derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (F ST = 0) and SAMOVA (F ST = 0.04393) results. One population (Mazatán) showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding.

  19. The CACAO Method for Smoothing, Gap Filling, and Characterizing Seasonal Anomalies in Satellite Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent, continuous, and long time series of global biophysical variables derived from satellite data are required for global change research. A novel climatology fitting approach called CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) is proposed to reduce noise and fill gaps in time series by scaling and shifting the seasonal climatological patterns to the actual observations. The shift and scale CACAO parameters adjusted for each season allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. CACAO was assessed first over simulated daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) time series with varying fractions of missing data and noise. Then, performances were analyzed over actual satellite LAI products derived from AVHRR Long-Term Data Record for the 1981-2000 period over the BELMANIP2 globally representative sample of sites. Comparison with two widely used temporal filtering methods-the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) model and the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter as implemented in TIMESAT-revealed that CACAO achieved better performances for smoothing AVHRR time series characterized by high level of noise and frequent missing observations. The resulting smoothed time series captures well the vegetation dynamics and shows no gaps as compared to the 50-60% of still missing data after AG or SG reconstructions. Results of simulation experiments as well as confrontation with actual AVHRR time series indicate that the proposed CACAO method is more robust to noise and missing data than AG and SG methods for phenology extraction.

  20. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  1. Sieving Effect of Sorting Machine with Vibration Table Type on Cacao Pod Based Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswoyo Soekarno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cacao pod is the biggest part (70% of weight of Cacao, which was not optimaly utilized.Cacao podis one of organic material that can be functioned as an organic fertilizer, such as compost. When utilizedwith right proportion, organic fertilizer is safe for plants and not degrades the soil composition. Compostingprocess is one of utilization form of Cacao pod. The size reduction of cacao pod in the organic fertilizerprocess would help to accelerate the composting process. Smaller particle size would faster interacting withenvironment, so the composting process would be well accelerated if compared to the material with biggersize. Chopping machine of Cacao pod is used to cut the biomass to be small particle in order to be able tobe utilized as some important necessity, i.e. fertilizer or farm animals feed. However, Varies compost sizewas one of the problems faced in the composting process. Therefore, the sorting process was needed tobe done after chopping process, so the compost size became uniform and fulfill the user demand. Thisresearch was aimed at knowing the slope effect of sorting machine and rotation speed (RPM. The methodused in analyzing the results of this research was comparing the treatment factors, which are shown withhistogram. As the super small size of compost recommended for applying in the fertilizing process, so theoptimum treatment combination for having high mass fraction of SS compost grade was achieved at 12oslope of sieve table and 1400 RPM motor rotation speed. As bigger the particle densities of the compostsize as smaller the compost porosity. Mass loss was very low at all treatment combination with the valuearound 0.43-1.33%, so the sieving efficiency can be said very high.

  2. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster drying process was observed at a higher drying temperature resulting in higher drying rates which is advantageous when evaluating costs. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to predict effective diffusivity using experimental data assuming that the variation of diffusivity with temperature can be expressed by an Arrhenius type function, and the values of diffusivity obtained ranged from 6.137 x 10-10 to 2.1855 x 10-9 m2 s-1 for the temperature used. The Arrhenius constant (D is predicted at 8.64 x 10-4 m2 s-1 while the activation energy was predicted at 39.94 kJ mol-1.El cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es ampliamente producido en el Oeste de África y Sudamérica y es un cultivo de gran importancia económica, con muchos usos industriales. En este trabajo se investigó la cinética del secado experimental de especies foráneas, y se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones isotérmicas, usando un secador discontinuo en caliente a 55, 70 y 81 °C. Los datos de relación de humedad obtenidos desde el cambio de contenido de humedad con el tiempo de secado se ajustaron a un modelo de secado de dos capas delgadas con buenos resultados. Se observó un proceso de secado más rápido a una temperatura de secado mayor resultando en mayores tasas de secado, lo que es ventajoso al evaluar costos. La segunda ley de difusión de Fick se usó para predecir difusividad efectiva usando datos experimentales, asumiendo que la variación de difusividad con la temperatura puede ser

  3. Respon pertumbuhan bibit kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap pemberian pupuk guano dan KCl

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagukguk, Pispa

    2015-01-01

    Addition of Guano in Cultivation of Cacao Seedling is the one of step to use organic fertilizer that comes from animal feces in the world. For that purpose addition guano aims to increase growth of Cacao in Cultivation of Seedling. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 - January 2014 using factorial randomized block design with two factor, i.e. addition dose of Guano (0, 75 , 150 , 225 g/polibag) and dose of KCl (0 , ...

  4. DESCRIPTION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MEXICAN CRIOLLO CACAO DURING POST-­ HARVEST PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    P. García-­Alamilla; V.W. González-Lauck; E de la Cruz-Lázaro; L.M. Lagunes­-Gálvez; R. García-Alamilla

    2012-01-01

    Cacao pod and bean characteristics are indicators of quality, productivity and production,while beans physical properties are required to design processing equipment for handling, transportation and storage. Description of physical properties of a Mexican criollo type cacao where made in function of moisture content during the post harvest processing process. The average moisture content was from 1.075 to 0.064 g g-1 dry mater from harvest to storage. The bean index ranged from 1.38 to 1.48 ...

  5. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  6. Dissimilarity of Ant Communities Increases with Precipitation, but not Reduced Land-Use Intensity, in Indonesian Cacao Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Buchori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-use degradation and climate change are well-known drivers of biodiversity loss, but little information is available about their potential interaction. Here, we focus on the effects of land-use and precipitation on ant diversity in cacao agroforestry. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, we selected 16 cacao agroforestry plots with a shaded vs. unshaded plot in each of eight villages differing in precipitation (1032–2051 mm annual rainfall. On each plot, 10 cacao trees with similar size and age (7–10 years were selected for hand collection of ants on each cacao tree and the soil surface. In total, we found 80 ant species belonging to five subfamilies. Land-use intensification (removal of shade trees and precipitation had no effect on species richness of ants per cacao tree (alpha diversity and, in an additive partitioning approach, within-plot beta diversity. However, higher precipitation (but not shade significantly increased ant species dissimilarity across cacao trees within a plot, with ant species showing contrasting responses to precipitation. Reduced precipitation causing drought stress appeared to contribute to convergence of ant community structure, presumably via reduced heterogeneity in cacao tree growth. In conclusion, reduced precipitation greatly influenced ant community dissimilarity and appeared to be more important for ant community structure than land-use intensification.

  7. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Maya, Lisandro; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of the flavanoid family are abundantly present in cacao seed and its cocoa products. Results from studies using cocoa products indicate beneficial effects of flavanols on cardiovascular endpoints. Evidence indicates that (-)-epicatechin is the main cacao flavanol associated with cardiovascular effects, so the accurate quantification of its content in cacao seeds or cocoa products is important. Common methods for the quantification of phenolic content in cocoa products are based on the reaction of phenols with colorimetric reagents such as the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) In this study, we compared the FC method of phenolic determinations using 2 different standards (gallic acid and (-)-epicatechin) to construct calibration curves. We compare these results with those obtained from a simple fluorometric method (Ex280/Em320 nm) used to determine catechin/(-)-epicatechin content in samples of cacao seeds and cocoa products. Values obtained from the FC method determination of polyphenols yield an overestimation of phenol (flavonoid) content when gallic acid is used as standard. Moreover, the epicatechin is a more reliable standard because of its abundance in cacao seeds and cocoa products. The use of fluorometric spectra yields a simple and highly quantitative means for a more precise and rapid quantification of cacao catechins. Fluorometric values are essentially in agreement with those reported using more cumbersome methods. In conclusion, the use of fluorescence emission spectra is a quick, practical and suitable means to quantifying catechins in cacao seeds and cocoa products. PMID:21297935

  8. El polisulfuro de calcio en el manejo de la moniliasis Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al. del cacao Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El cacao es severamente afectado por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al., el cual daña los frutos y puede ocasionar pérdidas totales y su control es principalmente cultural. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la efectividad del polisulfuro de calcio (PC como alternativa para su manejo. El patógeno fue aislado y cultivado in vitro y se evaluó el efecto del PC sobre la germinación y formación de conidias; en el campo, sobre frutos se asperjó PC antes y después de la inoculación con M. roreri y se determinó la incidencia e índices de severidad interna y externa. En una plantación de cacao se asperjó PC y se determinó su incidencia y producción. El PC in vitro inhibió el crecimiento y la formación de conidias; la aplicación de PC antes o después de la inoculación artificial con M. roreri sobre frutos inhibe completamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad; con aspersiones de PC en plantaciones de cacao la incidencia de la enfermedad fue de 0,53%, mientras que fue de 21% con manejo cultural y del 69,6% con testigo de inoculación natural; la producción de cacao seco/año fue de un 90,6% más con PC que en el testigo de inoculación natural, por lo que resulta viable integrar PC en el manejo deM. roreri.

  9. Evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias diazótrofas aisladas de suelos con cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zulay Argüello-Navarro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La adaptabilidad del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en condiciones adversas permite sugerir que la microbiota asociada con la rizosfera desempeña una función importante para la nutrición y el desarrollo de la planta. En el trabajo se evaluó el potencial biofertilizante de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno (diazótrofas aisladas de suelos cacaoteros por la técnica de diluciones seriadas. Las bacterias se aislaron en medios semiselectivos (NFb, JMV, LGI, JNFb. Los aislados puros se caracterizaron morfológica y bioquímicamente y complementariamente se evaluó la capacidad de fijación biológica de nitrógeno (FBN por el método de Micro-Kjeldahl. Los aislados con mejor capacidad de fijación de nitrógeno fueron seleccionados para evaluar su potencial promotor de crecimiento durante 120 días en plantas de cacao clon CCN 51 establecidas a partir de semillas. El análisis de datos mostró que las plantas de cacao respondieron efectivamente a los tratamientos con bacterias donde las variables de crecimiento y N (% foliar incrementaron significativamente, en comparación con el testigo. Se destacó el aporte de los aislados DKA2J24, DKB3J73 presuntamente del género Burkholderia sp. y DKA1L3 semejante al género Gluconacetobacter sp., todos con un gran potencial como biofertilizantes en la prueba de bioensayo.

  10. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio Solano Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la 'escoba de bruja' en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presen- ta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cer- canas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Trans- cribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evi- dente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de

    0.6143 y un Indice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a

    alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  11. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  12. Co-occurrence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates in cushion galls disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Daynet Sosa del

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowery cushion gall of cacao is a disease complex with six types. Fusarium decemcellulare have been isolated from both flowery and green point galls and recognized as the etiological agent of the disease. In the present work we: i identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing and/or taxonomy the cultivable fungal species or Operative Taxonomic Units (OTUs associated with the five symptoms of cushion galls in cacao from Venezuela, and ii determined the gall inducing capacity on cacao peeled seeds after 45 days of inoculation with suspensions of mycelia/ spores from distinct isolate types. The whole isolate collection rendered an abundance of 113 isolates with a richness of 39 OTUs (27 and eight identified at the species or genera levels, respectively, and in unidentified fungi. The dominant recovered species (≈36% were F. decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Some isolates of F. decemcellulare, L. theobromae, F. equiseti, Fusarium spp., F. solani, F. incarnatum, Rhizocthonia solani and Penicillium sp. were pathogenic. Some other isolates of the first six mentioned taxa behave as non-pathogenic. Furthermore, pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates can also co-occur within a single plant and gall type. Moreover, 2-5 species within a single gall symptom in a single tree were identified (not necessarily at the same point in the tree, indicating a broad diversity of co-occurring taxa.

  13. The systematic description of cacao clones and its significance for taxonomy and plant breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, J.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The value of germplasm collections depends to a large extent on the data accompanying the individual accessions. In order to facilitate the selection of the most useful characters for the systematic description of a cacao germplasm collection methods were developed to measure and to compare the disc

  14. DYNAMICS OF NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN CACAO GROWN UNDER TRADIONALLY SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT IN PERUVIAN AMAZON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature of crops and management systems greatly influences population dynamics of parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes in soil. An experiment was undertaken at Tropical Crop Research institute (ICT), Tarapoto, Peru to assess the population dynamics of nematodes in a Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)-Banana ...

  15. Algunas Observaciones sobre el Desecamiento del Grano de Cacao Bajo Diferentes Condiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platone E.

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available Las diversas modalidades del proceso de desecamiento del cacao fermentado (con tal de que la temperatura de desecamiento no sea muy elevada tienen escasa influencia sobre la calidad aparente del grano, a condición desde luego, de que el proceso sea llevado hasta lograr un mismo porcentaje de humedad en los granos. Ya se sabía que, aparentemente, debería preferirse el desecamiento artificial, al natural, por cuanto se logra un mejor control de la temperatura y de otras condiciones del proceso. En realidad, los fabricantes prefieren, en igualdad de condiciones, el cacao desecado al sol. A este propósito había sido establecido por la Oficina Internacional de Fabricantes de Cacao y Chocolate, según dice Knapp (ya citado, que el cacao que hubiese sido secado a más de 50°C, fuera específicamente rotulado como "desecado artificialmente". Sin embargo, el desecamiento al sol significa ordinariamente para los granos, una temperatura notoriamente superior a dichos 50oC, aunque por lo regular no suprior a 60°C.

  16. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  17. Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) germplasm collection from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao L. with its center of diversity in Central and South America was first introduced to West Africa in the mid-19th century and today the region produces 70% of the world's cocoa. Several distinct cocoa types have been introduced, cultivated and intercrossed across the region. Also, bi-...

  18. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  19. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  20. Mining of expressed sequence tag libraries of cacao for microsatellite markers using five computational tools

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aikkal Riju; M. K. Rajesh; P. T. P. Fasila Sherin; A. Chandrasekar; S. Elain Apshara; Vadivel Arunachalam

    2009-08-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide researchers with a quick and inexpensive route for discovering new genes, data on gene expression and regulation, and also provide genic markers that help in constructing genome maps. Cacao is an important perennial crop of humid tropics. Cacao EST sequences, as available in the public domain, were downloaded and made into contigs. Microsatellites were located in these ESTs and contigs using five softwares (MISA, TRA, TROLL, SSRIT and SSR primer). MISA gave maximum coverage of SSRs in cacao ESTs and contigs, although TRA was able to detect higher order (>5-mer) repeats. The frequency of SSRs was one per 26.9 kb in the known set of ESTs. One-third of the repeats in EST-contigs were found to be trimeric. A few rare repeats like 21-mer repeat were also located. A/T repeats were most abundant among the mononucleotide repeats and the AG/GA/TC/CT type was the most frequent among dimerics. Flanking primers were designed using Primer3 program and verified experimentally for PCR amplification. The results of the study are made available freely online database (http://riju.byethost31.com/cocoa/). Seven primer pairs amplified genomic DNA isolated from leaves were used to screen a representative set of 12 accessions of cacao.

  1. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  2. Ribosomal genes of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii and var. farciminosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, C N; Kappe, R; Zakikhani, S; Nolte, O; Sonntag, H G

    1998-11-01

    A total of 1704 basepairs of the 18S rDNA of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii (HCD, strain CBS175.57) and H. capsulatum var. farciminosum (HCF, strain CBS478.64) were sequenced (EMBL accession no. Z75306 and no. Z75307). The 18S rDNA of HCD was 100% identical to a published sequence of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum (HCC). The 18S rDNA of HCF showed one transversional point mutation at the nucleotide position 114 (ref. Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Hybridization confirmed that, in the 18S rDNA of two out of five strains of HCF, guanine was substituted for cytosine at the nucleotide position 114. Furthermore, identical group 1C1 introns (403 bp) were found to be inserted after position 1165 in four out of five strains of HCF, including the two strains with point mutations in the 18S rDNA, and a slightly different group 1C1 intron (408 bp) was detected in one strain of HCC without this point mutation. Intraspecific sequence variability in the highly conserved 18S rDNA because of occurrence of introns and mutations as a possible source of error in molecular diagnostics is discussed. In addition, internal transcribed spacer regions between the 18S rDNA and the 5.8S rDNA (ITS1) of three strains of HCF, and one strain each of HCC and HCD showed significant sequence variability between varieties and strains of H. capsulatum. PMID:9916456

  3. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002

  4. Molecular, physiological and morphological analysis of waterlogging tolerance in clonal genotypes of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, Fabiana Zanelato; De Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Baligar, Virupax C; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2010-01-01

    In soil, anoxia conditions generated by waterlogging induce changes in genetic, morphological and physiological processes, altering the growth and development of plants. Mass propagation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantlets (clones) is affected by waterlogging caused by heavy rains and irrigation methods used to induce rooting. An experiment was undertaken to assess the effects of a 45-day flooding (anoxia) on physiological and morphological traits of 35 elite cacao genotypes, aiming at potentially identifying those with greater tolerance to flooding of the growth substrate. Eighteen fluorochrome-labeled microsatellite (SSR) primer pairs were used to assess genetic variability among clones, with 248 alleles being amplified and used to calculate similarity coefficients. The resulting dendrogram indicated the presence of four major groups, in which two represented 60% and 31% of the genotypes tested. A general trend toward high levels of heterozygosity was also found for physiological and morphological traits. The survival index (IS) for flood tolerance observed varied from 30 to 96%. Clones TSA-654, TSA-656, TSA-792, CA-1.4, CEPEC-2009 and PH-17 showed an IS value above 94%, whereas CEPEC-2010, CEPEC-2002, CA-7.1 and VB-903 clones were those mostly affected by waterlogging, with IS value below 56%. All genotypes displayed lenticel and adventitious root formation in response to waterlogging, although with different intensities. To determine whether patterns of physiological response could be associated with tolerance to anoxia, a similarity-grouping analysis was performed using the ratio between waterlogged and control values obtained for a series of physiological variables assessed. No specific pattern of physiological and morphological responses to waterlogging was strictly associated with survival of plantlets. However, results revealed by the dendrogram suggest that absence of leaf chlorosis may be a proper trait to indicate cacao clones with higher survival

  5. Estudios sobre Cacao 1.Incidencia de la "Pasmazón de los Pepinos" en Algunos Cacaos Venezolanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciferri R.

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la incidencia de la pudrición de la mazorca del cacao por el Phytophthora palmivora Butler sobre diferentes grupos de variedades de cacao cultivadas en el ambiente subárido de regadío en Ocumare de la Costa, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. Se ha averiguado que la infección sistémica de dichas mazorcas proviene de la infección primaria de los cojines florales, habiéndose estudiado su curso y sus características. Entre otras cosas se notó que, aunque es verdad que el período de mayor susceptibilidad a la infección sistémica es el que corre desde el fin del estado de pepino del fruto (fruto mayor de 9-10 centímetros, o sea de 75 a 90 días de edad y el fin del período de desarrollo del fruto (140 a 150 días a contar desde la fecundación de la flor, puede haber un estado precoz de infección de la mazorca joven, el cual no ocurre nunca antes de los quince días de edad, esto es, en el período de máxima incidencia de la enfermedad fisiológica conocida como "pasmazón de los pepinos". Dicha infección es exclusivamente sistémica y puede afectar hasta las dos quintas partes de los pepinos que cuelgan de cojines infectados. Observóse que el chancro del tallo, que por lo regular sigue a la infección del cojín floral, no es tan dañino como comúnmente se afirma, pero que sus daños económicos se deben a la improductividad producida en el cojín infectado. El Criollo de concha decolorada es más susceptible a la infección por Phytophthora que el de concha morada y el híbrido forastero venezolano el cual, a su vez, parece más susceptible a la infección del cojín floral que los demás grupos de variedades. En un lapso de 10 meses los frutos infectados por medio del cojín floral representan los tres cuartos o cuatro quintos del total. La presencia de pigmento antociánico en la cáscara de la mazorca no madura parece conferir una relativa resistencia a la infección por el Phytophthora; empero, en el Forastero

  6. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    OpenAIRE

    Thyago Hermylly Santana Cardoso; Ana Camila Oliveira Freitas; Bruno Silva Andrade; Aurizangela Oliveira de Sousa; André da Silva Santiago; Daniela Martins Koop; Karina Peres Gramacho; Fátima Cerqueira Alvim; Fabienne Micheli; Carlos Priminho Pirovani

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during...

  7. Recovery Plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergi and Achranthes Splendens var. Rotundata

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the completed recovery plan for Chamaesyce Skottsbergii var. Skottsbergii and Achymnthes Splendens var. Rotunpata. It delineates reasonable actions that are...

  8. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1 that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theobroma cacao NPR1 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on homologous sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and Carica papaya. The cDNA was used to isolate a genomic clone from Theobroma cacao containing a putative TcNPR1 gene. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of a 4.5 kb coding region containing three introns and encoding a polypeptide of 591 amino acids. The predicted TcNPR1 protein shares 55% identity and 78% similarity to Arabidopsis NPR1, and contains each of the highly conserved functional domains indicative of this class of transcription factors (BTB/POZ and ankyrin repeat protein-protein interaction domains and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS. To functionally define the TcNPR1 gene, we transferred TcNPR1 into an Arabidopsis npr1 mutant that is highly susceptible to infection by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, the cacao TcNPR1 gene partially complemented the npr1 mutation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, resulting in 100 fold less bacterial growth in a leaf infection assay. Upon induction with SA, TcNPR1 was shown to translocate into the nucleus of leaf and root cells in a manner identical to Arabidopsis NPR1. Cacao NPR1 was also capable of participating in SA-JA signaling crosstalk, as evidenced by the suppression of JA responsive gene expression in TcNPR1 overexpressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Our data indicate that the TcNPR1 is a functional

  9. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; Pbeans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils.

  10. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, John; Herrera, Geovanny; Vaughan, Christopher S; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthllora roreri, known commonly as "monilia", has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Thichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia) at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma). Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of monilia infection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p ≤ 0.05) in only 35d, as compared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1,500 kg dried beans/ha by 198 kg/ha up to 1,698 kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110 ha plantation by 21,780 kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days) would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal control

  11. New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Efendi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New cytotypes of Pteris ensiformis var. victoriae and one cytotype of var. ensiformis are recorded from Indonesia: var. victoriae with 2n=58 (sexual diploid from Gorontalo, North       Sulawesi, and 2n=87 (triploid from Lombok Island and Bogor, West Java; and var. ensiformis with 2n=116 (sexual tetraploid. The diploid is smaller than the triploid in plant size. Results indicate a cytological variation in var. victoriae, like in var. ensiformis.

  12. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  13. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  14. Genetic molecular diversity, production and resistance to witches’ broom in cacao clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 32 cacao clones selected as being resistant following the witches’ broom epidemic and for having distinct productivitywere characterized according to their genetic diversity and were submitted to a new selection. These plants were assessed for eightyears at the Oceania Farm (FO in Itagibá, Bahia, Brazil. The 13 microsatellite primers generated an average of 11.7 amplicons perlocus, and based on them it was demonstrated that the 32 clones distribute themselves in groups apart from the nine clones used ascontrols. The 32 materials displayed significant differences in relation to the characters assessed in the field. Two criteria were formedfrom the classification of the most productive and resistant plants, and then used to select plants within the clusters. The selected plantsdisplayed potential for the cacao improvement program, that they have a high production and high resistance to witches’ broom.

  15. Resolving the agriculture-petroleum conflict: the experience of cacao smallholders in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972, PEMEX, the Mexican national oil company, discovered huge reserves of oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, and began intensive exploitation in Tabasco and northern Chiapas states. Severe conflict between PEMEX and the agricultural economy of Tabasco seemed certain. But despite problems of labor scarcity, inflation, migration, pollution, agricultural production 1974 to 1979 increased for the state's major products - cacao, coconut, beef, and bananas. This study analyzes how agriculture-petroleum conflicts have been resolved in Tabasco, and how relevant its experience is to other agricultural areas undergoing rapid large-scale industrial development. Cacao farming was chosen as a case study. Detailed farm budget, family employment, and technical production data were used to document farm production strategies. Research results suggest that resolution of agriculture-petroleum conflicts depends on: demographic conditions, employment conditions, agricultural prices, petroleum company flexibility, government development policy, and farmer political strength. Support for the campesino sector is critical.

  16. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-02-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  17. Mempelajari Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Dan Penyangraian Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) Terhadap Mutu Bubuk Kakao

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Janner P

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama fermentasi dan penyangraian biji kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap mutu bubuk kakao. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua faktor yakni lama fermentasi (0, 2, 4 dan 6 hari) dan lama penyangraian (0, 25, 50 dan 75 menit). Parameter analisa adalah kadar air, kadar abu, kadar lemak, daya larut dalam air dan nilai organoleptik (aroma, warna dan rasa). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama f...

  18. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bodo Trognitz; Emile Cros; Sophie Assemat; Fabrice Davrieux; Nelly Forestier-Chiron; Eusebio Ayestas; Aldo Kuant; Xavier Scheldeman; Michael Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven ma...

  19. Las enfermedades del cacao como un componente del sistema de producción del cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar, Germán

    2011-01-01

    EI manejo de las enfermedades de un cultivo, en su contexto más amplio debe considerarse como un componente del sistema de producción. Esta generalización, en el caso de la producción de cacao, significa que los procesos patológicos deberán interpretarse y manejarse dentro de las condiciones culturales, ecológicas y socio-económicas del media tropical colombiano.

  20. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Julie; Payne Mark J; Hurst Jeffrey W; Preston Amy G; Crozier Stephen J; Hainly Larry; Miller Debra L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder...

  1. Diallel Analysis and Growth Parameters as Selection Tools for Drought Tolerance in Young Theobroma cacao Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Emerson Alves; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Ahnert, Dario; Branco, Marcia Christina da Silva; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the combining ability, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance through diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, in an experimental arrangement 21 x 2 [21 complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and stressed)]. In the control, soil moisture was kept close to field capacity, with predawn leaf water potential (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought regime, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by decreasing the amount of water application until ΨWL reached -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for most morphological attributes analyzed regarding progenies, water regime and their interactions. The results of the joint diallel analysis revealed significant effects between general combining ability (GCA) x water regimes and between specific combining ability (SCA) x water regimes. The SCA 6 genetic material showed high general combining ability for growth variables regardless of the water regime. In general, the water deficit influenced the production of biomass in most of the evaluated T. cacao crosses, except for SCA-6 x IMC-67, Catongo x SCA, MOC-01 x Catongo, Catongo x IMC-67 and RB-40 x Catongo. Multivariate analysis showed that stem diameter (CD), total leaf area (TLA), leaf dry biomass (LDB), stem dry biomass (SDB), root dry biomass (RDB), total dry biomass (TDB), root length (RL), root volume (RV), root diameter (RD) <1 mm and 1 <(RD) <2 mm were the most important growth parameters in the separation of T. cacao genotypes in to tolerant and intolerant to soil water deficit. PMID:27504627

  2. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  3. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P Cd (P Cd (P Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils. PMID:27234831

  4. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P soils.

  5. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population ma...

  6. Optimization of the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chau Loo Kung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as main objective optimizing the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage. We obtained formulations of mixtures of cacao powder with different concentrations of 15%, 17.5% and 20%, as well as lecithin concentrations of 0.1%; 0.3%; and 0.5% maintaining a constant content of sugar (25 %, Vanillin (1% that included cacao powder with different pH values: natural (pH 5 and alkalinized (pH 6.5 and pH 8 and water by difference to 100%, generating a total of fifteen treatments to be evaluated, according to the Box-Behnen design for three factors. The treatments underwent satisfaction level tests to establish the general acceptability. The treatment that included cacao powder with a concentration of 17.5 %, pH 6.5 and lecithin concentration of 0.3 % obtained the best levels of acceptability. The software Statgraphics Plus 5.1 was used to obtain the treatment with maximum acceptability that corresponded to cacao powder with pH 6.81, with a concentration of 18.24 % and soy lecithin in 0.28% with a tendency to what was obtained in the satisfaction levels tests. Finally we characterized in a physical-chemistry and microbiological way the optimum formulation as well as evaluated sensitively obtaining an acceptability of 6.17.

  7. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees.

  8. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes.

  9. Caracterización de sistemas agroecológicos para el establecimiento comercial de cacao orgánico (Theobroma cacao en Talamanca Description of agro-ecological systems to the shop of organic cocoa (Theobroma cacao in Talamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar Díaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Un requisito previo para la planificación de una finca es disponer de información acerca de las características del productor, o productora, y su familia, así como de los recursos naturales disponibles y el sistema de producción que tiene, ya que, para proponer cambios en el uso y manejo de los recursos naturales, hay que conocer, analizar e interpretar lo que se dispone en la unidad productiva. Es por esto que se planteó caracterizar cinco fincas ubicadas en el territorio indígena Bribri en la comunidad de Shuabb, distrito Telire, cantón de Talamanca, Limón, Costa Rica, para la producción de cacao orgánico (Theobroma cacao bajo un sistema tradicional agroforestal. El enfoque de producción orgánica con un manejo sostenible de los recursos naturales coincide con la norma tradicional y espiritual de los indígenas. Se estableció una tipología basada en aspectos biofísicos para las cinco fincas seleccionadas y una caracterización socioeconómica de las familias beneficiarias;conbaseenlosresultadosobtenidos, se propuso un diseño de producción y un manejo agronómico orgánico para el establecimiento de los sistemas agroecológicos.A prerequisite for planning a farm is to have available information about the characteristics of the producer and her or his family, about the available natural resources and about the existing production system. For proposing changes in the use and management natural resources, is necessary to know, to analyze and interpret what is available in the production unit. This is why it is plated characterize five farms located in an indigenous community named Shuabb, in Telire district, Talamanca, Limón, Costa Rica. For the organic cocoa (Theobroma cacao production, under a traditional agroforestry system. The organic approach under a sustainable management of natural resources, coincides with the traditional and spiritual standard of the indigenous. A typology was established based on biophysical aspects

  10. FCH_Enveliopsis_nudicaulis_var_corrugata_19850520

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Ash Meadows sunray (Enceliopsis nudicaulis var. corrugata) occur.

  11. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  12. BASES PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA EN EL CULTIVO DEL CACAO (Theobroma cacao, Lin POR MEDIO DEL CRITERIO DE EXPERTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giclis M. Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cacao (Theobroma cacao, Lin por medio del criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi. Se seleccionaron expertos de diferentes esferas y se determinó el nivel de experticia y el nivel de competencia de cada experto respecto a la problemática relacionada con la definición de los factores que definen la ubicación del cultivo. Para ello se elaboró y aplicó un sistema de rondas de preguntas o cuestionarios que surgieron del procesamiento estadístico sucesivo de cada ronda, donde se determinaron los parámetros: media aritmética de la evaluación de los expertos a cada pregunta, desviación estándar y varianza (dispersión de las evaluaciones de cada pregunta. A partir de estos estadígrafos se determinó el coeficiente de variación (nivel de concordancia, que unido con el nivel de relevancia, constituyeron los elementos discriminantes que permitieron proponer las variables en los cuestionarios subsiguientes. Los resultados permitieron determinar siete expertos para la consulta de las rondas de preguntas, con un nivel de competencia medio y alto, además de valoraciones promedio del coeficiente de competencia (K igual a 0,89. Se determinó que los factores genéticos, socioeconómicos y los fisiográficos no guardan relación con la definición del lugar para el desarrollo del cultivo; sin embargo, los factores climáticos (precipitaciones y temperatura y los edáficos (tipos y profundidad del suelo fueron los de mayor influencia para definir la ubicación del cacao, y constituyeron los principales elementos de las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cultivo.

  13. The influence of shade and organic fertilizer treatments on the physiology and establishment of Theobroma cacao clones

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, K.; Hadley, P.; Daymond, A. J.; Adu-Yeboah, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This experiment aimed to determine whether the soil application of organic fertilizers can help the establishment of cacao and whether shade alters its response to fertilizers. Study Design: The 1.6 ha experiment was conducted over a period of one crop year (between April 2007 and March 2008) at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. It involved four cacao genotypes (T 79/501, PA 150, P 30 [POS] and SCA 6), three shade levels (‘light’, ‘medium’ and ‘heavy’) and two fertilizer treatme...

  14. INFLATION AND COMPETITIVENESS, A VAR MODELLING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin FRATOSTITEANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available VAR modeling in inflation forecasting has been widely used, and rathersuccessful, even if there have been several critiques of its exactness oraccuracy. This paper is structured into two sections. The first oneaccomplishes a general presentation of VAR modeling in forecastinginflation, and the second is focused on the results of this econometricapproach for inflation in Romania. Even if we considered methodologiescontaining inflation measured using CPI, CORE1 and CORE2, testing willonly be performed for the CPI Inflation.

  15. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    OpenAIRE

    Juselius, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by TrygveHaavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame-work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time-series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres-sion results, time dependent residuals, normalization, reduced rank,model selection, missing variables, simultaneity, autonomy and iden-ti…cation. Speci…cally the paper discusses (1) the conditions underwhich the VAR model repres...

  16. Molecular, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Pb Toxicity in Seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

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    Graciele Santos Monteiro Reis

    Full Text Available Pb is a metal which is highly toxic to plants and animals, including humans. High concentrations of Pb have been observed in beans of T. cacao, as well as in its products. In this work, we evaluated the molecular, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations in mature leaves and primary roots of seedlings of two progenies of T. cacao, obtained from seed germination in different concentrations of Pb (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g L(-1, in the form of Pb(NO32. The progenies resulted from self-fertilization of Catongo and a cross of CCN-10 x SCA-6. The Pb, supplied via seminal, caused alterations in the ultrastructures of the mesophyll cells and in the amount of starch grains in the chloroplasts. The dosage of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid showed that Pb induced lipid peroxidation. The activity of guaiacol peroxidases and the expression of genes associated to synthetase of phytochelatin, SODcyt and PER increased in response to Pb. In addition, there was alteration in the expression of stress-related proteins. The progeny of CCN-10 x SCA-6 was more tolerant to Pb stress when compared to Catongo, since: (i it accumulated more Pb in the roots, preventing its translocation to the shoot; (ii it presented higher activity of peroxidases in the roots, which are enzymes involved in the elimination of excess of reactive oxygen species; and (iii increased expression of the gene in the phytochelatin biosynthesis route. The results of the proteomic analysis were of paramount importance to differentiate the defense mechanisms used by both progenies of T. cacao.

  17. Efecto del riego subsuperficial en la microinjertación del cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ochoa Mena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El interés del país, respecto al cultivo del cacao como renglón exportable y fuente de alimento, por aumentar, renovar y rehabilitar las plantaciones y la imperiosa necesidad del uso de sistemas de riego en el cultivo, sobre la base de la nueva dinámica climática, condujeron a la realización de este trabajo con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de la tecnología de riego subsuperficial por mecha, con respecto al riego por microaspersión aérea, en el crecimiento y desarrollo de posturas de cacao, propagadas por microinjertación. El experimento, diseñado en Bloques al Azar, estuvo compuesto por 4 tratamientos con 3 réplicas. Los tratamientos T1, T2 y T3 respondieron al riego subsuperficial por Mecha, mientras el T4 correspondió al tratamiento testigo (Microaspersión. Las variables estudiadas fueron: diámetro y longitud del injerto y área foliar. Los resultados mostraron mayor efectividad del riego subsuperficial respecto a la microaspersión, alcanzándose mejor desarrollo y crecimiento en las posturas de cacao microinjertadas, además del ahorro del 96 % del agua dispuesta para el riego. Entre los tratamientos subsuperficiales, el T1 fue el más promisorio. Se evidencia la utilización de esta nueva técnica de riego sin el empleo de energía eléctrica y en zonas con escasa precipitación.

  18. Antimicrobial properties of two novel peptides derived from Theobroma cacao osmotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, Loeni L; Silva-Werneck, Joseilde O; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Martins, Natalia F; Bresso, Emmanuel; Rodrigues, Magali A; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Marcellino, Lucilia H

    2016-05-01

    The osmotin proteins of several plants display antifungal activity, which can play an important role in plant defense against diseases. Thus, this protein can be useful as a source for biotechnological strategies aiming to combat fungal diseases. In this work, we analyzed the antifungal activity of a cacao osmotin-like protein (TcOsm1) and of two osmotin-derived synthetic peptides with antimicrobial features, differing by five amino acids residues at the N-terminus. Antimicrobial tests showed that TcOsm1 expressed in Escherichia coli inhibits the growth of Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelium and Pichia pastoris X-33 in vitro. The TcOsm1-derived peptides, named Osm-pepA (H-RRLDRGGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at R23-K49, and Osm-pepB (H-GGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at G28-K49, inhibited growth of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C and Pichia pastoris X-33) and spore germination of the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium f. sp. glycines and Colletotrichum gossypi. Osm-pepA was more efficient than Osm-pepB for S. cerevisiae (MIC=40μM and MIC=127μM, respectively), as well as for P. pastoris (MIC=20μM and MIC=127μM, respectively). Furthermore, the peptides presented a biphasic performance, promoting S. cerevisiae growth in doses around 5μM and inhibiting it at higher doses. The structural model for these peptides showed that the five amino acids residues, RRLDR at Osm-pepA N-terminus, significantly affect the tertiary structure, indicating that this structure is important for the peptide antimicrobial potency. This is the first report of development of antimicrobial peptides from T. cacao. Taken together, the results indicate that the cacao osmotin and its derived peptides, herein studied, are good candidates for developing biotechnological tools aiming to control phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:26996966

  19. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

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    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  20. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

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    Thyago Hermylly Santana Cardoso

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  1. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches’ broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease. PMID:26641247

  2. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira de; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  3. Efecto de las cepas nativas Paecilomyces sp. (Bainier y Lecanicillium sp. (Zimm en el control de Carmenta foraseminis Eichlin (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae en cultivos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Wilmer Figueroa Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El pasador del fruto, Carmenta foraseminis Eichlin, es un insecto que ha acentuado su ataque en cultivos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en los últimos años en Norte de Santander (Colombia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de las cepas nativas Giav-3 Paecilomyces sp. y Giav-4 Lecanicillium sp. sobre larvas de C. foraseminis. Para el efecto, se realizaron aislamientos a partir de muestras de suelo recolectadas en el municipio de Tibú, Norte de Santander. Después de obtenidos los cultivos puros se procedió a la caracterización macroscópica y microscópica para la identificación del género de los aislados mediante claves taxonómicas. La infección fue realizada mediante inmersión de larvas en las suspensiones de los aislados en concentraciones de 0, 10(6, 10(7 y 10(8 conidios/ml. En ambos aislados se observó una tendencia lineal respecto a la mortalidad, la cual fue directamente proporcional a las concentraciones del inóculo. La CL50 y CL90 para Giav-3 fue de 10(6.95 y 10(8.70 conidios/ml y para Giav-4 de 10(6.6 y 10(8.04 conidios/ml, respectivamente. Lo cual indica que esta última requirió la menor concentración de inóculo para eliminar el 50% y 90% de la población tratada, lo que supone una mayor efectividad contra las larvas.

  4. Early Yield and Economical Study of Pogostemon Cablinas Intercrop in Young Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.

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    Adi Prawoto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Pogostemon cablinis an important source of volatile oil for pharmaceutical and cosmetical products. Agronomical aspect of this commodity needs open ecosystem, but for certain level of shading, this crop may yield economically. A study to evaluate the effect of P. cablinintercropped on young cocoa farm, had been conducted during 2005, in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI 45 m above sea level, D climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson, and on low gley humic soil. The experiment was arranged in factorial and the field design was split plot replicated three times. The main plot was no shade tree, shade of Leucaena glauca and Areca catechuwhile the subsplots were fertilizer dose (per ha/year, i.e. (P0 without fertilizer; (P1 140 kg Urea, 35 kg SP-36, 70 kg KCl; (P2 280 kg Urea, 70 kg SP-36,140 kg KCl; and (P3 560 kg Urea, 140 kg SP-36, 280 kg KCl. The result showed that P. cablin cultivation without shading gave better growth and yield than the shading treatment; meanwhile Leucaenashading showed better growth and early yield than the A. catechushading. Fertilizer rate of P1 produced highest leaf weight and oil yield, although P3 possessed the highest growth variables of plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and chlorophyll content. For the dry weight biomass variable, highest yield was obtained from no shade tree and P1 treatment. Using chromatography gas analysis, retention time of patchouly alcohol is 15—18 minutes, it was found that the content was influenced by shading treatment, i.e. 25.15% in monoculture, 28.73% in Leucaena and 25.21% in A. catechutreatment. For the oil viscosity variable, the monoculture treatment showed the highest value (23.21 centipoise, followed by A. catechu(11.60 centipoise and Leucaenatreatment (8.65 centipoise. Intercropping of P. cablinwith young cacao did not show negative effect on young cacao growth. This study demonstrated that pre-cropping of

  5. FACTORES QUE CONTROLAN EL CONTENIDO DE FENOLES EN EL CULTIVO DE CALLOS DE Theobroma cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Quiñones-Galvez; Martha Hernández de la Torre; Yemeys Quirós Molina; Yanelis Capdesuñer Ruiz; Reinaldo Trujillo Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. se conoce en la medicina popular como antiséptico, diurético y antiparasitario. Los alimentos derivados de esta planta son ricos en productos naturales de alto valor agregado, entre los que se destacan los compuestos fenólicos. Por lo que manejar su cultivo in vitro es una fuente alternativa para la producción de estos metabolitos. El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de obtener compuestos fenólicos a partir del cultivo de callos con estructuras embriogénicas. Se ...

  6. Efecto del riego subsuperficial en la microinjertación del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Ochoa Mena; Manuel Peña Casadevalls

    2012-01-01

    El interés del país, respecto al cultivo del cacao como renglón exportable y fuente de alimento, por aumentar, renovar y rehabilitar las plantaciones y la imperiosa necesidad del uso de sistemas de riego en el cultivo, sobre la base de la nueva dinámica climática, condujeron a la realización de este trabajo con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de la tecnología de riego subsuperficial por mecha, con respecto al riego por microaspersión aérea, en el crecimiento y desarrollo de posturas de ...

  7. Drought effects on soil CO efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive" to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all ("non-responsive" (n=7. The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22. A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1.

  8. 世界可可生产贸易现状%Present Situation of Cacao Production and Trade in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵溪竹; 朱自慧; 王华; 赖剑雄

    2012-01-01

    Analyzed the production of the cacao industry all over the world, including area harvested, production and yield, and the export and import of cacao products during 1999-2010. Expound the developing course and prospect of the cacao industry in China.%综述1999~2010年世界可可产业的收获面积、产量和单产以及世界可可生产贸易状况,概述我国可可产业的发展历程,展望我国可可产业的发展前景。

  9. The Portfolio Decision Under the VaR Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunfengWang; XinshuTu

    2004-01-01

    The VaR, a new appearing financial risk-manage tool, have been applied widely. Many financial setups have accustomed to measure the risk of a portfolio with the VaR. So it is very necessary to discuss the portfolio choice problem under the VaR constraint. In this paper, by setting and solving the portfolio choice model under the VaR constraint, we illustrate that the use of the VaR constraint reduces the array of choice to a more manageable range. The probability of traget VaR, therefore, can be thought of as a risk tolerance assessment tool (when coupled with another measure of risk).

  10. ANÁLISIS DE LA ESTRUCTURA ARBÓREA DEL SISTEMA AGROFORESTAL DE CACAO (Theobroma cacao L. EN EL SOCONUSCO, CHIAPAS - MÉXICO Analysis of the Structure Arborea Agroforestry System Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. in Soconusco, Chiapas - Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO A ROA-ROMERO

    Full Text Available Se determinó la abundancia, riqueza, importancia, equidad y diversidad de los árboles encontrados en sistemas agroforestales de cacao, del Soconusco, Chiapas, México. La presente investigación, se desarrolló en la región costera del Soconusco, ubicada al sur del estado de Chiapas; se muestrearon los municipios de Huehuetán, Tapachula y Tuxtla Chico, por ser los más representativos en área sembrada de cacao. En cada municipio, se establecieron al azar siete parcelas temporales de 50 x 50 m cada una, lo que suma en total 5,25 hectáreas , en las cuales se registraron variables como el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP: 1,3 m sobre el nivel del suelo, área basal, y sombrío en el cacaotal. Se encontraron 46 especies agrupadas en 21 familias, las especies con el mayor valor de importancia fueron Mangifera indica y Pouteria sapota, convirtiéndose en las especies de sombra más frecuentemente encontradas. La composición florística denotó una mayor similitud en los municipios de Tapachula y Huehuetán, como lo muestra el mayor porcentaje del índice de Jaccard y en lo que respecta a diversidad, el municipio de Tuxtla Chico presentó el mayor valor según el índice de Shannon. Este estudio determina la existencia de una cobertura definitiva de preferencia asociada a los árboles frutales.The abundance, wealth, size, fairness and diversity of trees found in cacao agroforestry systems was determined in Soconusco , Chiapas , Mexico . This research was conducted in the coastal region of Soconusco, located in the southern state of Chiapas . The municipalities of Huehuetán Tapachula and Tuxtla Chico were sampled, as the most representative in area planted with cocoa. In each municipality, were created at random seven parcels temporary 50 x 50 m each, which amount totalling 5.25 hectares , in which there were variables such as the diameter at breast height (DBH: 1.3 m above the soil, basal area, and grim in the cacaotal. We found 46 species

  11. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  12. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  13. Variación de las propiedades físicas de la grasa de cacao con la temperatura

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    de Dios Alvarado, Juan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Values of physical properties determined at different temperatures in fat extracted from fresh cacao seeds (Theobroma cacao are presented. Linear relationships define the effect of temperature on the refraction index, density and surface tension, a logarithmic function was established for viscosity. The values of density and viscosity are used to determine the coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion and activation energy, respectively. Data of specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are included. In addition a melting and solidification points. The information can be used at ambient temperatures or greater current in the elaboration of chocolate and other cocoa products.

    Se presentan los valores experimentales de varias propiedades físicas determinadas en grasa obtenida de semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao a diferentes temperaturas. El efecto de la temperatura sobre el índice de refracción, la densidad y la tensión superficial, es descrito en forma satisfactoria por ecuaciones lineales, en el caso de la viscosidad esta relación inversa es logarítmica. Los datos de la densidad se utilizan para determinar el coeficiente volumétrico de expansión térmica y los de la viscosidad para cuantificar la energía de activación.
    Se incluyen los datos del calor específico, de la difusividad térmica y de la conductividad térmica, conjuntamente con los puntos de fusión y de solidificación.
    Estos datos técnicos pueden ser utilizados a temperaturas ambientales y superiores que son comunes durante la elaboración de chocolates u otras tecnologías que utilizan cacao.

  14. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  15. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gidoin

    Full Text Available Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests

  16. VaR BASED RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the Value–at–Risk concept and we analyse the market risk by using EWMA approach. EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average forecasting technique is a popular measure of various risks in financial risk management. We will compare standard EWMA, robust EWMA and skewed EWMA forecast of VaR. JP Morgan standard EWMA is derived from Gaussian distribution. Robust EWMA is based on Laplace distribution and skewed EWMA is a new approach derived from an asymmetric Laplace distribution. Asymmetric Laplace distribution takes into account both skewness and heavy tails in return distribution and the time varying nature of them in practice. Skewed EWMA VaR is a generalization of the standard EWMA method. Using these approaches we will analyse selected financial series (three European market indexes and one exchange rate. We have found andconfirmed that skewed EWMA forecasting of VaR outperforms the standard EWMA method.

  17. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and 2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the

  18. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and 2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby

  19. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  20. Isolation and purification of functional total RNA from different organs of cacao tree during its interaction with the pathogen Crinipellis perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Micheli, Fabienne; Ferreira, Cláudia Fortes; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de Mattos

    2003-09-01

    Witches' broom disease, caused by Crinipellis perniciosa, is one of the major fungal diseases causing severe losses to cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.) plantations in South America. One of the challenges associated with the understanding of the cacao and Crinipellis interaction in genomic studies is the isolation of intact nucleic acids. In this report, we describe a new, successful, and reliable procedure for the isolation of RNA from tissues of cacao tree, both infected and uninfected by Crinipellis. This protocol overcomes the problems associated with the very high amount of polyphenols and polysaccharides present in cacao organs that are not easily removed by conventional extraction procedures. The protocol requires few reagents, uses ultracentrifugation and inexpensive consumables, and can be easily applied in any laboratory. This method produced high-quality RNA that was suitable for subsequent purposes, such as reverse transcription PCR and cDNA library construction. We also report the first evidence of RNA isolation from cacao organs infected by C. perniciosa such as meristems and fruits.

  1. La moniliasis un desafio para lograr la sostenibilidad del sistema cacao en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isabel Ramírez González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Para México el cacao, más que un producto alimenticio, representa tradición, un gran legado cultural por preservar, una gran fuente de riquezas naturales y generador de empleos. Tiene sembradas 81 600 ha., una producción de 43 000 ha toneladas, y rendimiento de 597 kg/ha lo que le permite estar entre los 12 principales países productores, pero en el 11.º lugar por su bajo rendimiento. La actividad productiva está ejercida, principalmente, por pequeños productores quienes dependen de ella para su sustento.  El reciente ingreso de la moniliasis hace tambalear la producción ya que este hongo, ataca directamente a los frutos, ocasionando pérdidas totales en la producción. Aunque no hay reportes oficiales, se estima que la producción para el presente ciclo productivo disminuyó en un 50% y se considera que para el próximo sea del 70%, dado el avance acelerado de la enfermedad, con las consecuentes repercusiones económicas, sociales y ambientales. Esta enfermedad está presente en 11 países centro y suramericanos a los cuales ha afectado profundamente. No obstante, existen avances en su manejo, lo cual ha permitido a países como Ecuador, Bolivia y Colombia sobreponerse y llegar a una buena producción. De tal manera que la moniliasis es un gran desafío que permitirá lograr la sostenibilidad del sistema cacao en México, ya que existen diversas oportunidades para el sector, tales como la aceleración de su proceso de modernización en un contexto de sostenibilidad. La diversificación del sistema con maderas principalmente “preciosas”, frutales, especias y flores tropicales, renovación de las plantaciones con materiales mexicanos de altos rendimientos y calidad organoléptica bajo sistemas de producción orgánica, lo que le permitirá al productor acceder a mercados especializados, atraer turismo ecológico, buscar incentivos productivos, ecológicos y de captura de carbono, lo cual mejoraría la sostenibilidad del sistema. Las

  2. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the see

  3. Chemical Constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1, was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model.

  4. Chemical Constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li Li; Yong-Ping Yang; Xi-Min Wang; Ke-Chun Liu; Si-Feng Wang; Yan-Li Zhao; Yang Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model.

  5. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding...

  6. Evaluación in vitro de Microorganismos Nativos por su Antagonismo contra Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par en Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro evaluation of Native Microorganisms for their Antagonism against Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Parin Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Villamil Carvajal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La moniliasis, causada por Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, se ha convertido en la principal enfermedad limitante de la producción de cacao en Colombia y otros países. Con el objetivo de explorar alternativas para el biocontrol de esta enfermedad, hongos y bacterias aislados de frutos y suelo rizosférico de lotes plantados con cacao fueron evaluados por su antagonismo contra M. roreri. La evaluación se realizó en cajas Petri con PDA, para lo cual se colocó en el centro de las mismas, un disco de 5 mm de diámetro colonizado por el patógeno y a 3 cm del borde, sobre los ejes horizontal y vertical, cada uno de los aislamientos. Los microorganismos nativos que inicialmente mostraron antagonismo fueron posteriormente evaluados in vitro por su capacidad de restringir el crecimiento y esporulación de M. roreri. Los resultados indicaron que de 53 aislamientos de frutos y suelo rizosférico, 7 mostraron antagonismo contra M. roreri y entre ellos los más efectivos fueron los hongos H5 y H20 y la bacteria B3, los hongos para la restricción tanto del crecimiento como de la esporulación y la bacteria para el crecimiento. El hongo H20 inhibió en su totalidad el crecimiento de M. roreri. Estos resultados hacen posible que estos aislamientos sean promisorios para su incorporación al manejo de la enfermedad bajo condiciones de campo. De acuerdo con la caracterización morfológica y las pruebas bioquímicas los hongos pertenecen al género Trichoderma y la bacteria al género Bacillus.Abstract. The moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, has become the principal disease limiting cocoa production in Colombia and other countries. With the objective of exploring alternatives for the biocontrol of this disease, fungi and bacteria isolated from cocoa fruits and rhizospheric soil from plots planted to cocoa trees were evaluated for their antagonism against M. roreri. The evaluation was conducted in Petri dishes containing PDA, by

  7. Cacao 3 (Cc 3, Arte rupestre del formativo temprano en Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rodrigo Martel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo hemos abordado el estudio de la producción del arte rupestre del sitio Cacao 3 –Cc3- (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca con relación a las prácticas socioculturales de grupos agropastoriles del periodo Formativo Temprano en la Puna meridional argentina, haciendo hincapié en el emplazamiento del sitio y su asociación contextual con las demás evidencias arqueológicas conocidas para el área de estudio y estableciendo las relaciones entre las manifestaciones rupestres de Cc3 con las de otros sitios, a nivel micro y macrorregional, a través de indicadores estilísticos

  8. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, C.O., E-mail: bacri@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France); Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France)

    2010-02-11

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  9. Cacao y encomienda en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tous, Meritxell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of cocoa in the Alcaldía Mayor of Sonsonate, particularly in the Izalco region, during the last pre-Columbian period and also its exploitation during the XVIth century. It is demonstrated that, during the first half of these century, despite of the development of the encomienda system, the natives significantly controlled the production and exchange of cocoa, and also the property of the land. Nevertheless, during the second half of this century, the increase of cocoa production induced serious perturbations in the Indian communities because of the demographic collapse, the usurpation of the lands and the ladinoization processes.

    Este estudio analiza la importancia del cacao en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, especialmente en la región de los Izalcos, durante el último periodo prehispánico así como su explotación en el XVI. Se demuestra que, durante la primera mitad de este siglo, a pesar del desarrollo de la encomienda, la población indígena controló, en buena medida, la producción y el intercambio del cacao, así como la propiedad de la tierra. También se pone de manifiesto que, a partir de la segunda mitad de este mismo siglo, el incremento de la producción cacaotera provocó daños irreversibles en las comunidades indígenas debido al más que notable descenso demográfico, a la usurpación de sus tierras y a los procesos de ladinización.

  10. Yeasts occuring on wheat seeds. IV. A taxonomic study of strains of Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuff.) Skinner var. laurentii and var. flavescens (Saito) Lodder et Kreger-van Rij

    OpenAIRE

    Zofia Maciejowska-Pokacka

    2014-01-01

    Morphology and physiology of strains of Crvptococcus laurentii var. laurentii and var. flavescens was studied. Morphological features found in var. laurentii suggested a close relation to Sporobolomycetaceae, and in particular to Bullera alba (Hanna) Derx.

  11. Yeasts occuring on wheat seeds. IV. A taxonomic study of strains of Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuff. Skinner var. laurentii and var. flavescens (Saito Lodder et Kreger-van Rij

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Maciejowska-Pokacka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and physiology of strains of Crvptococcus laurentii var. laurentii and var. flavescens was studied. Morphological features found in var. laurentii suggested a close relation to Sporobolomycetaceae, and in particular to Bullera alba (Hanna Derx.

  12. Antitumor activity against murine lymphoma L5178Y model of proteins from cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) seeds in relation with in vitro antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo Eugenia; Hernández Rodolfo; Mateos Juan C; Puebla Ana M; Jaramillo María E; Preza Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, proteins and peptides have become an added value to foodstuffs due to new knowledge about its structural analyses as related to antioxidant and anticancer activity. Our goal was to evaluate if protein fractions from cacao seeds show antitumor activity on lymphoma murine L5178Y model. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was also evaluated with the aim of finding a correlation with the antitumor activity. Methods Differential extraction of proteins from unf...

  13. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  14. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compo...

  15. PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS OF CACAO AGRO-FOOD SYSTEM IN TABASCO, MEXICO: AN APPLICATION OF THE ‘FITNESS’ APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César J. Vázquez Navarrete

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Survival of agro-food systems are challenging and require a fresh approach to analyse. Application of ‘productivity management’ perspective extends the conventional view of ‘productivity’ as it incorporates both ‘efficiency (creation of value’ and ‘effectiveness (attraction of value’ criteria into a firm’s organisational configurations (set of strategies to achieve success. We apply a ‘fitness’ approach to examine productivity performance of 356 cacao farmers in Tabasco, Mexico. Results reveal that both ‘factors’ and ‘aspects’ of organisational configurations are significantly positively correlated with the performance indicators. Also, 14 of the 20 productivity management elements are significantly correlated with the performance indicators with three elements (‘participation in organic cacao production’, ‘farmer’s schooling’, and ‘price setting’ exerting strongest influence. Results also show that a set of fittest solutions, rather than a unique solution, exist amongst cacao farmers. The key policy implication is that both ‘efficiency’ and ‘effectiveness’ are valid strategies to cope with the challenging and competitive agro-food system environment. Policy makers should be aware of a set of solutions (fitness landscape instead of just focusing on a unique solution.

  16. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)205.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien

  17. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    OpenAIRE

    Callot, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential procedure to determine the common cointegration rank of panels of cointegrated VARs. It shows how a panel of cointegrated VARs can be transformed in a set of independent individual models. The likelihood function of the transformed panel is the sum of the likelihood functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From th...

  18. VAR models and methods for monetary and health economics

    OpenAIRE

    Lopreite, Milena

    2016-01-01

    Negli ultimi anni i modelli VAR sono diventati il principale strumento econometrico per verificare se può esistere una relazione tra le variabili e per valutare gli effetti delle politiche economiche. Questa tesi studia tre diversi approcci di identificazione a partire dai modelli VAR in forma ridotta (tra cui periodo di campionamento, set di variabili endogene, termini deterministici). Usiamo nel caso di modelli VAR il test di Causalità di Granger per verificare la capacità di una variabile...

  19. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos

  20. Computer aided collimation gamma (Cacao): a new approach in measuring and visualizing the distribution of X and gamma ray emitters in contaminate wounds; Cacao (camera a collimation assistee par ordinateur): une nouvelle approche pour reconstruire et visualiser des contaminations d'emetteurs X et gamma dans les blessures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douiri, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere (LENA), 75 - Paris (France); Jeanguillaume, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Larrey, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 49 - Angers (France); Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Quartuccio, M.; Begot, S. [Faculte des Sciences d' Orsay (LPS), 91 - Orsay (France)

    2003-07-01

    The treatment of contaminated wounds can be greatly improved by visualizing the distribution of the radioactivity that is present. The low sensitivity of the conventional Anger camera means that it can only be used where there is a high level of activity. Moreover, these gamma cameras cannot make full use of the recent progress made in high spatial resolution semi-conductor detectors. In order to increase sensitivity while at the same time maintaining a sufficient resolution of the reconstructed image, the principle of the Computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) was proposed as a possible means of using gamma cameras in intern dosimetry. This principle is based on the combined use of collimators with holes that are wider- than the intrinsic resolution of the detector, circular and linear scanning movements, a detector sensitive to the source depth and a specific reconstruction algorithm. This article presents the recent developments of the CACAO system and illustrates by a theoretical and experimental study, its performances compared with the classic tomography system. We start with a general overview of the CACAO system and its reconstruction algorithm. First of all, the superiority of the CACAO system is demonstrated by a simulation ,study. Then, an experimental bench was developed using an implanted silicon pixel detector specifically designed to allow the visualization of a subject contaminated with low energy X and gamma emitters. The study presented here shows images obtained from a phantom composed of three sources of Americium {sup 341}Am. Although the comparison between the conventional and CACAO approaches were not carried out with optimal parameters, especially for CACAO, the initial results show that CACAO has an improved sensitivity and a superior resolution. Finally, the transposition of this system to the practical study of contaminated wounds is discussed. (authors)

  1. Caracterización del sistema proteolítico de Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) Evans et al., causante de la moniliasis del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    García Hernández, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo constituye el primer reporte sobre el estudio del sistema proteolítico del hongo Moniliophthora roreri, agente causal de la moniliasis del cacao. El trabajo inició con la identificación de la cepa aislada a partir de frutos de cacao infectados. La amplificación y secuenciación de un fragmento del gen 18S rDNA, permitió la identificación molecular de la cepa aislada como M. roreri, designada como MRO1. A continuación, se evaluó el crecimiento celular de ...

  2. Cacao families and parents selected as resistant to natural infection of Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known sources of resistance to witches’ broom (WB, a severe disease of cacao, are limited. Aiming to identify families and parents resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa, a population of 22 families was evaluated by assessing the number of brooms formed per tree during 10 years under field conditions. The population was established in randomized blocks with three replications of 12 plants each. Significant differences were observed among families. The most outstanding families were NA33 x RB39 and RB39 x P4B, which presented the lowest WB incidence during 10 years. The increase in natural field infection of Scavina clones families and their descendants were clearly demonstrated after 2006. The existence of additive effects for resistance appears clearly for families, which had other source of resistance associated with Scavina. Clones RB39, RB36, P4B, NA33 and CSUL3 are promising parents for pyramiding resistance genes and increasing the stability and durability of resistance to WB.

  3. Estado de la moniliasis del cacao causada por Moniliophthora roreri en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Correa Álvarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis es una enfermedad fúngica que ataca el cultivo de cacao, causada por el basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri. Está presente en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos y se adapta a diversidad de ambientes. En Colombia la enfermedad es devastadora y las estrategias de control tradicional han generado resultados colaterales como el fortalecimiento de la resistencia genética de cepas del hongo en algunas regiones. En esta revisión, se recopilan los aspectos biológicos y agronómicos más relevantes del hongo, entre ellos, origen y distribución, ciclo de vida, formas de control y trabajos de investigación realizados con el fin de entender la genética y evolución de este patógeno. Finalmente, se propone incrementar el número de estudios en investigación básica, con miras a entender cómo ha sido la evolución de su genoma en hábitats que favorecen la variación genética. Con este conocimiento se podría avanzar en programas biotecnológicos de control y prevención de la enfermedad.

  4. FACTORES QUE CONTROLAN EL CONTENIDO DE FENOLES EN EL CULTIVO DE CALLOS DE Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Quiñones-Galvez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theobroma cacao L. se conoce en la medicina popular como antiséptico, diurético y antiparasitario. Los alimentos derivados de esta planta son ricos en productos naturales de alto valor agregado, entre los que se destacan los compuestos fenólicos. Por lo que manejar su cultivo in vitro es una fuente alternativa para la producción de estos metabolitos. El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de obtener compuestos fenólicos a partir del cultivo de callos con estructuras embriogénicas. Se establecieron las condiciones de cultivo (agitación, luz y concentración de glucosa para aumentar la concentración de fenoles en los callos y los elicitores para lograr su incremento en callos y excreción al medio de cultivo. La acumulación de compuestos fenólicos se favoreció con el suplemento adicional de glucosa, el crecimiento en agitación y a la oscuridad. La adición de ciclodextrinas hidroxipropiladas al azar permitió el incremento del rendimiento específico de fenoles y la biomasa.

  5. Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in Archeological Dark Earth Sites under Cacao Cultivation

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    Douglas Marcelo Pinheiro da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soils with an A horizon formed by human activity, an anthropogenic A horizon, are found in the Amazon Region. Few studies have examined the spatial distribution of the properties of these soils. We mapped the spatial variability of some soil properties in an area of Archaeological Dark Earth (ADE in the Brazilian Amazon. A sampling grid was defined over an area of 42 × 88 m under cacao cultivation in which sampling points were established at a spacing of 6 × 8 m, for a total of 88 points. Samples were collected from the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m depth layers. Soil texture, aggregate stability, and organic carbon (OC analyses were performed on disturbed soil samples. Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil macroporosity (Macro, microporosity (Micro, total porosity (TP, and soil resistance to penetration (RP. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistic, Pearson correlation (p<0.01, and geostatistics. Soil bulk density, total pore volume, and geometric mean diameter are dependent on the total amount of OC in the ADE area. Increased soil bulk density and RP are proportional to a decrease in OC content and lower Micro and TP. Moreover, soil resistance to penetration is influenced by soil water and clay content with depth.

  6. CARACTERIZACIÓN AGROCLIMÁTICA DEL MACIZO MONTAÑOSO NIPE-SAGUA-BARACOA, EN FUNCIÓN DE LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA PARA EL CACAO (T heobroma cacao L.

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    Gicli M. Suárez Venero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una caracterización agroclimática del macizo montañoso Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa, para determinar la correspondencia entre el comportamiento de las condiciones climáticas y los requerimientos agroecológicos del cacao en función de lograr la zonificación agroecológica del mismo. Las variables climáticas evaluadas fueron las precipitaciones y las temperaturas. La escala temporal considerada para el registro de los datos fue la mensual y la información meteorológica general utilizada correspondió al período 1976-2006. Para el análisis de las precipitaciones se utilizó una serie de datos originados de las estaciones meteorológicas del Instituto de Meteorología y de 253 pluviómetros de la red del INRH. Para la temperatura del aire se realizaron correlaciones de las existentes con las ubicadas en las zonas más llanas y próximas al macizo montañoso, y se establecieron diferentes gradientes por altura. Se elaboraron los mapas con la distribución espacial de las precipitaciones media anual y las temperaturas media anual. Los resultados permitieron reconocer, que el comportamiento del régimen de las precipitaciones en esta región montañosa, garantiza humedecimiento alto y estable durante todo el año. Ello, unido a sus características térmicas, hacen posible la existencia de condiciones climáticas adecuadas para el desarrollo y crecimiento del cultivo del cacao. El 53 % de la superficie total del macizo montañoso Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa, posee condiciones climáticas óptimas, medianamente optimas y aceptables, que responden a los requerimientos del cacao.

  7. Validation of the name Callicarpa bodinieri var.iteophylla (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming PENG; Nan JIANG; Wen-Bin YU

    2011-01-01

    Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,var.nov.Type:China.Yunnan:Mengla,1953-06-03,Yong-Shu Wang 27 (holotype,KUN 0484466!;isotype,KUN 0484467!).Validating diagnosis:Those ofCallicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu,Fl.Yunnan.1:406.1977.Callicarpa bodinieri H.Léveillé var.iteophylla C.Y.Wu is endemic to southern Yunnan province of China,and it occurs in mixed forests at altitudes between 600 and 1600 m.This new variety is easily distinguished from var.bodinieri and var.rosthornii (Diels)Rehder in that the leaf blade is lanceolate,oblanceolate,or obovateoblong,and 2-4 cm wide (vs.narrowly elliptic,elliptic,or ovateelliptic,and 4-7 cm wide in var.bodinieri),and subglabrous on both surfaces (vs.abaxially grayish stellate pubescent in var.rosthornii).

  8. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de lippia sobre moniliophthora roreri (cif. y par.) evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (theobroma cacao l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada, Betty Stefany; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Perea, Janeth Aidé; Stashenko, Elena; Escobar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5) fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento ...

  9. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par.) Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Betty Stefany Lozada; Laura Viviana Herrera; Janeth Aidé Perea; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas....

  10. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  11. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

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    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  12. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

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    Miller Kenneth B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with (--epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin, but also the formation of (--catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (--epicatechin and (+-catechin and an increase in (--catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with lesser losses of (--catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (--catechin exceeds the level of (--epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (--catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (--epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (--epicatechin > (+-catechin > (--catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  13. Endophytic Association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao Suppresses Vascular Streak Dieback Incidence and Promotes Side Graft Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin; Hendarto, Hendarto; Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Agriansyah, Nursalim

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T. asperellum was 71.2% and 70.1% at 21 wk after grafting, respectively. However, when the two clones were treated with a concentration of 4 g/10 mL T. asperellum, the incidence was 20.6% and 21.7%, respectively, compared to 29.1% and 20.9% at 4 g/100 mL and 18.2% and 15.6% at 4 g/1,000 mL. By comparing to the control, the treatment with the same concentrations of T. asperellum listed above, the total number of stomata in MCC1 decreased by 41.9%, 30.2%, and 14.0% and in M04 by 30.5%, 21.9%, and -2.5% (exception), respectively. Otherwise, the total area of stomata opening increased by 91.4%, 99.7%, and 28.6% in MCC1 and by 203.8%, 253.5%, and 35.9% in M04, respectively. Furthermore, the number of buds and branches treated with a mixture concentration on the the two clones increased by 90.7% and 21.7%, respectively. These data showed that the application of T. asperellum to cacao scions while grafting can decrease VSD incidence in side grafts and increase growth of grafts in addition to decreasing total number of stomata, increasing total area of opened stomata, and increasing number of buds and branches. PMID:27790069

  14. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par.) Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par.) Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Betty Stefany Lozada; Laura Viviana Herrera; Janeth Aidé Perea; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5) fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento ...

  15. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOPARASITIC ISOLATES OF TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM WITH POTENTIAL FOR SUPRESSION OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF CACAO IN CAMEROON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative measures are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod disease in Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitism on P. megakarya. Only Trichoderma asperellum isolates 659-7, PR10, PR11, a...

  16. Isolation and identification of mycoparasitic isolates of Trichoderma asperellum with potential for suppression of black pod disease of cacao in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative measures to chemical fungicides are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod diseasein Central and West Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitismon P. megakarya. Of over 200 isolates...

  17. The Oil of Matico (Piper aduncum L.) an Alternative for the Control of Cacao Frosty Pod Rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cacao production in many Latin American countries is significantly reduced by frosty pod rot disease (Moniliophthora roreri) and yield reductions are to the extent of over 90% in many cases. The strategies of control includes: phytosanitation, genetic resistance, chemical and biological control....

  18. The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, S E; Alling, V; Martinsen, V; Mulder, J; Breedveld, G D; Cornelissen, G

    2013-06-01

    The sorption of PO4-P, NH4-N and NO3-N to cacao shell and corn cob biochars produced at 300-350°C was quantified. The biochars were used; (i) as received (unwashed), (ii) after rinsing with Millipore water and (iii) following leaching with Millipore water. In addition to sorption, desorption of PO4-P from the unwashed biochars was quantified. There was no sorption of PO4-P to either washed or rinsed biochars, but following leaching, both biochars adsorbed PO4-P and distribution coefficients (Kd L kg(-1)) were very similar for both materials (10(1.1±0.5) for cacao shell biochar and 10(1.0±0.2) for corn cob biochar). The BET surface area and micropore volume increased 80% and 60% for the cacao shell and corn cob biochars following leaching. After 60 d, 1483±45 mg kg(-1) and 172±1 mg kg(-1) PO4-P was released from the cacao shell and corn cob biochars. NH4-N was sorbed by both unwashed biochars, albeit weakly with Kd values around 10(2) L kg(-1). We speculate that NH4-N could bind via an electrostatic exchange with other cationic species on the surface of the biochar. There was no significant release or sorption of NO3-N from or to either of the biochars. PMID:23369636

  19. 4-D-Var or ensemble Kalman filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Li, Hong; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Yang, Shu-Chih; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2007-10-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4-D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or under consideration for operational implementation. With the Lorenz model, we explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4-D-Var, variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4-D-Var. For infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow non-linearly and become non-Gaussian, 4-D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. If the model is imperfect, the 4-D-Var with long windows requires weak constraint. Similar results are obtained with a quasi-geostrophic channel model. EnKF experiments made with the primitive equations SPEEDY model provide comparisons with 3-D-Var and guidance on model error and `observation localization'. Results obtained using operational models and both simulated and real observations indicate that currently EnKF is becoming competitive with 4-D-Var, and that the experience acquired with each of these methods can be used to improve the other. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  20. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Zhan; Zhao, Wei; Feng, Xiu-Li; Liu, Fang-Le; Zhu, Chen-Chen

    2016-03-01

    Two new abietane diterpenoids, Gerardianin B (1) and Gerardianin C (2), one new lignan glycoside, Gerardianin D (3) and one new lupane-type triterpenoid, Gerardianol A (4), together with seven known abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The cytotoxic activities of the nine diterpenoids were evaluated on human cancer cell lines. Compounds 6-11 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 from 4.68 to 9.43μM and HCF-8 cell lines with IC50 from 9.12 to 13.53μM. PMID:26608401

  1. Karyotype variation in cultivars and spontaneous cocoa mutants (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, G S F; Melo, C A F; Souza, M M; Araújo, I S; Zaidan, H A; Pires, J L; Ahnert, D

    2013-01-01

    Four mutant cocoa accessions with morphological changes and a cultivar sample were karyomorphologically characterized. Slides were prepared by enzymatic digestion of the root meristem and squashed in 45% acetic acid, followed by 2% Giemsa staining. The chromosome number of 2n = 20 was seen in all accessions. The karyotype formula for Cacau Comum and Cacau Rui was 2n = 20m. Submetacentric chromosomes were observed in Cacau Pucala and Cacau Jaca, both with 2n = 18m + 2sm, but the karyotype formula for Cacau Sem Vidro was 2n = 16m + 4sm. Satellites were located on the long arm of the 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs of Cacau Comum, whereas Cacau Pucala had satellites on the 6th chromosome pair. Greater karyotypic variation in Cacau Sem Vidro was found, whose 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs had satellites on the long arm and 6th and 10th pairs had satellites on the short arm. Analysis revealed a lower average chromosome length in Cacau Comum (1.53 ± 0.026 µm) and a higher length in Cacau Sem Vidro (2.26 ± 0.038 µm). ANOVA revealed significant difference (P < 0.01) for the average chromosome length and the length of chromosome pairs within and between accessions. The average chromosome lengths of mutants of Cacau Rui and Cacau Jaca were not statistically different by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The karyotypic diversity observed in this study is not necessarily associated with the changing character of the accessions analyzed, but may reflect the genetic variation observed in Theobroma cacao.

  2. Evaluation of the Allergenicity Potential of TcPR-10 Protein from Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne; Noronha, Fátima Soares Motta; Alves, Andréa Catão; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10), obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa) and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium). The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S) were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8–12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants) via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties. PMID:22768037

  3. Evaluation of the allergenicity potential of TcPR-10 protein from Theobroma cacao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pereira Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10, obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium. The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8-12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties.

  4. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.

  5. Analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiles of clonal genotypes from Theobroma cacao subjected to soil flooding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Z Bertolde

    Full Text Available Soil flooding causes changes in gene transcription, synthesis and degradation of proteins and cell metabolism. The main objective of this study was to understand the biological events of Theobroma cacao during soil flooding-induced stress, using the analyses of gene expression and activity of key enzymes involved in fermentation, as well as the identification of differentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry in two contrasting genotypes for flooding tolerance (tolerant - TSA-792 and susceptible - TSH-774. Soil anoxia caused by flooding has led to changes in the expression pattern of genes associated with the biosynthesis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in leaves and roots of the two evaluated genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the enzyme activities of the two genotypes. Leaves and roots of the TSA-792 genotype showed higher ADH activity as compared to the TSH-774 genotype, whereas the activities of PDC and LDH have varied over the 96 h of soil flooding, being higher for TSA-792 genotype, at the initial stage, and TSH-774 genotype, at the final stage. Some of the identified proteins are those typical of the anaerobic metabolism-involved in glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation-and different proteins associated with photosynthesis, protein metabolism and oxidative stress. The ability to maintain glycolysis and induce fermentation was observed to play an important role in anoxia tolerance in cacao and may also serve to distinguish tolerant and susceptible genotypes in relation to this stressor.

  6. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-28

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging.

  7. Chemical speciation of cadmium: An approach to evaluate plant-available cadmium in Ecuadorian soils under cacao production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Baligar, V C

    2016-05-01

    Elevated concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao beans has raised serious concerns about the chocolate consumption on human health. Accumulation of Cd in cacao bean in southern Ecuador has been related to soil contamination. In this study, soil fractionation approach was used to identify available Cd pools in the soils and to correlate these Cd pools with bean Cd concentration and soil test indexes. The distribution of soil Cd fractions decreased in the order: oxidizable > acid-soluble > residual > reducible > water-soluble (+exchangeable). Oxidizable and acid-soluble fractions accounted for 59 and 68% of the total recoverable Cd for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble fraction was closely related to bean-Cd, with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.70 and 0.81 (P soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble Cd was significantly correlated with 0.01 M HCl- (r = 0.99, P soils is related to the acid-soluble fraction and bound to organic matter, remediation of the contaminated soils should consider to the dynamics of soil pH and organic matter content.

  8. Energy and water fluxes above a cacao agroforestry system in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, indicate effects of land-use change on local climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.; Oltchev, A.; Kreilein, H.; Merklein, J.; Gravenhorst, G. [Inst. of Bioclimatology, Univ. Goettingen (Germany); June, T. [Inst. Pertanian Bogor, BIOTROP-ICSEA, Bogor (Indonesia); Rauf, A. [Univ. Tadulako, Palu (Indonesia)

    2005-04-01

    Rapid conversion of tropical rainforests to agricultural land-use types occurs throughout Indonesia and South-East Asia. We hypothesize that these changes in land-use affect the turbulent heat exchange processes between vegetation and the atmosphere, and the radiative properties of the surface, and therefore, induce an impact on local climate and water flows. As part of the international research project (SFB 552, Stability of Rainforest Margins in Indonesia, STORMA) the turbulent heat fluxes over a cacao agroforestry system (AFS) were investigated, using the eddy covariance technique. These first heat flux observations above a cacao AFS showed an unexpectedly large contribution of the sensible heat flux to the total turbulent heat transport, resulting in an averaged day-time Bowen ratio of {beta} = H/{lambda}E {approx} 1. Seasonality of {beta} did mainly coincide with the seasonal course of precipitation, which amounted to 1970 mm yr{sup -1} during the investigated period. The findings are compared to investigations at four neotropical rain forests where daytime {beta} were substantially smaller than 1. All discussed sites received similar incident short wave radiation, however, precipitation at the neotropical sites was much higher. Our first observations in a nearby Indonesian upland rain forest where precipitation was comparable to that at the cacao AFS showed an intermediate behaviour. Differences in {beta} between the cacao AFS and the tropical forests are discussed as a consequence of differing precipitation amounts, and albedo. From these comparisons we conclude that conversion from tropical forests to cacao AFS affects the energy fluxes towards increased heating of the day-time convective boundary-layer. (orig.)

  9. Reduced-order 4D-Var: a preconditioner for the Incremental 4D-Var data assimilation method

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Céline; Verron, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates how the incremental 4D-Var data assimilation method can be applied efficiently preconditione d in an application to an oceanographic problem. The approach consists in performing a few iterations of the reduced-order 4D-Var prior to the incremental 4D-Var in the full space in order to achieve faster convergence. An application performed in the tropical Pacific Ocean, with assimilation of TAO temperature data, shows the method to be both feasible and efficient. It allows the global cost of the assimilation to be reduced by a factor of 2 without affecting the quality of the solution.

  10. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  11. Recovery plan for Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Current Status: Chorizanthe robusta var. robusta (robust spineflower), which is federally endangered, is restricted to sandy soils along the coast and near-coastal...

  12. 4D-Var or Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Li, H.; Yang, S.; Miyoshi, T.; Ballabrera, J.

    2007-05-01

    We consider the relative advantages of two advanced data assimilation systems, 4D-Var and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), currently in use or considered for operational implementation. We explore the impact of tuning assimilation parameters such as the assimilation window length and background error covariance in 4D-Var, the variance inflation in EnKF, and the effect of model errors and reduced observation coverage in both systems. For short assimilation windows EnKF gives more accurate analyses. Both systems reach similar levels of accuracy if long windows are used for 4D-Var, and for infrequent observations, when ensemble perturbations grow nonlinearly and become non-Gaussian, 4D-Var attains lower errors than EnKF. Results obtained with variations of EnKF using operational models and both simulated and real observations are reviewed. A table summarizes the pros and cons of the two methods.

  13. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. Genetic variability of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime & Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae in varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.Moniliophthora perniciosa, the founder agent of the ‘witch’s broom’ on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is one of the most important diseases in cocoa plantations, causing economic losses close to 70% worldwide and 40% nationwide. It shows a high genetic variability and discrepancies in its taxonomy. Characterization of the genetic diversity of biotypes is important for projects aimed towards the handling of this pathogen and the development of resistant cocoa materials. Twelve isolations of the fungus were analyzed in this study from different

  14. Immigration, Growth and Unemployment: Panel VAR Evidence from OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on aggr...

  15. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ a panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on ag...

  16. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on aggr...

  17. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  18. Embriogénesis somática secundaria en el genotipo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. inifap 1 y su descripción histológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alejandro-Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La embriogénesis somática aplicada para la propagación clonal de plantas de cacao, aun es de baja eficiencia, por lo que el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la respuesta de los cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios como fuente de explante para inducir embriogénesis somática secundaria (ESS en presencia de fitohormonas y sin estas en el genotipo de cacao inifap 1, asi como describir los eventos de la ESS desde los 30 hasta los 240 días de cultivo. El uso de las fitohormonas ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiácetico (2,4-D y thidiazuron (TDZ son importantes para inducir la embriogénesis somática (ES primaria en cacao. Adicionalmente para generar la ESS se han utilizado fitohormonas. En la presente investigación, fueron establecidos cuatro tratamientos con fregmentos de cotiledón, con 2,4-D y TDZ en forma combinada e independiente, incluyendo un testigo sin fitohormonas. Los resultados mostraron, que los fragmentos de cotiledón cultivados sin fitohormonas favorece la ESS, obteniendo un promedio de seis embriones somáticos secundarios (ESs a los 210 días de cultivo contra uno para el tratamiento suplementado con TDZ. El meristemo apical y radicular se presentó en un periodo de 240 días, se observaron embriones somáticos con estructuras externas como: cotiledones, ápices y raíces. Los resultados mostraron que la exclusión del 2,4-D y el thidiazuron no son importantes para inducir la ESS. El mayor número de ESs se encontró en un medio desprovisto de fitohormonas por lo que esta información es relevante, debido a que los explantes de cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios, generan mayor número de ESs en esta especie. Estos resultados constituyen el primer reporte de la inducción de la ESs sin fitohormonas.

  19. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  20. Pod Characteristics of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Related to Cocoa Pod Borer Resistance (Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  1. (Agronomical and anatomical study of resulted early cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2005-05-01

    , weak and hollow when microtomised. Health union showed lignified accumulation that made tight union. It can be concluded that early cocoa grafting will success if the nursery is separated far from cocoa plantation, the medium is steril from soil borne disease, the graftstick is health, and tying of graft union must tight enough, then disease control must be done properly.Key Words : Theobroma cacao, clone, wiring, graft union, graftake.

  2. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots. The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all (non-responsive (n=7. A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  3. Characterization of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Farming Systems in the Norte de Santander Department and Assessment Their Sustainability / Caracterización de los Sistemas de Producción de Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en el Departamento de Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Arturo Ramírez Sulvarán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. based economyhas been considered a valid alternative to support sustainable development in northeastern Colombia. However, there is a lack of information about the cocoa production systems in the region which is needed for the implementation of effective plans to improve their performance and sustainability. Four of the main cocoa producing municipalities in the Norte de Santanderdepartment were considered for this study: Teorama, Bucarasica, Cúcuta and San Calixto. These entities were selected due to their adequate security conditions, availability of field assistants and departmental representativeness in cocoa production. The objective was to obtain basic information for local, specific and participatory actions for the sustainability of the cocoa production systems and to improve the living conditions of farmers. The methodology used was based on the farming system approach, considering the socioeconomic, technological and agro-ecologicalcomponents, and their relationships, and evaluating themaccording to the principles of sustainable agriculture. The phases covered were: (1 analysis of secondary data, (2 formulation and evaluation of sustainability indicators, (3 design, implementation and analysis of survey data and (4 validation by the farmers of the obtained information and the prioritization of problems. The results indicate that there is only one cocoa production system of a family-mercantile type, with low technology. Most farmers havelow incomes and basic needs such as health, education and public services are not met. They do not employ the agronomic and postharvest practices recommended by specialists. The water and soil resources are being degraded. In general, the farming system leans towards unsustainability and it is vital that integrative actions be taken to change this situation. / Se considera que el desarrollo de una economía basada en el cacao (Theobroma cacao L

  4. EL CACAO: AYER, HOY Y SIEMPRE EN EL DESARROLLO SOCIOECONÓMICO Y CULTURAL DEL MUNDO, NORTE DE SANTANDER Y CÚCUTA

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Eugenia Ramírez Villar

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo es un breve relato de la historia del cacao en el mundo, en Colombia y en Cúcuta, surge de un trabajo de investigación histórico y retoma historias de Venezuela, Colombia, Francia, África, Italia, entre otros países que protagonizaron o ayudaron a que el cacao surgiera en la región y se posicionara en el sector productivo. La conclusión de la investigación está basada en el recuento según la región de Norte de Santander y Cúcuta, mostrando datos curiosos de la evolución del caca...

  5. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin S Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed SNP markers from RNASeq results for 13 M. roreri isolates and validated the markers for their ability to reveal genetic diversity in an international M. roreri collection. The SNP resources reported herein represent the first study of RNASeq-derived SNP validation in M. roreri and demonstrates the utility of RNASeq as an approach for de novo SNP identification in M. roreri. A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 172 M. roreri cacao isolates resulting in 37 distinct genotypes (including 14 synonymous groups. Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. roreri is clonal and likely due to a homothallic life style. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. roreri.

  6. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ....... Specifically we look at the time path of the eigenvalues using a new result on the asymptotic distribution of the estimated eigenvalues. Furthermore we show that the fluctuation test by Ploberger et al. (1989) and the Lagrange multiplier (LM) type test for constancy of parameters by Nyblom (1989) can...

  7. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  8. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  9. THE BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA SALINA) LETHALITY OF Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    OpenAIRE

    O. T. TÜZÜN, E. GÜRKAN, S. DOĞANCA, F. HIRLAK,

    2015-01-01

    This work covers up the bio-activities of the five fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Cruciferae).Key Words: Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

  10. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Coulibaly, Dramane; Rault, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://ces.univ-paris1.fr/cesdp/cesdp2013.html Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2013.12 - ISSN : 1955-611X This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ a panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the ...

  11. High level of var2csa transcription by Plasmodium falciparum isolated from the placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise G; Salanti, Ali; Bertin, Gwladys;

    2005-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites that bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) express unique variant surface antigens that are involved in the placental sequestration that precipitates pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Two var gene subfamilies, var1csa and var2csa, have been associated with CSA bin...

  12. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the Cs extraction and immobilization in fly ash during water, methanol or n-MCaS extraction. - Highlights: • nMCaS suspension for cesium extraction and immobilization in fly ash was developed. • Enhanced cesium immobilization was done by nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. • By SEM analysis the amount of cesium detectable on soil particle surface decreases. • Leachable cesium concentrations reduced, lower than the standard regulatory limit. • nMCaS unique and a highly potential amendment for the remediation of Cs. - Abstract: In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable (133Cs) and radioactive cesium species (134Cs and 137Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of 133Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of 133Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable 133Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040 Bq kg−1134Cs and 137Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583 Bq kg−1 after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100 Bq L−1 total 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000 Bq kg−1 and 150 Bq L−1 respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash

  13. [Experiment on polyploid induction of Angelica dahurica var. formosana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, F; Zhou, R; Liu, J

    1999-12-01

    Colchicine solution was applied to the primary adventitious buds of Angelica dahurica var. formosana in vitro to induce the polyploid. Compared with non-treated plantlet, the morphology, microhisology, and chromosome number of treated plantlets are varied. It proved that the polyploid induction was effective. PMID:12571900

  14. [Induction and identification of polyploid of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Gao, Jianping; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2003-05-01

    In this article, improved agar painting method, with semi-solid of 0.2% colchicine and 0.1% agar, was adopted to treat apical buds of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings. Obtained plants were proved to be tetraploids by identification of biological characteristics and chromosome numbers. PMID:14535010

  15. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  16. Two New Abietane Quinones from Isodon lophanthoides var. Micranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structures of two new abietane quinones, named micranthins A and B, weredetermined to be 7α-methoxy-14, 16-epoxy-8, 13-abietadiene-11, 12-dione (1) and 16-acetoxy-6,7-dehydroroyleanone (2) respectively, which were isolated from Isodon lophanthoides var.micranthus.

  17. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  18. A New Cyclohexene Oxide from Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An LIU; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG

    2003-01-01

    A new compound, subglain B, was isolated from the stems of Uvaria tonkinensis var. subglabra and its structure was identified as 1S, 2R, 3S, 6R-1-benzoyloxymethylene-1,2- dihydroxy-3-benzoyloxy-6-chlorocyclohex-4-ene (1), by spectral evidences.

  19. New Diterpenoid Alkaloids from Spiraea japonica var. ovalifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Five new diterpenoid alkaloids, 19-O-deethylspiramine N (1), deacetylspiramine S (2), spiramidine A (3), spiramidine B (4) and deacetylspiramine F (5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Spireae japonica L. f. var. ovalifolia. Their structures were charaterized mainly based on spectral analysis.

  20. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus. PMID:26996015

  1. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  2. Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) et Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753) : repas de survie pour Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Gabriel; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; OLIVE, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The English version of this preprint can be found at hal-01270314 . Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) and Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753): survival meal for Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae). When food shortages for a stick insect breeding of the species Medauroidea extradentata, feeding trials were conducted with spearmint (Mentha spicata var. spicata). Contrary to what was expected, the stems were eaten more than the leaves. In a...

  3. Phenology of Flowering and Pod Maturity on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenology  of  flowering  is  an  important  aspect  in  the  growth  cycle  of cocoa (Theobroma  cacao L. because the  performance of  plant  especially  flowering is  linked with  anthesis time, time and  duration  of  stigma  receptivity, fruit formation, crossing,  and  seed  development  which  determine  the  plant  breeding  programs . Research was conducted at the Kaliwining experimental station of Indonesian Coffee and  Cocoa  Research Institute  (ICCRI.  The  cocoa  plant  was  originated  from  top grafting seedling  with the age  of eight  years.  Design  of  experiment  was  randomized complete  block  design  consisted  of  eight  clones  as  treatment  with  three  replications.  Each  plot  consisted  of  20  sample  flowers.  The  parameters  observed  were phenology  of  flowering  and  pod  maturity.  Phenology  of  flowering  observed  were age  of  flowering,  number  of  opened  flower  buds,  number  of  flower  buds  that dropped  before  being  opened,  number  of  flower  buds  that  dropped  after  being opened,  and  number  of  opening  flowers  that  developed  into  tiny  fruits.  Observation  on  pod  and  been  quality  was  done  on  pod  size,  pod  weight,  pod  length, pod  girth,  and  bean  number.  The  result  of  experiment  showed  that  difference  in phenologyof  flowering and age of pod maturity  existed within eight cocoa clones tested.  KKM  22  showed  the  shortest  flowering  age  and  pod  maturity,  and  lowest number  of  beans.  The  highest  success  of  pollination  was  observed  on  Sca  6  and KW 617. ICCRI 03, Sulawesi 03, ICCRI 07, KKM 22 and KW 617 showed relative low success of  pollination,  that  iswas between 10  to 17.6%.  Age  of  flower  opening did  not  significantly  influence  age  of  pod

  4. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organi

  5. Efecto del pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa en la Embriogénesis somática de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Valverde Cerdas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo una investigación con el fin de establecer la metodología adecuada para inducir embriogénesis somática en cacao, a partir de semillas maduras. Se estudió el efecto del pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa sobre la respuesta embriogénica. Los dos cultivares mostraron diferente respuesta morfogénica y en ambos, estuvo influenciada por el pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa. La mejor respuesta embriogénica se obtuvo con un pH de 6,7. El número de embriones producidos fue mayor bajo condiciones de oscuridad que en presencia de luz. La formación de callo y la diferenciación de embriones somáticos estuvo directamente influenciada por la concentración de azúcar en el medio de cultivo. La mayor cantidad de embriones se obtuvo con niveles de sacarosa entre 4% y 6% para el híbrido UF-613xIMC-67 y niveles entre 2% y 4% de sacarosa para el cultivar CATIE-1000. Se presento una embriogénesis somática directa. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de continuar realizando estudios con esta especie.

  6. Efecto del Tostado Sobre los Metabolitos Secundarios y la Actividad Antioxidante de Clones de Cacao Colombiano / Effect of Roasting on the Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Colombian Cocoa Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zapata Bustamante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El tostado es una de las operaciones tecnológicas másimportantes en el procesamiento de los granos de cacao; esteproceso conduce a la formación de los productos de la reacciónde Maillard (RM los cuales son cruciales para el desarrollo dela calidad organoléptica de los granos de cacao y sus productosasociados. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto del tostadosobre el contenido de metabolitos secundarios y la actividadantioxidante en cinco clones de cacao cultivados en Colombia.En los extractos metanólicos de los diferentes clones de cacao sedeterminó el contenido de fenoles totales, taninos condensados,antocianinas totales, catequina y epicatequina, teobromina ycafeína. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante pormedio de la actividad atrapadora del radical ABTS•+, el métodoORAC y la capacidad atrapadora de radicales superóxido. Enconclusión, el efecto del tostado en los clones de cacao no tuvo uncomportamiento uniforme sobre los cambios en los contenidos delos diversos metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antioxidante. /  Abstract. Roasting is one of the most important technologicaloperations in the processing of cocoa beans; this process leads tothe formation of products of the Maillard reaction (RM, which arecrucial for the development of organoleptic quality of cocoa beansand its associated products. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of roasting on the content of secondary metabolites andantioxidant activity in five Colombian cocoa clones, by differentmethodologies. The methanolic extracts of the cocoa beans wereanalyzed for total phenols content, condensed tannins, totalantiocianins, catechin and epicatechin, theobromine and caffeine.The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS assay, ORACmethod and superoxide radical scavenging method. The effect ofroasting on cocoa clones did not have an unspecified behavior. Inconclusion, the effect of roasting of cacao clones was not uniformon the

  7. Aplicación y Comparación de Metodologías Multicriterio (AHP y Fuzzy Logic) en la Selección de Tecnología Postcosecha para Pequeños Productores de Cacao.

    OpenAIRE

    VERA MONTENEGRO, LENIN

    2014-01-01

    El Ecuador provee el 70% de la demanda especializada en cacao (Theobroma cacao) del tipo “fino y de aroma” a nivel mundial, empleado en la elaboración de chocolates de alta calidad. En este trabajo se define un modelo de selección de tecnología post cosecha adaptada a los pequeños productores (59% de la producción Ecuatoriana), aplicando dos tipos de modelos multicriterios que incluyen los criterios de calidad, costo de transformación y capacidad de adopción tecnológic...

  8. Efecto de la fermentación y el tostado sobre la concentración polifenólica y actividad antioxidante de cacao nicaragüense

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Mercado, Yader Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como finalidad hacer una caracterización del contenido en polifenoles totales (PT) y la actividad antioxidantes (AA) de varias muestras de semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fermentadas y sin fermentar, de la variedad Trinitario, y procedentes de Nicaragua. Y además evaluar el efecto del tostado sobre dichas características y el color de los extractos fenólicos de las semillas. Los tratamientos de tostado fueron a 110 ºC por 90 min, 130 ºC por 60 min y 15...

  9. Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

    2013-12-15

    A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)).

  10. Possible Impact of Antioxidant Properties of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Against Irradiation - Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man is exposed to natural radiations either from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation of animals induce biochemical alterations which depend mostly on oxidative stress. This work aimed at evaluating the radioprotective efficiency of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) against whole body γ-irradiation of rats. The virtue of cocoa aqueous extract (CAE) was given to rats at a dose of 1 g/ kg for 6 weeks to determine changes in hepatic marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The animals exposed to γ-rays exhibited a pronounced increment in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decline was demonstrated in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was sustained. The CAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings revealed that cocoa would exert radio-protective properties

  11. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Fouet, Olivier; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Boccara, Michel; Argout, Xavier; Amores, Freddy; Courtois, Brigitte; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  12. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano

    Full Text Available Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  13. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  14. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  15. Bootstrap determination of the cointegration rank in heteroskedastic VAR models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Guiseppe; Rahbæk, Anders; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio (PLR) co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying vector autoregressive (VAR) model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an independent and individual distributed (i.i.d.) bootstrap resampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co......-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap resampling scheme, when time-varying behavior is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We...

  16. Static Var Compensator Project for the SPS Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives a progress report on the Static Var Compensator project BEF2 for the SPS electrical network. Following a market survey and a call for tenders, a contract has been awarded to ABB Sweden and the project is now in the phase of detailed performance studies, system design and ordering of the main electrical components. This progress report describes the electrical design, summarises the results of the harmonic filter design studies, discusses the interfacing of the control- and communication system and explains the mechanical layout of the Static Var Compensator and as well as the project co-ordination with the feeding BE substation renovation project. Finally, the project planning is presented and critical paths are evaluated.

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  18. Development of a nopal fiber (Opuntia ficus-indica) and powdered cocoa (Theobroma cacao) added beef patties, nutritive, physicochemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    F.H. Chamorro-Ramirez; J.F. Gonzalez-Sanchez; A. Azpe-Franco; G. Arce-Jurado

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate addition effect of 3% of nopal fiber (FN) and cacao powder (CA) on the physicochemical, nutritional content and sensory acceptation of patty meat. A total of 144 patties were elaborated in three different batches: Control (TC) no addition; FN with 3% of FN; and CA with 3% of CA. Physicochemical tests (pH, Aw), texture (TPA) and instrumental color (CIE-Lab) at different storage times (0, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days), besides to nutritional content and accept...

  19. Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory characterization of mixed açai (Euterpe oleracea) and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao) jellies

    OpenAIRE

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto; Elck Almeida Carvalho; Karen Valverde Pontes; Waldemar de Sousa Barretto; Célio Kersul do Sacramento

    2013-01-01

    Four formulations of mixed açaí (Euterpe oleracea) (A) and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao) (CH) jellies were prepared according to the following proportions: T1 (40% A:60% CH), T2 (50% A:50% CH), T3 (60% A: 40% CH) and T4 (100% A - control). All formulations were prepared using a rate 60:40 (w/w) of sucrose and pulp, plus 0.5% pectin and the products reached to average of 65% soluble solids content. The jellies were analyzed by chemical and physicochemical (titratable acidity, pH, soluble sol...

  20. El sitio Cueva Cacao 1A: hallazgos, espacio y proceso de complejidad en la Puna meridional (ca. 3000 años A. P.)

    OpenAIRE

    Olivera, Daniel Enzo; Vidal, Aixa S.; Grana, Lorena

    2003-01-01

    El estudio de objetos poco frecuentes en los sitios arqueológicos, como los realizados con materiales perecederos, constituye una importante fuente de información sobre distintos aspectos de la vida cotidiana de los grupos prehistóricos, no sólo en las cuestiones vinculadas directamente con la subsistencia sino también en lo relativo a la esfera social, al ritual y a las relaciones entre grupos. Las características de gran aridez, sedimentación eólica y difícil acceso del sitio Cueva Cacao 1A...

  1. Evaluación de la sostenibilidad de los cultivos de café y cacao en las provincias de Orellana y sucumbíos – Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Viteri, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    El café y cacao a nivel mundial son producidos mayoritariamente por pequeños agricultores, con superficies menores a 3 hectáreas. Esto implica que la producción de estos commodities, no solo constituye una fuente de ingresos económicos para millones de familias, sino también son fuente de alimentos, al asociar estos cultivos con otras especies. Asimismo, su producción garantiza una fuente de trabajo, contribuyendo a reducir la pobreza, y aislándolos de la posibilidad de incurrir en la siembra...

  2. La incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial entre 1840 y 1925, según los informes consulares

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Maiguashca

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo ofrece una reinterpretación del proceso de incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial, entre 1840 y 1925. Esta revisión se realiza a partir de los conceptos desarrollados por el economista italiano Giovanni Arrighi: incorporación nominal, incorporación periférica e incorporación no-periférica. Por medio de estos, el ensayo analiza la variedad de enlaces que se desarrollaron entre el centro y la periferia, y dentro la periferia misma. Se estudian especialmente dos mom...

  3. Pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable, Sector Cacao, Estado Sucre. Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    María Lourdes Bruzco Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Se reflexiona sobre el pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable en el sector cacao del estado Sucre, a partir de la racionalidad existente en el área y la que emerge al acercarse el sujeto indagador influenciado por el campo de las ciencias administrativas y gerenciales. La investigación se aborda desde la perspectiva interpretativa, haciendo uso del método hermenéutico. Se encontró: 1. Los informantes poseen conocimiento sobre los elementos constitutivo...

  4. Da fødsler var en naturlig ting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, Grit

    For bare 40 år siden fødte kvinderne på landet deres børn hjemme i sengen. Jordemødrene boede i nabolaget og kendte familierne, og således var barnefødslerne en naturlig og ganske udramatisk del af livet - dengang. Med jordemoder Rosa Thomsens stilfærdige beretning om tiden som distriktsjordemode...

  5. Is China's Monetary Policy Effective? Evaluating the VAR Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Jiadan Jiang; David Kim

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with rapid economic growth and large structural changes in the economy, China's monetary authority has managed to influence the economy with its policy actions since 1983. This paper conducts a rigorous empirical test on the effect of China's monetary policy actions on its economy by properly identifying and estimating two vector autoregression (VAR) models. To identify exogenous monetary policy shocks, two identification approaches are considered in this paper: A recursive approac...

  6. Application of subsynchronous damping controller to static var compensator

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Moghadam, Davoud Esmaeil; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Candela García, José Ignacio; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new auxiliary Subsynchronous Damping Controller (SSDC) for the Static Var Compensator (SVC) to damp out subsynchronous oscillations in power system containing series compensated transmission lines. The arrival of Wide Area Measurement (WAM) technology has made it possible to measure the states of a large power system interconnected with synchronized Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). This paper presents the idea of using remote signals obtained from PMU to damp SSR. An auxi...

  7. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Weiler; Karine Cristina Krycki; Divanilde Guerra; Carine Simioni; Miguel Dall’Agnol

    2015-01-01

    Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola) is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parent...

  8. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Desriani Desriani; Dwi Endah Kusumawati; Akhmad Rivai; Neneng Hasanah; Wiwit Amrinola; Lita Triratna; Ade Sukma

    2013-01-01

    Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms livi...

  9. Potential Endophytic Bacteria for Increasing Paddy Var Rojolele Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desriani Desriani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy var Rojoleleis asuperior paddy come from Klaten that released by Department of Agriculture in 2003. Its superior properties are resistant to pests leaf hoppers, fluffier, and fragrant. To increase the productivity of paddy that are of ten used by farmers is to use chemical-based fertilizers. The use of these chemicals will effect to adisruption of ecosystem balancing, reduction the amount of soil microflora which essential forplants. Endophytic bacteria are symbiotic microorganisms living within plant tissues, and does not cause negative effects on the host plant. Endophytic bacteria have a capability increasing crop productivity by producing growth hormone, contributes to plant health, and as bio-control agents. Some endophytic bacteria which contribute to plant growth are: Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Azotobacter sp., And Azospirilum sp., Whereas endophytic bacteria that contribute to the health and plant protection several of them are: Pseudomonas sp., Serratia sp. ,Clavibacter sp., and Bacillus sp. This study was conducted to investigate potential of endophytic bacteria to increase Paddy var Rojolele productivity based on its ability to produce extracellular enzymes and resistance to multiple types of antibiotics. The method were endophytic bacteria isolation from three Paddy varRojolele plants, extracellular enzymes detection and antibiotic resistance testing to chloramfinekol, ampicillin and kanamycin. As the result, 43isolateswere isolated from Paddy var Rojolele. Four isolatesamong them havethe ability to produce extra cellular enzym esandresistant toampicillin, kanamycin, and chloramfinekol. Extra cellular enzyme production capability and resistance to antibiotics makes endophytic bacteria are potentialto improveplant health and also asbio-control agentwhich then willaffect to the productivity of rice. To further ensure its potential to plant, more research is needed.

  10. Studies on the fermentation of bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Dermot

    1985-01-01

    During this work the fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis under industrial conditions was studied with respect to the development of a process for the production of a mosquitocidal insecticide elaborated by this organism. This was done by the development of a two-stage inoculum protocol which produced a high biomass-containing inoculum of vegetative cells which were found to be preferable to free spores for use as an inoculum source. In order to optimize the production st...

  11. New clerodane diterpenes from Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Wen-Juan; Jiao, Li-Xiang; Guo, Jun-Ming; Tian, Kai; Yang, Chun-Tao; Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Four new clerodane diterpenes, namely sagittatayunnanosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis, together with two known compounds, tinospinoside C (5) and tinospinoside E (6). The structures of the four new compounds were well elucidated by extensive analyses of the MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The cytotoxic and antifouling activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. PMID:24634023

  12. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en general más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  13. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  14. Analysis list: Su(var)3-7 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)3-7 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)3-7.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien...cedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)3-7.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)3-7.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(v...ar)3-7.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)3-7.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscien

  15. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A; Padhye, A A

    1997-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora and E. tereticornis (hybrid) trees were examined for the presence of C. neoformans var. gattii. Flowers from two trees of E. camaldulensis in the Chak Sarkar forest and one from the village of Periana near the Ferozepur area yielded five isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii. The origin of the trees could be traced to Australia, thus providing evidence that the distribution of E. camaldulensis correlated with the distribution of human cryptococcosis cases caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in northern India. PMID:9399553

  16. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  17. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using...

  18. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P.; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A.; Padhye, A A

    1997-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. c...

  19. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  20. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumbu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  1. The effect of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on in vitro callogenesis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. development using modern breeding techniques can be facilitated by propagation of planting material through somatic embryogenesis. Various factors that may affect embryogenesis are the composition of culture medium and culture condition. Hormone commonly used to initiate the formation of callus is auxin with type 2.4-D (2.4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of 2.4 -D hormoneson the process of cocoa embryogenesis. The treatments were arragged in factorial combination in completely randomized design, which consisted of two factors. Thefirst factor was the concentration of auxin 2,4-D 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, and 100 %; and the second factor was cocoa clones; Sulawesi 01 and Sulawesi 02. The resultshowed that the addition of 2.4-D hormone up to 100% on somatic embryogenesis of cocoa for Sulawesi 01 clone was not significantly different from Sulawesi 02 clone for all parameters. While on the addition of 2.4-D, there was significant difference between Sulawesi 01 and 02. Cocoa embryogenic callus using the addition of 2.4-D (25%-100% was significantly different from control. Increased concentrations of 2,4-D hormone which is applied onto media would inhibit the formation of the somatic embryo. Addition of 2.4 D 25%, encouraged towards non-embryogenic callus. Keywords: 2.4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, embryogenic callus, somatic embryos, cocoa, medium culture, hormone

  2. Incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme based on Lorenz model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xidong; XU Dongfeng; XU Xiaohua

    2008-01-01

    Four-dimensional variational(4D-VAR) data assimilation method is a perfect data assimilation solution in theory, but the compu- tational issue is quite difficult in operational implementation. The incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme is set up in order to re- duce the computational cost. It is shown that the accuracy of the observations, the length of the assimilation window and the choice of the first guess have an important influence on the assimilation outcome through the contrast experiment. Compared with the standard 4D-VAR assimilation scheme, the incremental 4D-VAR assimilation scheme shows its advantage in the computation speed through an assimilation experiment.

  3. Método Posible para la Comprobación de la Cáscara de Cacao en el Café Molido.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Madariaga G.

    1940-06-01

    Full Text Available Un café sobre todo si se halla finamente molido, puede contener hasta un 30% de cáscara de cacao, sin que su aspecto físico haga aparente la adulteración. La prueba cualitativa de dicha adulteración sólo puede obtenerse mediante el microscopio, lo cual requiere bastante experiencia. La adición al café de 20% de cáscara de cacao, causa en los componentes anotados, variaciones tan pequeñas que, por lo general, se hallan dentro de los límites aceptados para cafés de distintas procedencias. El punto de partida de nuestra investigación ha sido la separación de la cáscara por gravedad. Entre las diversas soluciones ensayadas con tal fin, hallamos la de hiposulfito de sodio más conveniente, por la gran solubilidad de esta sal y por ser el hiposulfito un producto barato, fácil de obtener en cualquier parte.

  4. Isolation of the Endophytic Fungi of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis and Their Effects on the Embryo Development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun CHENG; Yanqiong YANG; Changling ZHAO; Li WANG; Shuying CHEN; Yuhan SHEN; Jing CHAI; Key words Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis; Endophytic fungus; P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seed; Embryo development; Embryo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] This study aimed to isolate the endophytic fungi of Paris poly- phylla var. yunnanensis and investigate their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds. [Method] The endophytic fungi of P. poly- phylla were isolated and identified morphologically, and their effects on the embryo development of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds were studied by using paraffin sectioning and microphotography. [Result] Nine endophytic fungi, Le. P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis endophytic fungi PPYEF-1, PPYEF-2, PPYEF-3, PPYEF-4, PPYEF- 5, PPYEF-6, PPYEF-7, PPYEF-8 and PPYEF-9 belonging to seven genera in five families, three orders were isolated from the rhizomes. Except PPYEF-4 (Cladospori- um sp.), other fungi could promote the embryo development of the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds, mostly reaching the extremely significant or significant level. PPYEF-9 (Trichoderma sp.) resulted in the highest embryo length and embryo-e- merging ratio. [Conclusion] This paper could provide a reference for the applica- tion of the endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis in the dormancy- breaking of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis seeds.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood (ID 4276) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...... or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claim is cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). The Panel considers that whereas the food, cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), is not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect evaluated in this opinion, the food constituents, caffeine...... that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood....

  6. A new jacaranone derivative from Senecio scandens var. incisus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Shu; Lu, Peng; Duan, Chang-Hong; Feng, Jin-Chao

    2010-03-01

    A new jacaranone derivative, 2-(1,6-dihydroxy-4-oxocyclohex-2-enyl) acetic acid (1), has been isolated from the whole plants of Senecio scandens var. incisus, together with three known compounds: 2'-(p-hydroxyl-cinnamoyl)-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (2), 2'-caffeoyl-6'-jacaranone-D-glucopyranoside (3) and kampferol-3-rhamnoside (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses and by comparison with the related known compounds. Cytotoxic activities of 1 against three human tumour cell lines have been evaluated by the MTT method. PMID:20221943

  7. [Study on chemical constituents of Drosera peltata var. multisepala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Huang, Jin; Xu, Xianghua; Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Peizhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigatation of Drosera peltata var. multisepala led to the isolation of eleven compounds using various chromatographic techniques. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as isoshinanolone-4-O-beta-D-glucoside (1), isoshinanolone (2), epi-isoshinanolone (3), plumbagin (4), droserone (5), droserone-5-O-glucoside (6), quercetin (7), kaempferol (8) , gossypetin-8-O-glucoside (9), 3,3'-dimethoxy ellagic acid (10), and ellagic acid (11) by their physicochemical properties and spectral data analysis. Compound 1 was a new compound. Compounds 3, 8, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:22737855

  8. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  9. A New Languidulane Diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  10. Forecasting the South African Economy : A DSGE-VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, G.; Gupta, R.; Schaling, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops an estimable hybrid model that combines the micro-founded DSGE model with the flexibility of the theoretical VAR model. The model is estimated via the maximum likelihood technique based on quarterly data on real Gross National Product (GNP), consumption, investment and hours worked, for the South African economy, over the period of 1970:1 to 2000:4. Based on a recursive estimation using the Kalman filter algorithm, the out-of-sample forecasts from the hybrid model are then...

  11. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Betty Stefany

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aisla- do M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibi- ción del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. ori- ganoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno,

    y-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, 1-mirceno, trans-1ccariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P <

    0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en gene- ral más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  12. Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Ramani; Sushruthi Sudini; Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli; Ravinder Nath Anisetti

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main focus of the study is to determine antioxidant, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana using various in vitro assay methods as well as to estimate the amount of total phenol and flavonoid contents. Methods: Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana were collected in February 2008 from Thirumala hills and standard procedure from the literature were used to estimate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results: The results suggest that both the extracts can be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants products as the obtained values are more or less near to the used standard compound. Conclusions: The characterization of leucas for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities are new to literature in this context this extensive in vitro study of the selected two species of leucas for antioxidant activity will be a valuable study for further in vivo activities.

  13. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct interpre

  14. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  15. The monetary transmission mechanism in the Czech republic (evidence from VAR analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoštová, Kateřina; Hurník, Jaromír

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the monetary policy transmission mechanism using VAR models – the most widely used empirical methodology for analyzing the transmission mechanism in the Czech economy. Using the VAR methodology, the paper tries to evaluate the effects of an exogenous shock to monetary policy.

  16. Characterization of human placental glycosaminoglycans and regional binding to VAR2CSA in malaria infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaudet, Julie M; Mansur, Leandra; Joo, Eun Ji;

    2014-01-01

    and their VAR2CSA binding were characterized. All portions of human placenta contained sufficient amounts of the appropriate low-sulfated chondroitin sulfate-A to display high-affinity binding to a recombinant truncated VAR2CSA construct, as determined using surface plasmon resonance. The cotyledon is the only...

  17. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  18. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  19. Mentha spicata var. spicata (L. 1753) and Raphanus sativus var. sativus (L. 1753) : survival meal for Medauroidea extradentata (Brunner von Wattenwyl 1907) (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Gabriel; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; OLIVE, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    La version française de l'article est hal-01277035. International audience When food shortages for a stick insect breeding of the species Medauroidea extradentata, feeding trials were conducted with spearmint (Mentha spicata var. spicata). Contrary to what was expected, the stems were eaten more than the leaves. In addition, four specimens of this species were found after surviving without water or food other than radish plants (Raphanus sativus var. sativus). So it seems that M. extrad...

  20. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Claire H Luby; Hiroshi A Maeda; Irwin L Goldman

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combi...

  1. Normality assumptions and risk management: an application of the parametric var via goodness-of-fit test

    OpenAIRE

    Herick Fernando Moralles; Alexandre Sartoris Neto; Daisy Aparecida do Nascimento Rebelatto

    2014-01-01

    Given the weaknesses of the parametric VaR (Value-at-Risk) calculated by normality assumptions, this paper develops a method of parametric VaR calculation considering ten different probability distributions. Specifically, the distribution to be used for the VaR calculation of a specific asset or portfolio is indicated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. Additionally, the study compares the normality assumptions applicability for the VaR calculation of both individual assets, and t...

  2. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  3. A weak-constraint 4DEnsembleVar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Javier; Goodliff, Michael; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

    2016-04-01

    4DEnsembleVar is a hybrid data assimilation method which, besides making use of flow-dependent ensemble covariance information, avoids the computation of tangent-linear and adjoint models for the evolution and observation operators. In this method, the information from the observation time is communicated to the initial time via 4D cross-time covariances. Large systems require localisation of covariance matrices to suppress long-distance spurious elements. In a 4D covariance, however, using static localisation matrices (as it is done in practice) can eliminate the effect of observations if their location (at observational time) is far from that of the variable they are influencing (at the initial time). In lack of time-dependent localisation functions, in this work we propose a simpler option to ameliorate this problem. We exploit the presence of model error to spread the information of observations to more time steps, introducing a weak-constrained 4DEnsembleVar. The benefits of this method are illustrated in the Korteweg-de-Vries system, the Lorenz 1996 system, and a modified shallow water system with simulated convection.

  4. Genetic Relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jun; Zhang Qixiang; Ru Guangxin; Mao Qingshan; Yan Xiaolan; Lan Yanping

    2003-01-01

    Genetic relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula were studied by using AFLP markers. 18 accessions representing 14 cultivars ofPrunus murne var. pendula were selected from the germplasm collection at the Research Center of China Mci Flower. Seven Mse I-EcoR I AFLP primer combinations revealed 450 legible bands, and 269 of which were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity and Nei's (72) distance coefficient. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated the genetic relationships of the cultivars. The information given by AFLP markers was basically consistent with the morphological classification and the evolutionary history of the morphotypes, and roughly supported the new revised classification system for Chinese Mci Cultivars. But there were still several exceptions: 1) the 'Guhong Chuizhi' inserted between the 'Tiaoxue Chuizhi' and the 'Danfen Chuizhi'; 2) the 'Wufu Chuizhi' kept off the Pink Pendant Form, and the 'Moshan Chuizhi' was removed from Viridiflora Pendant Form; 3) the 'Danbi Chuizhi' and the 'Shuangbi Chuizhi' of Viridiflora Pendant Form got together well but fell within the Pink Pendant Form.

  5. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  6. Characterization of a Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, a pathogen of grasshoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, CG 863, obtained from the grasshopper Schistocerca interrita, a crop pest in Peru. The characterization was done by comparing this isolate with two other ones of M. anisopliae var. acridum, from Brazil and Australia, and with an isolate of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. The three M. anisopliae var. acridum isolates had similar growth profiles in agar plates at 25°C and 37°C, and similar RAPD patterns according to the analysis of three primers. However, regarding these parameters and conidial size, these isolates were very distinct when compared to M. anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate. Bioassays indicated that the Peruvian isolate is as pathogenic as the Brazilian isolate against nymphs of Rhammatocerus schistocercoides.

  7. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2...

  8. La producción de cacao en el estado Zulia: impacto socioeconómico en los cacaocultores "Ruta del Chocolate"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Portillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó con el objetivo de promover el desarrollo de la cacaocultura del estado Zulia, mediante la transferencia tecnológica. Se utilizo el diagnóstico participativo, entrevistas directas, asistencia técnica, reuniones y dictado de cursos. Como resultados preliminares tenemos: Organización de 9 asociaciones de productores, 300 productores capacitados sobre el manejo agronómico del cultivo y aspectos organizacionales, Fortalecimiento del Laboratorio de Tecnología de alimentos de la Facultad de Agronomía de LUZ. El trabajo ha servido de incentivo para los productores del estado Zulia a fin de rescatar el cacao como rubro generador de divisas para los cacaocultores y el país.

  9. Pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable, Sector Cacao; Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Bruzco Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reflexiona sobre el pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable en el sector cacao del estado Sucre, a partir de la racionalidad existente en el área y la que emerge al acercarse el sujeto indagador influenciado por el campo de las ciencias administrativas y gerenciales. La investigación se aborda desde la perspectiva interpretativa, haciendo uso del método hermenéutico. Se encontró: 1. Los informantes poseen conocimiento sobre los elementos constitutivos del pensamiento estratégico en mayor grado que aquellos que dan vida al desarrollo sustentable. 2. Las ideas expuestas convergen en una estructura de partes interrelacionadas en atención a las teorías revisadas. Se concluye que los gerentes encuestados de las pyme consideradas relacionan ambos conceptos, siendo ventajoso para el sector.

  10. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackmon Barbara P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed.

  11. Absorción y distribución de nutrientes en clones de cacao y sus efectos en el rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Jazbleidi Puentes-Páramo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el centro experimental de la Federación Nacional de Cacaoteros de Colombia (Fedecacao, localizado en el municipio de Miranda, Cauca (Colombia se evaluó la capacidad de absorción y distribución de los nutrientes N, P y K en hojas, cáscara y almendra de los clones de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.: CCN-51 y ICS-95 (auto-compatibles y TSH-565 e ICS-39 (auto-incompatibles, y su influencia en el rendimiento. El diseño experimental fue bloques completos al azar con cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones; los tratamientos consistieron en un control (TR equivalente a la concentración de nutrientes en el suelo del centro experimental (kg/ha (49 N, 23.5 P y 146.5 K, e incrementos en esta concentración equivalentes a 25%(T1, 50% (T2, 75% (T3 y 100% (T4. La concentración de nutrientes en hojas, cáscara y almendra mostró diferencias significativas (P K > P y en cáscara fue K > N > P. El mayor rendimiento de grano y la mayor extracción de NPK por 1000 kg de peso seco se presentó en el T2. Todos los clones presentaron una secuencia similar de concentración de nutrientes en hoja, cáscara y almendra, sin embargo, fue evidente la diferencia existente en la capacidad de absorción y distribución de nutrientes y en el rendimiento entre clones, lo cual es relevante para el eficiente manejo nutricional del cultivo.

  12. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  13. Static Var Compensator for CERN's Proton Synchrotron Particle Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2004-01-01

    The following paper summarises the design studies for a new 85Mvar 18kV Static Var Compensator (SVC) for CERN’s Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator. Currently, the PS is supplied using a rotating motor-generator set in order to decouple the pulsating load from the electrical network. A study is undertaken to investigate the replacement of this rotating machine by an SVC. The proposed solution comprises a 85Mvar Thyristor Controlled Reactor and seven harmonic filters with a total power of 75Mvar. The paper gives a detailed description of the project background, system design and control strategy. Finally, the results of the computer studies are presented, showing the expected dynamic performance of the SVC.

  14. VAR Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlan ATABAEV

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of monetary transmission on real output and price level in Kyrgyzstan which is very important issue for central banks. We analyzed the relationships between the money supply, real output, price level, interest rate, credit and real exchange rate by using the vector autoregression approach (VAR and monthly data for 2003-2011. As a result the interest rate channel remains weak, on the other hand it have been revealed that the credit channel has some affects to real output, the exchange rate channel affects the prices. Exchange rate channel remains still the most effective channel. Based on these results, it can be argued that government can use credit and interest rate channel in increasing real output, and the exchange rate channel in achieving price stability in Kyrgyzstan.

  15. Hot air convective dehydration characteristics of Daucus carota var. Nantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees-ul Haq

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on experimental and theoretical study of air dehydration kinetics of Daucus carota var. Nantes in laboratory scale drying chamber. Steam blanching as a pretreatment was applied prior to dehydration of shreds and the results indicated a gradual decrease in drying time from 2.9 to 5.5% in temperature range of 50–70°C, for steam blanched samples in comparison to untreated carrots. Four different mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page and Henderson and Pabis were evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and RMSE parameters. Comparison of the statistical parameters led to conclusion that Page model showed a better quality of fit and presents dehydration characteristics in better way to obtain drying curves than any other model.

  16. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  17. ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflorat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪伟光; 吴海燕; 杜雪; 晋建新; 孙汉董

    2012-01-01

    Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 6fl,13ct,15fl-trihydroxy-16-ene-3a,20-epoxy-ent-kaur- 1,7-dione (1), 6-hydroxy-3a,20-epoxy-5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7,15-trione (2), 6-hydroxy-15fl-acetoxy-3a,20-epoxy-16]3,17-epoxy- 5(6)-ene-ent-kaur-l,7-dione (3), 3ct,17-dihydroxy-15(16)-ene-ent-kaur-7-one (4), along with four known com- pounds 5--8 were isolated from the leaves oflsodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora. The structures were elucidated by ex- tensive spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, MS and NMR). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated by MTT assay. Compound 8 showed moderate inhibitory effects on HL-60, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and SW-480 cell lines.

  18. Corruption Effects on Nigeria: Aggregate and Sectoral Estimates Using VAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Osi Alenoghena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the impact of corruption on some key activity sectors of the Nigerian economy between 1996 and 2013 using VAR technique. The empirical estimates demonstrate that corruption affects most significantly agriculture, services, wholesale and retail sectors in Nigeria. As well, the study shows that the control of corruption has significant effect in the reduction of corruption. The study recommends that Nigeria can use an amalgamation of ethics hotlines for reporting corruption, open-door policies to embolden subordinates to consult with bosses for guidance, a “zero-tolerance” policy for breaches, anticorruption training sessions, and complete transparency in governmental operations to minimalize infractions. Nigeria will require strong political will and vision, credibility, frontal assault, new staff, deregulation, unconventional methods, close coordination, harnessing technology and tailoring international experience to local conditions.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Naibin; Sun, Honghe; Wang, Nan; Fei, Zhangjun; Chen, Xuesen

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Malus hupehensis var. pinyiensis, a widely used apple rootstock, was determined using the Illumina high-throughput sequencing approach. The genome is 422,555 bp in length and has a GC content of 45.21%. It is separated by a pair of inverted repeats of 32,504 bp, to form a large single copy region of 213,055 bp and a small single copy region of 144,492 bp. The genome contains 38 protein-coding genes, four pseudogenes, 25 tRNA genes, and three rRNA genes. The genome is 25,608 bp longer than that of M. domestica, and several structural variations between these two mitogenomes were detected. PMID:26539696

  20. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita;

    2012-01-01

    , laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis...... of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation...... participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography) with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass...

  1. Chromosome doubling in Paspalum notatum var. saure (cultivar Pensacola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Weiler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Paspalum notatum is one of the most important native grassland species of southern Brazil, and the main forage source for livestock. The native ecotypes are tetraploid and have apomictic reproduction, which prevents the registration and protection of plant varieties. However, the cultivated variety Paspalum notatum var. saurae (cultivar Pensacola is diploid and sexual. The objective of this study was to artificially produce polyploid cv. Pensacola plants, to be used as female parents in crosses with male tetraploid and apomictic parents. Seedlings and seeds were immersed in colchicine solutions for different periods. A tetraploid chromosome number was confirmed in three plants. The reproduction mode of the resulting polyploid plants will be assessed; if confirmed to be sexual, they can be used in crosses with native apomictic plants to breed new intraspecific hybrids.

  2. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  3. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw (~1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw. The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness, laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted by six aldopentose conjugates (probably xylose, which has never been reported in the literature.

  4. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  5. Genetic diversity of expressed Plasmodium falciparum var genes from Tanzanian children with severe malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugasa Joseph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe malaria has been attributed to the expression of a restricted subset of the var multi-gene family, which encodes for Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1. PfEMP1 mediates cytoadherence and sequestration of infected erythrocytes into the post-capillary venules of vital organs such as the brain, lung or placenta. var genes are highly diverse and can be classified in three major groups (ups A, B and C and two intermediate groups (B/A and B/C based on the genomic location, gene orientation and upstream sequences. The genetic diversity of expressed var genes in relation to severity of disease in Tanzanian children was analysed. Methods Children with defined severe (SM and asymptomatic malaria (AM were recruited. Full-length var mRNA was isolated and reversed transcribed into var cDNA. Subsequently, the DBL and N-terminal domains, and up-stream sequences were PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced. Sequences derived from SM and AM isolates were compared and analysed. Results The analysis confirmed that the var family is highly diverse in natural Plasmodium falciparum populations. Sequence diversity of amplified var DBL-1α and upstream regions showed minimal overlap among isolates, implying that the var gene repertoire is vast and most probably indefinite in endemic areas. var DBL-1α sequences from AM isolates were more diverse with more singletons found (pvar DBL-1α sequences from SM patients were rare and restricted suggesting that certain PfEMP1 variants might induce severe disease. Conclusions The genetic sequence diversity of var genes of P. falciparum isolates from Tanzanian children is large and its relationship to disease severity has been studied. Observed differences suggest that different var genes might have fundamentally different roles in the host-parasite interaction. Further research is required to examine clear disease-associations of var gene subsets in different geographical settings

  6. Return predictability and intertemporal asset allocation: Evidence from a bias-adjusted VAR model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We extend the VAR based intertemporal asset allocation approach from Campbell et al. (2003) to the case where the VAR parameter estimates are adjusted for small- sample bias. We apply the analytical bias formula from Pope (1990) using both Campbell et al.'s dataset, and an extended dataset...... with quarterly data from 1952 to 2006. The results show that correcting the VAR parameters for small-sample bias has both quantitatively and qualitatively important e¤ects on the strategic intertemporal part of optimal portfolio choice, especially for bonds: for intermediate values of risk...

  7. Les difficultés de la replantation. Quel avenir pour le cacao en Côte d’Ivoire ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruf François

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La conférence internationale sur le thème « Quel avenir pour les cultures pérennes ? » est née de deux préoccupations. La première recouvre le champ des difficultés de la replantation, difficultés techniques, économiques mais aussi environnementales, sociales et politiques : comment replanter 1 ? La seconde est la baisse des cours, probablement structurelle, de la plupart des matières premières agricoles, notamment de celles produites par des cultures pérennes. Si les prix restent aussi bas de façon aussi durable, pourquoi replanter ? De même qu’il est toujours de bon aloi d’acheter des actions quand la bourse s’écroule, les économistes recommandent de planter quand les cours des matières premières sont à leur plancher. Toutefois, si des centaines de milliers d’hectares sont plantés par des producteurs qui anticipent une remontée des cours, celle-ci peut alors être fort retardée. Cette capacité à anticiper un retour à des prix élevés est ainsi une des causes du prolongement de la phase des très bas prix du cacao jusqu’en 2001, ce qui semble bien relever d’un échec du marché 2. Le pourquoi et le comment de la replantation sont bien indissociables. Face aux enjeux, de nombreux pays détenteurs du patrimoine « cultures pérennes tropicales » ne manquent-ils pas d’une véritable politique de replantation prenant acte des changements nécessaires dans les conditions de production, se remettant en cause, tout en faisant face aux difficultés à interpréter les marchés ? Les problèmes de replantation ne peuvent se surmonter qu’à partir d’une compréhension des processus en œuvre, sur le terrain, en commençant par les décisions des producteurs. Les exemples, les études de cas, par village, par région, restent donc des fondamentaux pour une réflexion globale, pour une anticipation des problèmes, une action nationale, voire internationale, sur la replantation. En même temps, la question de

  8. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  9. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C;

    2012-01-01

    antibodies and the var transcript and PfEMP1 expression profiles of the generated parasites were investigated. The IgG reactivity by plasma from children living in malaria-endemic Tanzania was tested to parasites and recombinant VAR3 protein. Parasites from hospitalized children were isolated and the...... recognition of parasites expressing VAR3 and to the recombinant VAR3 protein after a malaria episode and the isolated parasites showed high levels of var3 transcripts. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the presented data suggest that var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected...... transcript level of var3 was investigated. RESULTS: Var3 is transcribed and its protein product expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes. The VAR3-expressing parasites were better recognized by children's IgG than a parasite line expressing a Group B var gene. Two in 130 children showed increased...

  10. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par. Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P The in vitro antifungal effect of five essential oils (EOs (EO1, EO2, EO3, EO4 and EO5 extracted from Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora and L. alba on isolates of Monilia (Moniliophthora roreri was evaluated. Lippia plants were collected at five locations in Colombia, and monilia isolates were obtained from infected cocoa fruits collected in San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. The fungi strains (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 were characterized by morphology, germination and growth in culture media. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of EOs was evaluated against the M2 and the isolated strain of M. roreri (ATCC 64239 determining their effect on germination and mycelial growth inhibition. The five essential oils studied inhibited

  11. Final Critical Habitat for the Wenatchee Mountains Checkermallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Wenatchee Mountains checker-mallow (Sidalcea oregana var. calva) occur based on...

  12. TWO NOVEL FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES FROM CRATAEGUS PINNATIFIDA BGE.VAR. MAJOR N.E.BR.r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI-CHENG ZHANG; YING-JUN ZHOU; SUI-XU XU

    2001-01-01

    Two novel natural products, namely pinnatifida C, pinnatifida D, were isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.var.rnajor N.E.Br. Their structures were elucidated by the spectro scopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  13. A New 6,7-Seco-Ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid from Isodon eriocalyx Var. laxiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new 6,7-seco-ent-kaurane diterpenoid, together with two known ones, was isolated from the leaves of Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora C. Y. Wu & H. W. Li. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods.

  14. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  15. Three new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium laxicymosum var. Pilostachyum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Qiao Hong Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Three new lycoctonine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids, laxicymine 1, laxicymisine 2, and laxicyminine 3 have been isolated from the whole herb of Delphinium laxicymosum var.pilostachyum W.T.Wang.Their structures were established by spectra data.

  16. Myte: Var Danmark det første land, der ophævede slaveriet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?......Danskere har tit travlt med at vaske hænder i forbindelse med slavehandlen, for vi var jo det første land, der lovgav mod slaveriet. Men er det nu også sandt?...

  17. VaR and Liquidity Risk.Impact on Market Behaviour and Measurement Issues.

    OpenAIRE

    Erzegovesi, Luca

    2002-01-01

    Current trends in international banking supervision following the 1996 Amendment to the Basel Accord emphasise market risk control based upon internal Value-at-risk (VaR) models. This paper discusses the merits and drawbacks of VaR models in the light of their impact on market liquidity. After a preliminary review of basic concepts and measures regarding market risk, market friction and liquidity risk, the arguments supporting the internal models approach to supervision on market risk are dis...

  18. rVarBase: an updated database for regulatory features of human variants

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Liyuan; Du, Yang; Qu, Susu; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    We present here the rVarBase database (http://rv.psych.ac.cn), an updated version of the rSNPBase database, to provide reliable and detailed regulatory annotations for known and novel human variants. This update expands the database to include additional types of human variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs) and novel variants, and include additional types of regulatory features. Now rVarBase annotates variants in three dimensions: chromatin states of the surrounding regions, overlapp...

  19. The classic European hyperinflations revisited : testing the Cagan model using a cointegrated VAR approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom

    1994-01-01

    I tidligere studier af de klassiske Europæiske hyperinflationer antages det at stød til pengeefterspørgslen er ikke-stationære. I artiklen vises det v.h.a. kointegrationstests at denne antagelse er fejlagtig. Med udgangspunkt i en kointegreret VAR model findes det, at der under de Europæiske...... hyperinflationer var et betragteligt fremadskuende element i agenterne pengeefterspørgsel. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...

  20. E(var)3-9 of Drosophila melanogaster Encodes a Zinc Finger Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of a gene's natural chromatin environment for its normal expression is poignantly illustrated when a change in chromosome position results in variable gene repression, such as is observed in position effect variegation (PEV) when the Drosophila melanogaster white (w) gene is juxtaposed with heterochromatin. The Enhancer of variegation 3-9 [E(var)3-9] gene was one of over a hundred loci identified in screens for mutations that dominantly modify PEV. Haploinsufficiency for E(var)...

  1. Macroeconomic and credit forecasts in a small economy during crisis: A large Bayesian VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitris P. Louzis

    2014-01-01

    We examine the ability of large-scale vector autoregressions (VARs) to produce accurate macroeconomic (output and inflation) and credit (loans and lending rates) forecasts in Greece, during the latest sovereign debt crisis. We implement recently proposed Bayesian shrinkage techniques and we evaluate the information content of forty two (42) monthly macroeconomic and financial variables in a large Bayesian VAR context, using a five year out-of-sample forecasting period from 2008 to 2013. The e...

  2. Effect of Pre-Chilling Duration and Kinetin on Germination of Capers (Capparis Spinosa Var. Spinosa And Capparis Ovata Var. Canescens) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Talip; SÖYLER, Durmuş Ali; ÖZCAN, Sabahattin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine theeffects of pre-chilling and kinetin treatment on germination of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata var. canescens seeds. Seeds were kept 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks for pre-chilling at +4 ºC. After the prechilling, Seeds were treated with distilled water, 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm doses of kinetin and 2000 ppm dose of GA3 which was used as positive control for 24 hours at 22 ºC. The research was conducted with 4 repetitionin in fitler pape...

  3. Hibridação interespecífica entre Gossmum hirsutum L. var. latifolium e G. Herbaceum L. var. africanum Interespecific hybridization between Gossypium hirsutum var. latifolium and G. Herbaceum var. africanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederaldo José Chiavegato

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi obtida, pelos autores, variabilidade genética para resistência da fibra do algodoeiro a partir da hibridação entre a espécie alotetraplóide cultivada Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. e a espécie diplóide selvagem G. herbaceum L. vai. africanum Hutch. A metodologia empregada e as características agronômicas e tecnológicas da fibra do híbrido são descritas e discutidas. Visando à duplicação do número de cromossomos da espécie diplóide, foram realizados nove tratamentos com o alcalóide colchicina, em solução aquosa e em adição com pasta de lanolina, com diferentes concentrações e tempo de ação para o tratamento de sementes, radicelas e gemas apicais: revelou-se mais eficiente o de gemas apicais com colchicina a 1%, em pasta de lanolina, durante 32 horas. Diversos cruzamentos das plantas duplicadas com variedades comerciais de algodoeiro levaram à obtenção de híbrido estéril. A seguir, dois retrocruzamentos foram realizados, sendo que, a partir do primeiro, a fertilidade foi restaurada. Estas plantas, com características agronômicas promissoras, possuem grande variabilidade para resistência da fibra, num nível superior ao de G. hirsutum.Genetic variability was obtained by the authors for fiber strenght in cotton, through hybridization between the cultivated alotetraploid species Gossypium hirsutum L. var. latifolium Hutch. and the wild diploid species G. herbaceum L. africanum Hutch. The underlying methods and the hybrid's characteristics are reported and described. As a first step, the number of chromosomes in the diploid species was duplicated. Nine treatments with aqueous colchicina or colchicina in lanolina paste were carried out, comprising several concentrations and times of application to seeds, radicles and apical buds of the main stem. Success was obtained by treating apical buds with lanolina paste containing 1% colchicina, during 32 hours. Two hundred fourty five crosses between the

  4. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  5. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  6. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  7. Working Alliance Inventory applied to Virtual and Augmented Reality (WAI-VAR: Psychometrics and Therapeutic Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMiragall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR and Augmented Reality (AR therapies (WAI-VAR. The relationship between the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage= 34.41. Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. Not changed patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than improved and recovered patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the therapeutic alliance with therapist (WAI-S and the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR (WAI-VAR, due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the therapeutic alliance with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the therapeutic alliance with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  8. Antimicrobial evaluation of clerodane diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashidhara, Koneni V; Singh, Suriya P; Shukla, P K

    2009-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula has led to the isolation of seven clerodane diterpenoids and five alkaloids. (-)-14, 15-bisnor-3, 11E-kolavadien-13-one (1), (-)-16-oxocleroda-3,13(14)E-dien-15-oic acid (2), (-)-16alpha-hydroxycleroda-3,13 (14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (3), (+)-(4-->2)-abeo-16(R/S)-2, 13Z-kolavadien-15, 16-olide-3-al (4), (-)-3beta, 16beta-dihydroxycleroda-4(18), 13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide (5), (-)-3, 12E-kolavadien-15-oic acid-16-al (6), (-)-labd-13E-en-8-ol-15-oic acid (7), liriodenine (8), (-)-anonaine (9), (+)-isoboldine (10), (-)-asimilobine (11) and hordenine (12) have been isolated. This is the first report of 1, 6 and 10 from this plant species while 12 is reported for first time from this genus. Clerodane derivatives 1-7 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Diterpene 3 was found to be most potent agent with MIC value of 6.25 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus and Sporothrix schenckii. PMID:19413108

  9. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki via fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Veal, Lee Ann B; Simpson, Beverley; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-09-01

    The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.

  10. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE PROTEIN FROM TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA L. VAR ANGUINA (L. HAINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHURIYAH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L. Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS, then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. The highest yield of protein was 1.109% from the seed (TS3, then 0.356% from the root (TR3, while the lowest was 0.014% from the fruit (TF2. The Lethal Concentration 50 (LC of proteins on brine shrimp lethality test was 50within range of 19 µg/ml - 25 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity test of the TR3 and TS3 proteins on cancer cell lines indicated that both of the proteins could inhibit proliferation of HeLa and K-562 cells with IC up to 45 µg/ml. It is recommended to conduct further researches on 50Trichosanthes plant as a herbal medicine to treat cancer.

  11. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  12. The "firing cannons" of Dipodascopsis uninucleata var. uninucleata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Andries P S; Swart, Chantel W; Pohl, Carolina H; van Wyk, Pieter W J; Swart, Hendrik C; Coetsee, Elizabeth; Schoombie, Schalk W; Smit, Jon; Kock, Johan Lodewyk F

    2013-06-01

    According to literature, the elongated ascospores of Dipodascopsis uninucleata var. uninucleata exhibit smart movement when forcefully ejected from bottle-shaped asci. This type of movement is defined as the unique patterns of non-random movement of ascospores with specialized morphology thereby facilitating release from asci. Smart movement is required to actively release ascospores individually through the narrow ascus neck, without causing an obstruction and blocking ascospore release. However, little is known about the propulsion mechanism of this cannon-type release system. We show that asci of this yeast contain a central channel (barrel) filled with ascospores. These are surrounded by a sheath-like structure that lines the inner surface of the ascus wall. We found that this sheath is responsible for forcing the naked ascospores out of the ascus by exerting turgor pressure from the bottom towards the tip of the ascus. This cannon firing system is in contrast to that found in Dipodascus geniculatus, where no sheaths lining the ascus interior were observed. Instead, sheaths were found enveloping each ascospore. PMID:23750956

  13. Two New Flavonol Glycosides from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate

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    Yan Qiu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed chemical investigation of the herb Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate resulted in the isolation of two new flavonol glycosides, namely, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-OE- feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-feruloyl-β-Dgalactopyranoside (2. In addition, four known compounds, quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-Dglucopyranoside (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, quercetin-3- O-(6′′-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-pcoumaroyl- β-D-glucopyranoside (6 were obtained. The structures of the new isolates were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  14. Embryological Studies on Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lili; Wu Jian; Chen Linjiao; Wang Rui; Tian Huiqiao

    2006-01-01

    Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis Roem) blooms but has no seeds.Embryological studies on the species were conducted to discover the causes of its sterility.Its anther wall is composed of four layers of cells,and its tapetum is of the secretory type.The cytokinesis of microspore mother cells is of the successive type,and the tetrad is tetrahedral.During meiosis of microspore mother cells,some chromosomes lagged,and several micronuclei were found in tetrads.Only 27.7% of the pollen grains contained full cytoplasm,and 1.3% of them germinated in culture medium.No pollen grain,however,could germinate on the stigma.The ovary is trilocular with axile placenta,and the ovules are bitegmic,tenuinucellate,and anatropous.Its embryo sac is of the polygonum type.Most embryo sacs degenerated,and only about 4.5% of the ovules contained a normal embryo sac with an egg cell,two synergids,three antipodal,and a central cell containing two polar nuclei.One reason for the sterility of Chinese narcissus is the abnormality of microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis,in which only a few functional pollen grains and embryo sacs are produced.The other reason is that the pollen grains cannot germinate on the stigma.

  15. Three New Clerodane Diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula

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    Tung-Ho Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new clerodane diterpenes, (4→2-abeo-cleroda-2,13E-dien-2,14-dioic acid (1, (4→2-abeo-2,13-diformyl-cleroda-2,13E-dien-14-oic acid (2, and 16(R&S- methoxycleroda-4(18,13-dien-15,16-olide (3, were isolated from the unripe fruit of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae together with five known compounds (4–8. The structures of all isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolates was evaluated by testing their inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (6 and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (7 showed promising NO inhibitory activity at 10 µg/mL, with 81.1% and 86.3%, inhibition, respectively.

  16. COPULA BASED VaR APPROACH FOR EUROPEAN STOCKS PORTFOLIO

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    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives stochastic assessments of the financial crisis and discusses the Value at Risk European stocks from the point of view of copula based approach. Copula techniques can be based on the connection between rank correlation and certain one–parameter bivariate copulas. This relation allows easy calibration of the parameters. We use more general numerical calibration techniques that are based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Using this approach we want to estimate VaR of the EU stocks portfolio using Monte Carlo simulation. The focus will be on modelling the interdependence between two risk factor returns. We suppose that the risk factor returns have some assumed marginal distributions, which need not be identical, and their dependency is modelled with copulas. We find that standard parametric copula functions (such as Gaussian are not able to provide a good fit to the data. This is especially true when one or more of the marginal distributions has fat tails. We overcome this problem by fitting a t–copula with different marginal which can approximate any possible shape for the joint density.

  17. Intoxicação por Baccharis megapotamica var. weiriiem ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M.O. Pedroso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As intoxicações por Baccharis coridifolia afetam especialmente animais de fazenda famintos ou curiosos e que não haviam tido contato prévio com a planta. B. coridifolia ocorre usualmente em terrenos secos de coxilhas no Rio Grande do Sul e estados ou países vizinhos. Uma forma indistinguível e esporádica da doença tem sido associada com a ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica que ocorre em áreas úmidas. Relata-se a intoxicação natural de quatro cordeiros após ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii. A doença foi observada em uma propriedade localizada em Barra do Ribeiro, Rio Grande do Sul. O rebanho era composto por 220 ovinos, os quais eram mantidos em área de pastagem nativa sem qualquer suplementação. Uma rápida doença clínica caracterizada por anorexia, cólica, diarréia e desidratação causou a morte de três cordeiros em um período de 8 a 24 horas, o outro foi encontrado morto. A necropsia revelou alterações significativas no rúmen, no qual havia edema de serosa e hemorragias equimóticas na submucosa. Microscopicamente, o rúmen apresentou edema de submucosa, além de edema, tumefação, vacuolização e necrose de mucosa. O diagnóstico foi fundamentado nos achados clínicos, patológicos e epidemiológicos.Spontaneous poisoning of livestock by Baccharis coridifolia affects mostly hungry or curious animals that have not entered in contact with the plant previously. The plant occurs usually in dried hilly soils of Rio Grande do Sul and neighboring states or countries. An indistinguishable and sporadic form of the disease has been associated with the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica, a species occurring in moist areas. This communication reports the spontaneous poisoning of four lambs after ingestion of B. megapotamica var. weirii. Clinical signs were observed in three lambs, the other was found dead. A rapid clinical disease characterized by anorexia, colic, dehydration, and diarrhea resulted in death

  18. The chondroitin sulfate A-binding site of the VAR2CSA protein involves multiple N-terminal domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Jørgensen, Lars M; Nielsen, Morten A;

    2011-01-01

    by a parasite expressed protein named VAR2CSA. A vaccine protecting pregnant women against placental malaria should induce antibodies inhibiting the interaction between VAR2CSA and CSA. Much effort has been put into defining the part of the 350 kDa VAR2CSA protein that is responsible for binding. It has been...... of truncated VAR2CSA proteins. The experiments indicate that the core of the CSA-binding site is situated in three domains, DBL2X-CIDR(PAM) and a flanking domain, located in the N-terminal part of VAR2CSA. Furthermore, recombinant VAR2CSA subfragments containing this region elicit antibodies with high parasite...

  19. El mono y el cacao: la búsqueda de un mito a través de los relieves del Grupo de la Serie Inicial de Chichén Itzá Monkey and Cacao: in Search of a Myth Through the Initial Series Group Reliefs in Chichén Itzá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ilia Nájera Coronado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios sobre el cacao han subrayado la relevancia del árbol y de su fruto en diferentes ámbitos de la cultura maya y podría afirmarse que, después del maíz, fue la planta más venerada; su valor destaca en la esfera económica, en la social y, por supuesto, también en la religiosa. A pesar de ello se desconocen mitos sobre cómo los hombres llegaron a obtenerlo; por ello, con base en el modelo mítico mesoamericano del maíz, se propone una interpretación sustentada principalmente en el análisis de algunos de los relieves del Grupo de la Serie Inicial ubicado en Chichén Itzá, en la que el simio juega un papel relevante.Recent studies about cacao symbolism have stressed the importance of this plant and its bean in several contexts of ancient Maya culture, sustaining the assumption that it was the most revered plant after corn. Its value stands out in economic and social terms and, of course, in religious contexts. However, we do not know the mythical beliefs related with its procurement for the human beings; in this paper we propose a possible interpretation, based on the maize mythical model and supported by several representations from the Initial Series Group of Chichén Itzá, where monkeys play an important role.

  20. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  1. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

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    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  2. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  3. Análisis del diseño de voladuras con cargas compactas en la cantera de áridos El Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Otaño-Noguel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante las  voladuras primarias en la cantera de áridos El Cacao se obtiene un alto porcentaje de pedazos con dimensiones superiores a los admitidos por los eslabones siguientes de la cadena tecnológica, lo que provoca la necesidad de la fragmentación secundaria,  trayendo esto aparejado numerosos inconvenientes, el encarecimiento de las labores y el incremento  del  costo  de  producción. Para un diseño racional de las voladuras se requiere conocer las propiedades físicas de las rocas así como la acción de la explosión en el medio. En el presente trabajo  se  determinan esas propiedades y se ofrecen los resultados del estudio de la acción de la explosión en el medio provocado por la detonación de una carga compacta de sustancia explosiva.

  4. Caracterización bioquímica de hojas de clones de Theobroma cacao y su relación con los tricomas

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    Janet Quiñones Galvez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Theobroma cacao L. is a crop of major importance for their potential applications in pharmacy and agriculture. It contains metabolites that are of great interest for its natural biological functions in plant response to different types of stress, both biotic and abiotic. The presence, type and concentration of both primary and secondary metabolites may vary depending on the genotype analyzed and these compounds can accumulate in the architecture associated structures such as leaf trichomes. The aim of this study was to characterize 26 clones of the germplasm bank of Padrón, INIA-Miranda, Miranda State, Venezuela and study the relationship between biochemical indicators assessed and the number of trichomes. The content of phenolic compounds, soluble protein, free proline, total carbohydrates, lignins, the number of trichomes and the relationship between all traits was determined. The results showed that in the two dimensional space explained 46.68% of the variability, five homogeneous groups were defined: 10 clones were associated with the maximum gradient of proline, total carbohydrate and lignin content. Nine clones were associated with high content of phenols and a group of seven clones with the highest number of trichomes on leaves. It was found that the number of trichomes was not related to the concentration of phenolic compounds. The clones of Forastero cocoa type showed higher concentration of total phenols and carbohydrates, meanwhile the Trinitario type presented higher concentration of proteins and prolina.

  5. La incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial entre 1840 y 1925, según los informes consulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Maiguashca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece una reinterpretación del proceso de incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial, entre 1840 y 1925. Esta revisión se realiza a partir de los conceptos desarrollados por el economista italiano Giovanni Arrighi: incorporación nominal, incorporación periférica e incorporación no-periférica. Por medio de estos, el ensayo analiza la variedad de enlaces que se desarrollaron entre el centro y la periferia, y dentro la periferia misma. Se estudian especialmente dos momentos de este proceso: 1840-1890 y 1890-1910. El análisis de las articulaciones externas e internas que se dieron en cada una de estas fases y los factores de producción que los sustentaron permiten caracterizar al primer momento como ‘incorporación nominal’ y al segundo como ‘periférica’. Esta distinción permite una mejor comprensión del auge cacaotero ecuatoriano en el largo siglo XIX. El trabajo se basa en los informes consulares extranjeros, un tipo de documentación que no ha sido suficientemente estudiada todavía.

  6. Development of a nopal fiber (Opuntia ficus-indica and powdered cocoa (Theobroma cacao added beef patties, nutritive, physicochemical and sensory characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Chamorro-Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate addition effect of 3% of nopal fiber (FN and cacao powder (CA on the physicochemical, nutritional content and sensory acceptation of patty meat. A total of 144 patties were elaborated in three different batches: Control (TC no addition; FN with 3% of FN; and CA with 3% of CA. Physicochemical tests (pH, Aw, texture (TPA and instrumental color (CIE-Lab at different storage times (0, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days, besides to nutritional content and acceptation test. pH increased in all the treatments at 28 days of storage, where CA addition decreased luminosity (P>0.05 and maintained higher a* values (P0.05. FN or CA addition increased fiber content (P<0.05. Patties with FN showed a moderate acceptation. Since addition of FN or CA did not decreased consumer acceptation, these can be employed as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  7. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

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    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  8. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

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    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  9. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  10. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  11. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion;

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  12. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  13. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained articles presented in three separate chapters. The overall aim is to provide a foundation for combining the new theoretical framework of Imperfect Knowledge Economics (IKE) developed by Frydman and Goldberg (2007, 2011) with the econometric...... model embedding key features of IKE and show that empirical regularities in the simulated data can be found using the cointegrated VAR model, despite bounded parameter-instability and stochastic cointegration in the data-generating process. Finally, the third chapter is a purely econometric article...... conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  14. Outbreak of Rust Caused by Coleosporium asterum on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea in Ulleung-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Chang-Gi; Nam, Gu-Youn; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Jung, Hee-Young

    2014-03-01

    From June to October 2012, severe outbreaks of rust disease on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea were observed in 5 different regions of Ulleung-do, Korea. Typical rust symptoms appeared as yellow spots, uredinia on leaves, and massive urediniospores covering the entire plant. Severely infected plants became discolored and died. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, the causal agent was identified as Coleosporium asterum. This pathogen has been reported as rust disease on S. virgaurea in the Canada and United States. In Korea, rust disease on S. virgaurea var. gigantea was reported as Uromyces rudbeckia in 1992. To the best of our knowledge, C. asterum is a novel rust pathogen on S. virgaurea var. gigantea in Korea.

  15. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  16. Genetic variability and population structure of the mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengran Zhao

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 123 wild strains of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis, which were collected from nine geographical locations in Yumin, Tuoli, and Qinghe counties in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, was analysed using two molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat and start codon targeted. At the variety level, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei's gene diversity index for P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was 96.32% and 0.238, respectively. At the population level, Nei's gene diversity index ranged from 0.149 to 0.218 with an average of 0.186, and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.213 to 0.339 with an average of 0.284. These results revealed the abundant genetic variability in the wild resources of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. Nei's gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 1.794 was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. The results of Mantel tests showed that the genetic distance among geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was positively correlated with the geographical distance and the longitudinal distances (rGo = 0.789 and rLn = 0.873, respectively, which indicates that geographical isolation is an important factor for the observed genetic differentiation. Nine geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis were divided into three groups according to their geographical origins, which revealed that the genetic diversity was closely related to the geographical distribution of this wild fungus.

  17. Kalman Filter or VAR Models to Predict Unemployment Rate in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light an economic problem that frequently appears in practice: For the same variable, more alternative forecasts are proposed, yet the decision-making process requires the use of a single prediction. Therefore, a forecast assessment is necessary to select the best prediction. The aim of this research is to propose some strategies for improving the unemployment rate forecast in Romania by conducting a comparative accuracy analysis of unemployment rate forecasts based on two quantitative methods: Kalman filter and vector-auto-regressive (VAR models. The first method considers the evolution of unemployment components, while the VAR model takes into account the interdependencies between the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. According to the Granger causality test, the inflation rate in the first difference is a cause of the unemployment rate in the first difference, these data sets being stationary. For the unemployment rate forecasts for 2010-2012 in Romania, the VAR models (in all variants of VAR simulations determined more accurate predictions than Kalman filter based on two state space models for all accuracy measures. According to mean absolute scaled error, the dynamic-stochastic simulations used in predicting unemployment based on the VAR model are the most accurate. Another strategy for improving the initial forecasts based on the Kalman filter used the adjusted unemployment data transformed by the application of the Hodrick-Prescott filter. However, the use of VAR models rather than different variants of the Kalman filter methods remains the best strategy in improving the quality of the unemployment rate forecast in Romania. The explanation of these results is related to the fact that the interaction of unemployment with inflation provides useful information for predictions of the evolution of unemployment related to its components (i.e., natural unemployment and cyclical component.

  18. Diversidade genética entre acessos de cacau de fazendas e de banco de germoplasma na Bahia Genetic diversity among farm and germplasm bank accessions of cacao in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeiza Botelho Leal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de cacau, selecionados previamente como produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa na Bahia, e estudar suas inter-relações com genótipos no banco de germoplasma. Amostras de DNA de folhas dos 120 acessos, coletados em 17 fazendas de sete municípios do Sul da Bahia, foram amplificadas pela técnica de RAPD ("random amplified polymorphic DNA". Os coeficientes de dissimilaridade genética, calculados pelo método de Jaccard a partir das bandas RAPD, permitiram evidenciar, pela análise de agrupamento, que a maioria das seleções das fazendas (89,2% agrupou-se com acessos do banco de germoplasma considerados representativos da diversidade de cacau (híbridos, trinitários, Scavinas, amazônicos e cacau-comum. As demais seleções distribuíram-se em outros sete grupos distintos. Há elevada diversidade genética entre as seleções das fazendas, e algumas delas devem ter-se originado de genitores não incluídos nesta análise. Esses materiais apresentam potencial para seleção de clones com maior diversidade para novos cruzamentos ou uso pelos agricultores.The objective of this work was to assess genetic diversity of farm cacao accessions, previously selected as productive and resistant to witch broom in Bahia, Brazil, and to study their interrelationship with reference genotypes on germplasm bank. DNA samples from 120 cacao accessions, collected on 17 farms in seven counties in Southern Bahia, were amplified by RAPD technique (random amplified polymorphic DNA. The coefficients of genetic dissimilarity, calculated from the RAPD bands by Jaccard method, allowed to show by cluster analysis that most farm selections (89.2% grouped with accessions from germplasm bank considered representatives of the cacao genetic diversity (hybrids, Trinitarian, Scavina, Amazon and common cacao. The other selections were distributed in seven distinct groups. There is high genetic

  19. 施用生物有机肥对可可苗期生长及土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Bio-organic Fertilizer Application on Cacao Plant Growth and Soil Enzyme Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青云; 王华; 王辉; 朱飞飞; 赵秋芳; 赵溪竹; 鱼欢; 朱自慧

    2013-01-01

    通过温室盆栽试验研究施用不同生物有机肥对可可苗期生长及土壤酶活性的影响.结果表明:施用生物有机肥BIOa和BIOb的处理可可植株干重,总根长、根系直径、根系表面积和根系总体积显著高于对照(单施化肥)及施用牛粪的处理;施用生物有机肥BIOa的处理可可叶片净光合速率、蒸腾速率和叶绿素含量与对照相比分别增加了169%、270%和28%;施用BIOa的处理土壤酸性磷酸酶、脲酶和蔗糖酶活性与对照相比显著提高了98.7%、92.2%和83.2%.综上所述,施用生物有机肥BIO可显著促进可可地上部植株和根系生长,同时也可显著提高相关土壤酶活性.%Green house pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of different bio-organic fertilizer application on cacao(Theobroma cacao.L)seedlings growth and soil enzyme activities.The main results obtained were listed as follows:application of bio-organic fertilizer could obviously increase cacao plant dry weights,total root length,root diameter,root surface area and root volume compared with the control and cattle manure treatments; application of bio-organic fertilizer BIOa significantly increased net photosynthetic,transpiration rate and Chlorophy by169%,270% and 28%,respectively compared with the control; application of bio-organic fertilizer BIOa obviously increased soil acidic phosphatase,urease and invertase activities by 98.7%,92.2% and 83.2%,respectively compared with the control.In conclusion,the application of bio-organic fertilizer can effectively promote cacao above-ground and root growth,moreover,significantly increase soil enzyme activities.

  20. Desarrollo y optimización de una metodología analítica para la determinación de sedimento en bebida de mesa derivada del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Juliana; Tello, Myriam; Ostos, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio encaminado a desarrollar y optimizar una metodología analítica que permita determinar la cantidad de sedimento que presenta una bebida derivada del cacao (chocolate de mesa), para ser aplicada como prueba rutinaria de control de calidad indicadora del proceso, con base en los principios de la sedimentación. Para la caracterización del sedimento, se hizo la distribución de tamaños de partícula, porcentaje de grasa y peso del sedimento en seco. El desarrollo...

  1. The pathogenesis-related protein PR-4b from Theobroma cacao presents RNase activity, Ca2+ and Mg2+ dependent-DNase activity and antifungal action on Moniliophthora perniciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Menezes, Sara; de Andrade Silva, Edson Mario; Matos Lima, Eline; Oliveira de Sousa, Aurizângela; Silva Andrade, Bruno; Santos Lima Lemos, Livia; Peres Gramacho, Karina; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Background The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) in plants in response to biotic or abiotic stresses is well known and is considered as a crucial mechanism for plant defense. A pathogenesis-related protein 4 cDNA was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library and named TcPR-4b. Results TcPR-4b presents a Barwin domain with six conserved cysteine residues, but lacks the chitin-binding site. Molecular modeling of TcPR-4b c...

  2. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø;

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible...

  3. Genetic Interactions Reveal that Specific Defects of Chloroplast Translation are Associated with the Suppression of var2-Mediated Leaf Variegation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiayan Liu; Mengdi Zheng; Rui Wang; Ruijuan Wang; Lijun An; Steve R. Rodermel; Fei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development.

  4. The Plasmodium falciparum var gene transcription strategy at the onset of blood stage infection in a human volunteer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.W.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Arnot, D.E.; Theander, T.G.; Lavstsen, T.

    2009-01-01

    The var genes encode a family of adhesion receptor proteins, Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), which profoundly influence malaria pathogenesis. Only a single var gene is transcribed and one PfEMP1 expressed per P.falciparum parasite. Here we present the in vivo transcrip

  5. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  6. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  7. Accumulation of trehalose in the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum in response to heat or salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Helene Friborg; Jensen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The disaccharide trehalose, known to be an effective protectant against various kinds of stress, was observed to accumulate in the cytosol of Chaetomium thermophilum var. coprophilum during heat stress. Trehalose was apparently neither involved in the defence of C. thermophilum var. coprophilum...

  8. Genetic interactions reveal that specific defects of chloroplast translation are associated with the suppression of var2-mediated leaf variegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiayan; Zheng, Mengdi; Wang, Rui; Wang, Ruijuan; An, Lijun; Rodermel, Steve R; Yu, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development. PMID:23721655

  9. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S;

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses...

  10. A NEW AROMATIC ESTER AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF Salvia aucheri var. canescens

    OpenAIRE

    A. ULUBELEN*, N. TAN*, G. TOPÇU**,

    2015-01-01

    The roots of an endemic Salvia species, Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss.and HeIdr. have been investigated and a new aromatic ester together with two diterpenoids, a triterpenoid and a steroidal compound were isolated. The structures of the new and the known compounds were determined by spectral methods and by TLC comparision with authentic samples except for the new compound.Key words: Salvia aucheri var. canescens Boiss. and Heldr.; Labiatae; aromaticester; terpenoidal compounds.

  11. Two New Highly Oxygenated Spirostanol Saponins from Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling-Yu; Lu, Ting-Xiang; Qin, Xu-Jie; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Hui; He, Hong-Ping; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla led to the isolation of two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, named paristenosides A (1) and B (2), together with seven known compounds. Their structures were established mainly on the base of NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. In addition, the cytotoxicity of the two new saponins was tested. Two new highly oxygenated spirostanol saponins, paristenosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. stenophylla. Their structures were established mainly based on NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. PMID:27255683

  12. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  13. [Finding of dairy yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis in natural habitats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Naumova, E S; Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Chernov, I Y

    2014-01-01

    Well-known yeasts Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis, which are usually associated with dairy prod- ucts, were discovered in nature (in woodland park soil under Impatiens glandulifera Royle plants). Reliable identification of the yeasts was carried out using physiological criteria (lactose and maltose utilization) and molecular markers (nucleotide sequence of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA fragment, pulsed-field electrophoresis, and Southern hybridization of chromosomal DNA with the LAC4 probe). Ecology of KI. lactis var. lactis is discussed. PMID:25941717

  14. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin

    OpenAIRE

    Korish, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ra...

  15. Cultivo in vitro de Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Alzugaray; Nélida Carnevale; Rodrigo Freire; Mirian Bueno

    2014-01-01

    Título en español: Cultivo in vitro de Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)Título en ingles: In vitro culture of Schinus fasciculata (Griseb) J.M. Johnst var. fasciculata (molle)Resumen: Schinus fasciculata es un árbol de la ecorregión chaqueña argentina. Es una especie de bajo porte, usada como antiséptico, analgésico, antiinflamatorio y antifúngico. Estudios previos registraron baja germinación y deficiente sanidad. El objetivo fue evaluar la germinación y la re...

  16. Chemical Constituents from the Seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mei LI; Xun LIAO; Shu-Lin PENG; Li-Sheng DING

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive minor components from traditional Chinese medicines, a new compound, named jujuphenoside (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphusjujuba var. spinosa (Bunge)Hu. The structure of jujuphenoside was elucidated by spectral and chemical methods, particularly twodimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, 22 known compounds were also isolated and identified from the seeds of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, among which, epiceanothic acid (2) was first obtained from natural resources, whereas compounds 7-16 were first obtained from this plant.

  17. Evaluation of Requirements for Volt/Var Control and Optimization Function in Distribution Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saaed; Marinelli, Mattia; Silvestro, Federico

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement from new visions within “smart grid” and to provide solutions for many challenges that DSOs (Distribution System Operators) are facing today, we need to develop advanced DMS (Distribution Management System) applications. A centralized Volt/Var Control (VVC) is one...... is to review and evaluate the existing and recent techniques and algorithms for advanced VVC applications and identify the requirements for integrated Volt/Var control and optimization function in distribution management systems within the smart grid concepts....

  18. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen;

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  19. Computing Conditional VaR using Time-varying CopulasComputing Conditional VaR using Time-varying Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Vaz de Melo Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now widespread the use of Value-at-Risk (VaR as a canonical measure at risk. Most accurate VaR measures make use of some volatility model such as GARCH-type models. However, the pattern of volatility dynamic of a portfolio follows from the (univariate behavior of the risk assets, as well as from the type and strength of the associations among them. Moreover, the dependence structure among the components may change conditionally t past observations. Some papers have attempted to model this characteristic by assuming a multivariate GARCH model, or by considering the conditional correlation coefficient, or by incorporating some possibility for switches in regimes. In this paper we address this problem using time-varying copulas. Our modeling strategy allows for the margins to follow some FIGARCH type model while the copula dependence structure changes over time.

  20. The modular structure of the floral phenotype in Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae) Estructura modular del fenotipo floral en Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GASTÓN CARVALLO; RODRIGO MEDEL

    2005-01-01

    Most studies of multivariate evolution on the floral phenotype assume that traits evolve independently one from each other, ignoring the modular structure that results from genetic correlations or developmental constraints. In this paper we describe the interdependence of nine floral traits in the herb Mimulus luteus var. luteus (Phrymaceae), as an attempt to characterize functional modules on which natural selection can potentially act upon. Using edge exclusion deviance analysis, we detecte...

  1. VAR-Tree-A New High-Dimensional Data Index Structure%VAR-Tree--一种新的高维数据索引结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董道国; 梁刘红; 薛向阳

    2005-01-01

    在多媒体信息检索和数据挖掘等应用领域,实现高维矢量的K近邻搜索是非常具有挑战性的研究课题,为此人们提出了很多种索引结构.然而,现有研究成果表明,随着矢量维数的增加,基于树状索引结构的查询性能急剧下降,例如在R-Tree,X-Tree和SS-Tree中都会出现"维数灾难".为此,又引入近似压缩的思想,即通过压缩数据来减少查询过程中的磁盘读写代价,例如VA-File等,不过,VA-File没有对近似矢量数据做任何的排序或层次处理.提出了一种新的索引结构VAR-Tree,它将VA-File与R-Tree有机结合起来,用R-Tree管理和组织VA-File中的近似数据,并用已提出的R-Tree类相似查询算法实现基于VAR-Tree的查询.实验结果表明,VAR-Tree较好地提高了检索性能.

  2. Préférences alimentaires de Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae vis-à-vis de quelques clones de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding Preferences of Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae to some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones. The selection of cocoa clones, resistant to Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. was done in the laboratory according to the standardized method of indoor microtests based on the study of mirid feeding preferences. Fourteen cocoa clones were involved. The Sca6 clone was the control. An index (i which expresses the ratio of the number of stings on the clone to that obtained on the control was calculated for each cultivar. Which has enabled to quantify the levels of attractiveness of cocoa clones to S. singularis and to classify these clones in three groups: less attractive clones (i< 1, non different (i= 1 and more attractive (i> 1. The results obtained showed that the mean numbers of feeding stings on the control (tr ranged from 5.49 to 5.62 (5.49≤ tr≤ 5.62 and that obtained on the other clones (tc from 5.29 to 6.18 (5.29≤ tc ≤ 6.18. The Na33 clone had the highest stings mean number (6.18 and IFC 100 the lowest one (5.29. The High Amazonian clone Na33 was the most attractive and the clones ICS100, IFC100, (exotic trinitario, Sca12 (catongo and Na32 (High Amazonian were less attractive. On the other hand the clones IFC1363, IFC1362, IFC1374 (catongo, UPA337, T60/887, ICS1 and IMC60 (High Amazonians and ICS95 (exotic trinitario were non different. The reactivity seemed not depending on the origin of the clone. Save the High Amazonian clone Na33 which was the most attractive there were among non different and less attractive clones as well exotic trinitario, catongo as High Amazonians.

  3. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Malgorzata Kotowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing towards the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density. We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia; three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, wood density showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and wood density. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation

  4. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  5. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  6. Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory characterization of mixed açai (Euterpe oleracea and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao jellies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four formulations of mixed açaí (Euterpe oleracea (A and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao (CH jellies were prepared according to the following proportions: T1 (40% A:60% CH, T2 (50% A:50% CH, T3 (60% A: 40% CH and T4 (100% A - control. All formulations were prepared using a rate 60:40 (w/w of sucrose and pulp, plus 0.5% pectin and the products reached to average of 65% soluble solids content. The jellies were analyzed by chemical and physicochemical (titratable acidity, pH, soluble solid content, dry matter, total protein, lipids, vitamin C and calories and sensory characteristics; also were evaluated levels of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. It was used a hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate the attributes: overall impression, spreadability, brightness, flavor, texture and color, and also was verified the purchase intention score. The titratable acidity and pH ranged from 0.46 to 0.64% and 3.35 to 3.64, respectively, that are within the range found at most fruit jellies. The soluble solids content ranged between 65.2 and 65.5 ºBrix. The sensory acceptance results showed that all treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4 presented means of sensory attributes above 4, demonstrating good acceptance of the product, but the treatment T1 presented the higher scores for the evaluated attributes. Cocoa´s honey added a positive influence on the attributes of color, texture and spreadability.

  7. [The effect of beta-ionine on biosynthesis of carotenes by Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlova, A N; Alekseeva, L N; Nefelova, M V

    1977-01-01

    Biosynthesis of carotenoids by a growing culture of Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides is totally inhibited by beta-ionone added at different concentrations, at various time of the cultural growth, and in various combinations with oil. The inhibition of carotenoid synthesis by beta-ionone is of a specific character since the biomass growth under the same conditions does not increase.

  8. Interactions between Eurozone and US Booms and Busts: A Bayesian Panel Markov-switching VAR Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Billio (Monica); R. Casarin (Roberto); F. Ravazzolo (Francesco); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Interactions between the eurozone and US booms and busts and among major eurozone economies are analyzed by introducing a panel Markov-switching VAR model well suitable for a multi-country cyclical analysis. The model accommodates changes in low and high data frequencie

  9. Choosing Expected Shortfall over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBank risk managers follow the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommendations that recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2013, p. 3) noted that: “a num

  10. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  11. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Alexandra [Seminole Canada Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon [Faculty of Management, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  12. Simón Bolívar: aproximación al pensamiento del Libertador

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gutiérrez Escudero

    2005-01-01

    Primero de una serie de artículos en los que se analizará y expondrá el pensamiento de Simón Bolívar con la finalidad de comprender mejor su mentalidad, su esencial protagonismo en los acontecimientos que originaron la independencia hispanoamericana, sus ideas y planteamientos políticos, etc.

  13. Simón Bolívar y la carta de Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Gutiérrez Escudero

    2010-01-01

    La Carta de Jamaica es un documento fundamental para comprender el proceso emancipador hispanoamericano y en especial para entender el pensamiento de Simón Bolívar, su actitud ante la situación política del continente americano y sus previsiones "sobre la suerte futura de la América".

  14. Effect of seed-irradiation on morphological characters yield components of brassica campestris var. sarson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed of Brassica campestris (var. Sarson) were used to study the effect of radiation of different morphological and yield parameters. Survival percentage showed drastic decrease at higher doses (75 Kr and 100 Kr). Similarly all characters showed a trend of decrease with increasing dose. LD50 for Brassica was about 50 Kr. (author)

  15. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  16. A novel phenylpropanoid glycosides and a new derivation of phenolic glycoside from Paris Polyphylla var. yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Wen Yuan Gao; Tie Jun Zhang; Yuan Qiang Guo

    2007-01-01

    A novel phenylpropanoid glycosides 1, named parispolyside F, and a novel derivation of phenolic glycoside 2, named parispolyside G, as well as two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  17. The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Posthumus, M.A.; Beumer, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The essential oil of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (mastic oil) was studied in vitro against a wide range of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms with a diffusion and a dilution method. Furthermore its chemical composition was analyzed by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spec

  18. Anatomical element localization by EDXS in Grevillea exul var. exul under nickel stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevillea exul var. exul, an endemic serpentinic Proteaceae of New Caledonia, was chosen to study the spatial distribution of Ni because this species supports strong content of metals, which can allow important absorptions thus detectable by microanalysis. Fine transversal sections of axenic G. exul var. exul plants grown during 15 days on nickel sulphate medium were examined by EDXS microanalysis. It showed that in Ni treated plants, Ni was concentrated mostly in the phloem compared to the xylem and the epidermis, either in roots or in the basal part of the stems and was mostly in the epidermis in the upper part of the stems and not detectable in the leaves. This metal took the place of P and K in the treated plants whereas the localization of these macroelements was quite uniform in control sections. We assume that a mechanism of phloem loading is implicated to restrict Ni accumulation in G. exul var. exul. - Ni resistance mechanism in Grevillea exul var. exul plants depends on a basipetal export mechanism

  19. Identifying Shocks in Regionally Integrated East Asian Economies with Structural VaR and Block Exogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sato (Kiyotaka); Z. Zhang (Zhaoyong); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we use a structural VAR model with block exogeneity to investigate if external shocks originating from the USA played a dominant role in influencing the macroeconomic fluctuations in East Asia during the period 1978-2007. The empirical results show a dynamic effect of exter

  20. Identifying Shocks in Regionally Integrated East Asian Economies with Structural VAR and Block Exogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Sato (Kiyotaka); Z. Zhang (Zhaoyong); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we use a structural VAR model with block exogeneity to investigate if external shocks originating from the USA played a dominant role in influencing the macroeconomic fluctuations in East Asia during the period 1978-2007. The empirical results show a dynamic effect of exter

  1. Improved Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration Rank in the VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boswijk, H. Peter; Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We suggest improved tests for cointegration rank in the vector autoregressive (VAR) model and develop asymptotic distribution theory and local power results. The tests are (quasi-)likelihood ratio tests based on a Gaussian likelihood, but of course the asymptotic results apply more generally...

  2. Norditerpenoid Alkaloids from the Roots of Aconitum hemsleyanum Pritz.var.Pengzhouense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChongShengPENG; FengPengWANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    In continuation of our studies on Aconitum hemsleyanum Pritz.var. pengzhouense, two new norditerpenoid alkaloids, pengshenines A(1) and B(2),have isolated from the roots of the plants and their strucures were elucidated by 1D-and 2D-NMR.

  3. Two new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from roots Aconitum hemsleyanium var. atropurpureum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Tang; Dong Lin Chen; Xi Xian Jian; Feng Peng Wang

    2007-01-01

    A new franchetine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid 3-hydroxyfranchetine 1 and a new aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloid atropurpursine 2 have been isolated from the roots of Aconitum hemsleyanium var.atropurpureum.The structures of these new alkaloids were established on the basis of spectral data.

  4. Three new C20-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium anthriscifolium var. savatieri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yu Liu; Qiao Hong Chen; Feng Peng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Three new C20-diterpenoid alkaloids, designated as anthriscifolmines A-C (1-3), together with two known alkaloids denudatine and delgramine, were isolated from the whole herb of Delphinium anthriscifolium var. savatieri. The structures of these new alkaloids were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  5. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Parklawn Drive, Rockville, MD 20852. Class: Phycomycetes. Order: Mucorales. Family: Mortierellaceae....

  6. Disseminated Nosocomial Fungal Infection by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bolignano, Giuseppe; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    We report on a rare case of disseminated nosocomial fungal infection due to Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanigenum in a severely traumatized patient. Repeated blood and urine cultures yielded multicellular filamentous hyphal structures of varying size accompanied by budding yeast-like-cells of ellipsoidal morphology. The patient became asymptomatic after fluconazole therapy.

  7. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  8. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂRBULESCU MARINELA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  9. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A;

    2014-01-01

    called Nanobody, which represents the smallest known (15 kDa) intact, native antigen-binding fragment. In this study, we have used the Nanobody technology, an approach new to malaria research, to generate small and functional antibody fragments recognizing unique epitopes broadly distributed on VAR2CSA....

  10. Structural Insight into Epitopes in the Pregnancy-Associated Malaria Protein VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P; Nielsen, MA; Resende, M;

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein o...

  11. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KURSTAKI AFFECTS A BENEFICIAL INSECT, THE CINNABAR MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: ARCTIIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial insecticide bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki is used to control forest pests in regions where tansy ragwort, Senecio jacobaea L. occurs. iological control of this noxious weed may be compromised if the cinnabar moth, Tyria jacobaeae (L), is susceptible ...

  12. Using Raw VAR Regression Coefficients to Build Networks can be Misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Brose, Annette; Ceulemans, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in the behavioral sciences focus on the causal interplay of a number of variables across time. To reveal the dynamic relations between the variables, their (auto- or cross-) regressive effects across time may be inspected by fitting a lag-one vector autoregressive, or VAR(1), model and visualizing the resulting regression coefficients as the edges of a weighted directed network. Usually, the raw VAR(1) regression coefficients are drawn, but we argue that this may yield misleading network figures and characteristics because of two problems. First, the raw regression coefficients are sensitive to scale and variance differences among the variables and therefore may lack comparability, which is needed if one wants to calculate, for example, centrality measures. Second, they only represent the unique direct effects of the variables, which may give a distorted picture when variables correlate strongly. To deal with these problems, we propose to use other VAR(1)-based measures as edges. Specifically, to solve the comparability issue, the standardized VAR(1) regression coefficients can be displayed. Furthermore, relative importance metrics can be computed to include direct as well as shared and indirect effects into the network.

  13. Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids from Stellaria dichotoma var.lanceolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guang Luo; Li Hua Cao; Ling Yi Kong

    2012-01-01

    Two new β-carboline-type alkaloids,dichotomine K (1) and dichotomine L (2),were isolated from the roots of Chinese medicinal plant Stellaria dichotoma L.var.lanceolata Bge.Structures of 1 and 2 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic means.

  14. Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba as a source of oleuropein and related compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenadis, N.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boeren, J.A.; Tsimidou, M.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The leaf methanol extract of Syringa oblata Lindl var. alba was investigated as a source of oleuropein and related compounds. The extract had a high total phenol content and a radical scavenging activity similar to that of the respective extract from Olea europaea leaves. HPLC-DAD characterisation o

  15. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  16. Evidence that the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii may have evolved in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia P Litvintseva

    Full Text Available Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A, are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis--an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia, and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane. This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm.

  17. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures. PMID:26768709

  18. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rather, K.; Schenk, M.K.; Everaarts, A.P.; Vethman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs to some vegetables such as cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) can be large. One approach to decreasing the input of N may be to select for cultivars efficient in the use of nitrogen. The objective of this investigation was to identify a cultivar which wa

  19. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Transmission in the Euro-area: evidence from a structural VAR analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, B. van; Garretsen, H.; Gobbin, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the transmission of monetary and fiscal policy in the Euro-area. To do so, structural VAR models are estimated. First, the EMU countries are considered as an aggregate entity and the estimation results are compared with those for the US and Japan. Attention is also paid to interac

  20. THE STEERING TOOL OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: CREDIT VAR (VALUE AT RISK)

    OpenAIRE

    BARBULESCU MARINELA; HAGIU ALINA; VASILICA RADU

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the economic capital, in terms of internal management or of application of regulations, financial institutions need to model the probability of future losses on a loan portfolio. This is generally made applying the Credit VaR method. Thus, unexpected losses can be assessed.

  1. GROWTH DYNAMICS OF Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil AND Tabebuia impetiginosa FROM PANTANAL MATO-GROSSENSE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Póvoa de Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for wood within tropical natural forests and a scarcity of available data to carry out a management program. It is of great importance, therefore, that growth ring information is being enhanced. The Pantanal of Nhecolândia, sub-region of Pantanal Mato-grossense, may be viewed as one of these regions. Its natural forests are systematically cut to be used as solid wood or fuel, or replaced by cultivated pastures. Peculiar climatic and soil factors of Nhecolandia induce the formation of annual growth rings. This work aims at determining the radial increments of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and Tabebuia impetiginosa by growth ring analysis. Disks from eight trees of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and six of Tabebuia impetiginosa were collected, in July 1996, in Nhumirim Farm, Embrapa Pantanal, located in Nhecolandia sub-region. The trees of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and Tabebuia impetiginosa were 14 to 30 and 15 to 30 years old, respectively. Diameter increment varied from 5.4 to 8.0 mm/year for Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil and from 4.8 to 11.6 mm/year for Tabebuia impetiginosa. The average estimated time for both species to reach a diameter of 40 cm was 55 years.

  2. Potential of 4d-VAR for exigent forecasting of severe weather

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Ross N; Nehrkorn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Severe storms, tropical cyclones, and associated tornadoes, floods, lightning, and microbursts threaten life and property. Reliable, precise, and accurate alerts of these phenomena can trigger defensive actions and preparations. However, these crucial weather phenomena are difficult to forecast. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of 4d-VAR (four dimensional variational data assimilation) for exigent forecasting (XF) of severe storm precursors and to thereby characterize the probability of a worst-case scenario. 4d-VAR is designed to adjust the initial conditions (IC) of a numerical weather prediction model consistent with the uncertainty of the prior estimate of the IC while at the same time minimizing the misfit to available observations. For XF the same approach is taken but instead of fitting observations, a measure of damage or loss or an equivalent proxy is maximized or minimized. To accomplish this will require development of a specialized cost function for 4d-VAR. When 4d-VAR s...

  3. A VAR Analysis of Monetary Transmission Mechanism in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrinović, Ivan; Benazić, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The paper studies the functioning of the monetary transmission mechanism in the EU. It analyses the influence of an increase in short-term interest rate on real and monetary variable e.g. industrial production of the EU members, retail prices, monetary mass and real exchange rate. Frequently used econometric technique of VAR has been used to analyse the monetary transmission mechanism.

  4. Aislamiento de poligodial de la corteza de drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Del extracto de éter de petróleo (P Eb = 40-60 "O de la corteza de Drymis granadensis, var. grandiflora, se aisló con 8% de rendimiento, poligodial ( I , un sesquiterpeno conocido, cuya estructura se confirmó por métodos espectroscópicos.

  5. Putative DNA G-quadruplex formation within the promoters of Plasmodium falciparum var genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences are capable of folding into an intramolecular four-stranded structure called a G-quadruplex. When found in gene promoter regions, G-quadruplexes can downregulate gene expression, possibly by blocking the transcriptional machinery. Here we have used a genome-wide bioinformatic approach to identify Putative G-Quadruplex Sequences (PQS in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, along with biophysical techniques to examine the physiological stability of P. falciparum PQS in vitro. Results We identified 63 PQS in the non-telomeric regions of the P. falciparum clone 3D7. Interestingly, 16 of these PQS occurred in the upstream region of a subset of the P. falciparum var genes (group B var genes. The var gene family encodes PfEMP1, the parasite's major variant antigen and adhesin expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes, that plays a key role in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion. The ability of the PQS found in the upstream regions of group B var genes (UpsB-Q to form stable G-quadruplex structures in vitro was confirmed using 1H NMR, circular dichroism, UV spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation experiments. Moreover, the synthetic compound BOQ1 that shows a higher affinity for DNA forming quadruplex rather than duplex structures was found to bind with high affinity to the UpsB-Q. Conclusion This is the first demonstration of non-telomeric PQS in the genome of P. falciparum that form stable G-quadruplexes under physiological conditions in vitro. These results allow the generation of a novel hypothesis that the G-quadruplex sequences in the upstream regions of var genes have the potential to play a role in the transcriptional control of this major virulence-associated multi-gene family.

  6. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  7. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J. Carl; Dry, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  8. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J Carl; Dry, Jonathan R

    2016-06-20

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  9. Var Gene promoter activation in clonal Plasmodium falciparum isolates follows a hierarchy and suggests a conserved switching program that is independent of genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderes, Corinna; Kombila, Davy; Dal-Bianco, Matthias; Dzikowski, Ron; Kremsner, Peter; Frank, Matthias

    2011-11-15

    Antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by a mutually exclusive expression mechanism that limits expression to an individual member of the multicopy var gene family. This process determines the antigenic and adhesive phenotype of the infected red blood cell. Previously, we showed that var gene switching is influenced by chromosomal position. Here, we address whether var gene transcription follows a general conserved pattern in long-term laboratory parasites and in recently culture-adapted field parasites. Activation of the var gene family was monitored in biological replicates in each parasite isolate every 3-5 generations for up to 3 months. We used transgenic parasites carrying a drug-selectable marker at a defined var locus to characterize var gene activation after the exclusive expression of the transgene. Transgenic parasites exhibited a repeatable hierarchy of var gene activation and a fluctuating transcriptional activity of the transgenic var locus. Transcriptional profiling of wild-type laboratory and field parasites showed a universal bias toward transcription of UpsC var genes and a fluctuating transcriptional activity of the dominant var promoter. The data suggest the existence of an intrinsic var gene transcription program that is independent of genetic background. PMID:21926380

  10. Plasmodium falciparum associated with severe childhood malaria preferentially expresses PfEMP1 encoded by group A var genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja T R; Magistrado, Pamela; Sharp, Sarah;

    2004-01-01

    Parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSAs) like the var gene-encoded Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family are responsible for antigenic variation and infected red blood cell (RBC) cytoadhesion in P. falciparum malaria. Parasites causing severe malaria......(SM) to identify PfEMP1 responsible for the VSA(SM) phenotype. Expression of VSA(SM) was accompanied by up-regulation of Group A var genes. The most prominently up-regulated Group A gene (PFD1235w/MAL7P1.1) was translated into a protein expressed on the infected RBC surface. The proteins encoded by Group A var...

  11. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is precipitated by the accumulation of parasites in the placental intervillous spaces and causes maternal anemia and low birth weight. In PAM, placental parasites adhere to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) through a unique set of variant surface antigens...... demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...

  12. Estudio sobre la influencia de la inoculación de las rizobacterias Azospirillum brasilense y Pseudomonas fluorescens sobre el desarrollo morfológico y el contenido de aceites esenciales en las especies aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Martos Trenado, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analiza la influencia de la inoculación con Azospirillum brasilense, con Pseudomonas fluorescens y la inoculación conjunta con ambas rizobacterias en las especies de plantas aromáticas Ocimum basilicum var. genovesse, Ocimum basilicum var. minimum, Petroselinum sativum var. lisa y Salvia officinalis. Se evaluará su desarrollo morfológico, atendiendo a tres parámetros: la longitud del tallo, el peso fresco y la superficie foliar. Así como el posible incremento en el c...

  13. Purification and characterization of a new Xylanase from Humicola grisea var. Thermoidea Produção, purificação e caracterização de uma nova Xilanase de Humicola grisea var. Thermoidea

    OpenAIRE

    Severino de Albuquerque Lucena-Neto; Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira-Filho

    2004-01-01

    The thermophilic fungus Humicola grisea var. thermoidea secretes extracellular xylanase when grown on solid and in liquid media containing wheat bran and banana plant residue as substrates, respectively. At 55ºC, xylanase from the culture filtrate of H. grisea var. thermoidea grown on banana stalk retained 50% of its activity after 28 h of incubation. A xylanase (X2) was isolated from solid state cultures with wheat bran as the carbon source. It was purified to apparent homogeneity by ultrafi...

  14. Yeasts occurring on wheat seeds. II. A taxonomic study of strains of Cryptococcus laurentii (Kuff. Skinner var. magnus Lodder et Kreger-van Rij and C. albidus (Saito Skinner var. albidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Maciejowska-Pokacka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and physiology of strains of Cryptococcus laurentii var. magnus and C. albidus var. albidus isolated from winter wheat seeds was studied. It was concluded on the basis of morphological similarity that these fungi were closely related. Resting spores of a "dangeardien'' type were found in C. laurentii, while in some cultures of C. albidus unusually large resting spores were dis00vered.

  15. Chemical constituents of leaves of Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schard.) Irwin and Barneby; Constituintes quimicos das folhas de Senna spectabilis (DC) Irwin and Barneby var. excelsa (Schrad.) Irwin and Barneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fabio de Oliveira; Oliveira, Irvila Ricarte de; Silva, Maria Goretti de Vasconcelos, E-mail: mgvsilva@ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From leaves of Senna spectabilis var. excelsa were isolated caffeine, the triterpenes lupeol, {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, cycloeucalenol, friedelin and ursolic, oleanolic and betulinic acids, besides the steroids sitosterol and stigmasterol and their respective glucosides. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis including two-dimensional NMR methods and comparison with published spectral data. This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in S. spectabilis var. excelsa. (author)

  16. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  17. Final Critical Habitat for Carter's Panicgrass (Panicum fauriei var. carteri) island of Mokoli'i (Chinaman's Hat), Oahu, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Carter's Panicgrass (Panicum fauriei var. carteri) occur the based on the...

  18. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  19. DiffVar: a new method for detecting differential variability with application to methylation in cancer and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipson, Belinda; Oshlack, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is known to be essential to development and dramatically altered in cancers. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip has been used extensively as a cost-effective way to profile nearly half a million CpG sites across the human genome. Here we present DiffVar, a novel method to test for differential variability between sample groups. DiffVar employs an empirical Bayes model framework that can take into account any experimental design and is robust to outliers. We applied DiffVar to several datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as an aging dataset. DiffVar is available in the missMethyl Bioconductor R package. PMID:25245051

  20. Studies on the Chromosome Karyotype of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense Var. semper rubrum%红花木、长红木染色体核型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芳青; 肖德兴

    2001-01-01

    首次报道红花木(Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum)、长红木(Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum)的染色体数目及其核型分析。两者体细胞染色体数目均为2n=24。按Levan和我国植物染色体的分类标准,红花木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St;长红木的核型公式为:2n=2x=24=12m+10Sm+2St。根据Stebbins划分的核型对称性的标准,两者都属“2A”型。%The chromosome number and karyotype analysis of two plants namely, Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum and Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, are reported for the first time. The two plants' chromosome numbers are the same, 2n=24. According to the classification criteria on both Levan and the plant chromosome in China, the two plants’ karyotype formula are as follows: for Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum, 2n=2x=24=14m+8Sm+2St and for Loropetalum chinense var. semper rubrum, 2n=2x=24=12m+10S+2St. Based on stebbins classification criterion of karyotype symmetry, the two plants belong to “2A” karyotype.

  1. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Thrane

    Full Text Available Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of

  2. Targeting the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Cell Wall Using Lectins: Study of the Carbohydrate-Binding Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pamella de Brito Ximenes; Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro Beltrão; Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira Macêdo; Maria Daniela Silva Buonafina; Reginaldo Gonçalves de Lima-Neto; Rejane Pereira Neves

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is considered to be the major cause of cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients. Understanding cell wall glycoproteins using lectins is of medical interest and can contribute to specific therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carbohydrates on the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin binding protocol. Thirty yeast strains stocked in the culture collection were cultivated ...

  3. Diversity of endophytic fungi from root of Maize var. Pulut (waxy corn local variety of south sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    AMIN, NUR

    2013-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. The objective of this investigation was to isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from roots of maize plant var. Pulut (a local variety of south Sulawesi). Sixty three isolates of fungal endophytes were isolated from the root of maize var. Pulut. The isolates belonged to six genera, namely :Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Acremonium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., and Botryodiplo...

  4. A var gene upstream element controls protein synthesis at the level of translation initiation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancucci, Nicolas M B; Witmer, Kathrin; Schmid, Christoph; Voss, Till S

    2014-01-01

    Clonally variant protein expression in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum generates phenotypic variability and allows isogenic populations to adapt to environmental changes encountered during blood stage infection. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are best studied for the major virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). PfEMP1 is encoded by the multicopy var gene family and only a single variant is expressed in individual parasites, a concept known as mutual exclusion or singular gene choice. var gene activation occurs in situ and is achieved through the escape of one locus from epigenetic silencing. Singular gene choice is controlled at the level of transcription initiation and var 5' upstream (ups) sequences harbour regulatory information essential for mutually exclusive transcription as well as for the trans-generational inheritance of the var activity profile. An additional level of control has recently been identified for the var2csa gene, where an mRNA element in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) is involved in the reversible inhibition of translation of var2csa transcripts. Here, we extend the knowledge on post-transcriptional var gene regulation to the common upsC type. We identified a 5' UTR sequence that inhibits translation of upsC-derived mRNAs. Importantly, this 5' UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region. Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum. PMID:24937593

  5. A var gene upstream element controls protein synthesis at the level of translation initiation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas M B Brancucci

    Full Text Available Clonally variant protein expression in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum generates phenotypic variability and allows isogenic populations to adapt to environmental changes encountered during blood stage infection. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are best studied for the major virulence factor P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1. PfEMP1 is encoded by the multicopy var gene family and only a single variant is expressed in individual parasites, a concept known as mutual exclusion or singular gene choice. var gene activation occurs in situ and is achieved through the escape of one locus from epigenetic silencing. Singular gene choice is controlled at the level of transcription initiation and var 5' upstream (ups sequences harbour regulatory information essential for mutually exclusive transcription as well as for the trans-generational inheritance of the var activity profile. An additional level of control has recently been identified for the var2csa gene, where an mRNA element in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR is involved in the reversible inhibition of translation of var2csa transcripts. Here, we extend the knowledge on post-transcriptional var gene regulation to the common upsC type. We identified a 5' UTR sequence that inhibits translation of upsC-derived mRNAs. Importantly, this 5' UTR element efficiently inhibits translation even in the context of a heterologous upstream region. Further, we found var 5' UTRs to be significantly enriched in uAUGs which are known to impair the efficiency of protein translation in other eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that regulation at the post-transcriptional level is a common feature in the control of PfEMP1 expression in P. falciparum.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidicus discovers putative ocotillol-type ginsenosides biosynthesis genes and genetic markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guang-hui; Ma, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Jin; Chen, Jun-Wen; Tang, Qing-Yan; He, Mu-Han; Xu, Xiang-Zeng; Jiang, Ni-Hao; Yang, Sheng-chao

    2015-01-01

    Background P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, called “Yesanqi” in Chinese, is a new variety of P. vietnamensis, which was first found in Jinping County, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China. Compared with other Panax plants, this species contains higher content of ocotillol-type saponin, majonoside R2. Despite the pharmacological importance of ocotillol-type saponins, little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus is a suitable medicinal herb...

  7. Study of the Geo-effectiveness of VarSITI Campaign Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, O. P. M.; Badruddin, B.

    2016-07-01

    We study the geomagnetic response during the five VarSITI campaign events, 14 July 2012, 08 October 2012, 17 March 2013, 31 May 2013 and 17 March 2015. We identify distinct features of interplanetary coronal mass ejections during the passage of these VarSITI campaign events. We analyze the hourly resolution data of geomagnetic indices along with the simultaneous and same time resolution data of interplanetary plasma and field parameters. We identify features of ICMEs and solar wind parameters during the development of different phases of geomagnetic storms. We discuss our results in the light of plasma/field variations and physical mechanism(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic activity and GCR intensity.

  8. VAR ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSMISSION MECHANISM OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina CIORAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the monetary policy impulses transmission on inflation and unemployment in Romania, through the interest rate channel and to show the role played by interest rate in the transmission mechanism of monetary policy impulses. I have also revised a variable’s response to the shocks of another variable VAR analysis. VAR analysis on Romania during 2005 - 2013 shows that an interest rate shock can explain the movement in inflation and unemployment rates. We find that there are significant changes in the interest rate based on the inflation rate, and vice versa, due to the relationship of co-integration between variables.

  9. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica). PMID:7617014

  10. Antifungal activity of evernia prunastri, parmelia sulcata, pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the In vitro efficacy of 96% alcohol extracts of Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea var. furfuracea that were in foliose-fruticose form and Parmelia sulcata in foliose form against important plant pathogens. The growth of fungal colonies in Petri plates amended with lichen extracts at 25 degree C was measured a day before covering all surface of Petri plate in control treatment. Data were analysed according to statistic analysis test LSD at p=0.05. The in vitro efficacy of extracts of E. prunastri, P. sulcata and P. furfuracea var. furfuracea showed a significant inhibition against mycelia and spor growth of Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Penicillium expansum and Rhizoctonia solani. The level of inhibition among extracts showed variation. It was concluded that secondary metabolites of lichens may be used as biological chemicals against some plant pathogens. (author)

  11. Components Essential Oils in Different Parts of Daucus carota L. var. sativa Hoffm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The components of the essential oils obtained from different parts of Daucus carota L. var. sativa Hoffm were analyzed. The percentages of the essential oils extracted are 0. 27% (mL/100 g material) for the flowers, 0. 07% for the stems and leaves and 0. 01% for the roots. Fifty-four, Sixty-six and Thirty-three compounds were, respectively,separated and identified from the flowers, the stems and leaves and the roots, among which unsaturated alkene compounds are thirty-nine, thirty-nine and twenty-one, respectively, accounting in turn for up to 90. 21%, 90. 49% and 72. 65% of the total essential oils. Because alkene compounds have double bonds that are easily oxidized, it can be inferred that the components of the essential oils in the different parts of Daucus carota L. var. sativa Hoffm should show an activity of the anti-formation of free radicals to some extent.

  12. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-Integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A. M. Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we...... investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically...

  13. Bootstrap Determination of the Co-integration Rank in Heteroskedastic VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Rahbek, Anders; Taylor, A.M.Robert

    In a recent paper Cavaliere et al. (2012) develop bootstrap implementations of the (pseudo-) likelihood ratio [PLR] co-integration rank test and associated sequential rank determination procedure of Johansen (1996). The bootstrap samples are constructed using the restricted parameter estimates of...... the underlying VAR model which obtain under the reduced rank null hypothesis. They propose methods based on an i.i.d. bootstrap re-sampling scheme and establish the validity of their proposed bootstrap procedures in the context of a co-integrated VAR model with i.i.d. innovations. In this paper we...... investigate the properties of their bootstrap procedures, together with analogous procedures based on a wild bootstrap re-sampling scheme, when time-varying behaviour is present in either the conditional or unconditional variance of the innovations. We show that the bootstrap PLR tests are asymptotically...

  14. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis based on SMRT Sequencing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Qiushi; Li, Xiwen; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis is an important medicinal plant used for the treatment of cough symptoms related to the respiratory system. The chloroplast genome of F. unibracteata var. wabuensis (GenBank accession no. KF769142) was assembled using the PacBio RS platform (Pacific Biosciences, Beverly, MA) as a circle sequence with 151 009 bp. The assembled genome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and eight rRNA genes. This genome sequence will provide important resource for further studies on the evolution of Fritillaria genus and molecular identification of Fritillaria herbs and their adulterants. This work suggests that PacBio RS is a powerful tool to sequence and assemble chloroplast genomes. PMID:26370383

  15. Isolation, Characterization and In vitro Antiurolithiatic activity of Cerpegin Alkaloid from Ceropegia bulbosa var. Lushii root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Monika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii also known as Kadula, Haudlo, Khappar-kaddu, Bhuu-tumbi, Gilodya and Patalatumbi in local language, family Asclepiadaceae. The tuberous roots are used to treat several diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, analgesic, antipyretic, kidney stone and other activities. The tuberous root contains steriods, polyphenols, fats, albuminoids, sugars, potassium and active constituent an alkaloid cerpegin.The present investigation was carried out to isolate, purify and characterize cerpegin from root of Ceropegia bulbosa var.lushii. The isolated cerepegin was further characterized with the help of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, Thin Layer Chromatography, Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, Proton- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy confirmed the identification. The antiurolithiatic activity of cerpegin was evaluated by using modified invitro model. The isolated compound cerpegin (A1 was showed maximum dissolution of both types of stones (calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate in comparison to the all extract tested. Cystone was found to be more effective.

  16. Cryopreservation of immature seeds of Ponerorchis graminifolia var. suzukiana by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Ishikawa, K; Mii, M

    2005-01-01

    Ponerorchis graminifolia var. suzukiana is a terrestrial orchid that is an endangered species native to Japan, and it germinates more readily in immature seeds than in mature seeds. To preserve this orchid, an efficient protocol was established for the cryopreservation of immature seeds of P. graminifolia var. suzukiana. When immature seeds of 6 weeks after pollination, which showed higher germination and protocorm formation than mature seeds, were precultured on New Dogashima (ND) medium with 0.3M sucrose for 3 days and cryopreserved by vitrification method (treated with PVS2 for 60 min), the viability after preservation as assessed with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining test was about 86%. Immature seeds thus treated showed equal rates of germination and protocorm formation to the untreated control immature seeds, and they developed into normal plantlets on ND medium.

  17. Medicinal activities of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Repon Kumer Sahaa; Srijan Acharyaa; Syed Sohidul Haque; Shovon Priyanka Royb

    2013-01-01

    This study is to investigate the medicinal value of methanolic extract of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in Bangladesh. Methods: Several biochemical assays, thin layer chormatogarphy and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compounds in this extract. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay, total reducing assay and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Receptor binding activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay were performed by hemagglutination assay and hemolysis assay using erythrocytes. Disk diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect of the extract. Results: Methanolic extract of the leaves showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity in vitro. The extract showed hemaglutination inhibition activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis inhibition activity of human red blood cells. Conclusion:Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris can be an useful medicinal plant.

  18. Variogram Analysis of Response surfaces (VARS): A New Framework for Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, S.; Gupta, H. V.

    2015-12-01

    Earth and environmental systems models (EESMs) are continually growing in complexity and dimensionality with continuous advances in understanding and computing power. Complexity and dimensionality are manifested by introducing many different factors in EESMs (i.e., model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.) to be identified. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides an essential means for characterizing the role and importance of such factors in producing the model responses. However, conventional approaches to SA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we present a new and general sensitivity analysis framework (called VARS), based on an analogy to 'variogram analysis', that provides an intuitive and comprehensive characterization of sensitivity across the full spectrum of scales in the factor space. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are limiting cases of VARS, and that their SA indices can be computed as by-products of the VARS framework. We also present a practical strategy for the application of VARS to real-world problems, called STAR-VARS, including a new sampling strategy, called "star-based sampling". Our results across several case studies show the STAR-VARS approach to provide reliable and stable assessments of "global" sensitivity across the full range of scales in the factor space, while being at least 1-2 orders of magnitude more efficient than the benchmark Morris and Sobol approaches.

  19. Differential Recognition of Terminal Extracellular Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Domains by Sera from Multigravid, Malaria-Exposed Malian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Mark A.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Bailey, Jason A.; Niangaly, Amadou; Adams, Matthew; Nyunt, Myaing M.; Ouattara, Amed; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Berry, Andrea A.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Kouriba, Bourema; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Laufer, Miriam K.; Felgner, Philip L.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates parasite sequestration in small capillaries through tissue-specific cytoadherence. The best characterized of these proteins is VAR2CSA, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes that bind to chondroitin sulfate in the placental matrix. Antibodies to VAR2CSA prevent placental cytoadherence and protect against placental malaria. The size and complexity of the VAR2CSA protein pose challenges for vaccine development, but smaller constitutive domains may be suitable for subunit vaccine development. A protein microarray was printed to include five overlapping fragments of the 3D7 VAR2CSA extracellular region. Malian women with a history of at least one pregnancy had antibody recognition of four of these fragments and had stronger reactivity against the two distal fragments than did nulliparous women, children, and men from Mali, suggesting that the C-terminal extracellular VAR2CSA domains are a potential focus of protective immunity. With carefully chosen sera from longitudinal studies of pregnant women, this approach has the potential to identify seroreactive VAR2CSA domains associated with protective immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria. PMID:25918203

  20. Supply Chain of Organic Salak Pondoh (Salacca zalacca var.pondoh in Pagar Alam City- South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herfiani Rizkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a continued research of sertification of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam. This aim of this study is to get informations about characteristic and condition of organik Salak var. pondoh supply chain in Pagar Alam City, South Sumatera. In year 2012, the Sertification organic agencies (LSO of West Sumatera have delivered organic sertification to about 5 ha land area of Salak var pondoh of Dempo’s farmer group. Since that time, the production of an organic Salak pondoh in Pagar Alam city increased every year, from 1.27ton per year in 2011 become 1.42 ton per year in 2013 for every 0.25 Ha of  land area. The price of organic salak var. Pondoh Pagar Alam ranged from IDR 5000 until IDR 12000 at level of farmer and from 10000 until IDR 15000 in level of consumers. The actor in Supply chain of organic Salak var.pondoh in Pagar Alam, covering : farmer,  group of farmer, distributor, and or outlet (a place of bussiness for retailing salak, and retailer/domestic consumers. The activities along the supply chain of Salak var. Pondoh in Pagar Alam covering : harvesting, collecting and shelters of harvest, cleaning, sortation, grading and distribution.

  1. Secondary Metabolites of Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus%真菌Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus的次生代谢产物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁春华; 黄耀坚; 沈月毛

    2005-01-01

    目的:研究西双版纳粗榧共生真菌Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus的次生代谢产物.方法:通过柱层析法分离发酵产物的化学成分,并利用波谱数据和文献数据对照鉴定化合物的结构.结果:分离到2个化合物,分别鉴定为trypacidin (1)及其衍生物1,2-seco-trypacidin (2).结论:化合物2是新结构;并对文献中关于trypacidin的C-4和C-7a位碳谱数据的指定进行了更正.%AIM: To study the secondary metabolites of the commensal microorganism (Aspergillus fumigatus var. fumigatus) of Cephalotaxus mannii. METHOD: Chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography and structures were elucidated based on spectral analysis. RESULT: Two compounds were purified from the fermented extracts and identified to be trypacidin (1) and 1,2-seco-trypacidin (2), respectively. CONCLUSION: Compound 2 is a new compound, and the 13C NMR assignments for the C-4 and C-7a of trypacidin were revised based on HMQC and HMBC experiments.

  2. Research on the synchronization of three modernizations based on VAR model%基于 VAR 模型的“三化”同步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖六亿; 高玉胭

    2015-01-01

    采用中国1978-2013年的经济数据,通过构建稳定的 VAR 模型,运用脉冲响应函数和方差分解方法对中国城镇化、工业化和经济增长三者之间的关系进行了分析。研究发现,相比工业化而言,城镇化冲击对经济增长的作用更强。同时,城镇化对经济增长具有非均匀作用,因此推动中国经济增长的动力阶段性地依赖于工业化,长期性地依赖于城镇化。%Using China's economic data from 1978 to 2013,this paper applies impulse response function and variance decom -position method to analyze the relationship among urbanization ,industrialization and economic growth based on the stable VAR model.Our reaserch shows that compared with industrialialization , urbanization has a more notable effect on the economy growth.Meanwhile, urbanization has an heterogeneous effect on economy growth ,so the impetus of promoting economy growth depend on industrialization periodically and urbanization in the long term .

  3. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  4. Preliminary Study on Geographical Distribution and Evolutionary Relationships Between Cultivated and Wild Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Xu-xiao; Duncan Vaughan; Norihiko Tomooka; Akito Kaga; WANG Xin-wang; GUAN Jian-ping; WANG Shu-min

    2003-01-01

    A set of representative 146 adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis, and var. nipponensis)germplasm from 6 Asian countries traditionally for adzuki bean production, together with an out group stand-ard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analyzed by AFLP methodology using 12 informative primer pairs.313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram by cluster analysis based onAFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification andclassification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbor joining tree was generated using newly devel-oped Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, 7 distinct evolutionary groups,named as "Chinese cultivated", "Japanese cultivated", "Japanese complex-Korean cultivated", "Chinesewild", "China Taiwan wild", "Nepal-Bhutan cultivated" and "Hymalayan wild", were detected. Nucleotidediversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships be-tween wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki bean should bedomesticated from at least 4 progenitors in at least 3 geographical origins.

  5. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. ( Santalaceae ) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, ne...

  6. Analysis of correlations and path effects for popping expansion in popcorn ( Zea mays var. everta Sturt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabharathi A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation and path analysis involving 35 genotypes of popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt. indicated thatdegree of popping alone exhibited positive association with popping expansion. The path analysis revealed thatcob weight showed very high positive direct effect on popping expansion followed by plant height, days tomaturity and days to 50% silking. Characters namely degree of popping, lesser cob length, cob girth and 100-kernel weight could be given greater emphasis while making selections for the improvement of poppingexpansion

  7. Turkiye'de Istikrarsiz Buyumenin Var Modelleri Ile Analizi (1991.1-2004.3)

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. Recep Tari; Asst. Prof. Hilal Bozkurt

    2006-01-01

    Unstable growth process has been observed in Turkish economy. This process has started 1980 and has increased after 1990. The aim of this study is to investigate resources of unstable growth. Quarterly data between 1991.1-2004.3 has been analysed. As a result of stationary review, variables have not been seen as a stationary at same degree. Thus they have been examined with VAR model. According to results of inpulse-response and variance decomposition analysis, effective variables are psbr, c...

  8. IN-VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF BASELLA ALBA LINN. VAR. ALBA

    OpenAIRE

    Vijender Kumar; Z. A. Bhat; Dinesh Kumar; Puja Bohra; S. Sheela

    2011-01-01

    The leaf extracts of Basella alba Linn.var. alba were investigated for In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity by human red blood cell membrane stabilization method (HRBC). The increased use of natural product in the pharmaceutical industry has led to an increase in demand for screening for cost effective, nontoxic bioactive compounds in medicinal plants. Now a day’s many researchers interest is to search medicinal plants with potent therapeutic activity which may lead to the discovery of new the...

  9. Gastroprotective effect of leaf extracts of Basella alba var. alba against experimental gastric ulcers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vijender Kumar; Z. A. Bhat; Dinesh Kumar; N A Khan; I. A. Chashoo; Irfat Ara

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Basella alba L. var. alba Wight, Basellaceae, were investigated for antiulcer activity on rats employing the pylorus ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models. The various gastric secretion parameters such as total acidity, free acidity, gastric acid volume, pH and histopathological parameters such as ulcer index and percent protection were comparatively examined between control, test and standard groups. The antiulcer activity of aqueous extr...

  10. The taxonomic identity of Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Victor Lucci Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic identity of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene f. pyritosa var. fumigata Zikán, 1937 (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae is discussed based on the discovery of the specimen based on which this name was assigned. The specimen is not a variation of Eueides tales surdus Stichel, 1903, as previously stated, but is in fact a variation of H. melpomene f. pyritosa, which is a synonym of Heliconius erato amalfreda Riffarth, 1901.

  11. Ranking of VaR and ES Models: Performance in developed and emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Zikovic, Sasa; Filer, Randall

    2012-01-01

    An inherent problem with comparing and ranking competing Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected shortfall (ES) models is that they measure only a single realization of the underlying data generation process. The question is whether there is any significant statistical difference in the performance of different models. Is it only a matter of chance that in a particular market and in particular time period a certain model performs better than some other? It all comes down to a question whether someth...

  12. Performance of static var compensator control type thyristor controlled reactor and thyristor switched capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Josias M. de; Yung, Chou Shaw; Rose, Eber H.; Pantoja, Antonio L.A. [ELETRONORTE, Belem, PA (Brazil); Fouesnant, Thomas; Boissier, Luc

    1994-12-31

    This paper has the objective of presenting the philosophy of Static Var Compensator (SVC) Control as well the necessary adjustments in the project of control system to guarantee suitable performance under different operating conditions. The verification on the performance of the SVC control has been done by Transient Network Analyzer (TNA/CEPEL) studies, commissioning tests and a factory tests. The SVC is the type of Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) and Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC). (author) 3 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Estimación de VAR Bayesianos para la Economía Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Jaramillo G.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Bayesian Vector Autoregression (BVAR models are estimated for the Chilean economy. Under this approach, the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy and forecast exercises are studied and evaluated for the main macroeconomic variables. Then, the results are contrasted with the standard VAR models presented in the previous literature for the case of Chile and the implications for the monetary policy design are discussed.

  14. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Putih Kecil (Zingiber officinale var. Amarum terhadap Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanny Satriyani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of many antifungal drugs make it necessary to find an herbal alternative with reduced side effects. Many herbals are knwon to have an antifungal effect, including ginger with its volatile oil composition. However, the specific antifungal effect and optimal concentration of the volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. amarum against C. albicans is not yet known. This research was done to verify the antifungal effect of Zingiber officinale var. amarum volatile oil on C. albicans, to determine its optimal concentration, and to determine the relation between the volatile oil was provided by water and steam distillation of BALITTRO, Bogor. The colonies were double counted in two steps. First, the volatile oil at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78% were applied for treatment, wheras in the second step concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50% were used. In the disk diffusion method, the volatile oil concentrations of 100%, 70%, 60%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125% were applied in triplicate in Petri dishes containing C. albicans by using 6 mm blank disks. Result: Mann-Whitney test showed the significant decrease of the colonies between 6.25% and 3.125% of the volatile oil concentration (α = 0.021, and also between the volatile oil concentration 6.25% and the control group (α = 0.014. The Spearman test showed a positive and strong correlation between the volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum and its inhibition zone (r = 0.91. Conclusion: The volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. amarum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans with an optimal concentration of 6.25%, and increasing volatile oil concentration is followed by increasing inhibition zone.

  15. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Miragall, Marta; Baños Rivera, Rosa María; Cebolla i Martí, Ausiàs Josep; Botella Arbona, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR ther...

  16. Global Liquidity and Commodity Prices – A Cointegrated VAR Approach for OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Belke, Ansgar; Bordon, Ingo G.; Torben W. Hendricks

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the interactions between money, consumer prices and commodity prices at a global level from 1970 to 2008. Using aggregated data for major OECD countries and a cointegrating VAR framework, we are able to establish long run and short run relationships among these variables while the process is mainly driven by global liquidity. According to our empirical findings, different price elasticities in commodity and consumer goods markets can explain the recently observed overshoot...

  17. Culture Technology of Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis%佛手丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文武; 朱雯

    2014-01-01

    文章介绍了佛手的生物学特性、种苗繁育、栽植技术和主要病虫害防治等,为佛手栽培种植提供技术指导。%Cultrue technology of Citrus medica var.sarcodactylis was introduced in this article,which in-cluding technology in seedling breeding,planting and method of main disease and pest control.

  18. The Effect of Labisia pumila var. alata on Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Azidah Abdul Kadir; Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain; Wan Mohammad Wan Bebakar; Dayang Marshitah Mohd; Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad; Intan Idiana Hassan; Norlela Shukor; Nor Azmi Kamaruddin; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud

    2012-01-01

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the effects of a water extract of Labisia pumila var. alata at 280 mg/day with placebo, given for 6 months in postmenopausal Malay women. There were 29 patients treated with Labisia pumila and 34 patients in the placebo group. Menopausal symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. The blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, and hormonal profile (follicle stimulating...

  19. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Metho...

  20. Structure-activity relationship study of twelve compounds from Paris polyphylla Smith var. pubescens

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xianxiao; Gao, Wenyuan; Man, Shuli; Gao, Ying; Huang, Luqi; Liu, Changxiao

    2010-01-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the rhizoma of Paris polyphylla Smith var. pubescens Handel-Mazzetti. Based on spectral data, the isolated compounds were identified as stigmasterol (1), β- Ecdysterone (2), Diosgenin (3), Ophiopogonin C’ (4), Diosgenin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl(1→4)-β-D-glucoside (5), Dioscin (6), Paris saponin I (7), Paris saponin II (8), Pennogenin-3-O-α-L- arabinofuranosyl (1→4)- β- D-glucoside (9), Paris saponin VI (10), Pennog...