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Sample records for cacao theobroma cacao

  1. Genetic diversity and spatial structure in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop widely cultivated in the Bolivian Amazon. The germplasm group used by the Bolivian farmers was called “Cacao Nacional Boliviano” (CNB). Wild cacao populations are also found in the Beni River and in the valleys of Andes foot hills. Using DNA...

  2. Presence of heavy metals in organic cacao (theobroma cacao l.) crop

    OpenAIRE

    HuamanI-Yupanqui, Hugo Alfredo; Huauya-Rojas, Miguel Ángel; Mansilla-Minaya, Luis Germán; Florida-Rofner, Nelino; Neira-Trujillo, Gilmer Milton

    2013-01-01

    La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron...

  3. Presencia de metales pesados en cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) orgánico

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Alfredo Huamaní-Yupanqui; Miguel ángel Huauya-Rojas; Luis Germán Mansilla-Minaya; Nelino Florida-Rofner; Gilmer Milton Neira-Trujillo

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron...

  4. Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Cuéllar G.; Gloria Guerrero A.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de difusión en agar de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao, empleando cepas autóctonas y de referencia ATCC. Posteriormente, se hizo un análisis de estas fracciones por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. La ...

  5. Propagación del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Alvarado, Rocío

    2012-01-01

    México día a día presenta un desafío en la investigación agropecuaria y forestal; porque implica el desarrollo de tecnología rentable, efectiva y práctica, que propicie el aumento de la producción en forma sostenible. Por ello, en el presente trabajo se muestran técnicas para rejuvenecer plantaciones viejas e improductivas de cacao, como alternativas viables, económicas y ecológicas, permitiendo a los productores aumentar la producción e incrementar la rentabilidad del cultivo. La rentabilid...

  6. The interaction of Theobroma cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease, during parthenocarpy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of Theobroma cacao L. flower cushions by Moniliophthora perniciosa induces parthenocarpy. Healthy and parthenocarpic immature cacao pods were obtained from seven cacao clones. Microscopic observations of parthenocarpic pods confirmed fruits lack viable seed. Septate mycelium colonized part...

  7. INVENTARISASI SERANGGA PADA PERKEBUNAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO) LABORATORIUM UNIT PERLINDUNGAN TANAMAN DESA BEDULU, KECAMATAN BLAHBATUH, KABUPATEN GIANYAR, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. A. PRADANA PUTRA; NI LUH WATINIASIH; NI MADE SUARTINI

    2011-01-01

    Bali has the potency to grow plantation, particularly cacao plants (Theobroma cacao). The increase of cacao production is supported by the increase of the number of productive cacao plants, but the production rate per hectare per year decreased at some districts. One reason of the decreasing cacao production was due to the attack of Plant Disease Organism. This research aimed to investigate the insect families associated with cacao plantations and the fuctions of the insects on cacao plants, ...

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure in wild stands of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims The native cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana represent an important fraction of genetic diversity of this species. Several scientific surveys have led to the collection of germplasm accessions from south-eastern French Guiana, which provides an ideal opportunit...

  9. Comparison of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones for the effect of pollination intensity on fruit set and seed content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falque, M.; Lesdalons, C.; Eskes, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    We compared the influence of pollination intensity (PI) on fruit set and seed number per pod in two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones, IFC5 (Forastero Lower-Amazon Amelonado), which is self-compatible and known to produce a high number of seeds per pod under open pollination, and SCA6 (Forastero Upp

  10. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  11. Optimization of a SNP assay for Genotyping Theobroma cacao under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tropical tree crop Theobroma cacao L. is grown commercially for its beans, which are used in the production of cocoa butter and chocolate. Although the upper Amazon region is the center of origin for cacao, 70% of the world’s supply of cacao beans currently comes from small farms in West Africa...

  12. Presencia de metales pesados en cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. orgánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alfredo Huamaní-Yupanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron análisis de correlación de Pearson entre los contenidos de plomo y cadmio disponibles en el suelo con variables foliares (P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Pb y del suelo (arena, arcilla y K. En los suelos, sólo en el caso de potasio se presentan deficiencias; mientras que en el tejido foliar se presentaron deficiencias de N, P, K, Mg y Zn. Los valores promedio de cadmio y plomo disponible en los suelos fueron 0.53 y 3.02 ppm y en las hojas de cacao de 0.21 y 0.58 ppm respectivamente.

  13. Genetic diversity and parentage in farmer varieties of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) from Honduras and Nicaragua as revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the main source for chocolate with an annual production of four million tons worldwide. This Neotropical tree crop was domesticated in Mesoamerica as far back as 3,000 years ago. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure in farmer varieties of cacao in the...

  14. Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cuéllar G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de difusión en agar de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao, empleando cepas autóctonas y de referencia ATCC. Posteriormente, se hizo un análisis de estas fracciones por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. La fracción clorofórmica presentó actividad antibacteriana frente a Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 y Streptococcus agalactiae (autóctona, con porcentajes de inhibición de 34.90% (100 μg/μl y 52.40% (100 μg/μl respectivamente. También se evidenció una concentración mínima inhibitoria de 512 μg/ml frente a Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 y de 128 μg/ml frente a Streptococcus agalactiae. Conclusiones. Este trabajo es el primer reporte a saber en Colombia sobre actividad antibacteriana in vitro de la cáscara de cacao, el cual resulta ser un avance importante para esta agroindustria. Esta investigación abre paso a otros estudios relacionados para establecer el espectro de inhibición frente a otros microorganismos.

  15. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.)Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye; A.S Ogunlowo; O.J. Olukunle

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster dryi...

  16. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ~4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification pr...

  17. Study of Seed Germination by Soaking Methode of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of germination methods conduct to get information about seed viability based on germination rate, percentage of germination and vigority. Germination methods was studied to get the efficiency and effectivity of germination, easy to handle, low costs with high vigority. Sand and gunny sack methods  for germination, need extensive place  and 3-4 days germination period after planting. This research will study the alternative of germination method with soaking. This method can be accelerating  germination rate and effectively place usage without decreasing the quality of cacao seedling.The research was done at Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institue. This research consist of two experiment was arranged based on factorial completely random design. First experiment will observed to compared germination rate and the second experiment will observed seedling quality between soaking and wet gunny sack germination method.The results showed that length of radicel on soaking method longer than wet gunny sack method. Growth of radicel started from 2 hours after soaking, moreover length of radicel at 4 hours after soaking have significant different value with gunny sack method. On 24 hours after soaking have 3,69 mm and 0,681 mm on wet gunny sack treatment. Except lengt of hipocotyl, there is not different condition between seedling that out came  from soaking and wet gunny sack method. Length of hipocotyl on 36 hours after soaking have 9,15 cm and significant different between wet gunny sack germination method that have 5,40 cm. Keywords : seed germination, soaking method, Theobroma cacao L., cocoa seedlings

  18. Productividad y rentabilidad potencial del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) en el trópico mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Espinosa-García; Jesús Uresti-Gil; Alejandra Vélez-Izquierdo; Georgel Moctezuma-López; Héctor Daniel Inurreta-Aguirre; Sergio Fernando Góngora-González

    2015-01-01

    Con el objetivo de identificar el potencial productivo del cultivo del cacao a nivel de unidad de respuesta hidrológica (URH), cuenca y estado, considerando el rendimiento y la relación beneficio costo (R B/C), se realizó este trabajo, en los principales estados productores del Trópico Húmedo de México. Para ello se simuló y cartografió el rendimiento potencial de biomasa aérea total y grano de cacao en 9 estados del Sur-sureste de México y se identificaron las áreas con mayor potencial para ...

  19. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  20. Genetic diversity of naturalized cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of genetically diverse cacao with disease resistance, high productivity and desirable organoleptic traits is vitally important to the agricultural crop’s long-term sustainability. Environmental changes, pests and diseases as well as nation’s sovereign property rights have led to a de...

  1. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster drying process was observed at a higher drying temperature resulting in higher drying rates which is advantageous when evaluating costs. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to predict effective diffusivity using experimental data assuming that the variation of diffusivity with temperature can be expressed by an Arrhenius type function, and the values of diffusivity obtained ranged from 6.137 x 10-10 to 2.1855 x 10-9 m2 s-1 for the temperature used. The Arrhenius constant (D is predicted at 8.64 x 10-4 m2 s-1 while the activation energy was predicted at 39.94 kJ mol-1.El cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es ampliamente producido en el Oeste de África y Sudamérica y es un cultivo de gran importancia económica, con muchos usos industriales. En este trabajo se investigó la cinética del secado experimental de especies foráneas, y se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones isotérmicas, usando un secador discontinuo en caliente a 55, 70 y 81 °C. Los datos de relación de humedad obtenidos desde el cambio de contenido de humedad con el tiempo de secado se ajustaron a un modelo de secado de dos capas delgadas con buenos resultados. Se observó un proceso de secado más rápido a una temperatura de secado mayor resultando en mayores tasas de secado, lo que es ventajoso al evaluar costos. La segunda ley de difusión de Fick se usó para predecir difusividad efectiva usando datos experimentales, asumiendo que la variación de difusividad con la temperatura puede ser

  2. Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) germplasm collection from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao L. with its center of diversity in Central and South America was first introduced to West Africa in the mid-19th century and today the region produces 70% of the world's cocoa. Several distinct cocoa types have been introduced, cultivated and intercrossed across the region. Also, bi-...

  3. Lipid composition of wild ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum Mart. seeds and comparison with two varieties of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, R; Bianchini, E; Bettarello, L; Sacchetti, G

    2000-03-01

    The present work analyzes the lipid fraction from seeds of wild Ecuadorian Theobroma subincanum and selected commercial varieties of Theobroma cacao from Mexico (var. Criollo) and Ecuador (var. Arriba). The lipid fraction was obtained from the seeds through supercritical fluid extraction and analysis performed by preparatory thin-layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. The results revealed that in T. subincanum the triglycerides contain fatty acids with longer chains. The melting point and peroxide and saponifiable numbers were determined for each Theobroma sample. The results lead to the conclusion that T. subincanum would produce a poorer quality butter than T. cacao. Nevertheless, the results do point toward a significant commercial use of T. subincanum for low-profile products.

  4. Co-occurrence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates in cushion galls disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Daynet Sosa del

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowery cushion gall of cacao is a disease complex with six types. Fusarium decemcellulare have been isolated from both flowery and green point galls and recognized as the etiological agent of the disease. In the present work we: i identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing and/or taxonomy the cultivable fungal species or Operative Taxonomic Units (OTUs associated with the five symptoms of cushion galls in cacao from Venezuela, and ii determined the gall inducing capacity on cacao peeled seeds after 45 days of inoculation with suspensions of mycelia/ spores from distinct isolate types. The whole isolate collection rendered an abundance of 113 isolates with a richness of 39 OTUs (27 and eight identified at the species or genera levels, respectively, and in unidentified fungi. The dominant recovered species (≈36% were F. decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Some isolates of F. decemcellulare, L. theobromae, F. equiseti, Fusarium spp., F. solani, F. incarnatum, Rhizocthonia solani and Penicillium sp. were pathogenic. Some other isolates of the first six mentioned taxa behave as non-pathogenic. Furthermore, pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates can also co-occur within a single plant and gall type. Moreover, 2-5 species within a single gall symptom in a single tree were identified (not necessarily at the same point in the tree, indicating a broad diversity of co-occurring taxa.

  5. Mempelajari Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi Dan Penyangraian Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) Terhadap Mutu Bubuk Kakao

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, Janner P

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama fermentasi dan penyangraian biji kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap mutu bubuk kakao. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode rancangan acak lengkap dengan dua faktor yakni lama fermentasi (0, 2, 4 dan 6 hari) dan lama penyangraian (0, 25, 50 dan 75 menit). Parameter analisa adalah kadar air, kadar abu, kadar lemak, daya larut dalam air dan nilai organoleptik (aroma, warna dan rasa). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lama f...

  6. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  7. Evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias diazótrofas aisladas de suelos con cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Zulay Argüello-Navarro; Laura Yolima Moreno-Rozo

    2014-01-01

    La adaptabilidad del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) en condiciones adversas permite sugerir que la microbiota asociada con la rizosfera desempeña una función importante para la nutrición y el desarrollo de la planta. En el trabajo se evaluó el potencial biofertilizante de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno (diazótrofas) aisladas de suelos cacaoteros por la técnica de diluciones seriadas. Las bacterias se aislaron en medios semiselectivos (NFb, JMV, LGI, JNFb). Los aislados puros se caracterizaron m...

  8. BASES PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA EN EL CULTIVO DEL CACAO (Theobroma cacao, Lin) POR MEDIO DEL CRITERIO DE EXPERTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Giclis M. Suárez; René Florido Bacallao; Francisco Soto Carreño; Alberto Caballero Núñez

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cacao (Theobroma cacao, Lin) por medio del criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi. Se seleccionaron expertos de diferentes esferas y se determinó el nivel de experticia y el nivel de competencia de cada experto respecto a la problemática relacionada con la definición de los factores que definen la ubicación del cultivo. Para ello se elaboró y aplicó un sistema de rondas de preguntas o cues...

  9. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fupeng Li; Chaoyun Hao; Lin Yan; Baoduo Wu; Xiaowei Qin; Jianxiong Lai; Yinghui Song

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  10. ADMINISTRATION OF CACAO BEANS (Theobroma cacao L. EXTRACTS DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE CONCENTRATION AND INCREASE BLOOD NOx CONCENTRATION IN WHITE RAT (Ra"us norvegicus INDUCED BY PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Wiryanthini IA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS causing accumulation of oxidative damage caused by exceeding anti oxidant capacity in the body. Psychological stress as psychosocial stress can induce oxidative stress which subsequently cause increase blood malondialdehyde (MDA and decrease blood nitrate and nitrite (NOx concentration as intermediate product of nitric oxide (NO. Cacao beans extracts contained anti oxidant flavanols consist of catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aims of this study is to investigate the effect of cacao beans (Theobroma cacao L. extracts for decreasing MDA and increasing NOx concentration in white rat (Ra$us norvegicus blood in stress oxidative state induced by psychosocial stress. It is an experimental study with Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. This study revealed decrease MDA concentration in group P1 (11.47 vs 8.04, P2 (11.92 vs 5.44 and P3 (11.69 vs 2.87 with P = 0.000 and increase NOx concentration in oxidative stress white rat induced by psychosocial stress a[er administration of cacao beans extract in group P1 (1909.83 vs 2085.16, P2 (1912.5 vs 2231.83 and P3 (1871.5 vs 2339.83 with P = 0.005. This study showed that cacao beans extract can inhibit oxidative stress caused by psychosocial stress.

  11. Foraging ecology of howler monkeys in a cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantation in Comalcalco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, David; Estrada, Alejandro; Naranjo, Eduardo; Ochoa, Susana

    2006-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that primate populations may persist in neotropical fragmented landscapes by using arboreal agroecosystems, which may provide temporary habitats, increased areas of vegetation, and connectivity, among other benefits. However, limited data are available on how primates are able to sustain themselves in such manmade habitats. We report the results of a 9-month-long investigation of the feeding ecology of a troop of howler monkeys (n = 24) that have lived for the past 25 years in a 12-ha cacao plantation in the lowlands of Tabasco, Mexico. A vegetation census indicated the presence of 630 trees (> or =20 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)) of 32 shade species in the plantation. The howlers used 16 plant species (13 of which were trees) as sources of leaves, fruits, and flowers. Five shade tree species (Ficus cotinifolia, Pithecellobium saman, Gliricidia sepium, F. obtusifolia, and Ficus sp.) accounted for slightly over 80% of the total feeding time and 78% of the total number trees (n = 139) used by the howlers, and were consistently used by the howlers from month to month. The howlers spent an average of 51% of their monthly feeding time exploiting young leaves, 29% exploiting mature fruit, and 20% exploiting flowers and other plant items. Monthly consumption of young leaves varied from 23% to 67%, and monthly consumption of ripe fruit varied from 12% to 64%. Differences in the protein-to-fiber ratio of young vs. mature leaves influenced diet selection by the monkeys. The howlers used 8.3 ha of the plantation area, and on average traveled 388 m per day in each month. The howlers preferred tree species whose contribution to the total tree biomass and density was above average for the shade-tree population in the plantation. Given the right conditions of management and protection, shaded arboreal plantations in fragmented landscapes can sustain segments of howler monkey populations for many decades. PMID:16429417

  12. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-02-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  13. Molecular, physiological and morphological analysis of waterlogging tolerance in clonal genotypes of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, Fabiana Zanelato; De Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Baligar, Virupax C; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2010-01-01

    In soil, anoxia conditions generated by waterlogging induce changes in genetic, morphological and physiological processes, altering the growth and development of plants. Mass propagation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantlets (clones) is affected by waterlogging caused by heavy rains and irrigation methods used to induce rooting. An experiment was undertaken to assess the effects of a 45-day flooding (anoxia) on physiological and morphological traits of 35 elite cacao genotypes, aiming at potentially identifying those with greater tolerance to flooding of the growth substrate. Eighteen fluorochrome-labeled microsatellite (SSR) primer pairs were used to assess genetic variability among clones, with 248 alleles being amplified and used to calculate similarity coefficients. The resulting dendrogram indicated the presence of four major groups, in which two represented 60% and 31% of the genotypes tested. A general trend toward high levels of heterozygosity was also found for physiological and morphological traits. The survival index (IS) for flood tolerance observed varied from 30 to 96%. Clones TSA-654, TSA-656, TSA-792, CA-1.4, CEPEC-2009 and PH-17 showed an IS value above 94%, whereas CEPEC-2010, CEPEC-2002, CA-7.1 and VB-903 clones were those mostly affected by waterlogging, with IS value below 56%. All genotypes displayed lenticel and adventitious root formation in response to waterlogging, although with different intensities. To determine whether patterns of physiological response could be associated with tolerance to anoxia, a similarity-grouping analysis was performed using the ratio between waterlogged and control values obtained for a series of physiological variables assessed. No specific pattern of physiological and morphological responses to waterlogging was strictly associated with survival of plantlets. However, results revealed by the dendrogram suggest that absence of leaf chlorosis may be a proper trait to indicate cacao clones with higher survival

  14. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

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    Verica Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1 that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theobroma cacao NPR1 cDNA was isolated by RT-PCR using degenerate primers based on homologous sequences from Brassica, Arabidopsis and Carica papaya. The cDNA was used to isolate a genomic clone from Theobroma cacao containing a putative TcNPR1 gene. DNA sequencing revealed the presence of a 4.5 kb coding region containing three introns and encoding a polypeptide of 591 amino acids. The predicted TcNPR1 protein shares 55% identity and 78% similarity to Arabidopsis NPR1, and contains each of the highly conserved functional domains indicative of this class of transcription factors (BTB/POZ and ankyrin repeat protein-protein interaction domains and a nuclear localization sequence (NLS. To functionally define the TcNPR1 gene, we transferred TcNPR1 into an Arabidopsis npr1 mutant that is highly susceptible to infection by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, the cacao TcNPR1 gene partially complemented the npr1 mutation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, resulting in 100 fold less bacterial growth in a leaf infection assay. Upon induction with SA, TcNPR1 was shown to translocate into the nucleus of leaf and root cells in a manner identical to Arabidopsis NPR1. Cacao NPR1 was also capable of participating in SA-JA signaling crosstalk, as evidenced by the suppression of JA responsive gene expression in TcNPR1 overexpressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Our data indicate that the TcNPR1 is a functional

  15. Genetic characterization of the cacao cultivar CCN 51: its impact and significance on global cacao improvement and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in tropical growing regions of the world and particularly for small cacao farmers. Cacao production in the Americas constitutes ˜13.0% of global production. Ecuador is the second-largest cacao producer in South America and its Nacional beans are...

  16. FACTORES QUE CONTROLAN EL CONTENIDO DE FENOLES EN EL CULTIVO DE CALLOS DE Theobroma cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Quiñones-Galvez; Martha Hernández de la Torre; Yemeys Quirós Molina; Yanelis Capdesuñer Ruiz; Reinaldo Trujillo Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. se conoce en la medicina popular como antiséptico, diurético y antiparasitario. Los alimentos derivados de esta planta son ricos en productos naturales de alto valor agregado, entre los que se destacan los compuestos fenólicos. Por lo que manejar su cultivo in vitro es una fuente alternativa para la producción de estos metabolitos. El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de obtener compuestos fenólicos a partir del cultivo de callos con estructuras embriogénicas. Se ...

  17. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

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    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  18. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  19. Caracterización de sistemas agroecológicos para el establecimiento comercial de cacao orgánico (Theobroma cacao en Talamanca Description of agro-ecological systems to the shop of organic cocoa (Theobroma cacao in Talamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar Díaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Un requisito previo para la planificación de una finca es disponer de información acerca de las características del productor, o productora, y su familia, así como de los recursos naturales disponibles y el sistema de producción que tiene, ya que, para proponer cambios en el uso y manejo de los recursos naturales, hay que conocer, analizar e interpretar lo que se dispone en la unidad productiva. Es por esto que se planteó caracterizar cinco fincas ubicadas en el territorio indígena Bribri en la comunidad de Shuabb, distrito Telire, cantón de Talamanca, Limón, Costa Rica, para la producción de cacao orgánico (Theobroma cacao bajo un sistema tradicional agroforestal. El enfoque de producción orgánica con un manejo sostenible de los recursos naturales coincide con la norma tradicional y espiritual de los indígenas. Se estableció una tipología basada en aspectos biofísicos para las cinco fincas seleccionadas y una caracterización socioeconómica de las familias beneficiarias;conbaseenlosresultadosobtenidos, se propuso un diseño de producción y un manejo agronómico orgánico para el establecimiento de los sistemas agroecológicos.A prerequisite for planning a farm is to have available information about the characteristics of the producer and her or his family, about the available natural resources and about the existing production system. For proposing changes in the use and management natural resources, is necessary to know, to analyze and interpret what is available in the production unit. This is why it is plated characterize five farms located in an indigenous community named Shuabb, in Telire district, Talamanca, Limón, Costa Rica. For the organic cocoa (Theobroma cacao production, under a traditional agroforestry system. The organic approach under a sustainable management of natural resources, coincides with the traditional and spiritual standard of the indigenous. A typology was established based on biophysical aspects

  20. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, John; Herrera, Geovanny; Vaughan, Christopher S; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthllora roreri, known commonly as "monilia", has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Thichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia) at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma). Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of monilia infection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p ≤ 0.05) in only 35d, as compared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1,500 kg dried beans/ha by 198 kg/ha up to 1,698 kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110 ha plantation by 21,780 kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days) would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal control

  1. Early Yield and Economical Study of Pogostemon Cablinas Intercrop in Young Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.

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    Adi Prawoto

    2006-08-01

    P. cablinin young cacao provided opportunity to farmers to have additional income, the benefit cost ratio (B/C for Leucaenatreatment 1.00–1.35 depend on dose of fertilizer, while for A. catechutreatment gave no profit (B/C 0.59–1.03 depend on fertilizer dose. Meanwhile, P. cablinmonoculture cultivation gave B/C 1.44–2.71. Key Words: Pogostemon cablin, Theobroma cacao,Leucaena glauca, Areca catechu, intercropping, patchouly alcohol, B/C ratio, fertilizer.

  2. Evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias diazótrofas aisladas de suelos con cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zulay Argüello-Navarro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La adaptabilidad del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en condiciones adversas permite sugerir que la microbiota asociada con la rizosfera desempeña una función importante para la nutrición y el desarrollo de la planta. En el trabajo se evaluó el potencial biofertilizante de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno (diazótrofas aisladas de suelos cacaoteros por la técnica de diluciones seriadas. Las bacterias se aislaron en medios semiselectivos (NFb, JMV, LGI, JNFb. Los aislados puros se caracterizaron morfológica y bioquímicamente y complementariamente se evaluó la capacidad de fijación biológica de nitrógeno (FBN por el método de Micro-Kjeldahl. Los aislados con mejor capacidad de fijación de nitrógeno fueron seleccionados para evaluar su potencial promotor de crecimiento durante 120 días en plantas de cacao clon CCN 51 establecidas a partir de semillas. El análisis de datos mostró que las plantas de cacao respondieron efectivamente a los tratamientos con bacterias donde las variables de crecimiento y N (% foliar incrementaron significativamente, en comparación con el testigo. Se destacó el aporte de los aislados DKA2J24, DKB3J73 presuntamente del género Burkholderia sp. y DKA1L3 semejante al género Gluconacetobacter sp., todos con un gran potencial como biofertilizantes en la prueba de bioensayo.

  3. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio Solano Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la 'escoba de bruja' en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presen- ta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cer- canas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Trans- cribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evi- dente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de

    0.6143 y un Indice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a

    alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  4. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.

  5. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compo...

  6. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  7. Karakteristik Kimia Biji Kakao terhadap Posisi Buah di Pohon Kakao Lindak (Theobroma Cacao L)

    OpenAIRE

    Langkong, Jumriah

    2014-01-01

    Cacao has flavor and specific aroma. The society can be consumed in food industry that needs specific details in cacao processing. The aim of the research was to find out cauliflora and reamiflora fruit towards the fruit location that produced on advanced processing. There are treatments for branch, tree and twig, The analyzed treatments specially for water content, fat content, ash content and pH to find out cacao qualities and location. The result achieved of water content (5.08%-5.36%), fa...

  8. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos

  9. FACTORES QUE CONTROLAN EL CONTENIDO DE FENOLES EN EL CULTIVO DE CALLOS DE Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Quiñones-Galvez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theobroma cacao L. se conoce en la medicina popular como antiséptico, diurético y antiparasitario. Los alimentos derivados de esta planta son ricos en productos naturales de alto valor agregado, entre los que se destacan los compuestos fenólicos. Por lo que manejar su cultivo in vitro es una fuente alternativa para la producción de estos metabolitos. El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de obtener compuestos fenólicos a partir del cultivo de callos con estructuras embriogénicas. Se establecieron las condiciones de cultivo (agitación, luz y concentración de glucosa para aumentar la concentración de fenoles en los callos y los elicitores para lograr su incremento en callos y excreción al medio de cultivo. La acumulación de compuestos fenólicos se favoreció con el suplemento adicional de glucosa, el crecimiento en agitación y a la oscuridad. La adición de ciclodextrinas hidroxipropiladas al azar permitió el incremento del rendimiento específico de fenoles y la biomasa.

  10. Respon pertumbuhan bibit kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap pemberian pupuk guano dan KCl

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagukguk, Pispa

    2015-01-01

    Addition of Guano in Cultivation of Cacao Seedling is the one of step to use organic fertilizer that comes from animal feces in the world. For that purpose addition guano aims to increase growth of Cacao in Cultivation of Seedling. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 - January 2014 using factorial randomized block design with two factor, i.e. addition dose of Guano (0, 75 , 150 , 225 g/polibag) and dose of KCl (0 , ...

  11. Efecto de las cepas nativas Paecilomyces sp. (Bainier y Lecanicillium sp. (Zimm en el control de Carmenta foraseminis Eichlin (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae en cultivos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Figueroa Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El pasador del fruto, Carmenta foraseminis Eichlin, es un insecto que ha acentuado su ataque en cultivos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en los últimos años en Norte de Santander (Colombia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de las cepas nativas Giav-3 Paecilomyces sp. y Giav-4 Lecanicillium sp. sobre larvas de C. foraseminis. Para el efecto, se realizaron aislamientos a partir de muestras de suelo recolectadas en el municipio de Tibú, Norte de Santander. Después de obtenidos los cultivos puros se procedió a la caracterización macroscópica y microscópica para la identificación del género de los aislados mediante claves taxonómicas. La infección fue realizada mediante inmersión de larvas en las suspensiones de los aislados en concentraciones de 0, 10(6, 10(7 y 10(8 conidios/ml. En ambos aislados se observó una tendencia lineal respecto a la mortalidad, la cual fue directamente proporcional a las concentraciones del inóculo. La CL50 y CL90 para Giav-3 fue de 10(6.95 y 10(8.70 conidios/ml y para Giav-4 de 10(6.6 y 10(8.04 conidios/ml, respectivamente. Lo cual indica que esta última requirió la menor concentración de inóculo para eliminar el 50% y 90% de la población tratada, lo que supone una mayor efectividad contra las larvas.

  12. BASES PARA LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA EN EL CULTIVO DEL CACAO (Theobroma cacao, Lin POR MEDIO DEL CRITERIO DE EXPERTOS

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    Giclis M. Suárez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cacao (Theobroma cacao, Lin por medio del criterio de expertos mediante el método Delphi. Se seleccionaron expertos de diferentes esferas y se determinó el nivel de experticia y el nivel de competencia de cada experto respecto a la problemática relacionada con la definición de los factores que definen la ubicación del cultivo. Para ello se elaboró y aplicó un sistema de rondas de preguntas o cuestionarios que surgieron del procesamiento estadístico sucesivo de cada ronda, donde se determinaron los parámetros: media aritmética de la evaluación de los expertos a cada pregunta, desviación estándar y varianza (dispersión de las evaluaciones de cada pregunta. A partir de estos estadígrafos se determinó el coeficiente de variación (nivel de concordancia, que unido con el nivel de relevancia, constituyeron los elementos discriminantes que permitieron proponer las variables en los cuestionarios subsiguientes. Los resultados permitieron determinar siete expertos para la consulta de las rondas de preguntas, con un nivel de competencia medio y alto, además de valoraciones promedio del coeficiente de competencia (K igual a 0,89. Se determinó que los factores genéticos, socioeconómicos y los fisiográficos no guardan relación con la definición del lugar para el desarrollo del cultivo; sin embargo, los factores climáticos (precipitaciones y temperatura y los edáficos (tipos y profundidad del suelo fueron los de mayor influencia para definir la ubicación del cacao, y constituyeron los principales elementos de las bases para la zonificación agroecológica del cultivo.

  13. Karyotype variation in cultivars and spontaneous cocoa mutants (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, G S F; Melo, C A F; Souza, M M; Araújo, I S; Zaidan, H A; Pires, J L; Ahnert, D

    2013-01-01

    Four mutant cocoa accessions with morphological changes and a cultivar sample were karyomorphologically characterized. Slides were prepared by enzymatic digestion of the root meristem and squashed in 45% acetic acid, followed by 2% Giemsa staining. The chromosome number of 2n = 20 was seen in all accessions. The karyotype formula for Cacau Comum and Cacau Rui was 2n = 20m. Submetacentric chromosomes were observed in Cacau Pucala and Cacau Jaca, both with 2n = 18m + 2sm, but the karyotype formula for Cacau Sem Vidro was 2n = 16m + 4sm. Satellites were located on the long arm of the 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs of Cacau Comum, whereas Cacau Pucala had satellites on the 6th chromosome pair. Greater karyotypic variation in Cacau Sem Vidro was found, whose 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs had satellites on the long arm and 6th and 10th pairs had satellites on the short arm. Analysis revealed a lower average chromosome length in Cacau Comum (1.53 ± 0.026 µm) and a higher length in Cacau Sem Vidro (2.26 ± 0.038 µm). ANOVA revealed significant difference (P < 0.01) for the average chromosome length and the length of chromosome pairs within and between accessions. The average chromosome lengths of mutants of Cacau Rui and Cacau Jaca were not statistically different by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The karyotypic diversity observed in this study is not necessarily associated with the changing character of the accessions analyzed, but may reflect the genetic variation observed in Theobroma cacao.

  14. Evaluation of the Allergenicity Potential of TcPR-10 Protein from Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne; Noronha, Fátima Soares Motta; Alves, Andréa Catão; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10), obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa) and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium). The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S) were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8–12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants) via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties. PMID:22768037

  15. Evaluation of the allergenicity potential of TcPR-10 protein from Theobroma cacao.

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    Sara Pereira Menezes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis related protein PR10 (TcPR-10, obtained from the Theobroma cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction library, presents antifungal activity against M. perniciosa and acts in vitro as a ribonuclease. However, despite its biotechnological potential, the TcPR-10 has the P-loop motif similar to those of some allergenic proteins such as Bet v 1 (Betula verrucosa and Pru av 1 (Prunus avium. The insertion of mutations in this motif can produce proteins with reduced allergenic power. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the wild type and mutant recombinant TcPR-10 using bioinformatics tools and immunological assays. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mutant substitutions (T10P, I30V, H45S were inserted in the TcPR-10 gene by site-directed mutagenesis, cloned into pET28a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 cells. Changes in molecular surface caused by the mutant substitutions was evaluated by comparative protein modeling using the three-dimensional structure of the major cherry allergen, Pru av 1 as a template. The immunological assays were carried out in 8-12 week old female BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with the proteins (wild type and mutants via subcutaneous and challenged intranasal for induction of allergic airway inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the wild TcPR-10 protein has allergenic potential, whereas the insertion of mutations produced proteins with reduced capacity of IgE production and cellular infiltration in the lungs. On the other hand, in vitro assays show that the TcPR-10 mutants still present antifungal and ribonuclease activity against M. perniciosa RNA. In conclusion, the mutant proteins present less allergenic potential than the wild TcPR-10, without the loss of interesting biotechnological properties.

  16. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

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    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  17. Coffee vs. Cacao: A Case Study from the Vietnamese Central Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dang Thanh; Shively, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Nam, the vice chair of a village in Dak Lak province of Vietnam, was keen to protect farmers in his village from the sharp decline in prices of coffee ("Coffea canephora" Pierre ex Froehner). He did this by encouraging farmers in his village to plant cacao ("Theobroma cacao" L. subsp. "cacao"). Cacao was suitable to the soil and climate of the…

  18. Diallel Analysis and Growth Parameters as Selection Tools for Drought Tolerance in Young Theobroma cacao Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Emerson Alves; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Ahnert, Dario; Branco, Marcia Christina da Silva; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the combining ability, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance through diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, in an experimental arrangement 21 x 2 [21 complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and stressed)]. In the control, soil moisture was kept close to field capacity, with predawn leaf water potential (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought regime, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by decreasing the amount of water application until ΨWL reached -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for most morphological attributes analyzed regarding progenies, water regime and their interactions. The results of the joint diallel analysis revealed significant effects between general combining ability (GCA) x water regimes and between specific combining ability (SCA) x water regimes. The SCA 6 genetic material showed high general combining ability for growth variables regardless of the water regime. In general, the water deficit influenced the production of biomass in most of the evaluated T. cacao crosses, except for SCA-6 x IMC-67, Catongo x SCA, MOC-01 x Catongo, Catongo x IMC-67 and RB-40 x Catongo. Multivariate analysis showed that stem diameter (CD), total leaf area (TLA), leaf dry biomass (LDB), stem dry biomass (SDB), root dry biomass (RDB), total dry biomass (TDB), root length (RL), root volume (RV), root diameter (RD) <1 mm and 1 <(RD) <2 mm were the most important growth parameters in the separation of T. cacao genotypes in to tolerant and intolerant to soil water deficit. PMID:27504627

  19. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

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    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  20. Pod Characteristics of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Related to Cocoa Pod Borer Resistance (Conopomorpha cramerella Snell.

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    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe characteristics of pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snell. had been identified in a series study. This research has objective to evaluate performance of the characteristics using more diverse of genetic background to select criteria for selection. Genetic materials for this study were 25 cocoa clones which be planted in Central Sulawesi for resistant evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed using the variable of the percentage of unextractable bean, number of entry and exit hole larvae by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichome, granule of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using Canonical Correlation. The analysis performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics (0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical for CPB resistance (0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiate the resistant clones (ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones (ICCRI 04, KW 516 and KW 564.Key words : cocoa pod borer, Theobroma cacao L., pod characteristics, resistance

  1. (Agronomical and anatomical study of resulted early cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. grafting

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    Adi Prawoto

    2005-05-01

    , weak and hollow when microtomised. Health union showed lignified accumulation that made tight union. It can be concluded that early cocoa grafting will success if the nursery is separated far from cocoa plantation, the medium is steril from soil borne disease, the graftstick is health, and tying of graft union must tight enough, then disease control must be done properly.Key Words : Theobroma cacao, clone, wiring, graft union, graftake.

  2. Antitumor activity against murine lymphoma L5178Y model of proteins from cacao (Theobroma cacao L. seeds in relation with in vitro antioxidant activity

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    Lugo Eugenia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, proteins and peptides have become an added value to foodstuffs due to new knowledge about its structural analyses as related to antioxidant and anticancer activity. Our goal was to evaluate if protein fractions from cacao seeds show antitumor activity on lymphoma murine L5178Y model. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was also evaluated with the aim of finding a correlation with the antitumor activity. Methods Differential extraction of proteins from unfermented and semi-fermented-dry cacao seeds was performed and characterized by SDS-PAGE and FPLC size-exclusion chromatography. Antitumor activity was evaluated against murine lymphoma L5178Y in BALB/c mice (6 × 104 cells i.p., with a treatment oral dose of 25 mg/kg/day of each protein fraction, over a period of 15 days. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS+ and ORAC-FL assays. Results Albumin, globulin and glutelin fractions from both cacao seed type were obtained by differential solubility extraction. Glutelins were the predominant fraction. In the albumin fraction, polypeptides of 42.3 and 8.5 kDa were found in native conditions, presumably in the form of two peptide chains of 21.5 kDa each one. The globulin fraction presented polypeptides of 86 and 57 kDa in unfermented cacao seed that produced the specific-cacao aroma precursors, and after fermentation the polypeptides were of 45 and 39 kDa. The glutelin fraction presented proteins >200 kDa and globulins components Conclusion This study is the first report on the biological activity of semifermented-dry cacao protein fractions with their identification, supporting the traditional use of the plant. The albumin fraction showed antitumor and free radical scavenging capacity, however both activities were not correlated. The protein fractions could be considered as source of potential antitumor peptides.

  3. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao) y coco (Cocos nucifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Román Jiménez Vera; Nicolás González Cortés; Arturo Magaña Contreras; Alma Corona Cruz

    2010-01-01

    El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco), aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de ferme...

  4. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.

  5. Analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiles of clonal genotypes from Theobroma cacao subjected to soil flooding.

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    Fabiana Z Bertolde

    Full Text Available Soil flooding causes changes in gene transcription, synthesis and degradation of proteins and cell metabolism. The main objective of this study was to understand the biological events of Theobroma cacao during soil flooding-induced stress, using the analyses of gene expression and activity of key enzymes involved in fermentation, as well as the identification of differentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry in two contrasting genotypes for flooding tolerance (tolerant - TSA-792 and susceptible - TSH-774. Soil anoxia caused by flooding has led to changes in the expression pattern of genes associated with the biosynthesis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in leaves and roots of the two evaluated genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the enzyme activities of the two genotypes. Leaves and roots of the TSA-792 genotype showed higher ADH activity as compared to the TSH-774 genotype, whereas the activities of PDC and LDH have varied over the 96 h of soil flooding, being higher for TSA-792 genotype, at the initial stage, and TSH-774 genotype, at the final stage. Some of the identified proteins are those typical of the anaerobic metabolism-involved in glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation-and different proteins associated with photosynthesis, protein metabolism and oxidative stress. The ability to maintain glycolysis and induce fermentation was observed to play an important role in anoxia tolerance in cacao and may also serve to distinguish tolerant and susceptible genotypes in relation to this stressor.

  6. Endophytic Association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao Suppresses Vascular Streak Dieback Incidence and Promotes Side Graft Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin; Hendarto, Hendarto; Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Agriansyah, Nursalim

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T. asperellum was 71.2% and 70.1% at 21 wk after grafting, respectively. However, when the two clones were treated with a concentration of 4 g/10 mL T. asperellum, the incidence was 20.6% and 21.7%, respectively, compared to 29.1% and 20.9% at 4 g/100 mL and 18.2% and 15.6% at 4 g/1,000 mL. By comparing to the control, the treatment with the same concentrations of T. asperellum listed above, the total number of stomata in MCC1 decreased by 41.9%, 30.2%, and 14.0% and in M04 by 30.5%, 21.9%, and -2.5% (exception), respectively. Otherwise, the total area of stomata opening increased by 91.4%, 99.7%, and 28.6% in MCC1 and by 203.8%, 253.5%, and 35.9% in M04, respectively. Furthermore, the number of buds and branches treated with a mixture concentration on the the two clones increased by 90.7% and 21.7%, respectively. These data showed that the application of T. asperellum to cacao scions while grafting can decrease VSD incidence in side grafts and increase growth of grafts in addition to decreasing total number of stomata, increasing total area of opened stomata, and increasing number of buds and branches. PMID:27790069

  7. Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

  8. Determinacion de parámetros y simulación matemática del proceso de secado de cacao (Theobroma cacao

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    Fanny Villamizar de Borrero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio sobre la producción de cacao en Colombia, y el incremento notable, debido principalmente al aumento en el área cultivada y a los mayores rendimientos por hectárea obtenidos.

  9. POPULATION OF HELICOTYLENCHUS sp AND APHELENCHUS sp NEMATODES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF CACAO (Theobroma cacao L.) UNDER TRADITIONAL AND IMPROVED FOREST MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode population associated with cocoa rhizosphere was investigated at field experiment at Tropical Crop Institute (ICT) Tarapoto, San Martin-Peru. This study was carried out under two cacao management systems: traditional management system (ST) and under improved forest management system (SBB). ...

  10. Molecular, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Pb Toxicity in Seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

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    Graciele Santos Monteiro Reis

    Full Text Available Pb is a metal which is highly toxic to plants and animals, including humans. High concentrations of Pb have been observed in beans of T. cacao, as well as in its products. In this work, we evaluated the molecular, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations in mature leaves and primary roots of seedlings of two progenies of T. cacao, obtained from seed germination in different concentrations of Pb (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g L(-1, in the form of Pb(NO32. The progenies resulted from self-fertilization of Catongo and a cross of CCN-10 x SCA-6. The Pb, supplied via seminal, caused alterations in the ultrastructures of the mesophyll cells and in the amount of starch grains in the chloroplasts. The dosage of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid showed that Pb induced lipid peroxidation. The activity of guaiacol peroxidases and the expression of genes associated to synthetase of phytochelatin, SODcyt and PER increased in response to Pb. In addition, there was alteration in the expression of stress-related proteins. The progeny of CCN-10 x SCA-6 was more tolerant to Pb stress when compared to Catongo, since: (i it accumulated more Pb in the roots, preventing its translocation to the shoot; (ii it presented higher activity of peroxidases in the roots, which are enzymes involved in the elimination of excess of reactive oxygen species; and (iii increased expression of the gene in the phytochelatin biosynthesis route. The results of the proteomic analysis were of paramount importance to differentiate the defense mechanisms used by both progenies of T. cacao.

  11. Antimicrobial properties of two novel peptides derived from Theobroma cacao osmotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, Loeni L; Silva-Werneck, Joseilde O; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Martins, Natalia F; Bresso, Emmanuel; Rodrigues, Magali A; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Marcellino, Lucilia H

    2016-05-01

    The osmotin proteins of several plants display antifungal activity, which can play an important role in plant defense against diseases. Thus, this protein can be useful as a source for biotechnological strategies aiming to combat fungal diseases. In this work, we analyzed the antifungal activity of a cacao osmotin-like protein (TcOsm1) and of two osmotin-derived synthetic peptides with antimicrobial features, differing by five amino acids residues at the N-terminus. Antimicrobial tests showed that TcOsm1 expressed in Escherichia coli inhibits the growth of Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelium and Pichia pastoris X-33 in vitro. The TcOsm1-derived peptides, named Osm-pepA (H-RRLDRGGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at R23-K49, and Osm-pepB (H-GGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at G28-K49, inhibited growth of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C and Pichia pastoris X-33) and spore germination of the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium f. sp. glycines and Colletotrichum gossypi. Osm-pepA was more efficient than Osm-pepB for S. cerevisiae (MIC=40μM and MIC=127μM, respectively), as well as for P. pastoris (MIC=20μM and MIC=127μM, respectively). Furthermore, the peptides presented a biphasic performance, promoting S. cerevisiae growth in doses around 5μM and inhibiting it at higher doses. The structural model for these peptides showed that the five amino acids residues, RRLDR at Osm-pepA N-terminus, significantly affect the tertiary structure, indicating that this structure is important for the peptide antimicrobial potency. This is the first report of development of antimicrobial peptides from T. cacao. Taken together, the results indicate that the cacao osmotin and its derived peptides, herein studied, are good candidates for developing biotechnological tools aiming to control phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:26996966

  12. El polisulfuro de calcio en el manejo de la moniliasis Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al. del cacao Theobroma cacao L.

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    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El cacao es severamente afectado por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al., el cual daña los frutos y puede ocasionar pérdidas totales y su control es principalmente cultural. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la efectividad del polisulfuro de calcio (PC como alternativa para su manejo. El patógeno fue aislado y cultivado in vitro y se evaluó el efecto del PC sobre la germinación y formación de conidias; en el campo, sobre frutos se asperjó PC antes y después de la inoculación con M. roreri y se determinó la incidencia e índices de severidad interna y externa. En una plantación de cacao se asperjó PC y se determinó su incidencia y producción. El PC in vitro inhibió el crecimiento y la formación de conidias; la aplicación de PC antes o después de la inoculación artificial con M. roreri sobre frutos inhibe completamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad; con aspersiones de PC en plantaciones de cacao la incidencia de la enfermedad fue de 0,53%, mientras que fue de 21% con manejo cultural y del 69,6% con testigo de inoculación natural; la producción de cacao seco/año fue de un 90,6% más con PC que en el testigo de inoculación natural, por lo que resulta viable integrar PC en el manejo deM. roreri.

  13. ANÁLISIS DE LA ESTRUCTURA ARBÓREA DEL SISTEMA AGROFORESTAL DE CACAO (Theobroma cacao L. EN EL SOCONUSCO, CHIAPAS - MÉXICO Analysis of the Structure Arborea Agroforestry System Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. in Soconusco, Chiapas - Mexico

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    HUGO A ROA-ROMERO

    Full Text Available Se determinó la abundancia, riqueza, importancia, equidad y diversidad de los árboles encontrados en sistemas agroforestales de cacao, del Soconusco, Chiapas, México. La presente investigación, se desarrolló en la región costera del Soconusco, ubicada al sur del estado de Chiapas; se muestrearon los municipios de Huehuetán, Tapachula y Tuxtla Chico, por ser los más representativos en área sembrada de cacao. En cada municipio, se establecieron al azar siete parcelas temporales de 50 x 50 m cada una, lo que suma en total 5,25 hectáreas , en las cuales se registraron variables como el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP: 1,3 m sobre el nivel del suelo, área basal, y sombrío en el cacaotal. Se encontraron 46 especies agrupadas en 21 familias, las especies con el mayor valor de importancia fueron Mangifera indica y Pouteria sapota, convirtiéndose en las especies de sombra más frecuentemente encontradas. La composición florística denotó una mayor similitud en los municipios de Tapachula y Huehuetán, como lo muestra el mayor porcentaje del índice de Jaccard y en lo que respecta a diversidad, el municipio de Tuxtla Chico presentó el mayor valor según el índice de Shannon. Este estudio determina la existencia de una cobertura definitiva de preferencia asociada a los árboles frutales.The abundance, wealth, size, fairness and diversity of trees found in cacao agroforestry systems was determined in Soconusco , Chiapas , Mexico . This research was conducted in the coastal region of Soconusco, located in the southern state of Chiapas . The municipalities of Huehuetán Tapachula and Tuxtla Chico were sampled, as the most representative in area planted with cocoa. In each municipality, were created at random seven parcels temporary 50 x 50 m each, which amount totalling 5.25 hectares , in which there were variables such as the diameter at breast height (DBH: 1.3 m above the soil, basal area, and grim in the cacaotal. We found 46 species

  14. A genetically anchored physical map of the cacao genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars Incorporated and the United States Department of Agriculture have undertaken the sequencing of the genome of Theobroma cacao, which produces cocoa beans, the key ingredient in chocolate. Genetic information, such as whole genome sequence is necessary to better understand and improve cacao. In m...

  15. Phenology of Flowering and Pod Maturity on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenology  of  flowering  is  an  important  aspect  in  the  growth  cycle  of cocoa (Theobroma  cacao L. because the  performance of  plant  especially  flowering is  linked with  anthesis time, time and  duration  of  stigma  receptivity, fruit formation, crossing,  and  seed  development  which  determine  the  plant  breeding  programs . Research was conducted at the Kaliwining experimental station of Indonesian Coffee and  Cocoa  Research Institute  (ICCRI.  The  cocoa  plant  was  originated  from  top grafting seedling  with the age  of eight  years.  Design  of  experiment  was  randomized complete  block  design  consisted  of  eight  clones  as  treatment  with  three  replications.  Each  plot  consisted  of  20  sample  flowers.  The  parameters  observed  were phenology  of  flowering  and  pod  maturity.  Phenology  of  flowering  observed  were age  of  flowering,  number  of  opened  flower  buds,  number  of  flower  buds  that dropped  before  being  opened,  number  of  flower  buds  that  dropped  after  being opened,  and  number  of  opening  flowers  that  developed  into  tiny  fruits.  Observation  on  pod  and  been  quality  was  done  on  pod  size,  pod  weight,  pod  length, pod  girth,  and  bean  number.  The  result  of  experiment  showed  that  difference  in phenologyof  flowering and age of pod maturity  existed within eight cocoa clones tested.  KKM  22  showed  the  shortest  flowering  age  and  pod  maturity,  and  lowest number  of  beans.  The  highest  success  of  pollination  was  observed  on  Sca  6  and KW 617. ICCRI 03, Sulawesi 03, ICCRI 07, KKM 22 and KW 617 showed relative low success of  pollination,  that  iswas between 10  to 17.6%.  Age  of  flower  opening did  not  significantly  influence  age  of  pod

  16. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamayor, J C; Risterucci, A M; Lopez, P A; Ortiz, C F; Moreno, A; Lanaud, C

    2002-11-01

    Criollo cacao (Theobroma cacao ssp. cacao) was cultivated by the Mayas over 1500 years ago. It has been suggested that Criollo cacao originated in Central America and that it evolved independently from the cacao populations in the Amazon basin. Cacao populations from the Amazon basin are included in the second morphogeographic group: Forastero, and assigned to T. cacao ssp. sphaerocarpum. To gain further insight into the origin and genetic basis of Criollo cacao from Central America, RFLP and microsatellite analyses were performed on a sample that avoided mixing pure Criollo individuals with individuals classified as Criollo but which might have been introgressed with Forastero genes. We distinguished these two types of individuals as Ancient and Modern Criollo. In contrast to previous studies, Ancient Criollo individuals formerly classified as 'wild', were found to form a closely related group together with Ancient Criollo individuals from South America. The Ancient Criollo trees were also closer to Colombian-Ecuadorian Forastero individuals than these Colombian-Ecuadorian trees were to other South American Forastero individuals. RFLP and microsatellite analyses revealed a high level of homozygosity and significantly low genetic diversity within the Ancient Criollo group. The results suggest that the Ancient Criollo individuals represent the original Criollo group. The results also implies that this group does not represent a separate subspecies and that it probably originated from a few individuals in South America that may have been spread by man within Central America.

  17. Glomeromycota recovered from cacao soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kartini - Kramadibrata

    2009-01-01

    KRAMADIBRATA, K. 2009. Glomeromycota recovered from cacao soil. Reinwardtia 12(5): 357–371. ⎯ Glomeromycotan fungi were studied from several cacao plantations in Indonesia (Java and Bali) and Ecuador. The identity of 28 species of Glomeromycota associated with cacao is presented.

  18. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  19. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  20. Evaluación in vitro de Microorganismos Nativos por su Antagonismo contra Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par en Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro evaluation of Native Microorganisms for their Antagonism against Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Parin Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Villamil Carvajal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La moniliasis, causada por Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, se ha convertido en la principal enfermedad limitante de la producción de cacao en Colombia y otros países. Con el objetivo de explorar alternativas para el biocontrol de esta enfermedad, hongos y bacterias aislados de frutos y suelo rizosférico de lotes plantados con cacao fueron evaluados por su antagonismo contra M. roreri. La evaluación se realizó en cajas Petri con PDA, para lo cual se colocó en el centro de las mismas, un disco de 5 mm de diámetro colonizado por el patógeno y a 3 cm del borde, sobre los ejes horizontal y vertical, cada uno de los aislamientos. Los microorganismos nativos que inicialmente mostraron antagonismo fueron posteriormente evaluados in vitro por su capacidad de restringir el crecimiento y esporulación de M. roreri. Los resultados indicaron que de 53 aislamientos de frutos y suelo rizosférico, 7 mostraron antagonismo contra M. roreri y entre ellos los más efectivos fueron los hongos H5 y H20 y la bacteria B3, los hongos para la restricción tanto del crecimiento como de la esporulación y la bacteria para el crecimiento. El hongo H20 inhibió en su totalidad el crecimiento de M. roreri. Estos resultados hacen posible que estos aislamientos sean promisorios para su incorporación al manejo de la enfermedad bajo condiciones de campo. De acuerdo con la caracterización morfológica y las pruebas bioquímicas los hongos pertenecen al género Trichoderma y la bacteria al género Bacillus.Abstract. The moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, has become the principal disease limiting cocoa production in Colombia and other countries. With the objective of exploring alternatives for the biocontrol of this disease, fungi and bacteria isolated from cocoa fruits and rhizospheric soil from plots planted to cocoa trees were evaluated for their antagonism against M. roreri. The evaluation was conducted in Petri dishes containing PDA, by

  1. Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

    2013-12-15

    A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)).

  2. Possible Impact of Antioxidant Properties of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Against Irradiation - Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man is exposed to natural radiations either from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation of animals induce biochemical alterations which depend mostly on oxidative stress. This work aimed at evaluating the radioprotective efficiency of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) against whole body γ-irradiation of rats. The virtue of cocoa aqueous extract (CAE) was given to rats at a dose of 1 g/ kg for 6 weeks to determine changes in hepatic marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The animals exposed to γ-rays exhibited a pronounced increment in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decline was demonstrated in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was sustained. The CAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings revealed that cocoa would exert radio-protective properties

  3. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Fouet, Olivier; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Boccara, Michel; Argout, Xavier; Amores, Freddy; Courtois, Brigitte; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  4. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano

    Full Text Available Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  5. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium contaminated soils under cacao plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils...

  6. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes.

  7. Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory characterization of mixed açai (Euterpe oleracea) and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao) jellies

    OpenAIRE

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto; Elck Almeida Carvalho; Karen Valverde Pontes; Waldemar de Sousa Barretto; Célio Kersul do Sacramento

    2013-01-01

    Four formulations of mixed açaí (Euterpe oleracea) (A) and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao) (CH) jellies were prepared according to the following proportions: T1 (40% A:60% CH), T2 (50% A:50% CH), T3 (60% A: 40% CH) and T4 (100% A - control). All formulations were prepared using a rate 60:40 (w/w) of sucrose and pulp, plus 0.5% pectin and the products reached to average of 65% soluble solids content. The jellies were analyzed by chemical and physicochemical (titratable acidity, pH, soluble sol...

  8. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. Genetic variability of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime & Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae in varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.Moniliophthora perniciosa, the founder agent of the ‘witch’s broom’ on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is one of the most important diseases in cocoa plantations, causing economic losses close to 70% worldwide and 40% nationwide. It shows a high genetic variability and discrepancies in its taxonomy. Characterization of the genetic diversity of biotypes is important for projects aimed towards the handling of this pathogen and the development of resistant cocoa materials. Twelve isolations of the fungus were analyzed in this study from different

  9. Informe sobre Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés O. Carlos

    1944-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de cacao del Dpto. del Huila confrontan una situación casi análoga a la de los del res to del País; iniciados desde hace muchos años sin técnica ni cuidado alguno muestran como es lógico un estado de decadencia agudizado por el inevitable problema de las enfermedades de causas parasitarias. El desconocimiento total de las condiciones que requiere el desarrollo del árbol de cacao y la pasiva resistencia del cultivador a los cambios que van contra su modalidad rutinaria han traído como consecuencia del establecimiento de un sistema de cultivo por demás inapropiado cuando se quieren .obtener resultados halagadores que correspondan a la utilidad que ha de rendir el cultivo de una planta como el cacao, que responde con creces a los cuidados que se le otorgan

  10. The influence of shade and organic fertilizer treatments on the physiology and establishment of Theobroma cacao clones

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, K.; Hadley, P.; Daymond, A. J.; Adu-Yeboah, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This experiment aimed to determine whether the soil application of organic fertilizers can help the establishment of cacao and whether shade alters its response to fertilizers. Study Design: The 1.6 ha experiment was conducted over a period of one crop year (between April 2007 and March 2008) at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana. It involved four cacao genotypes (T 79/501, PA 150, P 30 [POS] and SCA 6), three shade levels (‘light’, ‘medium’ and ‘heavy’) and two fertilizer treatme...

  11. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  12. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumbu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  13. The effect of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on in vitro callogenesis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. development using modern breeding techniques can be facilitated by propagation of planting material through somatic embryogenesis. Various factors that may affect embryogenesis are the composition of culture medium and culture condition. Hormone commonly used to initiate the formation of callus is auxin with type 2.4-D (2.4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of 2.4 -D hormoneson the process of cocoa embryogenesis. The treatments were arragged in factorial combination in completely randomized design, which consisted of two factors. Thefirst factor was the concentration of auxin 2,4-D 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, and 100 %; and the second factor was cocoa clones; Sulawesi 01 and Sulawesi 02. The resultshowed that the addition of 2.4-D hormone up to 100% on somatic embryogenesis of cocoa for Sulawesi 01 clone was not significantly different from Sulawesi 02 clone for all parameters. While on the addition of 2.4-D, there was significant difference between Sulawesi 01 and 02. Cocoa embryogenic callus using the addition of 2.4-D (25%-100% was significantly different from control. Increased concentrations of 2,4-D hormone which is applied onto media would inhibit the formation of the somatic embryo. Addition of 2.4 D 25%, encouraged towards non-embryogenic callus. Keywords: 2.4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, embryogenic callus, somatic embryos, cocoa, medium culture, hormone

  14. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authenticity and traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important tropical crop since it is the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industry. Production and marketing of premium high-value fine flavored cacao provide opportunities for cacao growers, the chocolate industry and consumers. The higher far...

  15. Characterization of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Farming Systems in the Norte de Santander Department and Assessment Their Sustainability / Caracterización de los Sistemas de Producción de Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en el Departamento de Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Arturo Ramírez Sulvarán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. based economyhas been considered a valid alternative to support sustainable development in northeastern Colombia. However, there is a lack of information about the cocoa production systems in the region which is needed for the implementation of effective plans to improve their performance and sustainability. Four of the main cocoa producing municipalities in the Norte de Santanderdepartment were considered for this study: Teorama, Bucarasica, Cúcuta and San Calixto. These entities were selected due to their adequate security conditions, availability of field assistants and departmental representativeness in cocoa production. The objective was to obtain basic information for local, specific and participatory actions for the sustainability of the cocoa production systems and to improve the living conditions of farmers. The methodology used was based on the farming system approach, considering the socioeconomic, technological and agro-ecologicalcomponents, and their relationships, and evaluating themaccording to the principles of sustainable agriculture. The phases covered were: (1 analysis of secondary data, (2 formulation and evaluation of sustainability indicators, (3 design, implementation and analysis of survey data and (4 validation by the farmers of the obtained information and the prioritization of problems. The results indicate that there is only one cocoa production system of a family-mercantile type, with low technology. Most farmers havelow incomes and basic needs such as health, education and public services are not met. They do not employ the agronomic and postharvest practices recommended by specialists. The water and soil resources are being degraded. In general, the farming system leans towards unsustainability and it is vital that integrative actions be taken to change this situation. / Se considera que el desarrollo de una economía basada en el cacao (Theobroma cacao L

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood (ID 4276) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...... or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claim is cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). The Panel considers that whereas the food, cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), is not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect evaluated in this opinion, the food constituents, caffeine...... that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood....

  17. The occurrence and frequency of Witches’ Broom Disease associated with Wild Cacao from the Upper Amazon of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Peruvian Amazon is within the center of origin and diversity for cacao (Theobroma cacao). One of the primary disease of cacao in Peru and Latin America is withes’ broom disease (WBD) caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of WBD in wild ca...

  18. Biodiversity of small mammals in cacao agroforests in Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Paterová, Linda

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of the deforestation of tropical rain forests is caused by small-scale farmers. Traditional slash-and-burn systems with prolonged fallow periods are no longer feasible in most parts of the tropics. However, agroforests could have great potential to increase the productivity of farming systems and sustain continuous crop production. Cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests that maintains a high proportion of shade trees in a diverse structure is being viewed as a sustainable land...

  19. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackmon Barbara P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed.

  20. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate and is one of the most destructive diseases of cacao in the Americas. This Basidiomycete only infects cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty ...

  1. Caracterización bioquímica de hojas de clones de Theobroma cacao y su relación con los tricomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Quiñones Galvez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Theobroma cacao L. is a crop of major importance for their potential applications in pharmacy and agriculture. It contains metabolites that are of great interest for its natural biological functions in plant response to different types of stress, both biotic and abiotic. The presence, type and concentration of both primary and secondary metabolites may vary depending on the genotype analyzed and these compounds can accumulate in the architecture associated structures such as leaf trichomes. The aim of this study was to characterize 26 clones of the germplasm bank of Padrón, INIA-Miranda, Miranda State, Venezuela and study the relationship between biochemical indicators assessed and the number of trichomes. The content of phenolic compounds, soluble protein, free proline, total carbohydrates, lignins, the number of trichomes and the relationship between all traits was determined. The results showed that in the two dimensional space explained 46.68% of the variability, five homogeneous groups were defined: 10 clones were associated with the maximum gradient of proline, total carbohydrate and lignin content. Nine clones were associated with high content of phenols and a group of seven clones with the highest number of trichomes on leaves. It was found that the number of trichomes was not related to the concentration of phenolic compounds. The clones of Forastero cocoa type showed higher concentration of total phenols and carbohydrates, meanwhile the Trinitario type presented higher concentration of proteins and prolina.

  2. Antitumor activity against murine lymphoma L5178Y model of proteins from cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) seeds in relation with in vitro antioxidant activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo Eugenia; Hernández Rodolfo; Mateos Juan C; Puebla Ana M; Jaramillo María E; Preza Ana M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, proteins and peptides have become an added value to foodstuffs due to new knowledge about its structural analyses as related to antioxidant and anticancer activity. Our goal was to evaluate if protein fractions from cacao seeds show antitumor activity on lymphoma murine L5178Y model. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was also evaluated with the aim of finding a correlation with the antitumor activity. Methods Differential extraction of proteins from unf...

  3. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par.) Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par.) Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Betty Stefany Lozada; Laura Viviana Herrera; Janeth Aidé Perea; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5) fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento ...

  4. Intersterility, morphology and taxonomy of Ceratocystis fimbriata on sweet potato, cacao and sycamore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Christine J Baker; Harrington, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a large, diverse complex of species that cause wilt-type diseases of many economically important plants. Previous studies have shown that isolates in three monophyletic lineages within the Latin American clade of C. fimbriata are host-specialized to cacao (Theobroma cacao), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and sycamore (Platanus spp.), respectively. We paired testers of opposite mating type from isolates of these lineages to find intersterility groups. Two intersterility groups corresponded to the sweet potato and sycamore lineages, respectively. The cacao lineage contained two intersterility groups, corresponding to two genetic sublineages centered in western Ecuador and Brazil/Costa Rica/Colombia. Six isolates from cacao that were not members of the cacao lineage and were not pathogenic to cacao in an earlier study also were intersterile with members of the two cacao intersterility groups. Some pairings between testers from different lineages or sublineages yielded perithecia from which a few abnormal progeny could be recovered, typical of interspecific hybrids. These progeny showed abnormal segregation of the MAT-2 gene and mycelial morphology, showing that they were indeed the result of crosses. Isolates of the sweet potato, cacao, and sycamore lineages were indistinguishable morphologically except for the presence or absence of a doliform (barrel-shaped) conidial state and minor differences in size of perithecial bases and necks and ascospores. C. fimbriata originally was described from sweet potato. We describe the cacao pathogen as a new species, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta and we raise the sycamore pathogen from a form to species Ceratocystis platani.

  5. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  6. Photosynthetic photon flux density, carbon dioxide concentration, and vapor pressure deficit effects on photosynthesis in cacao seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a shade plant, native to the under-story of the evergreen rain forest of the Amazon basin and adapted to low levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). The influence of PPFD, leaf to air water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and external carbon dioxide concentration...

  7. Préférences alimentaires de Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae vis-à-vis de quelques clones de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding Preferences of Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae to some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones. The selection of cocoa clones, resistant to Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. was done in the laboratory according to the standardized method of indoor microtests based on the study of mirid feeding preferences. Fourteen cocoa clones were involved. The Sca6 clone was the control. An index (i which expresses the ratio of the number of stings on the clone to that obtained on the control was calculated for each cultivar. Which has enabled to quantify the levels of attractiveness of cocoa clones to S. singularis and to classify these clones in three groups: less attractive clones (i< 1, non different (i= 1 and more attractive (i> 1. The results obtained showed that the mean numbers of feeding stings on the control (tr ranged from 5.49 to 5.62 (5.49≤ tr≤ 5.62 and that obtained on the other clones (tc from 5.29 to 6.18 (5.29≤ tc ≤ 6.18. The Na33 clone had the highest stings mean number (6.18 and IFC 100 the lowest one (5.29. The High Amazonian clone Na33 was the most attractive and the clones ICS100, IFC100, (exotic trinitario, Sca12 (catongo and Na32 (High Amazonian were less attractive. On the other hand the clones IFC1363, IFC1362, IFC1374 (catongo, UPA337, T60/887, ICS1 and IMC60 (High Amazonians and ICS95 (exotic trinitario were non different. The reactivity seemed not depending on the origin of the clone. Save the High Amazonian clone Na33 which was the most attractive there were among non different and less attractive clones as well exotic trinitario, catongo as High Amazonians.

  8. Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory characterization of mixed açai (Euterpe oleracea and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao jellies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four formulations of mixed açaí (Euterpe oleracea (A and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao (CH jellies were prepared according to the following proportions: T1 (40% A:60% CH, T2 (50% A:50% CH, T3 (60% A: 40% CH and T4 (100% A - control. All formulations were prepared using a rate 60:40 (w/w of sucrose and pulp, plus 0.5% pectin and the products reached to average of 65% soluble solids content. The jellies were analyzed by chemical and physicochemical (titratable acidity, pH, soluble solid content, dry matter, total protein, lipids, vitamin C and calories and sensory characteristics; also were evaluated levels of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. It was used a hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate the attributes: overall impression, spreadability, brightness, flavor, texture and color, and also was verified the purchase intention score. The titratable acidity and pH ranged from 0.46 to 0.64% and 3.35 to 3.64, respectively, that are within the range found at most fruit jellies. The soluble solids content ranged between 65.2 and 65.5 ºBrix. The sensory acceptance results showed that all treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4 presented means of sensory attributes above 4, demonstrating good acceptance of the product, but the treatment T1 presented the higher scores for the evaluated attributes. Cocoa´s honey added a positive influence on the attributes of color, texture and spreadability.

  9. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de lippia sobre moniliophthora roreri (cif. y par.) evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (theobroma cacao l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada, Betty Stefany; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Perea, Janeth Aidé; Stashenko, Elena; Escobar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5) fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento ...

  10. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par.) Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Betty Stefany Lozada; Laura Viviana Herrera; Janeth Aidé Perea; Elena Stashenko; Patricia Escobar

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs) (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5) extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri) obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas....

  11. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-15

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application.

  12. Embriogénesis somática secundaria en el genotipo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. inifap 1 y su descripción histológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alejandro-Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La embriogénesis somática aplicada para la propagación clonal de plantas de cacao, aun es de baja eficiencia, por lo que el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la respuesta de los cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios como fuente de explante para inducir embriogénesis somática secundaria (ESS en presencia de fitohormonas y sin estas en el genotipo de cacao inifap 1, asi como describir los eventos de la ESS desde los 30 hasta los 240 días de cultivo. El uso de las fitohormonas ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiácetico (2,4-D y thidiazuron (TDZ son importantes para inducir la embriogénesis somática (ES primaria en cacao. Adicionalmente para generar la ESS se han utilizado fitohormonas. En la presente investigación, fueron establecidos cuatro tratamientos con fregmentos de cotiledón, con 2,4-D y TDZ en forma combinada e independiente, incluyendo un testigo sin fitohormonas. Los resultados mostraron, que los fragmentos de cotiledón cultivados sin fitohormonas favorece la ESS, obteniendo un promedio de seis embriones somáticos secundarios (ESs a los 210 días de cultivo contra uno para el tratamiento suplementado con TDZ. El meristemo apical y radicular se presentó en un periodo de 240 días, se observaron embriones somáticos con estructuras externas como: cotiledones, ápices y raíces. Los resultados mostraron que la exclusión del 2,4-D y el thidiazuron no son importantes para inducir la ESS. El mayor número de ESs se encontró en un medio desprovisto de fitohormonas por lo que esta información es relevante, debido a que los explantes de cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios, generan mayor número de ESs en esta especie. Estos resultados constituyen el primer reporte de la inducción de la ESs sin fitohormonas.

  13. Development of a nopal fiber (Opuntia ficus-indica) and powdered cocoa (Theobroma cacao) added beef patties, nutritive, physicochemical and sensory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    F.H. Chamorro-Ramirez; J.F. Gonzalez-Sanchez; A. Azpe-Franco; G. Arce-Jurado

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate addition effect of 3% of nopal fiber (FN) and cacao powder (CA) on the physicochemical, nutritional content and sensory acceptation of patty meat. A total of 144 patties were elaborated in three different batches: Control (TC) no addition; FN with 3% of FN; and CA with 3% of CA. Physicochemical tests (pH, Aw), texture (TPA) and instrumental color (CIE-Lab) at different storage times (0, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days), besides to nutritional content and accept...

  14. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population ma...

  15. Efecto del pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa en la Embriogénesis somática de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Valverde Cerdas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo una investigación con el fin de establecer la metodología adecuada para inducir embriogénesis somática en cacao, a partir de semillas maduras. Se estudió el efecto del pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa sobre la respuesta embriogénica. Los dos cultivares mostraron diferente respuesta morfogénica y en ambos, estuvo influenciada por el pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa. La mejor respuesta embriogénica se obtuvo con un pH de 6,7. El número de embriones producidos fue mayor bajo condiciones de oscuridad que en presencia de luz. La formación de callo y la diferenciación de embriones somáticos estuvo directamente influenciada por la concentración de azúcar en el medio de cultivo. La mayor cantidad de embriones se obtuvo con niveles de sacarosa entre 4% y 6% para el híbrido UF-613xIMC-67 y niveles entre 2% y 4% de sacarosa para el cultivar CATIE-1000. Se presento una embriogénesis somática directa. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de continuar realizando estudios con esta especie.

  16. Regional selection of hybrid Nacional cacao genotypes in Coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent international demand for “nacional” flavour cacao has increased the need for local cacao producers in Ecuador to use high-yielding “nacional” hybrid genotypes. The relative potential of cacao genotypes over various environments needs to be assessed prior to final selection of potential candid...

  17. DYNAMICS OF NEMATODE POPULATIONS IN CACAO GROWN UNDER TRADIONALLY SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT IN PERUVIAN AMAZON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature of crops and management systems greatly influences population dynamics of parasitic and nonparasitic nematodes in soil. An experiment was undertaken at Tropical Crop Research institute (ICT), Tarapoto, Peru to assess the population dynamics of nematodes in a Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.)-Banana ...

  18. Advances on Germplasm Research and Utilization of Theobroma cacao L.%可可种质资源多样性与创新利用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓威; 郝朝运; 吴刚; 李付鹏; 赖剑雄

    2014-01-01

    就可可种质资源在起源、分布、传播、分类、鉴定及种质创新与利用等方面取得的研究进展进行综述.可可属植物有22种,仅可可(Theobroma cacao)和大花可可(Theobroma grandiflorum)用于栽培.可可种质资源多样性丰富,其分类研究经历了传统形态学划分的Criollo、Forastero和Trinitario遗传类群到现代分子标记划分的Mara(n)on、Curaray、Criollo、Iquitos、Nanay、Contamana、Amelonado、Purús、Nacional和Guiana遗传类群. 目前,可可的生产性品种选育仍以实生选种和芽变选种为主.分子标记的开发、遗传连锁图谱的构建和全基因组测序的完成,为实现可可分子标记辅助育种提供了技术保障.

  19. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en general más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  20. Cacao in México: Restrictive factors and productivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz-José

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. represents one of the most important agricultural crops of the humid Mexican tropics. In the last 10 yr, approximately 23.000 t of this grain were no longer produced per cycle. The objective of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that restrict production in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. A survey was applied to obtain information about 184 producers and their plantations by two-stage sampling. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multilevel models were adjusted to analyze the information. Results show that there are differences (P < 0.05 in cacao yield between municipalities (380 kg ha-1 + u,o j is the estimated residual for each municipality. Crop productivity levels are higher in the state of Tabasco than in Chiapas (644 and 344 kg ha-1, respectively. Incidence of frosty pod rot of cacoa, also known as moniliasis, induced by Moniliophthora roreri [(Cif H.C. Evans, Stalpers, Samson & Benny 1978] is significantly greater (P < 0.05 in the state of Chiapas (60% than in Tabasco (48%.Producers who carry out more crop management practices increase yields and decrease the pathogen's impact on their plantations. Results suggest the need to apply differentiated public policies to promote production within each region or municipality.

  1. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par. Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P The in vitro antifungal effect of five essential oils (EOs (EO1, EO2, EO3, EO4 and EO5 extracted from Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora and L. alba on isolates of Monilia (Moniliophthora roreri was evaluated. Lippia plants were collected at five locations in Colombia, and monilia isolates were obtained from infected cocoa fruits collected in San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. The fungi strains (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 were characterized by morphology, germination and growth in culture media. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of EOs was evaluated against the M2 and the isolated strain of M. roreri (ATCC 64239 determining their effect on germination and mycelial growth inhibition. The five essential oils studied inhibited

  2. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Betty Stefany

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aisla- do M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibi- ción del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. ori- ganoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno,

    y-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, 1-mirceno, trans-1ccariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P <

    0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en gene- ral más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  3. Development of a nopal fiber (Opuntia ficus-indica and powdered cocoa (Theobroma cacao added beef patties, nutritive, physicochemical and sensory characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Chamorro-Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate addition effect of 3% of nopal fiber (FN and cacao powder (CA on the physicochemical, nutritional content and sensory acceptation of patty meat. A total of 144 patties were elaborated in three different batches: Control (TC no addition; FN with 3% of FN; and CA with 3% of CA. Physicochemical tests (pH, Aw, texture (TPA and instrumental color (CIE-Lab at different storage times (0, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days, besides to nutritional content and acceptation test. pH increased in all the treatments at 28 days of storage, where CA addition decreased luminosity (P>0.05 and maintained higher a* values (P0.05. FN or CA addition increased fiber content (P<0.05. Patties with FN showed a moderate acceptation. Since addition of FN or CA did not decreased consumer acceptation, these can be employed as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  4. Nutritional content explains the attractiveness of cacao to crop raiding Tonkean macaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin P.RILEY; Barbara TOLBERT; Wartika R.FARIDA

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional ecology has been linked to crop raiding behavior in a number of wildlife taxa.Here our goal is to explore the role nutrition plays in cacao crop raiding by Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana in Sulawesi,Indonesia.From June-Sept.2008 we collected fruit samples from 13 species known to be important Tonkean macaque foods and compared their nutritional value to that of cacao Theobroma cacao,an important cash crop in Sulawesi.Cacao pulp was significantly lower in protein,but lower in dietary fiber,and higher in digestible carbohydrates and energy content compared to forest fruits.These fmdings,combined with the fact that cacao fruits are spatially concentrated and available throughout the year,likely explain why Tonkean macaques are attracted to this cultivated resource.We use these data along with published feeding ecology data to propose strategies to minimize human-macaque conflict.Namely,we recommend the deliberate protection of Elmerillila tsiampaccca,Ficus spp.and Arenga pinnata,fruit species known to be regularly consumed and of considerable nutritional value.We also identify the A.pinnata palm as a potential buffer resource to curb cacao crop raiding by macaques.Cacao is a hard-to-process food because the pods have a thick outer skin that encases the seeds and pulp.Aren palm fruit,although lower in digestibility,is easier-to-process,higher in protein,and also available year round.In addition,because the palm has considerable cultural and economic significance for local people,the strategy of planting Aren palm in a buffer corridor is likely to garner local community support.

  5. Immunomodulatory properties of cacao extracts – potential consequences for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eBecker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-inflammatory properties of cacao, fruits of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae, are well documented, and therapeutic applications are described for gastrointestinal, nervous and cardiovascular abnormalities. Most, if not all of these disease conditions involve inflammation or immune activation processes. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ and related biochemical pathways like tryptophan breakdown by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO and neopterin formation are deeply involved in their pathogenesis. Neopterin concentrations and the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an estimate of IDO activity are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with virus infections, cancer, autoimmune syndrome, neurodegeneration and coronary artery disease. Moreover, higher neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations are indicative for poor prognosis. When investigating the effect of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of cacao on IFN-γ, neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations in mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, breakdown of tryptophan by IDO and formation of neopterin and IFN-γ were dose-dependently suppressed. The effects observed in the cell-based assays are associated with the antioxidant activity of the cacao extracts as determined by the cell-free oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC assay. The influence of cacao extracts on IDO activity could be of particular relevance for some of the beneficial health effects ascribed to cacao: tryptophan breakdown by IDO is strongly involved in immunoregulation, and the diminished availability of tryptophan limits the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter serotonin. The inhibition of tryptophan breakdown by cacao constituents could thus be relevant not only for immune system restoration in patients, but also contribute to mood elevation and thereby improve quality of life. However, the available data thus far are merely in vitro only and future studies need to be investigated.

  6. Nutritional content explains the attractiveness of cacao to crop raiding Tonkean macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P. RILEY, Barbara TOLBERT, Wartika R. FARIDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional ecology has been linked to crop raiding behavior in a number of wildlife taxa. Here our goal is to explore the role nutrition plays in cacao crop raiding by Tonkean macaques Macaca tonkeana in Sulawesi, Indonesia. From June – Sept 2008 we collected fruit samples from 13 species known to be important Tonkean macaque foods and compared their nutritional value to that of cacao Theobroma cacao, an important cash crop in Sulawesi. Cacao pulp was significantly lower in protein, but lower in dietary fiber, and higher in digestible carbohydrates and energy content compared to forest fruits. These findings, combined with the fact that cacao fruits are spatially concentrated and available throughout the year, likely explain why Tonkean macaques are attracted to this cultivated resource. We use these data along with published feeding ecology data to propose strategies to minimize human-macaque conflict. Namely, we recommend the deliberate protection of Elmerillila tsiampaccca, Ficus spp. and Arenga pinnata, fruit species known to be regularly consumed and of considerable nutritional value. We also identify the A. pinnata palm as a potential buffer resource to curb cacao crop raiding by macaques. Cacao is a hard-to-process food because the pods have a thick outer skin that encases the seeds and pulp. Aren palm fruit, although lower in digestibility, is easier-to-process, higher in protein, and also available year round. In addition, because the palm has considerable cultural and economic significance for local people, the strategy of planting Aren palm in a buffer corridor is likely to garner local community support [Current Zoology 59 (2: 160–169, 2013].

  7. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-01

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate. PMID:27020745

  8. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Julie; Payne Mark J; Hurst Jeffrey W; Preston Amy G; Crozier Stephen J; Hainly Larry; Miller Debra L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder...

  9. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarriaga. Eduardo

    1940-09-01

    Full Text Available El sombrío constituye uno de los problemas que se presentan en el cultivo del cacao, de necesaria resolución para ayuda del agricultor en su labor al producir tan importante grano. Contribuye a la economía del cultivo un conocimiento amplio de la cuestión que debe preocupar al productor inquiriendo no solamente por lo acostumbrado en la región, sino por lo que en otras partes se conoce sobre el particular, para abandonar un poco el emperismo y hacer una industria cada día más próspera. Como razón a favor del sombrío, tenemos los países en donde se produce cacao de fina calidad; Trinidad, Venezuela. Nicaragua, siempre acostumbran la sombra; y sin ir muy lejos, en el Valle del Cauca, donde no se cultiva a pleno sol y se obtienen plantaciones de larga duración y producto superior, es bien conocido el beneficio de ella; allí, los agricultores conocen los desastrosos efectos que ocasiona la falta de sombra, cuando por cualquier causa mueren los árboles que la suministran. Por tanto, en este estudio indicaremos el uso de la sombra para el cacao, como el medio de conservar la fertilidad y buenas condiciones del suelo, obtener buenos rendimientos y asegurar larga vida a la plantación.

  10. 可可体细胞胚胎发生及植株再生体系的构建%Study on Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration of Theobroma Cacao L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄碧兰; 庄南生; 赵建平; 张玄兵

    2005-01-01

    以可可(Theobroma Cacao L.)的子叶为外植体,通过体胚发生途径,诱导再生可可植株.各培养阶段的优化培养基和培养条件为:(1)愈伤组织诱导培养基(PCG):改良DKW+2,4-D 3.0 mg/L+KT 1.0 mg/L+TDZ0.01 mg/L,在(28±2)℃(以下培养温度均同)温度条件下,暗培养20 d,诱导率为96.67%;(2)愈伤组织增殖培养基(SCG):改良DKW+2,4-D 3.0 mg/L+KT 1.0 mg/L,暗培养20 d;(3)胚状体诱导培养基(ED):改良DKW+Sucrose 30 g/L,暗培养60~150 d,胚状体诱导产生并发育成熟,胚状体的诱导率为33.33%;(4)成熟胚诱导成苗:①PEC培养基为:改良DKW+Glucose 20 g/L+Sucrose 10 g/L,光照为16 h/d,培养60 d;②采用RD培养基:改良DKW+IBA 1.5 mg/L+IAA 0.5 mg/L,光照为16 h/d,培养30~90 d后,可得到完整的植株,再生植株的诱导率为42%.

  11. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S; Nwanna, Esther E; Longe, Kuburat O

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

  12. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS, hydroxyl (OH, and nitric oxide (NO] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL, α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart] activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL, NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL, OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL, and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  13. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  14. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  15. Evidence of cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, Patricia L; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2009-02-17

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of ceramic vessels from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reveal theobromine, a biomarker for cacao. With an estimated 800 rooms, Pueblo Bonito is the largest archaeological site in Chaco Canyon and was the center of a large number of interconnected towns and villages spread over northwestern New Mexico. The cacao residues come from pieces of vessels that are likely cylinder jars, special containers occurring almost solely at Pueblo Bonito and deposited in caches at the site. This first known use of cacao drinks north of the Mexican border indicates exchange with cacao cultivators in Mesoamerica in a time frame of about A.D. 1000-1125. The association of cylinder jars and cacao beverages suggests that the Chacoan ritual involving the drinking of cacao was tied to Mesoamerican rituals incorporating cylindrical vases and cacao. The importance of Pueblo Bonito within the Chacoan world likely lies in part with the integration of Mesoamerican ritual, including critical culinary ingredients.

  16. Apuntes Sobre el Cultivo del Cacao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Horacio Ochoa

    1940-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se hablara del proceso de fermentación del cacao, pero antes de entrar a detallar este proceso, es conveniente dar algunas anotaciones sobre los sistemas de recolección o “cosecha” empleados en distintos lugares, pues ellos tienen sus diferencias y en ocasiones no se efectúan con todo el cuidado necesario tanto para el árbol como para el producto que irá a los depósitos de fermentación.

  17. PROCESADORA Y COMERCIALIZADORA DE PASTA DE CACAO Y SUS DERIVADOS EN ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Pabón-Andrade, Johana Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo de fin de master tiene como objetivo realizar un plan de negocios de una empresa dedicada al procesamiento y comercialización de pasta de cacao y sus derivados en Ecuador. Las actividades de la empresa consistirán en comprar cacao, sin ningún procesamiento y transformarlo en pasta de cacao. A lo largo de este proceso se producen derivados como manteca de cacao, pulpa de cacao, cascara, ceniza de cacao, que junto con las pasta serán comercializados tanto dentro como fuer...

  18. Evidence of cacao use in the Prehispanic American Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Crown, Patricia L.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of ceramic vessels from Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, reveal theobromine, a biomarker for cacao. With an estimated 800 rooms, Pueblo Bonito is the largest archaeological site in Chaco Canyon and was the center of a large number of interconnected towns and villages spread over northwestern New Mexico. The cacao residues come from pieces of vessels that are likely cylinder jars, special containers occurring almost solely at Pueblo ...

  19. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi

    1980-09-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cacao swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed.

  20. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees.

  1. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarriaga Eduardo

    1940-06-01

    Full Text Available Se acostumbra en las empresas de cacao adoptar diferentes sistemas de siembra en las plantaciones, de acuerdo con la región y conocimientos del empresario. Uno de ellos es sembrar directamente la semilla en su lugar definitivo, sin más cuidados que hacer un pequeño hoyo donde se deposita el grano y algunas veces dos o más. Con esto se busca economizar los gastos de almácigos y trasplante, ahorro que no compensa las pérdidas que se tienen por el poco cuidado que se da a las planticas, por las resiembras constantes y el atraso en su desarrollo. La planta de cacao es muy delicada y requiere cuidados especiales para defenderla de sus enemigos naturales del mal tiempo y favorecerla en su desarrollo, Estos no pueden prestarse a las plantas en el campo por la extensión de éste; no se puede combatir con facilidad una enfermedad o plaga, ni mantener el terreno libre de malezas, pues la desyerba mensual sería arruinadora y el cuidado para estar al tanto de su desarrollo y corregir los desperfectos sería tarea laboriosa y lenta. Una planta pequeña en un campo extenso se destruye fácilmente por el tránsito de los trabajadores que cosechan los cultivos auxiliares; la pérdida de una de ellas significa un retraso de meses en el desarrollo de la nueva que la repone y una desigualdad en el cultivo. Por estas razones y otras causas, una plantación iniciada en su lugar definitivo es de un crecimiento lento desesperante, y sólo después de muchos meses de lucha, planticas aisladas empiezan a mostrar un desarrollo aceptable.

  2. Cacao yield in different planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Spaggiari Souza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of six planting densities on cacao yield of a commercial hybrid mixture as well as the interaction of planting densities with the years were investigated. Crop data collected over a 14-year period (1977-1990 showed that it was possible to optimise the regional cacao yields by implementing high planting densities (2500 and 1736 trees ha-1. This was however only true for the first half of the crop period. In the second half, low planting density (1059 trees ha-1 attained the best yields. This change in the ranking of planting densities over the years confirmed the presence of density-year interaction. Alternatives to achieve high productivity in high planting density systems were presented and discussed.O efeito de seis densidades de plantio sobre a produção de um híbrido comercial de cacau, bem como a interação das densidades com os anos, foi investigado. Dados coletados do cultivo por 14 anos (1977-1990 mostraram que é possível otimizar a produção de cacau da região implementando uma alta densidade populacional (2500 e 1736 plantas ha-1. Todavia, isto se verificou apenas para a primeira metade do período de cultivo. Na segunda metade, a baixa densidade (1059 plantas ha-1 foi superior em produção. Esta mudança na densidade com o passar dos anos foi confirmada pela presença da interação densidades por anos. Alternativas para alcançar elevadas produtividades nos sistemas com altas densidades foram apresentadas e discutidas.

  3. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002

  4. The pathogenesis-related protein PR-4b from Theobroma cacao presents RNase activity, Ca2+ and Mg2+ dependent-DNase activity and antifungal action on Moniliophthora perniciosa

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Menezes, Sara; de Andrade Silva, Edson Mario; Matos Lima, Eline; Oliveira de Sousa, Aurizângela; Silva Andrade, Bruno; Santos Lima Lemos, Livia; Peres Gramacho, Karina; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Background The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) in plants in response to biotic or abiotic stresses is well known and is considered as a crucial mechanism for plant defense. A pathogenesis-related protein 4 cDNA was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library and named TcPR-4b. Results TcPR-4b presents a Barwin domain with six conserved cysteine residues, but lacks the chitin-binding site. Molecular modeling of TcPR-4b c...

  5. OBTENÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DA ENZIMA POLIFENOLOXIDASE EXTRAÍDA DE POLPA DE PINHA (Annona squamosa L. MADURA NO MELHORAMENTO DO SABOR DO CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. OBTAINING AND USE OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE ENZYME EXTRACTED FROM RIPE CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L. PULP ON THE COCOA (Theobroma cacao L. NIBS IN TASTE IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE LIMA

    2001-12-01

    material obtained was called partially purified enzyme, being the analyses of activity carried out with catechol as substract, showing biochemical characteristics of 5.0 to 6.5 stability pH and 10 to 30°C stability temperature the nibs were autoclaved (121°C for 15 minutes and non-autoclaved from the same origin, raw nuts insuficiently fermented and dried were soaked in a solution of the enzyme containing 200 units/min/mL, for 30, 60, 90, 210 and 360 minutes, at 23°C and pH 6.0 . The nibs were homogeneized with the enzyme solution each 15 minutes, dried, ground and became unfatted. After enzymatic treatment over 210 minutes carried out on the non-autoclaved unfatted cocoa nibs, it was possible to observe diminishing of 15% in the total phenol, 15% tannin content, 10% of flavan-3-ois and 18% of anthocyanidins concentrations. The nibs of autoclaved unfatted cacao showed diminishing of 25% in the total phenol, 26% of tannins 23% of flavan-3-ois, and 51% of anthocyanidins concentrations.

  6. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P Cd (P Cd (P Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils. PMID:27234831

  7. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P soils.

  8. Variación de las propiedades físicas de la grasa de cacao con la temperatura

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    de Dios Alvarado, Juan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Values of physical properties determined at different temperatures in fat extracted from fresh cacao seeds (Theobroma cacao are presented. Linear relationships define the effect of temperature on the refraction index, density and surface tension, a logarithmic function was established for viscosity. The values of density and viscosity are used to determine the coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion and activation energy, respectively. Data of specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are included. In addition a melting and solidification points. The information can be used at ambient temperatures or greater current in the elaboration of chocolate and other cocoa products.

    Se presentan los valores experimentales de varias propiedades físicas determinadas en grasa obtenida de semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao a diferentes temperaturas. El efecto de la temperatura sobre el índice de refracción, la densidad y la tensión superficial, es descrito en forma satisfactoria por ecuaciones lineales, en el caso de la viscosidad esta relación inversa es logarítmica. Los datos de la densidad se utilizan para determinar el coeficiente volumétrico de expansión térmica y los de la viscosidad para cuantificar la energía de activación.
    Se incluyen los datos del calor específico, de la difusividad térmica y de la conductividad térmica, conjuntamente con los puntos de fusión y de solidificación.
    Estos datos técnicos pueden ser utilizados a temperaturas ambientales y superiores que son comunes durante la elaboración de chocolates u otras tecnologías que utilizan cacao.

  9. Isolation and purification of functional total RNA from different organs of cacao tree during its interaction with the pathogen Crinipellis perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Micheli, Fabienne; Ferreira, Cláudia Fortes; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de Mattos

    2003-09-01

    Witches' broom disease, caused by Crinipellis perniciosa, is one of the major fungal diseases causing severe losses to cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.) plantations in South America. One of the challenges associated with the understanding of the cacao and Crinipellis interaction in genomic studies is the isolation of intact nucleic acids. In this report, we describe a new, successful, and reliable procedure for the isolation of RNA from tissues of cacao tree, both infected and uninfected by Crinipellis. This protocol overcomes the problems associated with the very high amount of polyphenols and polysaccharides present in cacao organs that are not easily removed by conventional extraction procedures. The protocol requires few reagents, uses ultracentrifugation and inexpensive consumables, and can be easily applied in any laboratory. This method produced high-quality RNA that was suitable for subsequent purposes, such as reverse transcription PCR and cDNA library construction. We also report the first evidence of RNA isolation from cacao organs infected by C. perniciosa such as meristems and fruits.

  10. Cacao Intensification in Sulawesi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-09-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates techniques to improve cacao farming in Sulawesi Indonesia with an emphasis on Farmer Field Schools and Cocoa Development Centers to educate farmers and for train the trainer programs. The study estimates the economic viability of cacao farming if smallholder implement techniques to increase yield as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  11. ¿Cuál Variedad de Cacao Debemos Sembrar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarriaga Misas Eduardo

    1941-08-01

    Full Text Available A mediados del año 34 se comenzaba a despertar el interés entre los agricultores una variedad de cacao denominada "injerto". También se iniciaban campañas en diferentes regiones del país para fomentar la siembra de caco "Pajarito" de Antioquia. Estas dos y el tipo "criollo" como pudiera llamarse la variedad que se ha tenido en cultivo en el Cauca, son es nuestro concepto las que han de bajarse en la discusión que se establezca alrededor del tema "¿Cuál variedad de cacao debemos sembrar?

  12. ¿cuál variedad de cacao debemos sembrar?

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarriaga Misas Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A mediados del año 34 se comenzaba a despertar el interés entre los agricultores una variedad de cacao denominada "injerto". También se iniciaban campañas en diferentes regiones del país para fomentar la siembra de caco "Pajarito" de Antioquia. Estas dos y el tipo "criollo" como pudiera llamarse la variedad que se ha tenido en cultivo en el Cauca, son es nuestro concepto las que han de bajarse en la discusión que se establezca alrededor del tema "¿Cuál variedad de cacao debemos sembrar?

  13. Effects of Different Treatments on Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Theobroma cacao%不同处理对可可种子萌发以及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付鹏; 秦晓威; 朱自慧; 王华; 赵溪竹; 赖剑雄

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa is one of the three biggest worldwide beverage crops. Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant, which have to maintain high water content to keep their vitality. In order to investigate storage method of cocoa seeds, we analyze various treatments on seeds germination and seedling growth, including the fruit treatment, temperature and time. Our results indicated that cacao seeds lost germination ability after 4℃treatment, almost 50% treatment seeds could germinate when placed 30 days with unbroken pod husk in room temperature 25℃. In the short phase, cleaning cacao seed pulp could enhance the germination potential and promote early seedling growth.%可可是世界三大饮料作物之一,可可种子为顽拗性种子,含水量低于某一相对高的临界含水量时,其种子就会丧失活力。为探讨可可种子的贮藏方法,研究分析了果实处理方法、温度、时间对可可种子发芽及幼苗生长的影响。结果表明:可可种子经过4℃处理后便丧失了发芽力,室温25℃条件下果壳不破开,放置30 d后可可种子仍有近50%的发芽率;清洗可可种子果肉后短时间放置,可以提升种子的发芽势,并且能促进幼苗前期生长。

  14. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  15. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gidoin

    Full Text Available Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests

  16. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  17. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  18. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Horacio

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available Por muchos años permaneció el cultivo del cacao en nuestro país, en un deplorable atraso técnico; el agricultor a duras penas si tenía conocimientos generales de su explotación y, de una industria que tuvo su auge debido a la extensividad de las plantaciones, hoy sólo resta una reducida porción de ella. ¿Qué factores operaron esa tan notoria reducción hasta el punto de que exportadores en otros tiempos nos convertimos en importadores obligados de ese producto? Hay muchas razones de orden técnico y de orden económico. Los cacaotaleros obtenían halagadoras retribuciones cuando el jornal consistía en la alimentación que se le daba a la peonada y cuando, generoso, añadía una sobretasa en dinero. Bajo ese sistema de explotación, el descuadre que pudiera ocasionar tanto las enfermedades criptogámicas como los plagas, no era suficiente como para provocar el pesimismo en el hacendado y por tanto inducirlo al abandono de la plantación. A medida que las condiciones sociales del campesino se fueron modificando y su standard de vida aumentaba, cambió fundamentalmente el mecanismo de la industria Se observó entonces que los árboles morían y que era pobre la producción; que lo que en tiempos pasados fuera un negocio lucrativo, se les había convertido en una actividad improductiva y, para controlar estos fenómenos que se generalizaban en todas las zonas cacaotaleras, opusieron la ignorancia, el rutinarismo y la desidia. Lentamente se han ido modificando los conceptos antiguos sobre el trabajo cultural y los cuidados que con relación a las enfermedades y plagas requiere este delicado cultivo; la rutina está echando paso atrás y las experiencias científicas que procuran la prosperidad del plantío, se ponen en práctica en algunas zonas . Esto da esperanza para la reconstitución de la industria cacaotalera en nuestro país, que cuenta con inmensas regiones de óptima calidad para hacerla florecer sobre bases nuevas, con

  19. Drought effects on soil CO efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month replicated experiment, we measured soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration in three simulated drought plots compared with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, but also decreased when soils became water saturated, as evidenced in control plots. The simulated drought plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly ("responsive" to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all ("non-responsive" (n=7. The degree of soil CO2 respiration drought response was highest around cacao tree stems and decreased with distance from the stem (R2=0.22. A significant correlation was measured between "responsive" soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. During dry periods the litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux and up to 40% during wet periods. A CO2 flush was recorded during the rewetting phase that lasted for approximately two weeks, during which time accumulated labile carbon stocks mineralized. The net effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was neutral, control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1.

  20. Aplicación y Comparación de Metodologías Multicriterio (AHP y Fuzzy Logic) en la Selección de Tecnología Postcosecha para Pequeños Productores de Cacao.

    OpenAIRE

    VERA MONTENEGRO, LENIN

    2014-01-01

    El Ecuador provee el 70% de la demanda especializada en cacao (Theobroma cacao) del tipo “fino y de aroma” a nivel mundial, empleado en la elaboración de chocolates de alta calidad. En este trabajo se define un modelo de selección de tecnología post cosecha adaptada a los pequeños productores (59% de la producción Ecuatoriana), aplicando dos tipos de modelos multicriterios que incluyen los criterios de calidad, costo de transformación y capacidad de adopción tecnológic...

  1. Efecto de la fermentación y el tostado sobre la concentración polifenólica y actividad antioxidante de cacao nicaragüense

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Mercado, Yader Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como finalidad hacer una caracterización del contenido en polifenoles totales (PT) y la actividad antioxidantes (AA) de varias muestras de semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fermentadas y sin fermentar, de la variedad Trinitario, y procedentes de Nicaragua. Y además evaluar el efecto del tostado sobre dichas características y el color de los extractos fenólicos de las semillas. Los tratamientos de tostado fueron a 110 ºC por 90 min, 130 ºC por 60 min y 15...

  2. Organic cacao chain for development: The case of the Talamanca small-farmers association

    OpenAIRE

    Slingerland, M.A.; Díaz Gonzalez, E.

    2006-01-01

    In de Talamanca region in Costa Rica cocoa production was abandoned in the late 1970s when yields dropped to zero due to Monilia. In the early 1990s, the Talamanca Small-Farmers association (APPTA) gained success in promoting its revival. By creating contacts with buyers of organic cacao in the United States, APPTA was able to certify a significant area of cacao and to start exporting to the USA. Organic cacao had positive effects on farmers¿ income and on the environment. Recently a number o...

  3. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  4. Production and robustness of a Cacao agroecosystem: effects of two contrasting types of management strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Sabatier

    Full Text Available Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer. Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation.

  5. Production and Robustness of a Cacao Agroecosystem: Effects of Two Contrasting Types of Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Wiegand, Kerstin; Meyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella) and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer). Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation. PMID:24312469

  6. Suppressive effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Midori; Baba, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that the cacao polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin and its oligomers, prevent in vitro and ex vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by free radical generators and metal ions and also reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice. Mice aged 8 weeks (n = 90) were randomized into three groups, and fed either normal mouse chow (controls) or chow supplemented with 0.25 or 0.40 % cacao polyphenols for 16 weeks. The mean plaque area in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk was measured and found to be lower in the 0.25 % cacao polyphenol group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Pathological observations showed that accumulation of cholesterol crystals in the plaque area was greater in the control group compared with the 0.40 % cacao polyphenol group (p < 0.05). Immunochemical staining in the 0.25 and 0.40 % groups showed that expression of the cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) and production of oxidative stress markers (4-hydroxynonenal, hexanoyl-lysine, and dityrosine) were reduced in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk. These results suggest that cacao polyphenols inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  7. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin S Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed SNP markers from RNASeq results for 13 M. roreri isolates and validated the markers for their ability to reveal genetic diversity in an international M. roreri collection. The SNP resources reported herein represent the first study of RNASeq-derived SNP validation in M. roreri and demonstrates the utility of RNASeq as an approach for de novo SNP identification in M. roreri. A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 172 M. roreri cacao isolates resulting in 37 distinct genotypes (including 14 synonymous groups. Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. roreri is clonal and likely due to a homothallic life style. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. roreri.

  8. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, E. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); He, Z.L., E-mail: zhe@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Stoffella, P.J. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Mylavarapu, R.S. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Soil and Water Science Department, Gainesville, FL 33611 (United States); Li, Y.C. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, Tropical Research and Education Center, Homestead, FL 33031 (United States); Moyano, B. [Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral, Centro de Investigaciones Biotecnologicas del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Guayas (Ecuador); Baligar, V.C. [United State Department of Agriculture, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg{sup −1}) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg{sup −1}. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg{sup −1}), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg{sup −1}, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil

  9. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg−1) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0–5, 5–15, 15–30, and 30–50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg−1, respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg−1. Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg−1), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans > shell > > leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg−1, and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0–5 and 5–15 cm depths (r = 0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r = 0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; P < 0.01). These results indicate that accumulation of Cd in surface layers results in excessive Cd in cacao beans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils. - Highlights: • > 60% of the studied sites had a Cd content in cacao beans above the critical level. • Bean Cd concentration was closely correlated with available Cd in soil. • Soil Cd contamination is likely

  10. Unique haplotypes of cacao trees as revealed by trnH-psbA chloroplast DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-López, Nidia; Ovando-Medina, Isidro; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Avendaño-Arrazate, Carlos H; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cacao trees have been cultivated in Mesoamerica for at least 4,000 years. In this study, we analyzed sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnH-psbA intergenic spacer from 28 cacao trees from different farms in the Soconusco region in southern Mexico. Genetic relationships were established by two analysis approaches based on geographic origin (five populations) and genetic origin (based on a previous study). We identified six polymorphic sites, including five insertion/deletion (indels) types and one transversion. The overall nucleotide diversity was low for both approaches (geographic = 0.0032 and genetic = 0.0038). Conversely, we obtained moderate to high haplotype diversity (0.66 and 0.80) with 10 and 12 haplotypes, respectively. The common haplotype (H1) for both networks included cacao trees from all geographic locations (geographic approach) and four genetic groups (genetic approach). This common haplotype (ancient) derived a set of intermediate haplotypes and singletons interconnected by one or two mutational steps, which suggested directional selection and event purification from the expansion of narrow populations. Cacao trees from Soconusco region were grouped into one cluster without any evidence of subclustering based on AMOVA (F ST = 0) and SAMOVA (F ST = 0.04393) results. One population (Mazatán) showed a high haplotype frequency; thus, this population could be considered an important reservoir of genetic material. The indels located in the trnH-psbA intergenic spacer of cacao trees could be useful as markers for the development of DNA barcoding.

  11. The CACAO Method for Smoothing, Gap Filling, and Characterizing Seasonal Anomalies in Satellite Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent, continuous, and long time series of global biophysical variables derived from satellite data are required for global change research. A novel climatology fitting approach called CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) is proposed to reduce noise and fill gaps in time series by scaling and shifting the seasonal climatological patterns to the actual observations. The shift and scale CACAO parameters adjusted for each season allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. CACAO was assessed first over simulated daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) time series with varying fractions of missing data and noise. Then, performances were analyzed over actual satellite LAI products derived from AVHRR Long-Term Data Record for the 1981-2000 period over the BELMANIP2 globally representative sample of sites. Comparison with two widely used temporal filtering methods-the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) model and the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter as implemented in TIMESAT-revealed that CACAO achieved better performances for smoothing AVHRR time series characterized by high level of noise and frequent missing observations. The resulting smoothed time series captures well the vegetation dynamics and shows no gaps as compared to the 50-60% of still missing data after AG or SG reconstructions. Results of simulation experiments as well as confrontation with actual AVHRR time series indicate that the proposed CACAO method is more robust to noise and missing data than AG and SG methods for phenology extraction.

  12. Sieving Effect of Sorting Machine with Vibration Table Type on Cacao Pod Based Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswoyo Soekarno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cacao pod is the biggest part (70% of weight of Cacao, which was not optimaly utilized.Cacao podis one of organic material that can be functioned as an organic fertilizer, such as compost. When utilizedwith right proportion, organic fertilizer is safe for plants and not degrades the soil composition. Compostingprocess is one of utilization form of Cacao pod. The size reduction of cacao pod in the organic fertilizerprocess would help to accelerate the composting process. Smaller particle size would faster interacting withenvironment, so the composting process would be well accelerated if compared to the material with biggersize. Chopping machine of Cacao pod is used to cut the biomass to be small particle in order to be able tobe utilized as some important necessity, i.e. fertilizer or farm animals feed. However, Varies compost sizewas one of the problems faced in the composting process. Therefore, the sorting process was needed tobe done after chopping process, so the compost size became uniform and fulfill the user demand. Thisresearch was aimed at knowing the slope effect of sorting machine and rotation speed (RPM. The methodused in analyzing the results of this research was comparing the treatment factors, which are shown withhistogram. As the super small size of compost recommended for applying in the fertilizing process, so theoptimum treatment combination for having high mass fraction of SS compost grade was achieved at 12oslope of sieve table and 1400 RPM motor rotation speed. As bigger the particle densities of the compostsize as smaller the compost porosity. Mass loss was very low at all treatment combination with the valuearound 0.43-1.33%, so the sieving efficiency can be said very high.

  13. DESCRIPTION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MEXICAN CRIOLLO CACAO DURING POST-­ HARVEST PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    P. García-­Alamilla; V.W. González-Lauck; E de la Cruz-Lázaro; L.M. Lagunes­-Gálvez; R. García-Alamilla

    2012-01-01

    Cacao pod and bean characteristics are indicators of quality, productivity and production,while beans physical properties are required to design processing equipment for handling, transportation and storage. Description of physical properties of a Mexican criollo type cacao where made in function of moisture content during the post harvest processing process. The average moisture content was from 1.075 to 0.064 g g-1 dry mater from harvest to storage. The bean index ranged from 1.38 to 1.48 ...

  14. Dissimilarity of Ant Communities Increases with Precipitation, but not Reduced Land-Use Intensity, in Indonesian Cacao Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanti Buchori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-use degradation and climate change are well-known drivers of biodiversity loss, but little information is available about their potential interaction. Here, we focus on the effects of land-use and precipitation on ant diversity in cacao agroforestry. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, we selected 16 cacao agroforestry plots with a shaded vs. unshaded plot in each of eight villages differing in precipitation (1032–2051 mm annual rainfall. On each plot, 10 cacao trees with similar size and age (7–10 years were selected for hand collection of ants on each cacao tree and the soil surface. In total, we found 80 ant species belonging to five subfamilies. Land-use intensification (removal of shade trees and precipitation had no effect on species richness of ants per cacao tree (alpha diversity and, in an additive partitioning approach, within-plot beta diversity. However, higher precipitation (but not shade significantly increased ant species dissimilarity across cacao trees within a plot, with ant species showing contrasting responses to precipitation. Reduced precipitation causing drought stress appeared to contribute to convergence of ant community structure, presumably via reduced heterogeneity in cacao tree growth. In conclusion, reduced precipitation greatly influenced ant community dissimilarity and appeared to be more important for ant community structure than land-use intensification.

  15. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Maya, Lisandro; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of the flavanoid family are abundantly present in cacao seed and its cocoa products. Results from studies using cocoa products indicate beneficial effects of flavanols on cardiovascular endpoints. Evidence indicates that (-)-epicatechin is the main cacao flavanol associated with cardiovascular effects, so the accurate quantification of its content in cacao seeds or cocoa products is important. Common methods for the quantification of phenolic content in cocoa products are based on the reaction of phenols with colorimetric reagents such as the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) In this study, we compared the FC method of phenolic determinations using 2 different standards (gallic acid and (-)-epicatechin) to construct calibration curves. We compare these results with those obtained from a simple fluorometric method (Ex280/Em320 nm) used to determine catechin/(-)-epicatechin content in samples of cacao seeds and cocoa products. Values obtained from the FC method determination of polyphenols yield an overestimation of phenol (flavonoid) content when gallic acid is used as standard. Moreover, the epicatechin is a more reliable standard because of its abundance in cacao seeds and cocoa products. The use of fluorometric spectra yields a simple and highly quantitative means for a more precise and rapid quantification of cacao catechins. Fluorometric values are essentially in agreement with those reported using more cumbersome methods. In conclusion, the use of fluorescence emission spectra is a quick, practical and suitable means to quantifying catechins in cacao seeds and cocoa products. PMID:21297935

  16. Parentage analysis and outcrossing patterns in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) farms in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigates the parentage of farm accessions in Cameroon using data from 12 microsatellite loci. Bayesian analysis suggests that 25.5% of the 400 farm accessions studies are still closely related to the traditinal Amelonado variety called 'German Cocoa' by the farmers. Another 46....

  17. The systematic description of cacao clones and its significance for taxonomy and plant breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, J.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The value of germplasm collections depends to a large extent on the data accompanying the individual accessions. In order to facilitate the selection of the most useful characters for the systematic description of a cacao germplasm collection methods were developed to measure and to compare the disc

  18. Algunas Observaciones sobre el Desecamiento del Grano de Cacao Bajo Diferentes Condiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platone E.

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available Las diversas modalidades del proceso de desecamiento del cacao fermentado (con tal de que la temperatura de desecamiento no sea muy elevada tienen escasa influencia sobre la calidad aparente del grano, a condición desde luego, de que el proceso sea llevado hasta lograr un mismo porcentaje de humedad en los granos. Ya se sabía que, aparentemente, debería preferirse el desecamiento artificial, al natural, por cuanto se logra un mejor control de la temperatura y de otras condiciones del proceso. En realidad, los fabricantes prefieren, en igualdad de condiciones, el cacao desecado al sol. A este propósito había sido establecido por la Oficina Internacional de Fabricantes de Cacao y Chocolate, según dice Knapp (ya citado, que el cacao que hubiese sido secado a más de 50°C, fuera específicamente rotulado como "desecado artificialmente". Sin embargo, el desecamiento al sol significa ordinariamente para los granos, una temperatura notoriamente superior a dichos 50oC, aunque por lo regular no suprior a 60°C.

  19. Register of new fruit and nut cultivars list 48. Banana, cacao, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 48 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released banana, plantain, and cacao cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. ...

  20. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding program at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this investigation 45 parental cacao plants and five progeny derived from the parental stock studied were genotyped using six SNP markers to determine off-types or mislabeled clones and to authenticate crosses made in the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG) breeding program. Investigation wa...

  1. Soil classification and carbon storage in cacao agroforestry farming systems of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the classification of soils and their properties under cacao agroforestry systems of the Atlantic rain forest biome region in the Southeast of Bahia Brazil is largely unknown. Soil and climatic conditions in this region are favorable for high soil carbon storage. This study is...

  2. Mining of expressed sequence tag libraries of cacao for microsatellite markers using five computational tools

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aikkal Riju; M. K. Rajesh; P. T. P. Fasila Sherin; A. Chandrasekar; S. Elain Apshara; Vadivel Arunachalam

    2009-08-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide researchers with a quick and inexpensive route for discovering new genes, data on gene expression and regulation, and also provide genic markers that help in constructing genome maps. Cacao is an important perennial crop of humid tropics. Cacao EST sequences, as available in the public domain, were downloaded and made into contigs. Microsatellites were located in these ESTs and contigs using five softwares (MISA, TRA, TROLL, SSRIT and SSR primer). MISA gave maximum coverage of SSRs in cacao ESTs and contigs, although TRA was able to detect higher order (>5-mer) repeats. The frequency of SSRs was one per 26.9 kb in the known set of ESTs. One-third of the repeats in EST-contigs were found to be trimeric. A few rare repeats like 21-mer repeat were also located. A/T repeats were most abundant among the mononucleotide repeats and the AG/GA/TC/CT type was the most frequent among dimerics. Flanking primers were designed using Primer3 program and verified experimentally for PCR amplification. The results of the study are made available freely online database (http://riju.byethost31.com/cocoa/). Seven primer pairs amplified genomic DNA isolated from leaves were used to screen a representative set of 12 accessions of cacao.

  3. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 45. Banana, cacao, Spanish lime, plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 45 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, newly released cacao, banana, plantain, and genip cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield....

  4. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots. The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all (non-responsive (n=7. A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  5. Estudios sobre Cacao 1.Incidencia de la "Pasmazón de los Pepinos" en Algunos Cacaos Venezolanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciferri R.

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la incidencia de la pudrición de la mazorca del cacao por el Phytophthora palmivora Butler sobre diferentes grupos de variedades de cacao cultivadas en el ambiente subárido de regadío en Ocumare de la Costa, Estado Aragua, Venezuela. Se ha averiguado que la infección sistémica de dichas mazorcas proviene de la infección primaria de los cojines florales, habiéndose estudiado su curso y sus características. Entre otras cosas se notó que, aunque es verdad que el período de mayor susceptibilidad a la infección sistémica es el que corre desde el fin del estado de pepino del fruto (fruto mayor de 9-10 centímetros, o sea de 75 a 90 días de edad y el fin del período de desarrollo del fruto (140 a 150 días a contar desde la fecundación de la flor, puede haber un estado precoz de infección de la mazorca joven, el cual no ocurre nunca antes de los quince días de edad, esto es, en el período de máxima incidencia de la enfermedad fisiológica conocida como "pasmazón de los pepinos". Dicha infección es exclusivamente sistémica y puede afectar hasta las dos quintas partes de los pepinos que cuelgan de cojines infectados. Observóse que el chancro del tallo, que por lo regular sigue a la infección del cojín floral, no es tan dañino como comúnmente se afirma, pero que sus daños económicos se deben a la improductividad producida en el cojín infectado. El Criollo de concha decolorada es más susceptible a la infección por Phytophthora que el de concha morada y el híbrido forastero venezolano el cual, a su vez, parece más susceptible a la infección del cojín floral que los demás grupos de variedades. En un lapso de 10 meses los frutos infectados por medio del cojín floral representan los tres cuartos o cuatro quintos del total. La presencia de pigmento antociánico en la cáscara de la mazorca no madura parece conferir una relativa resistencia a la infección por el Phytophthora; empero, en el Forastero

  6. Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit α-amylase activity. However, no α-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits.

  7. Genetics of reproductive self-compatibility in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in plants prevents self-fertilization. Various events are involved at different stages of this process, from interruption in pollen germination, pollen tube growth, syngamy or even to an arrest in embryo development. The main effect is yield reduction. SI also affects progr...

  8. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    OpenAIRE

    Thyago Hermylly Santana Cardoso; Ana Camila Oliveira Freitas; Bruno Silva Andrade; Aurizangela Oliveira de Sousa; André da Silva Santiago; Daniela Martins Koop; Karina Peres Gramacho; Fátima Cerqueira Alvim; Fabienne Micheli; Carlos Priminho Pirovani

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during...

  9. Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Moyano, B; Baligar, V C

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) content in cacao beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg(-1)) has raised concerns in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate. Little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil and cacao in Ecuador. The aim of this study was to determine the status of Cd in both, soils and cacao plants, in southern Ecuador. Soil samples were collected from 19 farms at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30, and 30-50 cm depths, whereas plant samples were taken from four nearby trees. Total recoverable and extractable Cd were measured at the different soil depths. Total recoverable Cd ranged from 0.88 to 2.45 and 0.06 to 2.59, averaged 1.54 and 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively in the surface and subsurface soils whereas the corresponding values for M3-extractable Cd were 0.08 to 1.27 and 0.02 to 0.33 with mean values of 0.40 and 0.10 mg kg(-1). Surface soil in all sampling sites had total recoverable Cd above the USEPA critical level for agricultural soils (0.43 mg kg(-1)), indicating that Cd pollution occurs. Since both total recoverable and M3-extractable Cd significantly decreased depth wise, anthropogenic activities are more likely the source of contamination. Cadmium in cacao tissues decreased in the order of beans>shell>leaves. Cadmium content in cacao beans ranged from 0.02 to 3.00, averaged 0.94 mg kg(-1), and 12 out of 19 sites had bean Cd content above the critical level. Bean Cd concentration was highly correlated with M3- or HCl-extractable Cd at both the 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths (r=0.80 and 0.82 for M3, and r=0.78 and 0.82 for HCl; Pbeans and M3- or HCl-extractable Cd are suitable methods for predicting available Cd in the studied soils.

  10. Genetic molecular diversity, production and resistance to witches’ broom in cacao clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pires

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 32 cacao clones selected as being resistant following the witches’ broom epidemic and for having distinct productivitywere characterized according to their genetic diversity and were submitted to a new selection. These plants were assessed for eightyears at the Oceania Farm (FO in Itagibá, Bahia, Brazil. The 13 microsatellite primers generated an average of 11.7 amplicons perlocus, and based on them it was demonstrated that the 32 clones distribute themselves in groups apart from the nine clones used ascontrols. The 32 materials displayed significant differences in relation to the characters assessed in the field. Two criteria were formedfrom the classification of the most productive and resistant plants, and then used to select plants within the clusters. The selected plantsdisplayed potential for the cacao improvement program, that they have a high production and high resistance to witches’ broom.

  11. Resolving the agriculture-petroleum conflict: the experience of cacao smallholders in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972, PEMEX, the Mexican national oil company, discovered huge reserves of oil and natural gas along the Gulf Coast, and began intensive exploitation in Tabasco and northern Chiapas states. Severe conflict between PEMEX and the agricultural economy of Tabasco seemed certain. But despite problems of labor scarcity, inflation, migration, pollution, agricultural production 1974 to 1979 increased for the state's major products - cacao, coconut, beef, and bananas. This study analyzes how agriculture-petroleum conflicts have been resolved in Tabasco, and how relevant its experience is to other agricultural areas undergoing rapid large-scale industrial development. Cacao farming was chosen as a case study. Detailed farm budget, family employment, and technical production data were used to document farm production strategies. Research results suggest that resolution of agriculture-petroleum conflicts depends on: demographic conditions, employment conditions, agricultural prices, petroleum company flexibility, government development policy, and farmer political strength. Support for the campesino sector is critical.

  12. Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Bodo Trognitz; Emile Cros; Sophie Assemat; Fabrice Davrieux; Nelly Forestier-Chiron; Eusebio Ayestas; Aldo Kuant; Xavier Scheldeman; Michael Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes) representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG), grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven ma...

  13. Las enfermedades del cacao como un componente del sistema de producción del cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar, Germán

    2011-01-01

    EI manejo de las enfermedades de un cultivo, en su contexto más amplio debe considerarse como un componente del sistema de producción. Esta generalización, en el caso de la producción de cacao, significa que los procesos patológicos deberán interpretarse y manejarse dentro de las condiciones culturales, ecológicas y socio-económicas del media tropical colombiano.

  14. Aplicación de Antagonistas Microbianos para el Control Biológico de Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par en Theobroma cacao L. Bajo Condiciones de Campo / Application of Microbial Antagonists for the Biological Control of Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Villamil Carvajal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En Colombia, las pérdidas ocasionadas porMoniliophthora roreri Cif & Par en el cultivo de cacao continúansiendo considerables. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigarla actividad antagónica de dos aislamientos autóctonos deTrichoderma sp. y uno de Bacillus sp. ante M. roreri, en condicionesde campo. Los tratamientos fueron: T1, hongo H5; T2, hongo H20;T3, bacteria B3 y T4, testigo. Se evaluó incidencia y severidadexterna e interna en los frutos. Los resultados de severidad externae interna mostraron que respecto al control la disminucióndel daño en los frutos fue del 19,5 y 11,2% en el T1, del 28 y19,5% en el T2 y del 13,5 y 8,5% en el T3, respectivamente condiferencias estadísticas a favor del T2. Se concluye que entre lostres antagonistas evaluados, el hongo H20 (Trichoderma sp. tieneel mayor potencial para el control de la moniliasis del cacao encondiciones de campo. / Abstract. In Colombia, the economic losses caused byMoniliophthora roreri Cif & Par in the cocoa cultivation continuebeing considerable. The objective of this study was to investigatethe antagonistic activity of two indigenous isolates of Trichodermasp and one of Bacillus sp. over M. roreri under field conditions. Thetreatments were: T1, fungus H5; T2, fungus H20; T3, bacteria B3; T4,control. The variables evaluated on the cocoa fruits were incidenceand external and internal severity. The results of the externaland internal severity showed that with respect to the control thedamage reduction on the cocoa fruits was 19,5 and 11,2% in T1,28 and 19,5% in T2, and 13,5 and 8,5% in T3, respectively withstatistical differences in favor of T2. It is concluded that amongthe three evaluated antagonists, the fungus H20 (Trichoderma sp.has the greatest potential for the biocontrol of frosty pod rot in thecocoa cultivation under field conditions.

  15. Optimization of the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chau Loo Kung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as main objective optimizing the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage. We obtained formulations of mixtures of cacao powder with different concentrations of 15%, 17.5% and 20%, as well as lecithin concentrations of 0.1%; 0.3%; and 0.5% maintaining a constant content of sugar (25 %, Vanillin (1% that included cacao powder with different pH values: natural (pH 5 and alkalinized (pH 6.5 and pH 8 and water by difference to 100%, generating a total of fifteen treatments to be evaluated, according to the Box-Behnen design for three factors. The treatments underwent satisfaction level tests to establish the general acceptability. The treatment that included cacao powder with a concentration of 17.5 %, pH 6.5 and lecithin concentration of 0.3 % obtained the best levels of acceptability. The software Statgraphics Plus 5.1 was used to obtain the treatment with maximum acceptability that corresponded to cacao powder with pH 6.81, with a concentration of 18.24 % and soy lecithin in 0.28% with a tendency to what was obtained in the satisfaction levels tests. Finally we characterized in a physical-chemistry and microbiological way the optimum formulation as well as evaluated sensitively obtaining an acceptability of 6.17.

  16. Efecto del riego subsuperficial en la microinjertación del cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ochoa Mena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El interés del país, respecto al cultivo del cacao como renglón exportable y fuente de alimento, por aumentar, renovar y rehabilitar las plantaciones y la imperiosa necesidad del uso de sistemas de riego en el cultivo, sobre la base de la nueva dinámica climática, condujeron a la realización de este trabajo con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de la tecnología de riego subsuperficial por mecha, con respecto al riego por microaspersión aérea, en el crecimiento y desarrollo de posturas de cacao, propagadas por microinjertación. El experimento, diseñado en Bloques al Azar, estuvo compuesto por 4 tratamientos con 3 réplicas. Los tratamientos T1, T2 y T3 respondieron al riego subsuperficial por Mecha, mientras el T4 correspondió al tratamiento testigo (Microaspersión. Las variables estudiadas fueron: diámetro y longitud del injerto y área foliar. Los resultados mostraron mayor efectividad del riego subsuperficial respecto a la microaspersión, alcanzándose mejor desarrollo y crecimiento en las posturas de cacao microinjertadas, además del ahorro del 96 % del agua dispuesta para el riego. Entre los tratamientos subsuperficiales, el T1 fue el más promisorio. Se evidencia la utilización de esta nueva técnica de riego sin el empleo de energía eléctrica y en zonas con escasa precipitación.

  17. Diversity of cacao trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: associations between genotype spectra, product quality and yield potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Trognitz

    Full Text Available The sensory quality and the contents of quality-determining chemical compounds in unfermented and fermented cocoa from 100 cacao trees (individual genotypes representing groups of nine genotype spectra (GG, grown at smallholder plantings in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, were evaluated for two successive harvest periods. Cocoa samples were fermented using a technique mimicking recommended on-farm practices. The sensory cocoa quality was assessed by experienced tasters, and seven major chemical taste compounds were quantified by near infrared spectrometry (NIRS. The association of the nine, partially admixed, genotype spectra with the analytical and sensory quality parameters was tested. The individual parameters were analyzed as a function of the factors GG and harvest (including the date of fermentation, individual trees within a single GG were used as replications. In fermented cocoa, significant GG-specific differences were observed for methylxanthines, theobromine-to-caffeine (T/C ratio, total fat, procyanidin B5 and epicatechin, as well as the sensory attributes global score, astringency, and dry fruit aroma, but differences related to harvest were also apparent. The potential cocoa yield was also highly determined by the individual GG, although there was significant tree-to-tree variation within every single GG. Non-fermented samples showed large harvest-to-harvest variation of their chemical composition, while differences between GG were insignificant. These results suggest that selection by the genetic background, represented here by groups of partially admixed genotype spectra, would be a useful strategy toward enhancing quality and yield of cocoa in Nicaragua. Selection by the GG within the local, genetically segregating populations of seed-propagated cacao, followed by clonal propagation of best-performing individuals of the selected GG could be a viable alternative to traditional propagation of cacao by seed from open

  18. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyago Hermylly Santana Cardoso

    Full Text Available The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  19. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches’ broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease. PMID:26641247

  20. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira de; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  1. Efecto del riego subsuperficial en la microinjertación del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Ochoa Mena; Manuel Peña Casadevalls

    2012-01-01

    El interés del país, respecto al cultivo del cacao como renglón exportable y fuente de alimento, por aumentar, renovar y rehabilitar las plantaciones y la imperiosa necesidad del uso de sistemas de riego en el cultivo, sobre la base de la nueva dinámica climática, condujeron a la realización de este trabajo con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de la tecnología de riego subsuperficial por mecha, con respecto al riego por microaspersión aérea, en el crecimiento y desarrollo de posturas de ...

  2. 世界可可生产贸易现状%Present Situation of Cacao Production and Trade in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵溪竹; 朱自慧; 王华; 赖剑雄

    2012-01-01

    Analyzed the production of the cacao industry all over the world, including area harvested, production and yield, and the export and import of cacao products during 1999-2010. Expound the developing course and prospect of the cacao industry in China.%综述1999~2010年世界可可产业的收获面积、产量和单产以及世界可可生产贸易状况,概述我国可可产业的发展历程,展望我国可可产业的发展前景。

  3. Absorción y distribución de nutrientes en clones de cacao y sus efectos en el rendimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Jazbleidi Puentes-Páramo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el centro experimental de la Federación Nacional de Cacaoteros de Colombia (Fedecacao, localizado en el municipio de Miranda, Cauca (Colombia se evaluó la capacidad de absorción y distribución de los nutrientes N, P y K en hojas, cáscara y almendra de los clones de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.: CCN-51 y ICS-95 (auto-compatibles y TSH-565 e ICS-39 (auto-incompatibles, y su influencia en el rendimiento. El diseño experimental fue bloques completos al azar con cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones; los tratamientos consistieron en un control (TR equivalente a la concentración de nutrientes en el suelo del centro experimental (kg/ha (49 N, 23.5 P y 146.5 K, e incrementos en esta concentración equivalentes a 25%(T1, 50% (T2, 75% (T3 y 100% (T4. La concentración de nutrientes en hojas, cáscara y almendra mostró diferencias significativas (P K > P y en cáscara fue K > N > P. El mayor rendimiento de grano y la mayor extracción de NPK por 1000 kg de peso seco se presentó en el T2. Todos los clones presentaron una secuencia similar de concentración de nutrientes en hoja, cáscara y almendra, sin embargo, fue evidente la diferencia existente en la capacidad de absorción y distribución de nutrientes y en el rendimiento entre clones, lo cual es relevante para el eficiente manejo nutricional del cultivo.

  4. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and 2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby minimizing the

  5. C and N content in density fractions of whole soil and soil size fraction under cacao agroforestry systems and natural forest in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R; Baligar, Virupax C

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO(2). Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and 2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical protection within macroaggregate structures thereby

  6. La moniliasis un desafio para lograr la sostenibilidad del sistema cacao en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Isabel Ramírez González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Para México el cacao, más que un producto alimenticio, representa tradición, un gran legado cultural por preservar, una gran fuente de riquezas naturales y generador de empleos. Tiene sembradas 81 600 ha., una producción de 43 000 ha toneladas, y rendimiento de 597 kg/ha lo que le permite estar entre los 12 principales países productores, pero en el 11.º lugar por su bajo rendimiento. La actividad productiva está ejercida, principalmente, por pequeños productores quienes dependen de ella para su sustento.  El reciente ingreso de la moniliasis hace tambalear la producción ya que este hongo, ataca directamente a los frutos, ocasionando pérdidas totales en la producción. Aunque no hay reportes oficiales, se estima que la producción para el presente ciclo productivo disminuyó en un 50% y se considera que para el próximo sea del 70%, dado el avance acelerado de la enfermedad, con las consecuentes repercusiones económicas, sociales y ambientales. Esta enfermedad está presente en 11 países centro y suramericanos a los cuales ha afectado profundamente. No obstante, existen avances en su manejo, lo cual ha permitido a países como Ecuador, Bolivia y Colombia sobreponerse y llegar a una buena producción. De tal manera que la moniliasis es un gran desafío que permitirá lograr la sostenibilidad del sistema cacao en México, ya que existen diversas oportunidades para el sector, tales como la aceleración de su proceso de modernización en un contexto de sostenibilidad. La diversificación del sistema con maderas principalmente “preciosas”, frutales, especias y flores tropicales, renovación de las plantaciones con materiales mexicanos de altos rendimientos y calidad organoléptica bajo sistemas de producción orgánica, lo que le permitirá al productor acceder a mercados especializados, atraer turismo ecológico, buscar incentivos productivos, ecológicos y de captura de carbono, lo cual mejoraría la sostenibilidad del sistema. Las

  7. Dieback due to Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a new phytosanitary constraint to cocoa culture in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the introduction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Cameroon in 1886, the only serious disease has been Phytophthora pod rot. Recently, cocoa orchards have been subjected to an increasingly important decline due to an uncommon dieback disease. Irrespective of age, affected cocoa trees manifest ...

  8. Cacao 3 (Cc 3, Arte rupestre del formativo temprano en Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rodrigo Martel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo hemos abordado el estudio de la producción del arte rupestre del sitio Cacao 3 –Cc3- (Antofagasta de la Sierra, Catamarca con relación a las prácticas socioculturales de grupos agropastoriles del periodo Formativo Temprano en la Puna meridional argentina, haciendo hincapié en el emplazamiento del sitio y su asociación contextual con las demás evidencias arqueológicas conocidas para el área de estudio y estableciendo las relaciones entre las manifestaciones rupestres de Cc3 con las de otros sitios, a nivel micro y macrorregional, a través de indicadores estilísticos

  9. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, C.O., E-mail: bacri@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France); Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France)

    2010-02-11

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  10. Cacao y encomienda en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tous, Meritxell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the importance of cocoa in the Alcaldía Mayor of Sonsonate, particularly in the Izalco region, during the last pre-Columbian period and also its exploitation during the XVIth century. It is demonstrated that, during the first half of these century, despite of the development of the encomienda system, the natives significantly controlled the production and exchange of cocoa, and also the property of the land. Nevertheless, during the second half of this century, the increase of cocoa production induced serious perturbations in the Indian communities because of the demographic collapse, the usurpation of the lands and the ladinoization processes.

    Este estudio analiza la importancia del cacao en la Alcaldía Mayor de Sonsonate, especialmente en la región de los Izalcos, durante el último periodo prehispánico así como su explotación en el XVI. Se demuestra que, durante la primera mitad de este siglo, a pesar del desarrollo de la encomienda, la población indígena controló, en buena medida, la producción y el intercambio del cacao, así como la propiedad de la tierra. También se pone de manifiesto que, a partir de la segunda mitad de este mismo siglo, el incremento de la producción cacaotera provocó daños irreversibles en las comunidades indígenas debido al más que notable descenso demográfico, a la usurpación de sus tierras y a los procesos de ladinización.

  11. DYNAMICS OF FUNGAL POPULATION IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF CACAO (Theobroma cacao L.) GROWN UNDER TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature of crops and management systems profoundly affect fungal communities in the rhizosphere of perennial crops. Fungal populations in soil are involved in organic matter transformation and nutrient cycling. A field experiment was established during 1999 at the Tropical Crop Institute, San Martin-...

  12. PRODUCTIVITY MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS OF CACAO AGRO-FOOD SYSTEM IN TABASCO, MEXICO: AN APPLICATION OF THE ‘FITNESS’ APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César J. Vázquez Navarrete

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Survival of agro-food systems are challenging and require a fresh approach to analyse. Application of ‘productivity management’ perspective extends the conventional view of ‘productivity’ as it incorporates both ‘efficiency (creation of value’ and ‘effectiveness (attraction of value’ criteria into a firm’s organisational configurations (set of strategies to achieve success. We apply a ‘fitness’ approach to examine productivity performance of 356 cacao farmers in Tabasco, Mexico. Results reveal that both ‘factors’ and ‘aspects’ of organisational configurations are significantly positively correlated with the performance indicators. Also, 14 of the 20 productivity management elements are significantly correlated with the performance indicators with three elements (‘participation in organic cacao production’, ‘farmer’s schooling’, and ‘price setting’ exerting strongest influence. Results also show that a set of fittest solutions, rather than a unique solution, exist amongst cacao farmers. The key policy implication is that both ‘efficiency’ and ‘effectiveness’ are valid strategies to cope with the challenging and competitive agro-food system environment. Policy makers should be aware of a set of solutions (fitness landscape instead of just focusing on a unique solution.

  13. 施用生物有机肥对可可苗期生长及土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Bio-organic Fertilizer Application on Cacao Plant Growth and Soil Enzyme Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青云; 王华; 王辉; 朱飞飞; 赵秋芳; 赵溪竹; 鱼欢; 朱自慧

    2013-01-01

    通过温室盆栽试验研究施用不同生物有机肥对可可苗期生长及土壤酶活性的影响.结果表明:施用生物有机肥BIOa和BIOb的处理可可植株干重,总根长、根系直径、根系表面积和根系总体积显著高于对照(单施化肥)及施用牛粪的处理;施用生物有机肥BIOa的处理可可叶片净光合速率、蒸腾速率和叶绿素含量与对照相比分别增加了169%、270%和28%;施用BIOa的处理土壤酸性磷酸酶、脲酶和蔗糖酶活性与对照相比显著提高了98.7%、92.2%和83.2%.综上所述,施用生物有机肥BIO可显著促进可可地上部植株和根系生长,同时也可显著提高相关土壤酶活性.%Green house pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of different bio-organic fertilizer application on cacao(Theobroma cacao.L)seedlings growth and soil enzyme activities.The main results obtained were listed as follows:application of bio-organic fertilizer could obviously increase cacao plant dry weights,total root length,root diameter,root surface area and root volume compared with the control and cattle manure treatments; application of bio-organic fertilizer BIOa significantly increased net photosynthetic,transpiration rate and Chlorophy by169%,270% and 28%,respectively compared with the control; application of bio-organic fertilizer BIOa obviously increased soil acidic phosphatase,urease and invertase activities by 98.7%,92.2% and 83.2%,respectively compared with the control.In conclusion,the application of bio-organic fertilizer can effectively promote cacao above-ground and root growth,moreover,significantly increase soil enzyme activities.

  14. Computer aided collimation gamma (Cacao): a new approach in measuring and visualizing the distribution of X and gamma ray emitters in contaminate wounds; Cacao (camera a collimation assistee par ordinateur): une nouvelle approche pour reconstruire et visualiser des contaminations d'emetteurs X et gamma dans les blessures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douiri, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere (LENA), 75 - Paris (France); Jeanguillaume, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Larrey, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 49 - Angers (France); Franck, D.; Carlan, L. de [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Quartuccio, M.; Begot, S. [Faculte des Sciences d' Orsay (LPS), 91 - Orsay (France)

    2003-07-01

    The treatment of contaminated wounds can be greatly improved by visualizing the distribution of the radioactivity that is present. The low sensitivity of the conventional Anger camera means that it can only be used where there is a high level of activity. Moreover, these gamma cameras cannot make full use of the recent progress made in high spatial resolution semi-conductor detectors. In order to increase sensitivity while at the same time maintaining a sufficient resolution of the reconstructed image, the principle of the Computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO in French) was proposed as a possible means of using gamma cameras in intern dosimetry. This principle is based on the combined use of collimators with holes that are wider- than the intrinsic resolution of the detector, circular and linear scanning movements, a detector sensitive to the source depth and a specific reconstruction algorithm. This article presents the recent developments of the CACAO system and illustrates by a theoretical and experimental study, its performances compared with the classic tomography system. We start with a general overview of the CACAO system and its reconstruction algorithm. First of all, the superiority of the CACAO system is demonstrated by a simulation ,study. Then, an experimental bench was developed using an implanted silicon pixel detector specifically designed to allow the visualization of a subject contaminated with low energy X and gamma emitters. The study presented here shows images obtained from a phantom composed of three sources of Americium {sup 341}Am. Although the comparison between the conventional and CACAO approaches were not carried out with optimal parameters, especially for CACAO, the initial results show that CACAO has an improved sensitivity and a superior resolution. Finally, the transposition of this system to the practical study of contaminated wounds is discussed. (authors)

  15. Caracterización del sistema proteolítico de Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) Evans et al., causante de la moniliasis del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    García Hernández, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo constituye el primer reporte sobre el estudio del sistema proteolítico del hongo Moniliophthora roreri, agente causal de la moniliasis del cacao. El trabajo inició con la identificación de la cepa aislada a partir de frutos de cacao infectados. La amplificación y secuenciación de un fragmento del gen 18S rDNA, permitió la identificación molecular de la cepa aislada como M. roreri, designada como MRO1. A continuación, se evaluó el crecimiento celular de ...

  16. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  17. Cacao families and parents selected as resistant to natural infection of Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina S. Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The known sources of resistance to witches’ broom (WB, a severe disease of cacao, are limited. Aiming to identify families and parents resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa, a population of 22 families was evaluated by assessing the number of brooms formed per tree during 10 years under field conditions. The population was established in randomized blocks with three replications of 12 plants each. Significant differences were observed among families. The most outstanding families were NA33 x RB39 and RB39 x P4B, which presented the lowest WB incidence during 10 years. The increase in natural field infection of Scavina clones families and their descendants were clearly demonstrated after 2006. The existence of additive effects for resistance appears clearly for families, which had other source of resistance associated with Scavina. Clones RB39, RB36, P4B, NA33 and CSUL3 are promising parents for pyramiding resistance genes and increasing the stability and durability of resistance to WB.

  18. Estado de la moniliasis del cacao causada por Moniliophthora roreri en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Correa Álvarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis es una enfermedad fúngica que ataca el cultivo de cacao, causada por el basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri. Está presente en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos y se adapta a diversidad de ambientes. En Colombia la enfermedad es devastadora y las estrategias de control tradicional han generado resultados colaterales como el fortalecimiento de la resistencia genética de cepas del hongo en algunas regiones. En esta revisión, se recopilan los aspectos biológicos y agronómicos más relevantes del hongo, entre ellos, origen y distribución, ciclo de vida, formas de control y trabajos de investigación realizados con el fin de entender la genética y evolución de este patógeno. Finalmente, se propone incrementar el número de estudios en investigación básica, con miras a entender cómo ha sido la evolución de su genoma en hábitats que favorecen la variación genética. Con este conocimiento se podría avanzar en programas biotecnológicos de control y prevención de la enfermedad.

  19. Spatial Variability of Soil Properties in Archeological Dark Earth Sites under Cacao Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Marcelo Pinheiro da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soils with an A horizon formed by human activity, an anthropogenic A horizon, are found in the Amazon Region. Few studies have examined the spatial distribution of the properties of these soils. We mapped the spatial variability of some soil properties in an area of Archaeological Dark Earth (ADE in the Brazilian Amazon. A sampling grid was defined over an area of 42 × 88 m under cacao cultivation in which sampling points were established at a spacing of 6 × 8 m, for a total of 88 points. Samples were collected from the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m depth layers. Soil texture, aggregate stability, and organic carbon (OC analyses were performed on disturbed soil samples. Undisturbed samples were used to determine soil macroporosity (Macro, microporosity (Micro, total porosity (TP, and soil resistance to penetration (RP. The results were analyzed by descriptive statistic, Pearson correlation (p<0.01, and geostatistics. Soil bulk density, total pore volume, and geometric mean diameter are dependent on the total amount of OC in the ADE area. Increased soil bulk density and RP are proportional to a decrease in OC content and lower Micro and TP. Moreover, soil resistance to penetration is influenced by soil water and clay content with depth.

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN AGROCLIMÁTICA DEL MACIZO MONTAÑOSO NIPE-SAGUA-BARACOA, EN FUNCIÓN DE LA ZONIFICACIÓN AGROECOLÓGICA PARA EL CACAO (T heobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicli M. Suárez Venero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una caracterización agroclimática del macizo montañoso Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa, para determinar la correspondencia entre el comportamiento de las condiciones climáticas y los requerimientos agroecológicos del cacao en función de lograr la zonificación agroecológica del mismo. Las variables climáticas evaluadas fueron las precipitaciones y las temperaturas. La escala temporal considerada para el registro de los datos fue la mensual y la información meteorológica general utilizada correspondió al período 1976-2006. Para el análisis de las precipitaciones se utilizó una serie de datos originados de las estaciones meteorológicas del Instituto de Meteorología y de 253 pluviómetros de la red del INRH. Para la temperatura del aire se realizaron correlaciones de las existentes con las ubicadas en las zonas más llanas y próximas al macizo montañoso, y se establecieron diferentes gradientes por altura. Se elaboraron los mapas con la distribución espacial de las precipitaciones media anual y las temperaturas media anual. Los resultados permitieron reconocer, que el comportamiento del régimen de las precipitaciones en esta región montañosa, garantiza humedecimiento alto y estable durante todo el año. Ello, unido a sus características térmicas, hacen posible la existencia de condiciones climáticas adecuadas para el desarrollo y crecimiento del cultivo del cacao. El 53 % de la superficie total del macizo montañoso Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa, posee condiciones climáticas óptimas, medianamente optimas y aceptables, que responden a los requerimientos del cacao.

  1. Perfil sensorial de pó de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. alcalinizado Sensory profile and acceptance of alkalinized cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Bispo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A Análise Descritiva Quantitativa(ADQ foi empregada para caracterização das amostras de pós de cacau que representaram a amplitude do delineamento composto rotacional central 2 do processo de alcalinização dos "nibs" de cacau. As variáveis independentes foram faixas de temperatura de 60 a 120 ºC, de tempo de 30 a 150min e de concentração de K2CO3 de 1,22 a 4,78%. Foram avaliadas oito amostras de pó de cacau representativas das variações de cor e aceitabilidade do total das amostras obtidas experimentalmente e duas amostras de marcas comerciais. A análise do aroma foi feita diretamente nos pós de cacau alcalinizados e a dos demais atributos na forma de bebida achocolatada (2% do pó de cacau e 7% de açúcar em leite desnatado esterilizado. Doze provadores selecionados com base no seu poder de discriminação, reprodutibilidade e concordância com a equipe geraram em consenso, pelo método de rede (Kelly's Repertory Grid Method, três termos descritos para o aroma (alcalino, chocolate e queimado e doze para os achocolatados (solubilidade, marrom, marrom avermelhado, chocolate, queimado, caramelo, doce, adstringente, alcalino, amargo, salgado e corpo. As avaliações das amostras foram feitas monadicamente com três repetições e em cabines individuais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a ANOVA, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. As avaliações dos aromas dos pós de cacau mostraram relação direta entre o aroma alcalino e os teores de álcali, temperatura e tempo do processo. De modo geral, os produtos com menores concentrações de K2CO3 (1,22 - 3,00% apresentaram aroma e sabor de chocolate mais fortes. Encontrou-se uma relação direta entre os teores de álcali no produto e o sabor alcalino, queimado e adstringente e uma relação inversa com a luminosidade da cor. Assim, as amostras com maior concentração de K2CO3 (4,78%, foram consideradas pela equipe sensorial, as de mais forte sabor e aroma alcalino, queimado e adstringente, assim como de cor marrom e marrom avermelhado mais escura. Todos os processos levaram à obtenção de amostras com alta solubilidade e fraco sabor amargo.The Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (ADQ was used aiming to show the sensory characterization of cocoa powder samples representing the range of a central composite design, 2³ of the process of alkalization of the cocoa "nibs" using variables independent such as temperature (60, 72, 90 and 108 ºC, time (30, 54, 90, 126 and 150min and concentration of K2CO3(0.0, 1.22, 3.0 and 4.78%. Two commercial samples of alkalinized cocoa powder were appraised. The analysis of the flavour was accomplished in the alkalinized cocoa powders and the other atributes in the chocolate beverage form (2% of the alkalinized cocoa powders and 7% of sugar in skimmed sterilized milk. Twelve panelists were selectedbased in their to detect setterness, reliability and agreement with the panel. The data were evaluated by means of variance analysis ANOVA for the factors sample and panelist, as well as of the interaction sample x panelist. The Tukey test was applied for comparison of the averages of samples at the level of 5%. The principal components technique was applied to the data, obtaining the configuration of the samples considering all attributes. Roughly samples with K2CO3 between 1.22 to 3.0% and one of the commercial samples were considered with stronger chocolate flavour, as well as, weaker alkaline flavour and taste. Samples with K2CO3 with 4,78% were considered the darkest color and strongest alkaline flavour and astringency. For the chocolate beverage there was no significant difference at 5% level in relation to solubility and bitter flavor.

  2. Perfil sensorial de pó de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) alcalinizado Sensory profile and acceptance of alkalinized cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) powder

    OpenAIRE

    Eliete da Silva Bispo; Vera Lúcia Pupo Ferreira; Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana; Katumi Yotsuyanagi

    2005-01-01

    A Análise Descritiva Quantitativa(ADQ) foi empregada para caracterização das amostras de pós de cacau que representaram a amplitude do delineamento composto rotacional central 2 do processo de alcalinização dos "nibs" de cacau. As variáveis independentes foram faixas de temperatura de 60 a 120 ºC, de tempo de 30 a 150min e de concentração de K2CO3 de 1,22 a 4,78%. Foram avaliadas oito amostras de pó de cacau representativas das variações de cor e aceitabilidade do total das amostras obtidas e...

  3. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Kenneth B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with (--epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin, but also the formation of (--catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (--epicatechin and (+-catechin and an increase in (--catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with lesser losses of (--catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (--catechin exceeds the level of (--epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (--catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (--epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (--epicatechin > (+-catechin > (--catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  4. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Malgorzata Kotowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing towards the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density. We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia; three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, wood density showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and wood density. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation

  5. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  6. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment. PMID:25873922

  7. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOPARASITIC ISOLATES OF TRICHODERMA ASPERELLUM WITH POTENTIAL FOR SUPRESSION OF BLACK POD DISEASE OF CACAO IN CAMEROON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative measures are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod disease in Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitism on P. megakarya. Only Trichoderma asperellum isolates 659-7, PR10, PR11, a...

  8. Isolation and identification of mycoparasitic isolates of Trichoderma asperellum with potential for suppression of black pod disease of cacao in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative measures to chemical fungicides are needed to control Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of black pod diseasein Central and West Africa. Precolonized plate and detached cacao pod assays were used to screen fungal isolates for mycoparasitismon P. megakarya. Of over 200 isolates...

  9. The Oil of Matico (Piper aduncum L.) an Alternative for the Control of Cacao Frosty Pod Rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cacao production in many Latin American countries is significantly reduced by frosty pod rot disease (Moniliophthora roreri) and yield reductions are to the extent of over 90% in many cases. The strategies of control includes: phytosanitation, genetic resistance, chemical and biological control....

  10. The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, S E; Alling, V; Martinsen, V; Mulder, J; Breedveld, G D; Cornelissen, G

    2013-06-01

    The sorption of PO4-P, NH4-N and NO3-N to cacao shell and corn cob biochars produced at 300-350°C was quantified. The biochars were used; (i) as received (unwashed), (ii) after rinsing with Millipore water and (iii) following leaching with Millipore water. In addition to sorption, desorption of PO4-P from the unwashed biochars was quantified. There was no sorption of PO4-P to either washed or rinsed biochars, but following leaching, both biochars adsorbed PO4-P and distribution coefficients (Kd L kg(-1)) were very similar for both materials (10(1.1±0.5) for cacao shell biochar and 10(1.0±0.2) for corn cob biochar). The BET surface area and micropore volume increased 80% and 60% for the cacao shell and corn cob biochars following leaching. After 60 d, 1483±45 mg kg(-1) and 172±1 mg kg(-1) PO4-P was released from the cacao shell and corn cob biochars. NH4-N was sorbed by both unwashed biochars, albeit weakly with Kd values around 10(2) L kg(-1). We speculate that NH4-N could bind via an electrostatic exchange with other cationic species on the surface of the biochar. There was no significant release or sorption of NO3-N from or to either of the biochars. PMID:23369636

  11. Effect of selective logging on genetic diversity and gene flow in Cariniana legalis sampled from a cacao agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J B; Santos, R P; Gaiotto, F A

    2014-01-28

    The fragments of the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia have a long history of intense logging and selective cutting. Some tree species, such as jequitibá rosa (Cariniana legalis), have experienced a reduction in their populations with respect to both area and density. To evaluate the possible effects of selective logging on genetic diversity, gene flow, and spatial genetic structure, 51 C. legalis individuals were sampled, representing the total remaining population from the cacao agroforestry system. A total of 120 alleles were observed from the 11 microsatellite loci analyzed. The average observed heterozygosity (0.486) was less than the expected heterozygosity (0.721), indicating a loss of genetic diversity in this population. A high fixation index (FIS = 0.325) was found, which is possibly due to a reduction in population size, resulting in increased mating among relatives. The maximum (1055 m) and minimum (0.095 m) distances traveled by pollen or seeds were inferred based on paternity tests. We found 36.84% of unique parents among all sampled seedlings. The progenitors of the remaining seedlings (63.16%) were most likely out of the sampled area. Positive and significant spatial genetic structure was identified in this population among classes 10 to 30 m away with an average coancestry coefficient between pairs of individuals of 0.12. These results suggest that the agroforestry system of cacao cultivation is contributing to maintaining levels of diversity and gene flow in the studied population, thus minimizing the effects of selective logging.

  12. Chemical speciation of cadmium: An approach to evaluate plant-available cadmium in Ecuadorian soils under cacao production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R S; Li, Y C; Baligar, V C

    2016-05-01

    Elevated concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao beans has raised serious concerns about the chocolate consumption on human health. Accumulation of Cd in cacao bean in southern Ecuador has been related to soil contamination. In this study, soil fractionation approach was used to identify available Cd pools in the soils and to correlate these Cd pools with bean Cd concentration and soil test indexes. The distribution of soil Cd fractions decreased in the order: oxidizable > acid-soluble > residual > reducible > water-soluble (+exchangeable). Oxidizable and acid-soluble fractions accounted for 59 and 68% of the total recoverable Cd for the 0-5 and 5-15 cm soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble fraction was closely related to bean-Cd, with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.70 and 0.81 (P soil depth, respectively. Acid-soluble Cd was significantly correlated with 0.01 M HCl- (r = 0.99, P soils is related to the acid-soluble fraction and bound to organic matter, remediation of the contaminated soils should consider to the dynamics of soil pH and organic matter content.

  13. Energy and water fluxes above a cacao agroforestry system in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, indicate effects of land-use change on local climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.; Oltchev, A.; Kreilein, H.; Merklein, J.; Gravenhorst, G. [Inst. of Bioclimatology, Univ. Goettingen (Germany); June, T. [Inst. Pertanian Bogor, BIOTROP-ICSEA, Bogor (Indonesia); Rauf, A. [Univ. Tadulako, Palu (Indonesia)

    2005-04-01

    Rapid conversion of tropical rainforests to agricultural land-use types occurs throughout Indonesia and South-East Asia. We hypothesize that these changes in land-use affect the turbulent heat exchange processes between vegetation and the atmosphere, and the radiative properties of the surface, and therefore, induce an impact on local climate and water flows. As part of the international research project (SFB 552, Stability of Rainforest Margins in Indonesia, STORMA) the turbulent heat fluxes over a cacao agroforestry system (AFS) were investigated, using the eddy covariance technique. These first heat flux observations above a cacao AFS showed an unexpectedly large contribution of the sensible heat flux to the total turbulent heat transport, resulting in an averaged day-time Bowen ratio of {beta} = H/{lambda}E {approx} 1. Seasonality of {beta} did mainly coincide with the seasonal course of precipitation, which amounted to 1970 mm yr{sup -1} during the investigated period. The findings are compared to investigations at four neotropical rain forests where daytime {beta} were substantially smaller than 1. All discussed sites received similar incident short wave radiation, however, precipitation at the neotropical sites was much higher. Our first observations in a nearby Indonesian upland rain forest where precipitation was comparable to that at the cacao AFS showed an intermediate behaviour. Differences in {beta} between the cacao AFS and the tropical forests are discussed as a consequence of differing precipitation amounts, and albedo. From these comparisons we conclude that conversion from tropical forests to cacao AFS affects the energy fluxes towards increased heating of the day-time convective boundary-layer. (orig.)

  14. PEMANFAATAN EKSTRAKSI KULIT ARI BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L) PADA PRODUK COOKIES COKELAT

    OpenAIRE

    MARINA RESKI, ANDI

    2012-01-01

    Kulit ari biji kakao merupakan salah satu hasil samping dari kakao yang pemanfaatannya hanya sebagai pakan ternak dan bernilai ekonomis rendah. Nilai ekonomis dari kulit ari biji kakao dapat ditingkatkan dengan mengekstraksi kulit ari biji kakao menggunakan methanol menjadi bubuk lalu diaplikasikan kedalam produk cookies. Cookies merupakan salah satu jenis biskuit yang dibuat dari adonan lunak, berkadar lemak tinggi dan relatif renyah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jumlah bubu...

  15. Estudo reológico de chocolates elaborados com diferentes cultivares de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O chocolate pode ser definido como uma suspensão de partículas sólidas (açúcar, sólidos de cacau e sólidos de leite em uma fase gordurosa contínua, que contribui para o aroma, o sabor e a cor, além de promover forma ao produto final. A reologia de chocolates é quantificada durante a produção usando-se dois parâmetros: tensão inicial (yield stress e viscosidade aparente (plástica, em que, geralmente, se utiliza o modelo de Casson. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar reologicamente formulações de chocolates produzidos a partir de diferentes cultivares de cacau. As amostras de chocolate foram formuladas com 73,6% de cacau e foram realizadas as seguintes análises: determinação do teor de lipídeos; composição em triacilgliceróis; testes reológicos, e análise do tamanho máximo de partículas. O chocolate proveniente da cultivar PH16 apresentou menor conteúdo de gordura (36,53 g.100 g–1, maior tamanho de partículas (21 µm, maior valor de tensão inicial (20,91 Pa e maior área de histerese, com mais ampla tixotropia quando comparada às amostras dos chocolates provenientes das cultivares SR162 e Convencional. Os resultados encontrados no estudo reológico mostraram a interferência do conteúdo de gordura e do tamanho de partículas na tensão inicial dos produtos.

  16. Early Yield and Economical Study of Pogostemon Cablinas Intercrop in Young Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Prawoto; M Sholeh N.P

    2006-01-01

    Pogostemon cablinis an important source of volatile oil for pharmaceutical and cosmetical products. Agronomical aspect of this commodity needs open ecosystem, but for certain level of shading, this crop may yield economically. A study to evaluate the effect of P. cablinintercropped on young cocoa farm, had been conducted during 2005, in Kaliwining Experimental Station of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI) 45 m above sea level, D climate type (Schmidt and Fergusson), and on...

  17. Top Grafting Performance of Some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones as Affected by Scion Budwood Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing budwood number is an efficient effort to overcome problemsrelated with limited scion materials. The objective of this research was to studythe effect of scion budwood number in some clones on the performance of graftedcocoa seedlings. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, Indonesia at an elevationof 48 m above sea level. Layout for this study used factorial with 2 factors inrandomized complete block design, with four replications for every treatment.The first factor was clone type, namely MCC 02 and Sulawesi 1; whereas the secondfactor was number of grafted scion budwood, namely one, two, and three graftedbudwoods. There was no interaction between clone and number of scion budwoodfor variables of shoot length, stem girth, content of total chlorophyll, chlorophylla, and chlorophyll b. Meanwhile, there was interaction for stomatal conductanceand stomatal diffusion resistance. Clone significantly affected photosynthesisand stomatal diffusion resistance, while number of scion budwood affected significantlythe shoot length. Photosynthesis activity of MCC 02 was higher comparedto Sulawesi 1. In average, stomatal diffusion resistance of Sulawesi 1 was higherthan MCC 02. The shoot length of one grafted budwood was higher than thetwo or three grafted budwood.

  18. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation.

  19. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  20. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Nascimento da Silva; Danilo da Cruz Ramos; Lígia Miranda Menezes; Alexilda Oliveira de Souza; Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes; Marcondes viana da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH), produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary...

  1. Use of a proteolytic enzyme in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Sousa de Brito

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysis using an exogenous protease on cocoa nibs was performed to verify the formation of precursors and the effect on cocoa flavour. An experimental design was used to check the influence of temperature (30 to 70 ºC and enzyme : substrate ratio [E/S] (97.5 to 1267.5 U g-1 of protein. The % Degree of Hydrolysis (% DH was affected mainly by [E/S] leading to a 4-fold increase (from 5 to 20 % after 6 hours of treatment. During cocoa nibs roasting, there was a greater consumption of hydrolysis compounds in the sample treated with protease as compared to the control, indicating their participation in the Maillard reaction. An increased perception of chocolate flavour and bitter taste was observed in a product formulated with protease treated cocoa.Foi feita uma hidrólise da proteína dos nibs de cacau usando-se uma protease para verificar a formação de precursores e o efeito sobre o sabor do cacau. Um desenho experimental foi usado para verificar a influência da temperatura (30 a 70 ºC e razão enzima : substrato [E/S] (97,5 a 1267,5 U g-1 de proteína. O grau de hidrólise % (%DH foi afetado principalmente pela [E/S], tendo sofrido um aumento de 4 vezes (de 5 para 20 % após 6 horas de tratamento. Durante a torração dos nibs houve um consumo maior dos compostos de hidrólise na amostra tratada com protease em comparação com o controle, indicando a participação desses compostos na reação de Maillard. Foi observado um aumento na percepção do sabor de chocolate e do gosto amargo em um produto formulado com o cacau tratado com a protease.

  2. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nascimento da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH, produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary fiber, flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity using an EC50. It was observed that cocoa honey can be considered a source of bioactive compounds, can be consumed in natura or processed, and used as an ingredient in the chocolate industry and in other food products. However, it is necessary to use complementary methods, such as HPLC, to quantify the phenolic compounds of this by-product.

  3. Localization and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Theobroma cacao L. Somatic Embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    ALEMANNO, L.; Ramos, T.; GARGADENEC, A.; ANDARY, C.; FERRIERE, N.

    2003-01-01

    Cocoa breeders and growers continue to face the problem of high heterogeneity between individuals derived from one progeny. Vegetative propagation by somatic embryogenesis could be a way to increase genetic gains in the field. Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. This study was conducted to investigate the phenolic composition of cocoa flowers (the explants used to achieve somatic embryogenesis) and how it changes during the process, by m...

  4. Physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes submitted to flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding is common in lowlands and areas with high rainfall or excessive irrigation. One major effect of this stress is the deprivation of O2 in the root zone, which affects several biochemical and morphophysiological plants processes. This study aimed to elucidate biochemical and physiological char...

  5. Numerous clones resistant to Phytophthora palmivora in the "Guiana" genetic group of Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Thevenin

    Full Text Available Cocoa black pod rot, a disease caused by Stramenopiles of the genus Phytophthora, and particularly by the pan-tropical species P. palmivora, causes serious production losses worldwide. In order to reduce the impact of these pests and diseases, preference is given to genetic control using resistant varieties and, to that end, breeders seek sources of resistance in wild cocoa trees. For instance, surveys of spontaneous cocoa trees in French Guiana between 1985 and 1995 led to the collection of abundant plant material forming a particular genetic group (the "Guiana" group. Following numerous one-off studies demonstrating the merits of this group as a source of resistance to Phytophthora, this article presents the results of a comprehensive study assessing the resistance of 186 "Guiana" clones in relation to the Guianan strain (GY 27 of P. palmivora. This study, undertaken in French Guiana, using an efficient methodology (ten series of tests and a statistical test adapted to the ordinal nature of the data confirmed that the "Guiana" genetic group does indeed constitute an important source of resistance to P. palmivora, though with some variations depending on the demes of origin. Numerous clones (59 proved to be as resistant as the SCAVINA 6 resistance control, whilst nine were statistically more resistant. The "Resistant" and "Moderately Resistant" Guianan clones totalled 108 (58% of the total tested. Some of the clones more resistant than SCAVINA 6 could be incorporated into numerous cocoa breeding programmes, particularly those that also display other notable qualities. The same applies for numerous other clones equivalent to SCAVINA 6, especially the "elite"' clones GU 134-B, GU 139-A and GU 285-A.

  6. In vitro seed germination and rootstock establishing for micrografting of Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micrografting has been successfully implemented in several plant species of Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Havea, Malus, Olea, Opuntia, Prunus and other genera. This technique is employed for plant rejuvenation, true-to-type propagation, genetic improvement, recovery of virus-free plants, testing of po...

  7. A physiological production model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao): model presentation validation and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Gerritsma, W.; Mommer, L.; Anten, N.P.R.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of the economic importance and extensive agronomic literature on cocoa, no physiological production model has been developed for cocoa so far. Such a model would be very useful to compare yields in different climates and cropping systems, and to set the agenda for future agronomic research.

  8. Resterilization in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryogenesispropagation to save contaminated embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas; Cahya Ismayadi

    2011-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a technique to produce primary embryos using tissue culture. Contamination in tissue culture can be caused by internal and external contaminant. Resterilization can be performed to save contaminated embryos. The aim of this research is to obtain resterilization method in cocoa micropropagation by tissue culture so that free bacterial explants can be obtained and embryogenic. This experiments used five clones of cocoa, namely Sulawesi 1, KW 514, ICCRI 05, ICCRI 03 and ...

  9. Functional analysis of the theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Verica Joseph; Liu Yi; Maximova Siela N; Shi Zi; Guiltinan Mark J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1) that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response. After pathogen infection and in response to salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, NPR1 translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus where it interacts with other transcription factors resulting in increased expression of over 2000 plant defense genes contributing to a pathogen resistance response. Results A putative Theo...

  10. Relationship between Physiological Characteristic and Bean Quality on Some Cocoa Clones (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is one of the physiological process that influence the bean weight and this process related with the efectiveness of the stomata character and chlorophyll content in the leaves. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Design of experiment was randomized complete block design (RCBD consisted of six clones as treatment were Sulawesi 1, Sulawesi 2, Sca 6, ICS 60, TSH 858, ICCRI 03, PA 300. Each treatment was replicated three times.  Stomata resistance diffusion, tranpiration,the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total (a+b, bean number and bean weight were observed. The resuts  of experiment showed that  difference in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll total (a+b, stomata resistance diffusion, bean number and bean weight existed within  six clones tested. Transpiration rate did not show the significantly different between six clones tested. Sulawesi 1 showed the highest content of chlorophyll a and  ICS 60 and ICCRI 03 showed higher content of chlorophyll b than the other clones. Chlorophyll a, b and total (a+b showed positively influence on bean number and bean weight. Transpiration rate had negatively influence to bean number per pod, on the otherhand it showed positively influence to bean weight. Chlorophyll total (a+b showed high genetic variance (σg2, high phenotypic variance (σf2  and high estimated value of heritability (H.  The chlorophyll a,b had moderate genetic variance, moderate phenotypic variance and high of estimated value of heritability.  Chlorophyll total (a+b could be used a selection criteria based on the value of correlation, genetic variance, phenotypic variance and estimated value of heritability would give high opportunity in selection process. 

  11. EL CACAO: AYER, HOY Y SIEMPRE EN EL DESARROLLO SOCIOECONÓMICO Y CULTURAL DEL MUNDO, NORTE DE SANTANDER Y CÚCUTA

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Eugenia Ramírez Villar

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo es un breve relato de la historia del cacao en el mundo, en Colombia y en Cúcuta, surge de un trabajo de investigación histórico y retoma historias de Venezuela, Colombia, Francia, África, Italia, entre otros países que protagonizaron o ayudaron a que el cacao surgiera en la región y se posicionara en el sector productivo. La conclusión de la investigación está basada en el recuento según la región de Norte de Santander y Cúcuta, mostrando datos curiosos de la evolución del caca...

  12. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the Cs extraction and immobilization in fly ash during water, methanol or n-MCaS extraction. - Highlights: • nMCaS suspension for cesium extraction and immobilization in fly ash was developed. • Enhanced cesium immobilization was done by nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. • By SEM analysis the amount of cesium detectable on soil particle surface decreases. • Leachable cesium concentrations reduced, lower than the standard regulatory limit. • nMCaS unique and a highly potential amendment for the remediation of Cs. - Abstract: In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable (133Cs) and radioactive cesium species (134Cs and 137Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of 133Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of 133Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable 133Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040 Bq kg−1134Cs and 137Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583 Bq kg−1 after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100 Bq L−1 total 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000 Bq kg−1 and 150 Bq L−1 respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash

  13. Efecto del Tostado Sobre los Metabolitos Secundarios y la Actividad Antioxidante de Clones de Cacao Colombiano / Effect of Roasting on the Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Colombian Cocoa Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zapata Bustamante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El tostado es una de las operaciones tecnológicas másimportantes en el procesamiento de los granos de cacao; esteproceso conduce a la formación de los productos de la reacciónde Maillard (RM los cuales son cruciales para el desarrollo dela calidad organoléptica de los granos de cacao y sus productosasociados. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto del tostadosobre el contenido de metabolitos secundarios y la actividadantioxidante en cinco clones de cacao cultivados en Colombia.En los extractos metanólicos de los diferentes clones de cacao sedeterminó el contenido de fenoles totales, taninos condensados,antocianinas totales, catequina y epicatequina, teobromina ycafeína. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante pormedio de la actividad atrapadora del radical ABTS•+, el métodoORAC y la capacidad atrapadora de radicales superóxido. Enconclusión, el efecto del tostado en los clones de cacao no tuvo uncomportamiento uniforme sobre los cambios en los contenidos delos diversos metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antioxidante. /  Abstract. Roasting is one of the most important technologicaloperations in the processing of cocoa beans; this process leads tothe formation of products of the Maillard reaction (RM, which arecrucial for the development of organoleptic quality of cocoa beansand its associated products. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of roasting on the content of secondary metabolites andantioxidant activity in five Colombian cocoa clones, by differentmethodologies. The methanolic extracts of the cocoa beans wereanalyzed for total phenols content, condensed tannins, totalantiocianins, catechin and epicatechin, theobromine and caffeine.The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS assay, ORACmethod and superoxide radical scavenging method. The effect ofroasting on cocoa clones did not have an unspecified behavior. Inconclusion, the effect of roasting of cacao clones was not uniformon the

  14. El sitio Cueva Cacao 1A: hallazgos, espacio y proceso de complejidad en la Puna meridional (ca. 3000 años A. P.)

    OpenAIRE

    Olivera, Daniel Enzo; Vidal, Aixa S.; Grana, Lorena

    2003-01-01

    El estudio de objetos poco frecuentes en los sitios arqueológicos, como los realizados con materiales perecederos, constituye una importante fuente de información sobre distintos aspectos de la vida cotidiana de los grupos prehistóricos, no sólo en las cuestiones vinculadas directamente con la subsistencia sino también en lo relativo a la esfera social, al ritual y a las relaciones entre grupos. Las características de gran aridez, sedimentación eólica y difícil acceso del sitio Cueva Cacao 1A...

  15. Evaluación de la sostenibilidad de los cultivos de café y cacao en las provincias de Orellana y sucumbíos – Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Viteri, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    El café y cacao a nivel mundial son producidos mayoritariamente por pequeños agricultores, con superficies menores a 3 hectáreas. Esto implica que la producción de estos commodities, no solo constituye una fuente de ingresos económicos para millones de familias, sino también son fuente de alimentos, al asociar estos cultivos con otras especies. Asimismo, su producción garantiza una fuente de trabajo, contribuyendo a reducir la pobreza, y aislándolos de la posibilidad de incurrir en la siembra...

  16. La incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial entre 1840 y 1925, según los informes consulares

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Maiguashca

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo ofrece una reinterpretación del proceso de incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial, entre 1840 y 1925. Esta revisión se realiza a partir de los conceptos desarrollados por el economista italiano Giovanni Arrighi: incorporación nominal, incorporación periférica e incorporación no-periférica. Por medio de estos, el ensayo analiza la variedad de enlaces que se desarrollaron entre el centro y la periferia, y dentro la periferia misma. Se estudian especialmente dos mom...

  17. Pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable, Sector Cacao, Estado Sucre. Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    María Lourdes Bruzco Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Se reflexiona sobre el pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable en el sector cacao del estado Sucre, a partir de la racionalidad existente en el área y la que emerge al acercarse el sujeto indagador influenciado por el campo de las ciencias administrativas y gerenciales. La investigación se aborda desde la perspectiva interpretativa, haciendo uso del método hermenéutico. Se encontró: 1. Los informantes poseen conocimiento sobre los elementos constitutivo...

  18. Método Posible para la Comprobación de la Cáscara de Cacao en el Café Molido.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Madariaga G.

    1940-06-01

    Full Text Available Un café sobre todo si se halla finamente molido, puede contener hasta un 30% de cáscara de cacao, sin que su aspecto físico haga aparente la adulteración. La prueba cualitativa de dicha adulteración sólo puede obtenerse mediante el microscopio, lo cual requiere bastante experiencia. La adición al café de 20% de cáscara de cacao, causa en los componentes anotados, variaciones tan pequeñas que, por lo general, se hallan dentro de los límites aceptados para cafés de distintas procedencias. El punto de partida de nuestra investigación ha sido la separación de la cáscara por gravedad. Entre las diversas soluciones ensayadas con tal fin, hallamos la de hiposulfito de sodio más conveniente, por la gran solubilidad de esta sal y por ser el hiposulfito un producto barato, fácil de obtener en cualquier parte.

  19. La producción de cacao en el estado Zulia: impacto socioeconómico en los cacaocultores "Ruta del Chocolate"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Portillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se realizó con el objetivo de promover el desarrollo de la cacaocultura del estado Zulia, mediante la transferencia tecnológica. Se utilizo el diagnóstico participativo, entrevistas directas, asistencia técnica, reuniones y dictado de cursos. Como resultados preliminares tenemos: Organización de 9 asociaciones de productores, 300 productores capacitados sobre el manejo agronómico del cultivo y aspectos organizacionales, Fortalecimiento del Laboratorio de Tecnología de alimentos de la Facultad de Agronomía de LUZ. El trabajo ha servido de incentivo para los productores del estado Zulia a fin de rescatar el cacao como rubro generador de divisas para los cacaocultores y el país.

  20. Pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable, Sector Cacao; Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Bruzco Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reflexiona sobre el pensamiento estratégico emergente en la construcción de la realidad sustentable en el sector cacao del estado Sucre, a partir de la racionalidad existente en el área y la que emerge al acercarse el sujeto indagador influenciado por el campo de las ciencias administrativas y gerenciales. La investigación se aborda desde la perspectiva interpretativa, haciendo uso del método hermenéutico. Se encontró: 1. Los informantes poseen conocimiento sobre los elementos constitutivos del pensamiento estratégico en mayor grado que aquellos que dan vida al desarrollo sustentable. 2. Las ideas expuestas convergen en una estructura de partes interrelacionadas en atención a las teorías revisadas. Se concluye que los gerentes encuestados de las pyme consideradas relacionan ambos conceptos, siendo ventajoso para el sector.

  1. Les difficultés de la replantation. Quel avenir pour le cacao en Côte d’Ivoire ?

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    Ruf François

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La conférence internationale sur le thème « Quel avenir pour les cultures pérennes ? » est née de deux préoccupations. La première recouvre le champ des difficultés de la replantation, difficultés techniques, économiques mais aussi environnementales, sociales et politiques : comment replanter 1 ? La seconde est la baisse des cours, probablement structurelle, de la plupart des matières premières agricoles, notamment de celles produites par des cultures pérennes. Si les prix restent aussi bas de façon aussi durable, pourquoi replanter ? De même qu’il est toujours de bon aloi d’acheter des actions quand la bourse s’écroule, les économistes recommandent de planter quand les cours des matières premières sont à leur plancher. Toutefois, si des centaines de milliers d’hectares sont plantés par des producteurs qui anticipent une remontée des cours, celle-ci peut alors être fort retardée. Cette capacité à anticiper un retour à des prix élevés est ainsi une des causes du prolongement de la phase des très bas prix du cacao jusqu’en 2001, ce qui semble bien relever d’un échec du marché 2. Le pourquoi et le comment de la replantation sont bien indissociables. Face aux enjeux, de nombreux pays détenteurs du patrimoine « cultures pérennes tropicales » ne manquent-ils pas d’une véritable politique de replantation prenant acte des changements nécessaires dans les conditions de production, se remettant en cause, tout en faisant face aux difficultés à interpréter les marchés ? Les problèmes de replantation ne peuvent se surmonter qu’à partir d’une compréhension des processus en œuvre, sur le terrain, en commençant par les décisions des producteurs. Les exemples, les études de cas, par village, par région, restent donc des fondamentaux pour une réflexion globale, pour une anticipation des problèmes, une action nationale, voire internationale, sur la replantation. En même temps, la question de

  2. EFEK KONSUMSI MINUMAN BUBUK KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. BEBAS LEMAK TERHADAP SIFAT ANTIOKSIDATIF LIMFOSIT SUBYEK PEREMPUAN [The Effect of Fat Free Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L. Powder Drinks Consumption on Antioxidative Activity of Lymphocyte of Women Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erniati1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of cocoa both in vivo and in vitro have been reported in many studies. Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids known to have antioxidant activity, such as catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of fat free cocoa powder drink consumption on antioxidative properties and proliferation activities of woman lymphocyte. Healthy woman subjects were divided into cocoa group (n = 9 and control group (n = 9. Cocoa powder drink containing skim milk and sugar was given to the cocoa groups every morning for 25 days. The control group received only water containing skim milk and sugar. Both cocoa and control group received physical medical checkup at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Their peripheral blood was taken for lymphocyte antioxidant analysis. The measured antioxidant properties consisted of antiradical activity by DPPH method, malonaldehyde (MDA and glutathione levels. The data of cocoa group showed that there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in antiradical level from 31+11.2 to 40.19+7.42% and glutathione from 48.2±10.5 to 66.7±15.9 μmol/land a decrease in MDA level in the lymphocyte (p < 0.05 from 2.98±2.21 to 1.29±0.33 μmol/las compared to the control group (from 25.77±6.9 to 26.79±6.12%; 34.7±20.7 to 37.8±19.2 μmol/land 3.01±1.53 to 2.069±0.707 μmol/l respectively after consumption of the cocoa powder drink. The results of this research revealed that fat free cocoa powder has a strong antioxidant activity which was manifested up to the blood cells.

  3. Assessing Genetic Diversity Cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL.) Collection Resistant to Cocoa Pod Borer Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Wahyu Susilo; Dapeng Zhang; Lambert Motilal

    2013-01-01

    Breeding  for  cocoa  pod  borer  (CPB)  resistance  on  cocoa  was  initiated  by selecting  the  resistant  genotypes  through  cocoa  farm  in  the  endemic  area.  For breeding  purpose  the  collected  genotypes  should  be  assessed  for  their  diversity  in  constructing  appropriate  mating  design.  This  research  has  objective  to assess  genetic  diversity  of  the  exploratory  collection  using  DNA  fingerprinting. The  tested  clones  were  25  exploratory  collections  comp...

  4. Respons Pertumbuhan Bibit Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.)Terhadap Pemberian Abu Janjang Kepada Sawit Dan Pupu Urea Pada Media Pembibitan

    OpenAIRE

    Sidabutar, Sarah Vitya

    2013-01-01

    SARAH VITRYA SIDABUTAR : the response of cocoa seedlings growth for giving palm bunch ash and urea fertilizer in the media of nursery, Led by Ir. Balonggu Siagian, MS and Ir Meiriani, MP. The research was conducted in the field UPT BBI, Tanjung Selamat at an altitude ± 57 meters above sea level since May 2012 until August 2012 using Randomized Block Design (RBD) factorial with two factors. The first factor is palm bunch ( 0, 10, 20, and 30 gram/polybag). The second factor ...

  5. Respons Pertumbuhan Bibit Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap Pemberian Abu Boiler dan Pupuk Urea pada Media Pembibitan

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Uli Kris Putri

    2014-01-01

    Growing media fertility can be improved or enhanced with inorganic or organic fertilizer, such as boiler ash, which is one type of solid waste by-product of palm oil mills as well as the source of nitrogen urea fertilizer, is expected to boost growth of cocoa seedling in the nursery. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Pertanian USU in May 2013 until September 2013, using factorial randomized block design with two factor, i.e. dose of boiler ash (0, 100, 200, a...

  6. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  7. Changes in Biochemical and Physico-chemical Qualities during Drying of Pulp Preconditioned and Fermented Cocoa (Theobroma cacao Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of post-harvest pod storage as a means of pulp preconditioning on the souring production, flavour precursors development and free fatty acids during drying of fermented Ghanaian cocoa beans. A 4 x 4 full factorial experiment was conducted with pod storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days and drying times (0, 2, 4 and 6 days as the principal factors. The souring/acidification indices (pH and titratable acidity, total sugar, total nitrogen and free fatty acids (FFA were studied using standard analytical methods. The results showed that titratable acidity, total sugars and total nitrogen in cocoa beans decreased during drying and with increasing pod storage durations probably due to their participation in Maillard non-enzymatic reactions to form flavour volatiles and colour pigments as Amadori intermediates. By contrast, FFAs and pH increased during drying and with increasing pod storage durations. Pod storage for up to 7 days followed by 6 days of fermentation and drying respectively produced beans with acceptable FFA values below 1.75% whilst enhancing the flavour precursors development and reductions in nib acidity. However, these observed changes were more dependent on pod storage than on drying.

  8. Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method. PMID:25529678

  9. El mono y el cacao: la búsqueda de un mito a través de los relieves del Grupo de la Serie Inicial de Chichén Itzá Monkey and Cacao: in Search of a Myth Through the Initial Series Group Reliefs in Chichén Itzá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ilia Nájera Coronado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientes estudios sobre el cacao han subrayado la relevancia del árbol y de su fruto en diferentes ámbitos de la cultura maya y podría afirmarse que, después del maíz, fue la planta más venerada; su valor destaca en la esfera económica, en la social y, por supuesto, también en la religiosa. A pesar de ello se desconocen mitos sobre cómo los hombres llegaron a obtenerlo; por ello, con base en el modelo mítico mesoamericano del maíz, se propone una interpretación sustentada principalmente en el análisis de algunos de los relieves del Grupo de la Serie Inicial ubicado en Chichén Itzá, en la que el simio juega un papel relevante.Recent studies about cacao symbolism have stressed the importance of this plant and its bean in several contexts of ancient Maya culture, sustaining the assumption that it was the most revered plant after corn. Its value stands out in economic and social terms and, of course, in religious contexts. However, we do not know the mythical beliefs related with its procurement for the human beings; in this paper we propose a possible interpretation, based on the maize mythical model and supported by several representations from the Initial Series Group of Chichén Itzá, where monkeys play an important role.

  10. Análisis del diseño de voladuras con cargas compactas en la cantera de áridos El Cacao

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    José A. Otaño-Noguel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante las  voladuras primarias en la cantera de áridos El Cacao se obtiene un alto porcentaje de pedazos con dimensiones superiores a los admitidos por los eslabones siguientes de la cadena tecnológica, lo que provoca la necesidad de la fragmentación secundaria,  trayendo esto aparejado numerosos inconvenientes, el encarecimiento de las labores y el incremento  del  costo  de  producción. Para un diseño racional de las voladuras se requiere conocer las propiedades físicas de las rocas así como la acción de la explosión en el medio. En el presente trabajo  se  determinan esas propiedades y se ofrecen los resultados del estudio de la acción de la explosión en el medio provocado por la detonación de una carga compacta de sustancia explosiva.

  11. La incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial entre 1840 y 1925, según los informes consulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Maiguashca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece una reinterpretación del proceso de incorporación del cacao ecuatoriano al mercado mundial, entre 1840 y 1925. Esta revisión se realiza a partir de los conceptos desarrollados por el economista italiano Giovanni Arrighi: incorporación nominal, incorporación periférica e incorporación no-periférica. Por medio de estos, el ensayo analiza la variedad de enlaces que se desarrollaron entre el centro y la periferia, y dentro la periferia misma. Se estudian especialmente dos momentos de este proceso: 1840-1890 y 1890-1910. El análisis de las articulaciones externas e internas que se dieron en cada una de estas fases y los factores de producción que los sustentaron permiten caracterizar al primer momento como ‘incorporación nominal’ y al segundo como ‘periférica’. Esta distinción permite una mejor comprensión del auge cacaotero ecuatoriano en el largo siglo XIX. El trabajo se basa en los informes consulares extranjeros, un tipo de documentación que no ha sido suficientemente estudiada todavía.

  12. Diversidade genética entre acessos de cacau de fazendas e de banco de germoplasma na Bahia Genetic diversity among farm and germplasm bank accessions of cacao in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeiza Botelho Leal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de cacau, selecionados previamente como produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa na Bahia, e estudar suas inter-relações com genótipos no banco de germoplasma. Amostras de DNA de folhas dos 120 acessos, coletados em 17 fazendas de sete municípios do Sul da Bahia, foram amplificadas pela técnica de RAPD ("random amplified polymorphic DNA". Os coeficientes de dissimilaridade genética, calculados pelo método de Jaccard a partir das bandas RAPD, permitiram evidenciar, pela análise de agrupamento, que a maioria das seleções das fazendas (89,2% agrupou-se com acessos do banco de germoplasma considerados representativos da diversidade de cacau (híbridos, trinitários, Scavinas, amazônicos e cacau-comum. As demais seleções distribuíram-se em outros sete grupos distintos. Há elevada diversidade genética entre as seleções das fazendas, e algumas delas devem ter-se originado de genitores não incluídos nesta análise. Esses materiais apresentam potencial para seleção de clones com maior diversidade para novos cruzamentos ou uso pelos agricultores.The objective of this work was to assess genetic diversity of farm cacao accessions, previously selected as productive and resistant to witch broom in Bahia, Brazil, and to study their interrelationship with reference genotypes on germplasm bank. DNA samples from 120 cacao accessions, collected on 17 farms in seven counties in Southern Bahia, were amplified by RAPD technique (random amplified polymorphic DNA. The coefficients of genetic dissimilarity, calculated from the RAPD bands by Jaccard method, allowed to show by cluster analysis that most farm selections (89.2% grouped with accessions from germplasm bank considered representatives of the cacao genetic diversity (hybrids, Trinitarian, Scavina, Amazon and common cacao. The other selections were distributed in seven distinct groups. There is high genetic

  13. Desarrollo y optimización de una metodología analítica para la determinación de sedimento en bebida de mesa derivada del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Juliana; Tello, Myriam; Ostos, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio encaminado a desarrollar y optimizar una metodología analítica que permita determinar la cantidad de sedimento que presenta una bebida derivada del cacao (chocolate de mesa), para ser aplicada como prueba rutinaria de control de calidad indicadora del proceso, con base en los principios de la sedimentación. Para la caracterización del sedimento, se hizo la distribución de tamaños de partícula, porcentaje de grasa y peso del sedimento en seco. El desarrollo...

  14. Diversidad, fluctuación poblacional y plantas huésped de escolitinos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México Diversity, dynamic population and host plants of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae associated to the cocoa agroecosystem in Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pérez-De La Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de escolitinos asociados con el agroecosistema cacao en Tabasco, México durante el año 2007. Los insectos adultos fueron recolectados en 4 localidades con trampas de alcohol etílico, trampas de atracción luminosa y captura directa sobre sus plantas huésped. Se recolectaron 19 263 ejemplares, pertenecientes a 51 especies y 26 géneros. Araptus hymenaeae y Cnesinus squamosus son nuevos registros para México. La máxima diversidad de insectos capturados con los 3 métodos de recolecta se obtuvo en El Bajío (H'=2.45 y Dmg=4.83, la mínima en Río Seco (H'=2.29 y Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, y el máximo valor de equidad (J lo obtuvo El Bajío (0.67. El índice de similitud de Sorensen (Is mostró que los sitios de estudio tienden a presentar la misma composición de especies. Los índices de diversidad, equidad y similitud, aplicados a la fauna de escolitinos capturados con cada uno de los métodos empleados, mostraron diferencias, excepto en las trampas de alcohol. La fluctuación presenta picos poblacionales marcados al inicio y al final del año de estudio. Las plantas en las que se recolectó el mayor número de especies fueron Theobroma cacao (16 y Swietenia macrophylla (13.The bark and ambrosia beetle diversity in cocoa agroecosystems was studied during 2007 in Tabasco, Mexico. Adult insects were gathered in 4 localities with ethanol and light traps and by direct collecting in their host plants. 19 263 specimens were gathered, belonging to 51 species and 26 genera. Araptus hymenaeae and Cnesinus squamosus are new records for Mexico. The maximum diversity of insects captured with the 3 collecting methods was obtained in El Bajío (H'=2.45 and Dmg=4.83, the minimum in Río Seco (H'=2.29 and Km. 21 (Dmg=3.85, and the maximum value of justness (J was obtained in El Bajío (0.67. The Sorensen similarity index (Is showed that the study places present the same species composition. The diversity, justness and similarity indices

  15. Validation of a site specific management for plant nutrition in the cocoa crop in the province of Guayas, Ecuador Validación del manejo de la nutrición por sitio específico en una plantación de cacao en la provincia de Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mite Francisco

    2006-09-01

    ="justify">En la plantación de cacao de la hacienda Las Cañas, Puerto Inca, Cantón Naranjal, provincia de El Guayas, Ecuador, se llevó a cabo un programa de manejo de la nutrición por sitio específico para optimizar el uso de fertilizantes y mejorar la productividad. Se recopilaron los análisis foliares, de suelos y rendimiento de los programas de fertilización empleados desde el 2000 al 2004. Con las fotografías aéreas y el plano de la hacienda, mediante un Sistema de Información Geográfica se delimitaron las parcelas experimentales. La plantación se dividió en cuadrículas de 200 por 100 m, se realizaron barrenaciones hasta 120 cm. Para caracterizar el suelo se tomaron muestras a 0 - 20 y 20 - 40 cm para determinar la variabilidad espacial. Se identificaron seis series y tres clases de suelos para cacao: La clase II, suelos “bastante buenos”, cubre 162.4 ha (52.5% de la superficie. La clase III, suelos “buenos”, ocupa 56.5 ha (18.3% y la clase IV, suelos “inadecuados”, con niveles freáticos de 40 a 99 cm de profundidad y estratos con piedras, ocupó 62.7 hectáreas (20.2%. Con 2222 plantas/ha se extrajeron 101, 27, 204, 69, 42 y 12 kg ha-1 de (N, P2O5, K2O, CaO, MgO y S. Con 833 plantas/ha la extracción fue de 50, 23, y 101, 35, 21 y 6 kg. La implantación del manejo por sitio específico permitió corregir problemas de acidez del suelo y toxicidad de hierro y mejorar la productividad en los lotes de la hacienda Las Cañas.

    Palabras clave: Theobroma cacao (CCN-51, manejo por sitio específico; fertilidad de suelos; Ecuador.

  16. Enraizamento de estacas, crescimento e respostas anatômicas de mudas clonais de cacaueiro ao ácido indol-3-butírico Stem cutting rooting, growth and anatomical responses of cacao tree clonal changes to the indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto José dos Santos Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB no crescimento e na morfologia interna de quatro clones de Theobroma cacao (CCN-10, CP-53, PS-1319 e CA-1.4. O AIB foi aplicado na base da estaca de caule, em talco inerte, nas concentrações de 2; 4; 6 e 8 g kg-1, juntamente com o controle (sem AIB. A avaliação do crescimento de raízes, caule e folhas dos quatro clones foi realizada aos 160 dias após o estaqueamento (DAE para todas as concentrações de AIB, período também em que se realizou a coleta de material para os estudos anatômicos dos diversos órgãos, mas somente para a concentração de 4g kg-1 AIB e o controle. O clone CA-1.4 apresentou incremento na biomassa seca de raiz (BSR com o aumento das concentrações de AIB, ao passo que, nos demais clones, houve diminuições de BSR a partir dos 4 g kg-1 AIB. O mesmo fato foi observado para a biomassa seca de caule (BSC e de folha (BSF, exceto para a BSC do CCN-10 que não respondeu ao incremento das concentrações de AIB. Houve aumento de área foliar total para os clones CP-53 e PS-1319 com o incremento de AIB até 4 g kg-1, enquanto o aumento do número de folhas ocorreu somente para os clones CA-1.4 e CP-53 até as concentrações 8 e 4 g kg-1 AIB, respectivamente. Houve diminuição do número de estacas mortas para os clones CA-1.4 e CCN-10 até 8 g kg-1 de AIB e para o CP-53 até 4 g kg-1 de AIB. As melhores concentrações de AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de ramos dos clones de cacaueiros CP-53, PS-1319 e CCN-10 foram de 4, 4 e 6 g kg-1 AIB, respectivamente, enquanto para o clone CA-1.4 foi de 8 g kg-1 AIB; o aumento da concentração de AIB promoveu mudanças anatômicas nos órgãos vegetativos de todos os clones, influenciando na atividade do câmbio vascular e induzindo a formação de um maior número de raízes adventícias nas estacas.The effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA on growth and internal morphology of four clones of Theobroma cacao (CCN-10, CP

  17. 可可蔗糖磷酸合成酶基因家族进化及组织表达分析%Phylogeny and Expression Profile of the Sucrose Phosphate Synthase Gene Family in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付鹏; 秦晓威; 伍宝朵; 赵溪竹; 王华; 朱自慧; 赖剑雄

    2015-01-01

    在高等植物中,蔗糖磷酸合成酶(Sucrose phosphate synthase,SPS)是蔗糖合成的限速酶.在多种植物中都发现了SPS基因,而可可中尚未见相关报道.通过分析可可基因组数据库,鉴定出4个SPS候选基因,依次命名为TcSPS1、TcSPS2、TcSPS3和TcSPS4.4个基因的编码区(CDS)长度在3 075~3 228 bp之间,外显子数目为12~14,预测蛋白的平均分子量为118.15 ku,等电点均小于7.进化分析结果表明SPS基因家族分成3个亚族;TcSPS1和TcSPS2属于Class Ⅰ亚族,TcSPS3和TcSPS4分别属于ClassⅡ亚族和ClassⅢ亚族.实时荧光定量PCR分析结果表明,TcSPS1与TcSPS2在树皮和果实中高量表达,TcSPS3和TcSPS4主要在叶片中表达.伴随着叶片和花蕾生长发育,各TcSPS基因表达量均呈现出上升的趋势,表明其与主要光合产物--蔗糖的合成或再合成有密切联系,参与可可“源库”器官中光合产物分配.

  18. Validación del manejo de la nutrición por sitio especíï¬�co en una plantación de cacao en la provincia de guayas, ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga, Sandra; Menjivar, Juan Carlos; Mite, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    En la plantación de cacao de la hacienda Las Cañas, Puerto Inca, Cantón Naranjal, provincia de El Guayas, Ecuador, se llevó a cabo un programa de manejo de la nutrición por sitio especíï¬�co para optimizar el uso de fertilizantes y mejorar la productividad. Se recopilaron los análisis foliares, de suelos y rendimiento de los programas de fertilización empleados desde el 2000 al 2004. Con las fotografías aéreas y el plano de la hacienda, mediante un Sistema de Información Geográï¬�ca se delimi...

  19. Characterization of cocoa fiber and its effect on the antioxidant capacity of serum in rats Caracterización de la fibra de cacao y su efecto sobre la capacidad antioxidante en suero de animales de experimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lecumberri

    2006-10-01

    damage by means of its content in phenolic compounds (epicatechin wich are absorbed maintaining the antioxidant properties in vivo.Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo era caracterizar la composición de la fibra de cacao, estudiar su contenido en polifenoles y capacidad antioxidante in vitro, e investigar el efecto de la administración de un extracto polifenólico de dicha fibra sobre la capacidad antioxidante en suero de ratas. Material y métodos: Se analizó la composición en fibra dietética (FD y el contenido polifenólico de la fibra de cacao (FC, así como la capacidad antioxidante mediante la determinación de su poder reductor (FRAP y de secuestro de radicales libres (ABTS. Asimismo, se administró a ratas Wistar adultas mediante sonda gástrica un extracto rico en polifenoles de cacao (100 mg/kg de peso del animal procedente de la FC, a fin de estudiar la biodisponibilidad de los mismos, tomándose muestras a distintos intervalos de tiempo. Resultados: La fibra de cacao mostró ser una excelente fuente de FD, con un alto contenido de fibra total, superior al 60% de masa seca, con predominio de fracción insoluble (83%. Esta fibra contuvo sólo un 1,15% de polifenoles, con reducidos valores de capacidad antioxidante. Tras la administración intragástrica de extractos ricos en polifenoles de FC se observó una rápida y apreciable absorción de los polifenoles de la fibra de cacao, siendo la epicatequina el principal polifenol detectado en sangre. Paralelamente se produjo un incremento significativo, aunque transitorio, de la capacidad antioxidante en suero, entre los 10-45 minutos postgavage, momento en que empezó a disminuir hasta alcanzar valores basales al cabo de 6 h. Conclusiones: La FC se puede considerar como una excelente fuente de FD, principalmente de fibra insoluble, por lo que podría ser utilizado como ingrediente en el desarrollo de alimentos funcionales enriquecidos en fibra dietética. Además de los beneficios asociados a su elevado

  20. 伐らない焼畑--カメルーン東南部の熱帯雨林帯におけるカカオ栽培の受容にみられる変化と持続 (特集 地域研究の前線)

    OpenAIRE

    四方, 篝

    2007-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop for small-scale Bangandou farmers living in forested area of Cameroon. In this region, cacao is usually grown under the shade in fi elds of selectively thinned natural forestland. This study aims to clarify how the cacao-growing system has been integrated into the Bangandou's subsistence slash-and-burn agriculture and examines its role in their livelihood. Bangandou people favor establishing new cacao fi elds in primary forests or old cacao...

  1. 基于MaxEnt模型的可可潜在适宜分布研究%Potential Distribution of Theobroma cacao L.Using Maximum Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓威; 郝朝运; 李付鹏; 谭乐和; 宋应辉; 赖剑雄

    2016-01-01

    根据野外采样和文献查阅,系统整理了可可的地理分布记录,并利用MaxEnt生态位模型和ArcGIS软件对可可的潜在适宜分布范围进行预测.结果表明:北美洲南部、中南美洲北部、非洲西部、亚洲东南部以及太平洋美拉尼西亚群岛地区均是可可的潜在适宜分布区域.其中,中国海南、台湾南部、云南西双版纳、广东雷州半岛也属于可可的适生范围.经ROC (Receiver operating characteristic)曲线分析法验证,MaxEnt模型的AUC(Area under curve)值为0.977,表明预测结果具有较高的可信度.各环境变量重要性的Jacknife检验表明,极端最低温度、年降雨量、年温度变化范围、最暖季降雨量对可可的潜在分布影响最大.

  2. The Diversity Analysis of Cocoa Pod Color of Theobroma cacao L.Accessions%可可种质资源果实色泽多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦晓威; 吴刚; 李付鹏; 赖剑雄; 陈鹏; 郝朝运; 宋应辉

    2016-01-01

    以86份可可核心种质资源为试材,利用计算机图像信息及其处理技术对可可果实色泽数字图像进行解析,采集果实色泽典型色域的CMYK模式参数,通过聚类分析及主成分分析方法对色泽指标参数进行统计分析.结果表明:C、M、Y、K值能较准确科学地表现可可果实色泽,可以反映种质间的差异.UPGMA聚类分析和主成分分析将可可果实色泽分为2大类9组,区分结果符合可可果实色泽的自然分类属性.其中绿色为果实的基础色,红色为渐变的渲染色,形成丰富的9组色泽:墨绿色、青绿色、灰绿色、浅绿色、青白色、枣红色、红绿色、紫红色和深紫色.可见,可可果实色泽能够作为一项重要的分类参考指标,为可可新品种选育和优异种质资源开发利用提供参考依据.

  3. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the gods": Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Almeida, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most

  4. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions.

  5. Study of Equipment Presses of Cocoa Powder (Theobroma cacao,L to Produce Quality Fat Cocoa and Analysis of the Resulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omil Charmyn Chatib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the performance of the press tool brands CARVER type Model 3912 Hydraulic Unit in producing cocoa fat and then analyzing the product. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Food and Agricultural Products Processing and Chemistry Laboratory, Agricultural Products Biochemistry Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Andalas, Padang in April-June 2014. In this study, conducted observations such as pressure, temperature, and time presses ideal in the process. While the manufacturing unit made a tool to improve the performance of the instrument and the acquisition of fat that is carried out according to treatment pressure of 8.05 MPa at a temperature of 130 oC, 150 oC and 170 oC for each repetition. After that, analyzing the free fatty acids, iodine number, saponification number, and the moisture content of the product is done. Based on studies conducted by the information obtained from the data base in the presses, pressure 8.05 MPa and a temperature of 130 oC obtained average - average yield of 51.57% fat for 3 repetitions. This explains that the tool operates properly. As for test analysis, free fatty acids, iodine number, saponification number, and moisture content for each sample at all treatment is not obtained in accordance with the quality standards of Fat Cocoa determined by ISO 3748:2009.

  6. Effect of Roasting Conditions on the Browning Index and Appearance Properties of Pulp Pre-Conditioned and Fermented Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Appearance is an important quality determinant of cocoa beans and it is used as standard criteria to establish the degree of fermentation and drying of the beans. Changes in browning index and colour (L*a* b* during roasting of pulp pre-conditioned and fermented cocoa beans were studied using standard analytical methods. Increasing pod storage and roasting time at 120˚C led to variable increases in browning index (BI and b*-values of the beans with decreases in the L* and a* values. Cocoa pod stored for 10 days showed the highest BI (1.144 with the least L* value (24.15 whilst beans from the unstored pods showed the least BI (1.007 with the highest L* value (25.55. The rates of change in BI and colour (L*, a*, b* were however more pronounced during roasting than pod storage. Brown pigment formation (BI and the L* value were more pronounced after 30 minutes of roasting in beans from pods stored for 3 to 7 days. The colour changes in beans from 10 days pod storage was significant (p<0.05 after 45 minutes of roasting. The beans from the pods stored for 3 to 7 days showed consistent decrease in L* and a* values with increasing roasting time whiles the beans from the 10 days of pod storage were observed to produce lower L* value (darker beans after 45 minutes of roasting. Pod storage between 3 to 7 days could be used to improve the brownness and appearance of roasted cocoa nibs. Beans from cocoa pod stored between 3 to 7 days produced the most acceptable BI and L* value after roasting for 30 minutes at 120oC.

  7. DESEMPENHO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DE OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM FARELO DE CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. EM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mattos Veloso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e digestibilidade aparente de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau em substituição ao concentrado (milho e farelo de soja. Utilizaram-se dezesseis ovinos Santa Inês, fêmeas, não prenhes, não lactantes, com peso médio inicial de 25 kg e aproximadamente doze meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O experimento teve a duração de 78 dias, sendo 15 de período pré-experimental e 63 dias de período experimental. Forneceram-se as dietas em mistura completa, na proporção 50:50% (volumoso:concentrado,sendo utilizado como volumoso o feno da parte aérea da mandioca, com níveis de inclusão de farelo de cacau no concentrado de 0%, 10%, 20% e 30%. Forneciam-se dietas pela manhã, sendo ajustadas de forma a sobrar 10%. Semanalmente, coletaram-se as sobras e amostras de alimentos para análises laboratoriais. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho médio diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e a digestibilidade aparente. A inclusão do farelo de cacau não promoveu diferença nos consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro, no ganho de peso médio diário,na conversão alimentar e digestibilidade dos nutrientes. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido aumentou linearmente com a inclusão do farelo de cacau na dieta. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimentação, concentrado, confinamento, ruminante, subproduto.

  8. The content of polyphenolic compounds in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.), depending on variety, growing region, and processing operations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Joanna; Zyzelewicz, Dorota; Nebesny, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols form the largest group of compounds among natural antioxidants, which largely affect the overall antioxidant and anti-free radical activity of cocoa beans. The qualitative and quantitative composition of individual fractions of polyphenolic compounds, even within one species, is very diverse and depends on many factors, mainly on the area of cocoa trees cultivation, bean maturity, climatic conditions during growth, and the harvest season and storage time after harvest. Thermal processing of cocoa beans and cocoa derivative products at relatively high temperatures may in addition to favorable physicochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic changes result in a decrease of polyphenols concentration. Technological processing of cocoa beans negatively affects the content of polyphenolic compounds. PMID:24915346

  9. Development of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers in Theobroma cacao and comparison to Simple Sequence Repeat markers for genotyping of Cameroon clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are increasingly being used in crop breeding programs, slowly replacing Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) and other markers. SNPs provide many benefits over SSRs, including ease of analysis and unambiguous results across various platforms. We have identifie...

  10. Restriction enzyme improves the efficiency of genetic transformations in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease in Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Julio Fagundes Lopes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of restriction enzymes in the transformation mixture improved the efficiency of transformation in Moniliophthora perniciosa. The influence of the vector shape (linear or circular, the patterns of plasmid integration in genomic sites and the influence of the promoter used to express the gene marker were also analyzed. The addition of BamHI or NotI increased the number of transformants by 3-10-fold and 3-fold, respectively, over the control without added enzyme. The use of pre-linearized plasmid did not increase the transformation efficiency in comparison with the circular plasmid. However, the frequency of multi-copy transformants increased significantly. The transformation procedure here reported resulted in better production of protoplasts and transformation efficiency. In addition, the time necessary for the detection of the first transformants and the number of insertions were reduced.A presença de enzima de restrição na mistura de transformação aumentou a eficiência da transformação em Moniliophthora perniciosa. A influência da forma do vetor (linear ou circular, o padrão de integração do plasmídeo nos sítios genômicos e a influência do promotor usado para expressar o gene marcador foram também analisados. A adição de BamHI ou NotI aumentou o número de transformantes 3-10 vezes e 3 vezes, respectivamente, em relação ao controle sem a adição da enzima. O uso de plasmídeos pré-linearizados não aumentou a eficiência da transformação quando comparado à eficiência obtida com plasmídeos circulares. No entanto, a freqüência de transformantes multi-cópias aumentou significativamente. Juntos os procedimentos reportados aqui resultaram em processos mais eficientes de produção de protoplastos e transformação, onde o tempo necessário para o aparecimento dos transformantes e o número de inserções múltiplas foi reduzido.

  11. La Escoba de Bruja de Algunos Árboles de Sombrío del Cacao, (Erythrina y Tabebuia en Venezuela. Una Enfermedad de Origen no Criptogámico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciferri R.

    1949-06-01

    Full Text Available Se menciona aquí la nueva extensión de una "escoba de bruja" de las especies de Erythrina usadas como sombrío del cacao, en la península de Paria, en Venezuela. En forma más restringida existe también en la misma región una "escoba de bruja" en la Tabebuia pentaphylla árbol que también es usado con el mismo objetivo. Ambas enfermedades se consideran de origen no criptogámico y se presume que sean debidas a un virus. Se emite la hipótesis de que ambas enfermedades estén relacionadas entre sí. Como en esta zona existe la enfermedad del "chancro" o "cáncer" de la corteza en las mismas especies, debida al Calostilbe striispora, se considera completamente inconveniente el cultivo de las Erythrinas susceptibles en dicha zona, más aún que en las otras regiones cacaotaleras de Venezuela.

  12. Sources of resistance to Crinipellis perniciosa in progenies of cacao accessions collected in the Brazilian Amazon Fontes de resitência a Crinipellis perniciosa em progênies de cacaueiros coletados na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rodrigues Lavigne de Mello Paim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The witches' broom disease caused by the fungus Crinipellis perniciosa is the main phytossanitary constraint for cacao production in Brazil. The integrated management of the disease involves resistance as one of the components. The breeding program conducted by the Brazilian Institution, CEPLAC is directed toward the pyramidation of resistance genes from different sources to achieve a more durable resistance. This study aimed to identify sources of resistance in progenies of cacao accessions collected in the basins of ten Amazonian rivers and compared to progenies from the Peruvian clones 'Scavina 6' and 'Sacavina 12'. Progenies from 40 Amazonian accessions and 'Scavina' were evaluated in the field for six years for witches' broom resistance through multivariate and repeated measurement analyses evaluating the effect of progeny, area, block, year, and their interactions. There were differences in the mean number of vegetative brooms on some Amazonian progenies and 'Scavina' descendants. There was an increase in the number of vegetative brooms in the last year for 'Scavina' progenies, but that was not observed for the Amazonian progenies 64, 66, 156, 194, 195, 269 and 274. There were different gene/alleles for resistance in the Amazonian progenies in comparison to the traditional 'Scavina' accessions. These new sources of resistance will be important for pyramiding resistance genes and consequently increasing the stability and durability of the resistance to witches' broom.A doença vassoura-de-bruxa, causada pelo fungo Crinipellis perniciosa, é o principal problema fitossanitário para o cultivo do cacaueiro no Brasil. O manejo integrado da doença envolve a resistência como um dos componentes. O programa de melhoramento genético do cacaueiro conduzido pela Instituição brasileira CEPLAC é direcionado para acumular genes de resistência de diferentes fontes visando à obtenção de uma resistência mais durável. O objetivo deste estudo foi

  13. Fosfito de potássio na indução de resistência a Verticillium dahliae Kleb., em mudas de cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. Effect of potassium phosphite on the induction of resistance in cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L. against Verticillium dahliae Kleb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martins Ribeiro Júnior

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Há vários relatos da utilização de fosfitos no controle de doenças de plantas, por meio de ação direta, antifúngica e indireta por indução de resistência. Essa atuação como indutor é questionada, não sendo encontradas, em muitos desses trabalhos, evidências de respostas de defesa ativadas pelos sais de fosfito. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de doses (0,62; 1,25; 2,5 e 5 mL.L-1 de água de fosfito de potássio na indução de resistência em mudas de cacaueiro a V. dahliae, além de investigar os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos na resposta de defesa. Foram realizados experimentos no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Parasitismo e casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Fitopatologia UFLA. A aplicação foliar do fosfito foi realizada 7 dias antes das inoculações e as avaliações de severidade foram realizadas aos 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias após a inoculação. Foi realizado também um experimento para verificar o efeito tóxico direto e outro para avaliar a atividade das enzimas peroxidases e polifenoloxidases e a concentração de lignina. O tratamento com o fosfito de potássio (1,25 mL.L-1 de água proporcionou 10% de redução na área abaixo da curva de progresso da severidade da murcha-de-Verticillium (AACPD, 60 dias após aplicação foliar, não diferindo de nenhuma das doses, nem da testemunha. Todas as doses utilizadas apresentaram efeito fungitóxico, inibindo a germinação de V. dahliae. A aplicação do fosfito de potássio (1,25 mL.L-1 de água não induziu aumento na atividade das enzimas peroxidases e polifenoloxidases em relação à testemunha. Plantas tratadas com esse produto apresentaram um pequeno incremento na concentração de lignina, não apresentando diferença significativa da testemunha absoluta.There are several reports concerning with the use of phosphites for controlling of plant diseases, through direct action, antifungal, and indirect, by resistance induction. The performance of phosphites as inducer of resistance is questioned, not finding in many of those papers, evidences of defense responses activated by these salts. The present work aimed at studying the effect of doses (0.62; 1.25; 2.5 and 5.0 mL.L-1 of water of potassium phosphite on the protection of cocoa seedlings against V. dahliae, besides investigating the possible mechanisms involved in the defense response. Experiments were accomplished at the laboratory of Physiopathology and in a greenhouse at the Plant Pathology Department - UFLA. Foliar applications of phosphite were carried out 7 days before inoculation and severity assessments at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after inoculation. Experiments were also set to verify the toxic effect of phosphites and to evaluate the action of the enzymes peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases and the lignin content. The treatment with the potassium phosphite (1.25 mL.L-1 of water provided only 10% reduction in the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, 60 days after spraying, not differing from none of the doses, nor from the dose zero. All the used doses presented antifungal effect, inhibiting the germination of V. dahliae conidia. The application of the potassium phosphite (1.25 mL.L-1 of water did not induce increase in the activities of the enzymes peroxidases and polyphenoloxidases in relation to the control. Treated plants with that product presented a small increment in the lignin content, not presenting a significant difference to the absolute control.

  14. Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq na alimentação de cabras em lactação: consumo e produção de leite Effects of feeding cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L. and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq on milk intake and yield for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o consumo e a produção de leite de cabras recebendo dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja da ração concentrada. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, com produção média diária de 2,0 kg de leite e aos 60 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os períodos experimentais tiveram duração de 14 dias, em que os dez primeiros foram destinados à adaptação e os quatro últimos, à coleta de amostras. As rações foram isoprotéicas, com 13,2% de proteína bruta. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 64% de concentrado na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrado à base de milho e soja com 0, 15 e 30% de FC ou TD. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, nutrientes digestíveis totais, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos reduziram com a inclusão de 30% de FC. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo (EE não foram alterados pelas dietas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido diferiu apenas entre os tratamentos com 30% de TD e 30% de FC, sendo 0,94 e 0,59% do peso vivo animal, respectivamente. O tratamento com 30% de FC proporcionou menor produção de leite (1,208 kg/dia, se assemelhando apenas ao tratamento com inclusão de 30% de TD quando a produção foi corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. O FC e a TD apresentam viabilidade de uso como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação em até 9,13 e 18,81% da matéria seca, respectivamente.The effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (CF or palm kernel cake (PKC in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. Five Saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample collection. Diets contained: 36% of roughage (corns silage and 64% of concentrate, dry matter basis, formulated toyield 13.2% of crude protein. The treatments were as follows: 0, 15 and 30% CF or PKC, all with concentrate (corn and soybean meal. Dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total digestible nutrients, total carbohydrates and nonfiber carbohydrates intakes decreased as affected by the highest replacement level (30% CF. No significant differences on neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake were observed. Acid detergent fiber intake differed only between 30% PKC and 30% CF-based diets, with 0.94 and 0.59% body weight, respectively. The 30% CF-based diet showed lower milk production value, as kg/dia (1.208 kg, but similar to 30% PKC-based diet, when corrected for 3.5% fat. Replacing corn and soybean with CF and PKC in the diet of lactating goats is viable up to 9.13 and 18.81% dry matter, respectively.

  15. Perdas por Nitrogênio Amoniacal em Silagem de Capim-Elefante (Penninsetum purpureum Schum Acrescido de Farelo de Cacau (Theobroma cacao - Losses for Ammonia Nitrogen in Grass-elephant Silage (Penninsetum purpureum Schum Added of Bran of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Andrade Teixeira

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de níveis crescentes de inclusão de farelo de cacau (0; 5,8; 10; e 16% peso/peso sobre os teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, pH e nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 da silagem de capim-elefante. Para produção das silagens foram utilizados 16 silos de “PVC”, com 15 cm de diâmetro e 25 cm de altura, compactando-se com densidade de 543 kg/m³. O teor de MS aumentou linearmente em função dos níveis crescentes de farelo de cacau, estimando-se acréscimo de 0,49% de MS por unidade de farelo de cacau adicionada. Houve elevação linear do teor de PB da silagem com a adição de farelo de cacau. A adição de farelo de cacau demonstrou-se eficiente na elevação do teor de MS, melhoria do valor nutritivo além de permitir fermentações adequadas, face aos valores de nitrogênio amoniacal encontrados, para as silagens de capim-elefante estudadas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of growing levels of inclusion of cocoa bran (0; 5,8; 10; and 16% weigh/weigh about the content dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N of the grass-elephant silage. For production of the silage 16 silos of " PVC " were used, with 15 cm of diameter and 25 cm of height, being compacted with density of 543 kg/m³. The content of DM increased lineally in function of the growing levels of cocoa bran, being considered increment of 0,49% of DM for unit of cocoa bran added. There was lineal elevation of the content of CP of the silage with the addition of cocoa bran. The addition of cocoa bran was demonstrated efficient in the elevation of the content DM, improvement of the nutritional value besides allowing appropriate fermentations, face to the values of ammonia nitrogen found, for the grass-elephant silage studied

  16. Molecular characterization of cocoa beans from different geographical origins: a metabolomics approach with a focus on peptides, amino acids and aroma compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Marseglia, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Il cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) e il cioccolato sono fra i prodotti alimentari più apprezzati nel mondo. Il nome 'Theobroma' significa 'cibo degli dei', sottolineando le quasi divine qualità nutritive del cacao e del cioccolato. I prodotti a base di cacao sono ottenuti a partire dalle fave di cacao, che rappresentano i semi della pianta del cacao, la quale cresce in una zona geografica limitata, di circa 20 gradi a nord e a sud dell'equatore. I prodotti a base di cioccolato sono ottenuti con un...

  17. Avaliação e seleção de híbridos de cacaueiro em Rondônia Evaluation and selection of cacao hybrids in Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Guilherme Portela de Carvalho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar e selecionar híbridos de cacaueiro, quanto a rendimento e qualidade de sementes, nas condições ecológicas do Município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia. A seleção foi feita comparando-se, pelo teste de Duncan, as médias das medidas dos componentes de rendimento avaliados em um ensaio conduzido entre 1986 e 1991. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos completos casualizados. Os melhores desempenhos, quanto aos caracteres avaliados, foram obtidos em cruzamentos que incluíram os clones POUND 7 e BE 10 (número total de frutos coletados, SCA 6 e PA 150 (número total de frutos sadios, PA 150 (peso total de sementes úmidas, IMC 67 e POUND 7 (peso médio de sementes úmidas por fruto. Na análise simultânea dos caracteres, os híbridos SCA 6 x ICS 1, PA 150 x SIC 328 e IMC 67 x BE 8 sobressaíram-se, em relação aos demais.The goal of the present work was to evaluate and to select cacao hybrids with respect to seed yield and quality for ecological conditions of municipality of Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, Brazil. The selection was done comparing, by means of Duncan test, the yield measurement average in trial conducted from 1986 to 1991. A randomized complete block design was used. The best performance, considering total number of collected fruits, total number of healthy fruits, total weight of humid seeds and mean weight of humid seeds per fruit, were obtained from crosses involving POUND 7 and BE 10, SCA 6 and PA 150, PA 150, IMC 67 and POUND 7 clones, respectively. The hybrids SCA 6 x ICS 1, PA 150 x SIC 328 and IMC 67 x BE 8 were outstanding when compared to the others.

  18. The Age of Chocolate: a biogeographic history of Theobroma and Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Edward Richardson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dated molecular phylogenies of broadly distributed lineages can help to compare patterns of diversification in different parts of the world. An explanation for greater Neotropical diversity compared to other parts of the tropics is that it was an accident of the Andean orogeny. Using dated phylogenies, of chloroplast ndhF and nuclear DNA WRKY sequence datasets, generated using BEAST we demonstrate that the diversification of the genera Theobroma and Herrania occurred from 12.7 (11.6-14.9 [95% HPD] million years ago (Ma and thus coincided with Andean uplift from the mid-Miocene and that this lineage had a faster diversification rate than other major clades in Malvaceae. We also demonstrate that Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate, diverged from its most recent common ancestor 9.9 (7.7-12.9 95% HPD Ma, in the mid-to late-Miocene, suggesting that this economically important species has had ample time to generate significant within-species genetic diversity that is useful information for a developing chocolate industry. In addition, we address questions related to the latitudinal gradient in species diversity within Malvaceae. A faster diversification rate is an explanation for the greater species diversity at lower latitudes. Alternatively, tropical conditions may have existed for longer and occupied greater areas than temperate ones meaning that tropical lineages have had more time and space in which to diversify. Our dated molecular phylogeny of Malvaceae demonstrated that at least one temperate lineage within the family diverged from tropical ancestors then diversified at a rate comparable with many tropical lineages in the family. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Malvaceae are more species rich in the tropics because tropical lineages within the family have existed for longer and occupied more space than temperate ones, and not because of differences in diversification rate.

  19. Status of cacao breeding in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research into cocoa improvement has made a considerable impact on the productivity of the crop in West Africa. Much of the germplasm distributed to farmers have been of Upper Amazon origin following the realisation of their higher agronomic worth over the local Trinitario and Amelonado germplasm. Ho...

  20. Indução de calos em espécies amazônicas do gênero Theobroma Callus induction in amazonian species of the Theobroma genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivana Borges Silva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vários trabalhos vem sendo desenvolvidos sobre o cultivo in vitro de cacau (T.cacao, mas são raros para a maioria das outras espécies do gênero, como o cupuaçu (T. grandiflorum, cuja a área plantada vem aumentando expressivamente, e outras que poderiam servir de fonte de genes para as espécies economicamente já reconhecidas. Protocolos para obtenção de embriões somáticos in vitro para as espécies T. cacao,T. grandiflorum,T. speciosum e o híbrido T. grandiflorum x T. obovatum foram avaliados a partir de duas fontes de explantes, estaminódios e pétalas (formadas por lígulas e cógulas cultivados em meio de crescimento primário de calo, consistindo de sais DKW, suplementado com 20 g l-1 de sacarose, 250 mg l-1de glutamina, 200 mg l-1de mio-inositol, 0,2 mg l-1 de tiamina-HCl, 0,1 mg l-1 de ácido nicotínico, 0,2 mg l-1 de glicina, 2 mg l-1 de 2,4-D, 2,2 g l-1 de Gelrite® e pH 5,8. A este meio foram adicionadas diferentes concentrações de tidiazuron (0, 5 e 10 µg l-1. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro por 14 dias, à temperatura de 25 ± 2 ºC, e então transferidas para meio de crescimento secundário de calo, constituído de sais WPM, vitaminas de Gamborg, 20 g l-1 de sacarose, 2 mg l-1 de 2,4 D, 0,3 mg l-1 de cinetina, 50 ml l-1 de água de côco, 2,2 g l-1 de Gelrite® e pH 5,8. A formação de calos ocorreu em todas as espécies. Embriões somáticos foram obtidos somente para T. cacao. A calogênese mostrou-se influenciada pelo genótipo e foi maior nos estaminódios.Many works have been done on cocoa (Theobroma cacao in vitro culture, with few studies being published for other species of the same genus, as cupuassu (T. grandiflorum, whose planted area is increasing expressively, and others that could be used as a source of genes for those with recognized economical importance. Protocols to obtain in vitro somatic embryos from T. cacao,T. grandiflorum,T. speciosum and the hybrid T. grandiflorum x T. obovatum from two

  1. Aproveitamento tecnológico do "mel de cacau" (Theobroma cacao L na produção de geleia sem adição de açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Oliveira dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O "mel de cacau" é uma denominação regional do líquido transparente extraído da polpa do cacau, que cobre as sementes, antes do processo de fermentação do cacau. Este material é atrativo do ponto de vista de seus aspectos sensorial e tecnológico; entretanto, seu uso para o consumo ainda é restrito. O propósito deste estudo foi produzir geleia dietética usando o "mel de cacau" e realizar a caracterização química e sensorial dos produtos. Para a preparação das geleias, foram usados os seguintes ingredientes: pectina de baixo grau de metoxilação, polidextrose, sorbitol, maltitol, fosfato tricálcico, sorbato de potássio e cacau em pó. As geleias dietéticas estudadas foram: F1 (0,0015% taumatina e 0,005% sucralose; F2 (0,0015% taumatina e 0,002% acessulfame-k; F3 (0,005% sucralose e 0,002% acessulfame-k. Foi produzido, também, um tratamento-controle (com 40,0% de sacarose. Os dados químicos e sensoriais foram analisados por ANOVA, teste de Tukey e Mapa de Preferência Interno (MDPREF. O tratamento F3 (sucralose e acessulfame-k foi a geleia dietética preferida dos consumidores. Esta diferiu significativamente (p<0.05 dos tratamentos F1 (taumatina e sucralose e F2 (taumatina e acessulfame-k em relação aos atributos cor, aroma de chocolate, gosto doce, gosto ácido, sabor de chocolate e consistência; obteve, também, maior nota para intenção de compra. O uso do adoçante taumatina mostrou-se inadequado por não prover doçura à geleia de "mel de cacau". Os resultados indicaram a viabilidade do aproveitamento tecnológico do "mel de cacau" como matéria-prima na preparação de geleia dietética, que apresentou boas características sensoriais e nutricionais.

  2. KINETIKA FERMENTASI ASAM ASETAT (VINEGAR OLEH BAKTERI Acetobacter aceti B 127 DARI ETANOL HASIL FERMENTASI LIMBAH CAIR PULP KAKAO [Kinetics of Acetic Acid (Vinegar Fermentation By Acetobacter aceti B127 from Ethanol Produced by Fermentation of Liquid Waste of Cacao Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Supli Effendi

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid concentration is one of vinegar’s quality parameter. Acetic acid concentration in vinegar is influenced by the activity of acetic acid bacteria. This research studied the kinetics of anaerobic fermentation of liquid waste of cacao pulp by Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 to produce ethanol and the kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127. The kinetics of acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 can be used as a basic of bioprocess design for aerobic fermentation in general and acetic acid fermentation from ethanol by Acetobacter aceti B127 in particular. Fermentation medium used was liquid waste of cocoa pulp with sugar content of 12.85%, and the addition of sucrosa and urea. The parameter observed was growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae R60 and Acetobacter aceti B127, and chemical analysis including concentration of ethanol, total sugar and acetic acid, content. The research result showed that the  value was 0.048 hour-1, Y P was 0.676, Qp value was 0.033 hour-, and KLa value was 0.344, QO2.Cx value was 0.125 (mgO2L-1jam-1, Y X was s O2 0.378 (x 108selmL-1g-1¬¬O2, and dCT was 0.150 mgL-1hour-1. Concentration of acetic acid in the product was 4.24% or 42.4 gL-1

  3. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

  4. Dicty_cDB: CFE215 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS ***, 20 unordered pieces. 48 0.12 1 CF974266 |CF974266.1 PSU_nep1G03 Defense-related ESTs from Cacao Lea...ves Theobroma cacao cDNA, mRNA sequence. 44 1.9 1 AC1450

  5. Geographic and genetic population differentiation of the Amazonian chocolate tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous collecting expeditions of Theobroma cacao L. germplasm hae been undertaken in Latin-America. However, this germplasm has not contributed to cacao improvement because its relationship to cultivated selections was poorly understood. Germplasm labeling errors have impeded breeding and confound...

  6. Purity assessment of condensed tannin fractions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unambiguous investigation of condensed tannin (CT) structure-activity relationships in biological systems requires the use of highly enriched CT fractions of defined chemical purity. Purification of CTs from Sorghum bicolor, Trifolium repens, Theobroma cacao, Lespedeza cuneata, Lotus pedunculatus, a...

  7. Development of a cost-effective diversity-maximising decision-support tool for in situ crop genetic resources conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Aurelia F.; Drucker, Adam G.; Andersen, Sven Bode;

    2013-01-01

    can be conserved based on a clustering of cacao species (Theobroma cacao L.). A conservation budget allocation model applied across a set of ten clusters and nine subclusters of cacao, together with the use of alternative diversity and risk measures, allowed for an evaluation of a range of potential...... conservation outcomes. Alternative risk measures generally resulted in the allocation of conservation funds to the same priority clusters of cacao (Criollo and Curaray). However, the use of the number of locally common alleles as an alternative to the original Weitzman diversity measure produced a markedly...

  8. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Simone N.M. Ramos; Marcela M. Salazar; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.; Priscilla Efraim

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2–6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4–8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were use...

  9. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Franco; Eva Martínez-Pinilla; Ainhoa Oñatibia-Astibia

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time a...

  10. Estrutura e dinâmica do componente arbóreo em área de cabruca na região cacaueira do sul da Bahia, Brasil Structure and dynamics of the tree community in a "cabruca" area in the cacao region of southern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Rosa Sambuichi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As cabrucas são áreas de cultivo onde o cacau foi implantado sob a sombra da floresta nativa raleada. Na região sul da Bahia, onde as florestas são poucas e fragmentadas, as cabrucas têm sido consideradas importantes para a conservação de espécies nativas. Visando avaliar a conservação a longo prazo de espécies arbóreas nativas nas cabrucas, foi realizado um levantamento fitossociológico das árvores sombreadoras em 1,7 ha de cabruca com cerca de 25 anos de implantação e avaliada a sua dinâmica após um período de sete anos. Foram encontrados 120 indivíduos e 62 espécies, com densidade média de 70,5 ind. ha-1, área basal média de 23,0 m² ha-1 e diversidade de 3,88 nats ind.-1 (Shannon. Após sete anos, houve redução de 8,4% na densidade, com taxa de mortalidade de 2,16% ano-1 e taxa de recrutamento de 0,81% ano-1. A taxa média de incremento diamétrico foi de 0,7 ± 0,6 cm ano-1. A maioria das árvores pertenceu a espécies de florestas maduras, mas os novos indivíduos recrutados foram quase todos de espécies pioneiras. A estimativa de riqueza total (Chao foi de 110 espécies, com redução de 20 espécies durante o período. Os resultados confirmaram as indicações de que as cabrucas representam um importante banco de espécies arbóreas nativas, mas estão sendo rapidamente alteradas, raleadas e empobrecidas. Isso alerta para a necessidade urgente de modificar a forma de manejo dessas áreas de maneira a permitir a conservação das espécies de florestas maduras. Os altos valores de área basal e de taxa de crescimento encontrados indicam a possibilidade de uso das cabrucas para o seqüestro e estoque de carbono."Cabrucas" are areas where cacao trees are planted in the shade of thinned native forest. In southern Bahia State, where the forests are few and fragmented, cabrucas are important for native species conservation. Aiming to evaluate the conservation of native tree species in cabrucas on a long term basis, a

  11. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture.

  12. Facilitating the use of alternative capsid control methods towards sustainable production of organic cocoa in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayenor, G.K.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Padi, B.; Röling, N.G.

    2007-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, production is constrained by a high incidence of pests and diseases. Based on farmers' needs, this study focused on the control of capsids, mainly Sahlbergella singularis Haglund and Distantiella theobroma (Distan

  13. Metodologies per l'estudi de compostos fenòlics i alcaloides en el cacau (theobroma cacao) i la garrofa (ceratonia siliqua L.): bextracció, caracterització i avaluació de la digestibilitat en model in-vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega Olivé, Nàdia

    2010-01-01

    Actualment hi ha un especial interès pels compostos fenòlics dels aliments en àmbits de la nutrició, salut i medicina en base a diferents evidències que suggereixen que poden actuar com a potents antioxidants i/o moduladors de funcions biològiques claus en els mamífers. Paral·lelament, hi ha una demanda per part dels consumidors en quant a la informació dels aliments que s'ingereix, de les necessitats nutricionals així com de la millora de salut. Tots aquest conceptes juntament amb la definic...

  14. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p forest and pasture. For soil chemical characteristics, three composite samples were collected in March 2012 from each agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture. PMID:25412521

  15. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a Mycoparasite of a Powdery Mildew Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama Kumar, P; Singh, Leena

    2009-12-01

    Powdery mildews on over 40 plants in Bangalore were screened during July-December of 2003~2008. Isolates from mycoparasitised Oidium caesalpiniacearum of Bauhinia purpurea comprised Lasiodiplodia theobromae, in addition to Ampelomyces quisqualis. Koch's postulates were satisfied to establish the mycoparasitism of L. theobromae. This is the first report that L. theobromae acts as a mycoparasite of a powdery mildew. PMID:23983554

  16. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a Mycoparasite of a Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Sreerama Kumar, P.; Singh, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Powdery mildews on over 40 plants in Bangalore were screened during July-December of 2003~2008. Isolates from mycoparasitised Oidium caesalpiniacearum of Bauhinia purpurea comprised Lasiodiplodia theobromae, in addition to Ampelomyces quisqualis. Koch's postulates were satisfied to establish the mycoparasitism of L. theobromae. This is the first report that L. theobromae acts as a mycoparasite of a powdery mildew.

  17. Genetic Variability and Host Specialization in the Latin American Clade of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine J; Harrington, Thomas C; Krauss, Ulrike; Alfenas, Acelino C

    2003-10-01

    ABSTRACT The Ceratocystis fimbriata complex includes many undescribed species that cause wilt and canker diseases of many economically important plants. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences have delineated three geographic clades within Ceratocystis fimbriata. This study examined host specialization in the Latin American clade, in which a number of lineages were identified using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA. Three host-associated lineages were identified from cacao (Theobroma cacao), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), and sycamore (Platanus spp.), respectively. Isolates from these three lineages showed strong host specialization in reciprocal inoculation experiments on these three hosts. Six cacao isolates from Ecuador, Trinidad, and Columbia differed genetically from other cacao isolates and were not pathogenic to cacao in inoculation tests. Further evidence of host specialization within the Latin American clade of Ceratocystis fimbriata was demonstrated in inoculation experiments in growth chambers using sweet potato, sycamore, Colocasia esculenta, coffee (Coffea arabica), and mango (Mangifera indica) plants; inoculation experiments in Brazil using Brazilian isolates from cacao, Eucalyptus spp., mango, and Gmelina arborea; and inoculation experiments in Costa Rica using Costa Rican isolates from cacao, coffee, and Xantho-soma sp. Hosts native to the Americas appeared to be colonized by only select pathogen genotypes, whereas nonnative hosts were colonized by several genotypes. We hypothesize that local populations of Ceratocystis fimbriata have specialized to different hosts; some of these populations are nascent species, and some host-specialized genotypes have been moved to new areas by humans. PMID:18944327

  18. High gene flow and outcrossing within populations of two cryptic fungal pathogens on a native and non-native host in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoude Boyogueno, Aime Didier; Slippers, Bernard; Perez, Guillermo; Wingfield, Michael J; Roux, Jolanda

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from Theobroma cacao and Terminalia spp. in Cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR alleles showed clear genetic distinction between L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae, supporting their earlier separation as sister species. Both L. theobromae and L. pseudotheobromae populations from Cameroon had high levels of gene diversity, moderate degrees of genotypic diversity, and high levels of gene flow between isolates from T. cacao and Terminalia spp. There was no evidence for geographic substructure in these populations across the region studied, and the SSR alleles were randomly associated in both species, suggesting outcrossing. The significant levels of aggressiveness, evolutionary potential represented by high levels of diversity, outcrossing and gene flow between geographically and host defined populations, identify these fungi as high-risk pathogens for their native and non-native hosts in Cameroon. PMID:22385617

  19. The draft genome of a diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kunbo; Wang, Zhiwen; Li, Fuguang;

    2012-01-01

    identified 2,355 syntenic blocks in the G. raimondii genome, and we found that approximately 40% of the paralogous genes were present in more than 1 block, which suggests that this genome has undergone substantial chromosome rearrangement during its evolution. Cotton, and probably Theobroma cacao...

  20. Tree diversity and canopy cover in cocoa systems in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asare, Richard; Ræbild, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growing systems in Ghana and West Africa consist of diverse tree species and densities.This study was conducted to determine factors that influence tree species configurations and how tree characteristics affect canopy cover in cocoa farms. Eighty-six farmers...

  1. Microbial ecology of the cocoa chain : quality aspects and insight into heat-resistant bacterial spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacaoL.) are the basis for chocolate and cocoa powder production. The first step in the production of these food products consists of a spontaneous fermentation of the beans in the tropical producing countries, in order to allow the formation of the essential precursor compoun

  2. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371 - 399

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Le Roux, J J; Richardson, D M; Strasberg, D; Shivas, R G; Alvarado, P; Edwards, J; Moreno, G; Sharma, R; Sonawane, M S; Tan, Y P; Altes, A; Barasubiye, T; Barnes, C W; Blanchette, R A; Boertmann, D; Bogo, A; Carlavilla, J R; Cheewangkoon, R; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Duong, T A; Fernandez-Vicente, J; Geering, A D W; Guest, D I; Held, B W; Heykoop, M; Hubka, V; Ismail, A M; Kajale, S C; Khemmuk, W; Kolarik, M; Kurli, R; Lebeuf, R; Levesque, C A; Lombard, L; Magista, D; Manjon, J L; Marincowitz, S; Mohedano, J M; Novakova, A; Oberlies, N H; Otto, E C; Paguigan, N D; Pascoe, I G; Perez-Butron, J L; Perrone, G; Rahi, P; Raja, H A; Rintoul, T; Sanhueza, R M V; Scarlett, K; Shouche, Y S; Shuttleworth, L A; Taylor, P W J; Thorn, R G; Vawdrey, L L; Solano-Vidal, R; Voitk, A; Wong, P T W; Wood, A R; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. and sp. nov. from Eucalyptus radiata leaves, Phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, Diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of Theobroma cacao fruit, Diaporthe vawdreyi from fr

  3. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371–399

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Le Roux, J.J.; Richardson, D.M.; Strasberg, D.; Shivas, R.G.; Alvarado, P.; Edwards, J.; Moreno, G.; Sharma, R.; Sonawane, M.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Altés, A.; Barasubiye, T.; Barnes, C.W.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boertmann, D.; Bogo, A.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Daniel, R.; Beer, de Z.W.; Jesús Yáñez-Morales, de M.; Doung, T.A.; Fernández-Vicente, J.; Geering, A.D.W.; Guest, D.I.; Held, B.W.; Keykoop, M.; Hubka, V.; Ismail, A.M.; Kajale, S.C.; Khemmuk, W.; Kolařík, M.; Kurli, R.; Lebeuf, R.; Lévesque, C.A.; Lombard, L.; Magista, D.; Manjón, J.L.; Marincowitz, S.; Mohedano, J.M.; Nováková, A.; Oberlies, N.H.; Otto, E.C.; Paguigan, N.D.; Pascoe, I.G.; Pérez-Butrón, J.L.; Perrone, G.; Rahi, P.; Raja, H.A.; Rintoul, T.; Sanhueza, R.M.V.; Scarlett, K.; Shouche, Y.S.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Thorn, R.G.; Vawdrey, L.L.; Solano-Vidal, R.; Voitk, A.; Wong, P.T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Zamora, J.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. & sp. nov. from Eucalyptus radiata leaves, Phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, Diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of Theobroma cacao fruit, Diaporthe vawdreyi from frui

  4. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

  5. Determinação de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Denilson Soares de; Pereira Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto Francisco Radler de; Cabral José Augusto; Ferreira Carlos Alberto Cid; Simoneit Bernd R. T.; Elias Vladimir O.

    2003-01-01

    The fractIons of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupá (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, ...

  6. Facilitating the use of alternative capsid control methods towards sustainable production of organic cocoa in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ayenor, G.K.; Huis, van, A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Padi, B.; Röling, N.G.

    2007-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, production is constrained by a high incidence of pests and diseases. Based on farmers' needs, this study focused on the control of capsids, mainly Sahlbergella singularis Haglund and Distantiella theobroma (Distant) (both Hemiptera: Miridae). Annual crop loss caused by capsids is estimated at 25¿30%. To control capsids, formal research recommends application of synthetic insecticides four times between Augu...

  7. Morphological and molecular data reveal cryptic speciation in Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    OpenAIRE

    alves, a; Crous, P.W.; Correia, A; Phillips, A.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a common pathogen that Occurs on a large number of hosts in the tropics and subtropics. A collection of isolates identified as L. theobromae was studied on the basis of sequence data from the ITS regions and EF1-alpha gene. Phylogenetic analyses identified three well-supported clades within this group of isolates, one corresponding to L. theobromae and two others corresponding to potential cryptic species. The distinct phylogenetic position of the two clades is sup...

  8. Stability in Flowering, Flushing, and Fruiting Characters of 21 Potential Cacao Clones in ICCRI Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Anita Sari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Flowering character and flowering intensity can be used to estimate productivity and it is important for supporting breeding activity especially for pollination program. This research was aimed to study the stability of character of flushing, flowering and fruiting on different cocoa clones (genetic. The research was done at Kaliwining Research Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember. There were 21 clones; KW 422, KW 426, KW 427, KW 425, KW 523, KW 062, KW 084, KW 094, KW 162, KW 163, KW 165, KW 219, KW 235, KW 236, KW 265, KW 005, KW 292, KW 570, KW 514, KW 516, and KW 617. Flowering intencity, fruiting, and flushing were observed. The result of the study showed that KW 084 was the most stable clone for fruiting. KW 235 had high pod number in April. KW 426, KW 427, KW 523, and Sulawesi 2 had high pod number in March and June. KW 219 and KW 516 had the lowest pod number. Low pod number did not occur in March until June. Flowering and flushing on all genotypes showed the stability value with IPCA value nearly zero. KW 094 showed high flowering intensity in October. High flushing intensity occurred in January and July, the lower one in April and August. Key words: Stability analysis, flushing, flowering, fruiting, cocoa clones

  9. Existence of entomopathogen fungi, Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte in cacao seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana is one of the entomopathogen fungi which is known as biological control agent of cocoa pod borer and cocoa mirids (Helopeltis spp.. Because of its effectiveness in the fields is still not consistent, so we conduct a research with the objective to know the possibility of Beauveria bassiana to be established as a endophyte. Various fungal entomopathogens have already been reported as endophytes and the various methods used to inoculate the plants with B. bassiana were partially effective. The research has been conducted in laboratory of Plant Protection, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute by inoculating of cocoa seeds and cocoa nursery with B. bassiana suspension.  The trial was arranged  by randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement. The factor were spore concentration of B. bassiana (0; 2; and 4 g/ 10 l and cocoa varieties (family of ICS 60, TSH858, and hybrid. The trial were use  four replications. The results showed that the fungal entomopathogen B. bassiana was established as an endophyte in cocoa seedling, both from cocoa seeds and nursery application. Percentage of existence of B. bassiana colonies as endophytes one month after seeds application were ICS 60 amounted to 93.3 % both on concentration treatments, while the families of TSH 858 by 80 % and 86.67 % respectively in 2 g and 4 g per 10 l of B. bassiana spores concentration treament.. The lowest percentage was in hybrids, which amounted to 66.67% and 50%. B. bassiana colonies was exixtence as an endophyte in culture from root, stem and leaves of cocoa seedling up to 5 months post inoculation. While the application on nursery by soil drenshing, leaf spraying, and stem injection , it was known that B. bassiana colonies were found in the tissues of leaves, stems, and roots until two months after application. Colonies of B. bassiana as endophytes still exsist until six weeks after nursery was planted in the field. 

  10. Comparison of SNPs and microsatellites in identifying offtypes of cacao clones from Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are increasingly being used in crop breeding programs, slowly replacing microsatellites and other markers. SNPs provide many benefits over microsatellites, including ease of analysis and unambiguous results across various platforms. We compare SNPs to m...

  11. Morphological and molecular data reveal cryptic speciation in Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, A.; Crous, P.W.; Correia, A.; Phillips, A.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a common pathogen that Occurs on a large number of hosts in the tropics and subtropics. A collection of isolates identified as L. theobromae was studied on the basis of sequence data from the ITS regions and EF1-alpha gene. Phylogenetic analyses identified three well-supp

  12. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; van Andel I; Schenk E; Wolterink G; van de Werken G; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt de mogelijke bijdrage van cacao aan rookverslaving beschreven. Cacao wordt aan tabak toegevoegd om de smaak te verbeteren. Daarnaast bevat cacao tal van psychoactieve stoffen die mogelijk bijdragen aan rookverslaving Dit literatuuronderzoek beschrijft de blootstelling, farmaco

  13. Maxillary sinusitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindo, A J; Pramod, C; Anita, S; Mohanty, S

    2010-01-01

    Lasiodiplodia (monotypic) comprises a very small proportion of the fungal biota. It is a common plant pathogen in tropical and subtropical regions. Clinical reports on its association with onychomycosis, corneal ulcer and phaeohyphomycosis are available. However, Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing fungal sinusitis has not been reported. We present here a case of fungal sinusitis in a 30-year-old woman, who came to the ENT OPD (out patient department) with complaints of intermittent bleeding and nasal discharge from the left side for a week. The patient complained of headache, predominantly on the left side and heaviness on and off since two months. Diagnosis was based on radiological and mycological evidence; the patient underwent endoscopic surgery and was started on antifungal treatment. PMID:20404468

  14. Maxillary sinusitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia (monotypic comprises a very small proportion of the fungal biota. It is a common plant pathogen in tropical and subtropical regions. Clinical reports on its association with onychomycosis, corneal ulcer and phaeohyphomycosis are available. However, Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing fungal sinusitis has not been reported. We present here a case of fungal sinusitis in a 30-year-old woman, who came to the ENT OPD (out patient department with complaints of intermittent bleeding and nasal discharge from the left side for a week. The patient complained of headache, predominantly on the left side and heaviness on and off since two months. Diagnosis was based on radiological and mycological evidence; the patient underwent endoscopic surgery and was started on antifungal treatment.

  15. [Keratitis by Lasiodiplodia theobromae: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudio, Margarita; Laspina, Florentina; Fariña, Norma; Franco, Alicia; Mino de Kaspar, Herminia; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in a 60-year-old man with a history of ocular trauma with vegetable matter. Ophthalmological assessment with slit-lamp and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer by conventional microbiological techniques were performed. Mycology study of the corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments and the isolate was identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Patient was treated with natamycin 5% and fluconazole 0.2% for 37 days. The infection was controlled but the corneal scars required a cornea transplant. This is the first case of keratitis by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in Paraguay. Difficulties in the management of these cases, which often requires surgical procedures, are discussed.

  16. [Keratitis by Lasiodiplodia theobromae: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudio, Margarita; Laspina, Florentina; Fariña, Norma; Franco, Alicia; Mino de Kaspar, Herminia; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in a 60-year-old man with a history of ocular trauma with vegetable matter. Ophthalmological assessment with slit-lamp and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer by conventional microbiological techniques were performed. Mycology study of the corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments and the isolate was identified as Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Patient was treated with natamycin 5% and fluconazole 0.2% for 37 days. The infection was controlled but the corneal scars required a cornea transplant. This is the first case of keratitis by Lasiodiplodia theobromae in Paraguay. Difficulties in the management of these cases, which often requires surgical procedures, are discussed. PMID:25679935

  17. Assessment of genetic diversity on a sample of cocoa accessions resistant to witches' broom disease based on RAPD and pedigree data Avaliação da diversidade genética em uma amostra de acessos de cacau resistentes à doença vassoura-de-bruxa, com base em dados de RAPD e pedigree

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Carvalho dos Santos; José Luís Pires; Uilson Vanderley Lopes; Karina Peres G. Gramacho; Acassi Batista Flores; Rita de Cássia S. Bahia; Helaine C. Cristine Ramos; Ronan Xavier Corrêa; Dario Ahnert

    2005-01-01

    Genetic diversity in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) has been assessed based on morphological and molecular markers for germplasm management and breeding purposes. Pedigree data is available in cocoa but it has not been used for assessing genetic relatedness. The geneitic diversity of 30 clonal cocoa accessions resistant to witche´ broom disease, from the CEPEC series, were studied on the basis of RAPD data and pedigree information. Twenty of these accessions descend from the TSA-644 clone, ...

  18. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371–399

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Le Roux, J.J.; Richardson, D. M.; Strasberg, D.; Shivas, R.G.; Alvarado, P.; Edwards, J.; Moreno, G.; Sharma, R.; Sonawane, M.S.; Tan, Y. P.; Altés, A.; Barasubiye, T.; Barnes, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Neoseptorioides eucalypti gen. & sp. nov. from Eucalyptus radiata leaves, Phytophthora gondwanensis from soil, Diaporthe tulliensis from rotted stem ends of Theobroma cacao fruit, Diaporthe vawdreyi from fruit rot of Psidium guajava, Magnaporthiopsis agrostidis from rotted roots of Agrostis stolonifera and Semifissispora natalis from Eucalyptus leaf litter. Furthermore, Neopestalotiopsis egyptiaca is d...

  19. Effects of Land-Use Change on Under Storey Species Composition and Distribution in a Tropical Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Ifechukwude ODIWE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The forest land�s conversion into tree crops plantations plays a major role in the loss of biodiversity. Therefore, understanding the impacts of land-use change on species diversity is very critical for ecosystem functioning and stability. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of land-use changes on under storey species diversity in the Theobroma cacao and Citrus sinensis plantations. Two, 25 m � 25 m plots were sampled in each plantation and a nearby undisturbed secondary rainforest for comparison. The diameters (dbh-1.3 m of all trees at breast height >10 cm were measured in each plot. Five line transect were systematically laid and a quadrat of 50 cm � 50 cm placed at every 1 m point to identify the under storey species (herbaceous, shrubs, tree saplings and climbers present in each plot. Percentage canopy, species diversity using Shannon-Wiener, Simpson�s index and Evenness were determined, while species similarity was determined using the Jaccard�s similarity index. Results indicate that woody basal area and stem density in Theobroma cacao were significantly (P<0.05 higher than the Citrus sinensis plantation. A total number of 25, 27, and 14 under storey species distributed in 16, 19 and 11 families were found in Theobroma cacao, Citrus sinensis plantations and secondary forest respectively. Panicum maximum and Axonopus compressus were the dominant grasses in the Theobroma cacao and Citrus sinensis plantations respectively. The percentage canopy cover was significantly (P<0.05 higher in the secondary forest than the plantations. The land use modification has significantly increased the under storey species composition.

  20. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

    OpenAIRE

    Yanty, N. A. M.; Marikkar, J. M. M.; Miskandar, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana), cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L.), palm oil (Elaeis guinensis) and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia) are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylgly...

  1. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Sills; Evan Mercer; Frederick Cubbage; Jessica Haynes

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individu...

  2. Cassia renigera Wall.: novo hospedeiro de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Cassia renigera Wall.: a new host of Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceratocystis fimbriata foi descrito pela primeira vez em 1984, causando murcha em plantas de Cassia renigera, em Campinas (SP. Foram realizadas inoculações cruzadas com dois isolados de C. fimbriata obtidos de Cassia renigera e mangueira (Mangifera indica em plantas de: acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens, cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan, figueira (Ficus carica, gamelina (Gmelina arborea, mangueira (Mangifera indica, seringueira (Hevea brasilienses, Cassia sp., C. carnaval, C. ferruginea, C. grandis, C. moschata, C. multijuga, C. nodosa, C. renigera, C. siamea e C. speciosa. Os dois isolados do fungo foram patogênicos a todas as plantas testadas, com exceção de cacaueiro, gamelina e C. grandis.Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. is described for the first time in 1984 on Cassia renigera, in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In cross inoculation, the isolates of C. fimbriata obtained from Cassia renigera and from Mangifera indica showed pathogenicity to the following plants: Acacia decurrens, Theobroma cacao, Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Ficus Carica, Gmelina arborea, Mangifera indica, Hevea brasiliensis, Cassia sp., C. carnaval, C. ferruginea, C. grandis, C. moschata, C. multijuga, C. nodosa, C. renigera, C. siamea and C. speciosa. The isolates of C. fimbriata were pathogenic to all tested plants, except for Theobroma cacao, Gmelina arborea and C. grandis.

  3. Determinação de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Denilson Soares de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractIons of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae, caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae, cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae, marupá (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae, were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data (¹H and 13C NMR, IR.

  4. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data (1H and 13C NMR, IR). (author)

  5. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves; Determinacao de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: ladetec@iq.gov.br; Cabral, Jose Augusto; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Cid [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group; Elias, Vladimir O. [Analytical Solution, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, IR). (author)

  6. Biosynthesis of resorcylic acid lactone lasiodiplodin in Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Takasumi; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke

    2009-05-01

    The biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin (1) and its (5S)-5-hydroxylated derivative (2) were investigated by the administration of (13)C-labeled acetates to Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The labeling patterns of biosynthetically (13)C-labeled 1 and 2 were determined by (13)C-NMR and INADEQUATE spectra, demonstrating the octaketide origins of 1 and 2. Taking into account the biosynthetic study of resorcylic acid lactones, the involvement of highly reduced acyl intermediates in the biosynthesis of lasiodiplodins was presumed; thus, we synthesized (2)H-labeled hypothetical acyl intermediates of 1, 9-hydroxydecanoic acid (4) and its N-acetylcysteamine thioester (SNAC, 5). When L. theobromae was incubated with 5 mM of a (2)H-labeled intermediate, the (2)H-label from the intermediate was incorporated at the expected position of 1. These incorporation studies revealed that 1 was produced via a pathway which closely resembles that of resorcylic acid lactone biosynthesis. PMID:19420710

  7. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    OpenAIRE

    Nityananda Chakraborty; Balen Nandi

    2015-01-01

    Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be du...

  8. An unusual skin lesion caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacostas, Lindsey J; Henderson, Andrew; Choong, Keat; Sowden, David

    2015-06-01

    We describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. It was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. The fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with Voriconizole. PMID:25893164

  9. An unusual skin lesion caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey J. Papacostas; Andrew Henderson; Keat Choong; David Sowden

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. It was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. The fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with Voriconizole.

  10. An unusual skin lesion caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey J. Papacostas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae. It was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. The fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. Identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with Voriconizole.

  11. Temperature Modulates the Secretome of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Carina; Duarte, Ana S; Vitorino, Rui; Guerreiro, Ana C L; Domingues, Pedro; Correia, António C M; Alves, Artur; Esteves, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures. The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields. Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for a number of diseases in various plants. It has also been described as an opportunist pathogen in humans, causing infections with different levels of severity. L. theobromae has a high capacity of adaptation to different environments, such as woody plants, moist argillaceous soils, or even humans, being able to grow and infect hosts in a wide range of temperatures (9-39°C). Nonetheless, the effect of an increase of temperature, as predicted in climate change models, on L. theobromae is unknown. Here we explore the effect of temperature on two strains of L. theobromae - an environmental strain, CAA019, and a clinical strain, CBS339.90. We show that both strains are cytotoxic to mammalian cells but while the environmental strain is cytotoxic mainly at 25°C, the clinical strain is cytotoxic mainly at 30 and 37°C. Extracellular gelatinolytic, xylanolytic, amylolytic, and cellulolytic activities at 25 and 37°C were characterized by zymography and the secretome of both strains grown at 25, 30, and 37°C were characterized by electrophoresis and by Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the proteins were identified, mostly enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases and proteases). The strains showed different protein profiles, which were affected by growth temperature. Also, strain specific proteins were identified, such

  12. Emerging resistance against different fungicides in Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the cause of mango dieback in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ur Ateeq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieback of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is among several diseases responsible for low crop production in Pakistan. To further complicate the issue, resistance in L. theobromae is emerging against different fungicides. L. theobromae was isolated from diseased samples of mango plants collected from various orchards in the Multan District. The efficacy of different fungicides viz. copper oxychloride, diethofencarb, pyrachlostrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, mancozeb, and thiophanate-methyl was evaluated in vitro using a poison food technique. Thiophanate-methyl at all concentrations was found to be the most effective among five systemic fungicides against L. theobromae, followed by carbendazim, difenoconazole and diethofencarb. The fungicides, i.e., thiophanate-methyl, difenoconazole, carbendazim and diethofencarb showed maximum efficacy with increasing concentration. The isolates of L. theobromae showed some resistance development against the tested fungicides when compared with previous work. These investigations provide new information about chemical selection for the control of holistic disease in mango growing zones of Pakistan.

  13. Impact of forest disturbance on the structure and composition of vegetation in tropical rainforest of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMADHANIL PITOPANG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We presented the structure and composition of vegetation in four (4 different land use types namely undisturbed primary forest, lightly disturbed primary forest, selectively logged forest, and cacao forest garden in tropical rainforest margin of the Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi Indonesia. Individually all big trees (dbh > 10 cm was numbered with tree tags and their position in the plot mapped, crown diameter and dbh measured, whereas trunk as well as total height measured by Vertex. Additionally, overstorey plants (dbh 2- 9.9 cm were also surveyed in all land use types. Identification of vouchers and additional herbarium specimens was done in the field as well as at Herbarium Celebense (CEB, Tadulako University, and Nationaal Herbarium of Netherland (L Leiden branch, the Netherland. The result showed that the structure and composition of vegetation in studied are was different. Tree species richness was decreased from primary undisturbed forest to cacao plantation, whereas tree diversity and its composition were significantly different among four (4 land use types. Palaquium obovatum, Chionanthus laxiflorus, Castanopsis acuminatissima, Lithocarpus celebicus, Canarium hirsutum, Eonymus acuminifolius and Sarcosperma paniculata being predominant in land use type A, B and C and Coffea robusta, Theobroma cacao, Erythrina subumbrans, Glyricidia sepium, Arenga pinnata, and Syzygium aromaticum in the cacao plantation. At the family level, undisturbed natural forest was dominated by Fagaceae and Sapotaceae disturbed forest by Moraceae, Sapotaceae, Rubiaceae, and agroforestry systems by Sterculiaceae and Fabaceae.

  14. Biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in a plant pathogenic fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Kohei; Takahashi, Kosaku; Nabeta, Kensuke

    2010-12-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a plant hormone that plays an important role in a wide variety of plant physiological processes. The plant pathogenic fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae also produces JA; however, its biosynthesis in this fungus has yet to be explored. Administration of [1-(13)C] and [2-(13)C] NaOAc into L. theobromae established that JA in this fungus originates from a fatty acid synthetic pathway. The methyl ester of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) was detected in the culture extracts of L. theobromae by GC-MS analysis. This finding indicates the presence of OPDA (a known intermediate of JA biosynthesis in plants) in L. theobromae. (2)H NMR spectroscopic data of JA produced by L. theobromae with the incorporation of [9,10,12,13,15,16-(2)H(6)] linolenic acid showed that five deuterium atoms remained intact. In plants, this is speculated to arise from JA being produced by the octadecanoid pathway. However, the observed stereoselectivity of the cyclopentenone olefin reduction in L. theobromae was opposite to that observed in plants. These data suggest that JA biosynthesis in L. theobromae is similar to that in plants, but differing in the facial selectivity of the enone reduction. PMID:20952041

  15. Enzyme activity in banana fruits rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityananda Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in fruits of two cultivars of banana, 'champa' and 'kanthali' rotted by Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. was studied. The enzymes showed much higher activities in infected than that in uninfected 'tissues. Increase in peroxidase activity was evidently inhibited by cycloheximide. Polyphenol oxidase activity was also inhibited in presence of phenylthiourea and Na-diethyldithiocarbamate more strongly by the former. Increase in activities seemed to be due to increased sytheses of the enzymes. In an in vitro culture, the fungus exhibited some peroxidase but no polyphenoloxidase activity.

  16. [Study of production of sesquiterpenes of Aquilaria senensis stimulated by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Min; Liang, Liang; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Xiu-Jin; Yang, Yun; Meng, Hui; Gao, Zhi-Hui; Xu, Yan-Hong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of agarwood formation in Aquilaria sinensis induced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the fermentation liquor of L. theobromae was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). JAs were detected in the fermentation liquor. The effect of the fermentation liquor on the abundance of sesquiterpenes in the callus of A. sinensis was analyzed by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). And the fermentation liquor stimulated alpha-guaiene, alpha-humulene and delta-guaiene biosynthesis in calli. It was inferred that L. theobromae produced JAs, which resulted in a significant increase of sesquiterpenes in A. sinensis. PMID:24761630

  17. Lasiodiplodia theobromae keratitis: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suman; Sengupta, Jayangshu; Banerjee, Debdulal; Khetan, Archana

    2012-10-01

    A case report and review of literature is reported of a rare case of fungal keratitis from eastern India. A 32-year-old woman with a history of vegetative trauma presented with keratitis in left eye. Microbiological examination of corneal scraping showed refractile hyphae with aseptate branching filaments and black pigmented colonies on multiple solid agar medium. Organism was identified from culture using D1/D2 region of LSU (Large Sub Unit: 28S rDNA)-based molecular technique. PCR amplified a band with a sequence that was 100 % homologous with Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The organism was susceptible to amphotericin B and voriconazole and demonstrated resistance to itraconazole and fluconazole. A therapeutic keratoplasty was performed following non-responsiveness to initial topical voriconazole (2 %) therapy. Recurrence in graft was controlled with topical voriconazole and intracameral amphotericin B. However, the graft failed at the end of 3 months. L. theobromae is a rare cause of fungal keratitis. Management of these cases is difficult, often involving surgical procedures. PMID:22544631

  18. Purification, characterization and application of lipoxygenase isoenzymes from Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disha D; Patel, Ravi R; Thakkar, Vasudev R

    2015-01-01

    Lipoxygenase oxidizes linoleic acid into hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (HPOD), which is important in food and flavour industries for production of bread and flavouring compounds. As Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an unexplored, good source of lipoxygenase, it was purified from it by size-exclusion (Sephadex G100) and ion-exchange (DEAE-cellulose) chromatography and characterized. Upon purification, L. theobromae was found to contain two different lipoxygenases, one of 93 kDa (LOX1) and another of 45 kDa (LOX2). Both the isoenzymes were having optimum pH 6.0 and optimum temperatures 50 and 40 °C, respectively. The catalytic efficiency of LOX1 and LOX2 was found to be 1300 and 1.67 × 10(9), respectively. The catalytic efficiency of LOX2 is higher than the catalytic efficiency of soya bean LOX1 that is 10.9 × 10(6). Both the isoenzymes of LOX oxidized linoleic acid to produce 9-HPOD and 13-HPOD both; however, LOX1 produced more of 9-HPOD and LOX2 produced more of 13-HPOD. Both the LOXes were not inhibited by jasmonic acid. Addition of LOX1 and LOX2 altered the elasticity as well as viscosity of dough prepared from bleached wheat flour. PMID:25326184

  19. Colonization of cashew plants by Lasiodiplodia theobromae: microscopical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, C R; Freire, F C O; Viana, F M P; Cardoso, J E; Cooke, P; Wood, D; Guedes, M I F

    2011-07-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus causing gummosis, a threatening disease for cashew plants in Brazil. In an attempt to investigate the ultrastructural features of the pathogen colonization and its response to immunofluorescence labeling, light, confocal and electron microscope studies were conducted on different severity scale patterns of diseased plants. Lasiodiplodia-antisera was checked for cross reactivity against common cashew plants fungi. Optical microscopy analysis revealed a longitudinally sectioned hyphae located within the xylem vessels, showing an extensive hyphal development in the secondary xylem tissue. SEM images demonstrated that the fungus was found in some asymptomatic samples, particularly within the xylem vessels as confirmed by the optical images. Symptomatic sample images showed an extensive distribution of the fungus along the secondary xylem, within the vessels, infecting xylem parenchyma. A closer look in the secondary xylem parenchyma reveals a heavy and profuse invasion of the cells with a distinguishable cell wall disintegration and fully hyphae dispersal. There was no reactivity of Lasiodiplodia-antisera against mycelial extracts of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis anardii and Pestalotiopsis guepinii. Following incubation of sections with the polyclonal antisera, the hyphae were intensely and regularly labeled. Rays, vessels and parenchyma cells were the preferred pathway for L. theobromae colonization. Artificial infection provides the information that the vascular cylinder is undoubtedly employed and used by the fungus for hyphae distribution. Immunofluorescence assay employed in situ was applied and the polyclonal antisera produced was able to recognize the fungus and proved to be a sensitive technique to detect it. PMID:21194959

  20. Lasiodiplodia theobromae keratitis: a rare fungi from eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a case of a 32-year old female with a history of minor trauma presented with total corneal ulcer and hypopyon in the left eye. Microbiological examination of corneal scraping showed refractile hyphae with asepted branching filaments and black pigmented colonies in multiple solid agar medium. Identification of the organism was made from culture using D1/D2 region of Large Sub Unit (28S rDNA based molecular technique. Polymerase chain reaction amplified a band with a sequence that was 100% homologous with Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The organism was sensitive to amphotericin B and voriconazole, and demonstrated resistance to itraconazole and fluconazole. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed followed by recurrence in graft controlled with topical voriconazole and intracameral amphotericin B. Graft failure was reported after three months.

  1. [Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing coking plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cui-ping; Liu, Hai-bin; Sun, Hong-wen

    2012-08-01

    Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae). Moreover, enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD). The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed. The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L. theobromae, which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group. At an optimum concentration of 2 g x kg(-1) for Tween 80 and 1 g x kg(-1) for HPCD, the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%, respectively, which was 50 percentage points higher than that of the control group. Hydrogen peroxidase and invertase activities in soil in the bioremediation group with only L. theobromae and the surfactant enhanced group were both enhanced twice more than that of the control group. These results showed that L. theobromae may produce hydrogen peroxidase and invertase or have synergic effect with indigenous microorganisms. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of PAHs degradation rate and maximum enzyme activities of hydrogen peroxidase and invertase were 0.781 and 0.837, respectively. Therefore, the correlation between invertase activities and degradation rate was higher.

  2. [Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing coking plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cui-ping; Liu, Hai-bin; Sun, Hong-wen

    2012-08-01

    Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae). Moreover, enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD). The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed. The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L. theobromae, which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group. At an optimum concentration of 2 g x kg(-1) for Tween 80 and 1 g x kg(-1) for HPCD, the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%, respectively, which was 50 percentage points higher than that of the control group. Hydrogen peroxidase and invertase activities in soil in the bioremediation group with only L. theobromae and the surfactant enhanced group were both enhanced twice more than that of the control group. These results showed that L. theobromae may produce hydrogen peroxidase and invertase or have synergic effect with indigenous microorganisms. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of PAHs degradation rate and maximum enzyme activities of hydrogen peroxidase and invertase were 0.781 and 0.837, respectively. Therefore, the correlation between invertase activities and degradation rate was higher. PMID:23213912

  3. Cabruca its agrobiodiversity potential on small farmers in Southern region of Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cacao Cabruca Agroforestry system of production was developed by farmers in Bahia over 200 years ago. This system consists of planting cacao under the shade of trees in the Atlantic rain forest and has on an average 693 cacao plants and 93 trees per hectare. Even though the local community utili...

  4. A new method to evaluate the weed-suppressing effect of mulches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, B. W.; Ali, A.; Streibig, Jens Carl;

    2013-01-01

    To suppress weeds in an apple (Malus sp.) orchard, we placed spruce (Picea spp.) bark mulch and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) husk mulch for 3 months in thicknesses of 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 cm. To assess the development of weed cover, an innovative use of log-logistic dose–response models was applied......, with mulch thickness as the independent variable. Weed cover was measured by non-destructive image analysis by estimating the relationship between the number of green pixels and the total number of pixels in each experimental plot. The thickness of mulch layer required to attain a 50 and 90% weed suppression...

  5. Estimativa de biomassa de sistemas agroflorestais das várzeas do rio juba, Cametá, Pará Biomass estimation of agroforestry systems of the Juba river floodplain in Cametá, Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Roberto Miranda dos Santos; Izildinha Souza Miranda; Manoel Malheiros Tourinho

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta uma estimativa da biomassa seca (BS) acima do solo e estoque de carbono (EC) de sistemas agroflorestais (SAF) estudados nas várzeas do rio Juba, Cametá, Pará. A BS foi estimada pelo método indireto a partir dos dados de um inventário florestal realizado em sete parcelas de 0,25 ha (50 m x 50 m). Foram inventariados em média 2594 indivíduos/ha com DAP >5 cm. Euterpe oleracea Mart.(açaí) e Theobroma cacao L. (cacau), foram as espécies mais importantes e representaram 80 ...

  6. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn; Alisa Nakkaew; Tanate Panrat; Arunrut Vanichanon; Amornrat Phongdara

    2016-01-01

    A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL) from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. T...

  7. Production of amylolytic enzymes in culture by Botryodiplodia theobromae and Sclerotium rolfsii associated with the corm rots of Colocasia esculenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwufo, M I; Fajola, A O

    1988-01-01

    Extracellular amylase was detected in culture filtrates of Botryodiplodia theobromae and Sclerotium rolfsii. During 10 days incubation S. rolfsii produced more amylase than B. theobromae. B. theobromae produced the greatest amount of amylase at 25 degrees C, while S. rolfsii at 30 degrees C. Both organism exerted the highest amylase activity at pH 6-7. In starch-free medium extracellular amylase was in very low quantities. There was a positive correlation between increase in starch concentration and production of extracellular amylolytic enzymes.

  8. Biosynthesis of resorcylic acid lactone (5S)-5-hydroxylasiodiplodin in Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Takasumi; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke

    2009-11-01

    An administration study of (2)H-labeled precursors showed that the 9-hydroxydecanoyl unit, the acyl intermediate of lasiodiplodin (1), was also the intermediate of (5S)-5-hydroxylasiodiplodin (2) in Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The incorporation of [O-methyl-(2)H(3)]-lasiodiplodin (6) into 2 indicated that hydroxylation at C-5 occurred after cyclization. PMID:19897901

  9. Monitoring cashew seedlings during interactions with the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz, C.R.; Freire, F.C.O.; Viana, F.M.P.; Cardoso, J.E.; Sousa, C.A.F.; Guedes, M.I.F.; Schoor, van der R.; Jalink, H.

    2014-01-01

    The chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence imaging technique was applied to cashew seedlings inoculated with the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae to assess any disturbances in the photosynthetic apparatus of the plants before the onset of visual symptoms. Two-month-old cashew plants were inoculated with myce

  10. 可可全基因组SSR标记的开发及分析%LARGE-SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF SSR MARKERS IN THE GENOME OF CACAO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹恒春; 王毅; 黄莉莎; 王玉军; 于元杰; 杨龙

    2013-01-01

    SSR标记是一种广泛应用的分子标记技术,在可可基因组的研究中发挥了重要的作用.本研究运用生物信息学的方法,对可可全基因组进行了扫描,共得到10,4653个SSR区段.对这些SSR区段进行分析,发现含有碱基数目不同的重复单元之间具有较大的差异:含有七核苷酸的重复单元最多,为70,414个,占所有重复单元总数的67.3%;其次为二核苷酸重复单元,为23,272个,占总数的22.2%.在各类SSR单元中,不同核苷酸重复单元出现的频率有明显的差异,其中富含A/T重复单元的SSR单元数目最多,占总数的67%;而C/G重复单元的SSR单元数目较少,约占总数的0.02%.利用SSR单元的位点信息,设计出了65,861对引物,并在可可基因组中进行了电子PCR扩增验证,结果显示100%的引物均能扩增出产物条带.在可可基因组中大规模开发的SSR标记,将为可可的进化、分类和遗传多样性研究提供参考.

  11. Echecs de marchés et pauvreté : l’exemple de la filière cacao en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Bonjean Catherine

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La question posée ici est donc de savoir si, dans une économie où les défaillances de marché sont multiples, le désengagement de l’État a conduit à une amélioration du bien-être des planteurs, plus particulièrement des pauvres, ou non. Nous montrons, dans un premier point, que la libéralisation a entraîné une rupture dans le mode de coordination des agents au sein de la filière, rupture dont les conséquences sur la pauvreté sont ensuite examinées. Quatre critères de pauvreté sont considérés [2] : le niveau de revenu, la vulnérabilité face au risque de revenu, l’accès aux biens et services publics et la participation des paysans aux décisions au sein de la filière.

  12. Orígenes y desarrollo de una élite regional. Aristocracia y cacao en la provincia de Caracas, siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Langue

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Como lo demuestra la evolución de la historiografía americanista en los últimos diez años, la insistencia en la historia social y particularmente en la de las élites contempla, en la mayoría de los casos, el período  conocido como el de la "revolución en el gobierno", según la caracterización de Brading. A ese respecto, la naturaleza de los detentores de la riqueza y del poder en la provincia de Caracas — tal sería la definición más amplia del término élite —, una aristocracia criolla por exc...

  13. Suggestions on Development of Cacao Industry in Hainan%世界可可业概况与发展海南可可业的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱自慧

    2003-01-01

    介绍了可可的生长环境条件、开花结果特性,国内外生产科研现状以及海南发展可可的利弊条件和适宜的种植模式,提出了加速海南可可产业化发展的建议.

  14. 可可壳色素对真丝织物染色性能研究%Research on Dyeing Behavior of Silk Fabrics with Cacao Shell Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂超; 黎谦

    2015-01-01

    为了研究天然染料可可壳色素对真丝织物的染色性能和染色真丝织物防紫外线性能,通过正交实验方法获得最佳染色工艺,并测定了不同染色真丝织物的紫外光透过率及UPF值.结果表明:可可壳色素直接染色的最佳工艺为色素相对真丝织物的质量分数2%,pH值5,时间60 min,温度70℃,浴比1∶50,前媒法处理的最佳工艺条件为媒染剂质量分数2%,媒染时间30 min,媒染温度70 ℃,浴比1∶50.真丝织物经过可可壳色素染色能提高紫外线防护性能,获得较好的耐摩擦和耐皂洗色牢度,但是日晒色牢度较差.

  15. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  16. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kotowska, Martyna M.; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless...

  17. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    OpenAIRE

    Martyna Malgorzata Kotowska; Dietrich eHertel; Yasmin eAbou Rajab; Henry eBarus; Bernhard eSchuldt

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing towards the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheles...

  18. Détermination du niveau de contamination de l'ochratoxine A (OTA dans les fèves de cacao à l'exportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA Levels in Exported Cocoa. This exported cocoa ochratoxin A contamination assessment target is to answer the legal dispositions and regulations. Three hundred (300 large samples of dried cocoa beans was taken according the Commission Regulation (EC No 401/2006 and OTA was quantified by HPLC analytical methods with extraction and clean-up on immunoaffinity columns. The global result shows that 33 samples out of 300 cocoa samples have levels of OTA above 2 μg/kg that constitutes 11.04% of total cocoa production in Ivory Coast. At the port of Abidjan rejected cocao beans were evaluated to 15.65%, if the maximum authorized levels are fixed to 2 μg/kg. The result for San Pedro port showed lower levels of OTA (only 6.67%. If we consider the Ivorian regulation that the under grade cocoa bean (S/G cannot been exported (the under grade cocoa bean (S/G is the dry cocoa bean of which the mould rate is above 4%, the slated cocoa bean rate is above 8% and the defective rate is also above 6%. At the both ports rejected cocoa beans constitutes 9.50% (11% at Abidjan and 8% at San Pedro. This cocoa beans contamination by OTA can be controlled or reduced by the efficient implementation and vulgarization of the good cocoa production, if we identify the critical points of contamination in the cocoa chain production by ochratoxigen fungi.

  19. The Sustainable Choice: How Gendered Difference in the Importance of Ecological Benefits Affect Production Decisions of Smallholder Cacao Producing Households in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Blare, Trent; Useche, Pilar; Grogan, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    Ecuadorian women have traditionally been sidelined from full participation in the economy and have lacked equal political rights. Yet, Ecuador has made advances in gender equality in recent years. Women now have greater access to educational and career opportunities, equality in inheritance and martial property rights, and gained positions of authority in Ecuadorian society. However, these advances do not necessarily mean that Ecuadorian women have gained equity with men, especially in rural ...

  20. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional slash and burn agriculture practiced in the Peruvian Amazon region is leading to soil degradation and deforestation of native forest flora. The only way to stop such destructive processes is through the adoptation of sustainable alternatives such as growing crops in agroforestry systems....

  1. Plata, paño, cacao y clavo: "dinero de la tierra" en la Amazonía portuguesa (c. 1640-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam da Silva Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es discutir cómo la economía y la sociedad de la Amazonía portuguesa colonial (de mediados del siglo XVII a mediados del siglo XVIII se organizaron a partir de la ausencia de moneda metálica; por otro lado, se analizan las razones que llevaron a la Corona portuguesa a no autorizar la circulación de monedas metálicas y las implicaciones que tuvo esa política en la región.

  2. Extracción y purificación del adn de moniliophthora roreri hongo que ataca el cacao, en norte de santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Yanet Suárez Contreras

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This research has as objetive to define the methodology of extraction and purification for Moniliophthora roreri and to apply it to 56 isolations of Moniliophthora roreri obtained from Cúcuta, Agua Clara, Sardinata, El Tarra, Tibú, Bucaracica, Teorama and Zulia in Norte de Santander (Colombia. The extraction of DNA was carried out by the protocol proposed by Miranda and Sandoval in 2000, with some proposed modifications by Rocha. To its purification was utilized Chloroform Phenol. Once, it was standarized by the protocol of extraction. It tested with other mushrooms:Metarhizium sp, Botritys cincrea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This work intends to continue with the research in the area of Molecular Biology of Moniliophthora roreri and other phytopathogens of economic importance for the region, it promotes the research in micology.

  3. Antioxidant effect of an ozonized theobroma oil formulation on damaged-inflammatory rat skin

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Yaima; Maritza F. Díaz; Hernández, Frank; Gil, Dayana; García, Gastón

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a cosmetic formulation elaborated with ozonized theobroma oil may exert beneficial effects in the restoring of the antioxidant activity on the skin of rats previously irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0.5 g of the formulation was applied on the skin of rats for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in a homogenate of rat skin. Malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) ...

  4. Isolation and structural elucidation of a new cyclohexenone compound from Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2009-08-01

    A new cyclohexenone compound was isolated as a mixture of enantiomers from a culture filtrate of Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The relative structure was determined to be 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-cyclohex-2-enone on the basis of MS, (1)H-NMR, and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic analyses, including 2D-NMR experiments. Resolution of the enantiomers was conducted by a coupling reaction with (S)-MTPA-Cl followed by HPLC separation. PMID:19661717

  5. Molecular characterisation of a germplasm bank for Theobroma genus using the RAPD technique

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    Yovany Moreno

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA were used for analysing 145 individuals (128 T. grandiflorum and 17 T. bicolor from the ex situ Theobroma genus germplasm bank at Instituto Sinchi, located at San José del Guaviare. 5 primers able to generated polymorphism were selected from an initial set of 20, generating 114 bands that enable to us to distinguish between more than 99% of individuals analysed: 57 bands for T. grandiflorum (84.2% polymorphic, 45 bands for T. bicolor (26.7% polymorphic and 12 bands shared between the two species (58.3% polymorphic. A high degree of intra-specific similarity particularly in T. bicolor was established from the similarity matrix obtained by using the Dice index and represented in a UPGMA dendrogram and the principal components analysis (PCA. The comparison of this analysis with a previous morpho-agronomic evaluation of some T. grandiflorum individuals revealed that the groups generated on the basis of its agronomic and morphological traits were heterogeneous at molecular level. The obtained information will be used as a tool in strategies regarding maintenance, enrichment and use of the germplasm bank. Key words: Theobroma grandiflorum, Theobroma bicolour, RAPD, molecular characterisation.

  6. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranga, Carla C; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. PMID:26926564

  7. Induction of Cocoa Natural Resistancy to Cocoa Pod Borer by Silica Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Anom Wijaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  8. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol.

  9. Isolation of an alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone derivative, a toxin from the plant pathogen Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guochun; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yoshihara, Teruhiko

    2004-10-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is known as a multi-infectious microorganism that causes considerable crop damage, particularly to tropical fruits. When the fruits are infected by L. theobromae, the typical symptom is the appearance of black spots on the surface of the infected fruit. When injected in to the peel of banana, the culture filtrate of L. theobromae induced formation of black spots. The structure of the isolated compound responsible for this effect was determined to be (3S,4R)-3-carboxy-2-methylene-heptan-4-olide on the basis of analysis of MS, IR, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic data, including HMQC, HMBC, and 1H-1H COSY experiments. The active compound was not only isolated from the culture filtrate derived from potato dextrose medium, but also from the extract of infected peels of bananas. PMID:15474567

  10. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of gummosis in cashew nut plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, C R; da Silva, G F; Souza, M T; Freire, F C O; Kema, G H J; Guedes, M I F

    2014-01-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a major pathogen of many different crop cultures, including cashew nut plants. This paper describes an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for the successful delivery of T-DNA, transferring the genes of green fluorescent protein (gfp) and hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) to L. theobromae. When the fungal pycnidiospores were co-cultured with A. tumefaciens harboring the binary vector with hph-gfp gene, hygromycin-resistant fungus only developed with acetosyringone supplementation. The cashew plants inoculated with the fungus expressing GFP revealed characteristic pathogen colonization by epifluorescence microscopy. Intense and bright green hyphae were observed for transformants in all extensions of mycelium cultures. The penetration of parenchyma cells near to the inoculation site, beneath the epicuticle surface, was observed prior to 25 dpi. Penetration was followed by the development of hyphae within invaded host cells. These findings provide a rapid and reproducible ATMT method for L. theobromae transformation. PMID:24634294

  11. Linolenate 9R-dioxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities of Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernerén, Fredrik; Eng, Felipe; Hamberg, Mats; Oliw, Ernst H

    2012-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is synthesized from linolenic acid (18:3n-3) by sequential action of 13-lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase (AOS), and allene oxide cyclase. The fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae can produce large amounts of JA and was recently reported to form the JA precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid. The objective of our study was to characterize the fatty acid dioxygenase activities of this fungus. Two strains of L. theobromae with low JA secretion (~0.2 mg/L medium) oxygenated 18:3n-3 to 5,8-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid as well as 9R-hydroperoxy-10E,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid, which was metabolized by an AOS activity into 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12Z,15Z-octadecadienoic acid. Analogous conversions were observed with linoleic acid (18:2n-6). Studies using [11S-(2)H]18:2n-6 revealed that the putative 9R-dioxygenase catalyzed stereospecific removal of the 11R hydrogen followed by suprafacial attack of dioxygen at C-9. Mycelia from these strains of L. theobromae contained 18:2n-6 as the major polyunsaturated acid but lacked 18:3n-3. A third strain with a high secretion of JA (~200 mg/L) contained 18:3n-3 as a major fatty acid and produced 5,8-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoic acid from added 18:3n-3. This strain also lacked the JA biosynthetic enzymes present in higher plants. PMID:22048860

  12. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

  13. Degradation of PAHs in soil by Lasiodiplodia theobromae and enhanced benzo[a]pyrene degradation by the addition of Tween-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Haibin; Li, Jing; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which has carcinogenic potency, is highly recalcitrant and resistant to microbial degradation. A novel fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae), which can degrade BaP as a sole carbon source in liquid, was isolated in our laboratory. To prompt the further application of L. theobromae in remediation of sites polluted by BaP and other PAHs, the present study was targeted toward the removal of BaP and PAHs from soil by L. theobromae. The degradation of BaP by L. theobromae was studied using a soil spiked with 50 mg/kg BaP. L. theobromae could remove 32.1 % of the BaP after 35 days of cultivation. Phenanthrene (PHE) inhibited BaP degradation as a competitive substrate. The tested surfactants enhanced BaP degradation in soil by different extents, and a removal rate of 92.1 % was achieved at a Tween-80 (TW-80) concentration of 5 g/kg. It was revealed that TW-80 could not only enhance BaP bioavailability by increasing its aqueous solubility and decreasing the size of its colloid particles but also increase enzyme secretion from L. theobromae and the population of L. theobromae. Moreover, ergosterol content together with the biomass C indicated the increase in L. theobromae biomass during the BaP biodegradation process in soils. Finally, a soil from a historically PAH-contaminated field at Beijing Coking Plant in China was tested to assess the feasibility of applying L. theobromae in the remediation of polluted sites. The total removal rate of PAHs by L. theobromae was 53.3 %, which is 13.1 % higher than that by Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium), an effective PAH degrader. The addition of TW-80 to the field soil further enhanced PAH degradation to 73.2 %. Hence, L. theobromae is a promising novel strain to be implemented in the remediation of soil polluted by PAHs. PMID:24878554

  14. Influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and sporulation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon and Maubl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A; Mandal, P; Dasgupta, S; Saha, D

    2008-05-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a common tea (Camellia sinensis) pathogen, usually does not sporulate or sporulates poorly in common media, which makes spore production difficult. In this study the effects of culture media, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, pH and light on mycelial growth and sporulation were evaluated. Among several carbon sources tested, glucose and sucrose were found superior for growth. Potassium nitrate supplemented media showed maximum growth amongst the tested inorganic nitrogen sources while peptone produced maximum growth among the tested organic nitrogen sources. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium was found to be the most suitable for mycelial growth and sporulation of L. theobromae. The fungus grow at temperatures ranging from 40 to 36 degrees C, with optimum growth at 28 degrees C and no growth was noted at 40 degrees C. There was no significant effect of different light period on growth of L. theobromae, but light enhanced sporulation. The fungus grow at pH 3.0-8.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 6.0. Tea root extract supplemented potato dextrose agar medium with pH 6.0 was the most suitable for production of conidia of L. theobromae at 28 degrees C. Hence this media may be recommended for inoculum production for further studies. PMID:18972700

  15. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of gummosis in cashew nut plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz, C.R.; Silva, da C.F.; Souza, M.T.; Freire, F.C.O.; Kema, G.H.J.; Guedes, M.I.F.

    2014-01-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a major pathogen of many different crop cultures, including cashew nut plants. This paper describes an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system for the successful delivery of T-DNA, transferring the genes of green fluorescent protein (gfp)

  16. New records of Lasiodiplodia theobromae in seeds of Tetrapleura tetraptera from Nigeria and fruit of Cocos nucifera from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cosmopolitan warm-climate plant pathogen Lasiodiplodia theobromae was isolated from two sources: Seeds of Tetrapleura tetraptera from Nigeria and fruits of Cocos nucifera from Mexico; the former instance is novel for host, the latter a novel geographic record for infection of coconut fruits. Per...

  17. Development and characterisation of microsatellite markers for the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae Desenvolvimento e caracterização de marcadores microsatélites para o fungo Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilson Cardoso

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an important fungal pathogen of higher plants from tropical and sub-tropical regions. The fungus infects divergent hosts in a wide range of environmental conditions, suggesting that it is highly variable. The aim of this study was to develop new polymorphic microsatellite markers from a Brazilian isolate of L. theobromae that can be used in population studies of this and related fungi. The nine microsatellite markers developed included six that revealed allelic polymorphisms among nine isolates of the disease collected from infected plants in Brazil. Preliminary evaluation of the markers suggested substantial genetic variability among Brazilian L. theobromae populations. These markers have potential utility for evolutionary and epidemiologic studies of this fungus.Lasiodiplodia theobromae é um importante patógeno de vegetais superiores nas regiões tropicais e sub-tropicais, sendo capaz de infectar diferentes hospedeiros sob as mais variadas condições ambientais, o que sugere uma grande variabilidade genética. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de desenvolver marcadores moleculares microsatélites polimórficos de um isolado brasileiro que possa ser usado na caracterização da população de L. theobromae e fungos correlatos. Nove microsatélites foram identificados no genoma deste isolado, o que permitiu o desenvolvimento de seis marcadores polimórficos em uma população de nove isolados patogênicos de plantas tropicais do Brasil. Testes preliminares revelaram uma acentuada variabilidade genética entre os isolados testados, confirmando a grande variabilidade da população brasileira deste fungo. Estes marcadores poderão ser usados em estudos evolutivos em epidemiológicos desta espécie.

  18. Low doses of gamma radiation in the management of postharvest Lasiodiplodia theobromae in mangos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria Gonçalves Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest life of mango is limited by the development of pathogens, especially fungi that cause rot, among which stands out the Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Several control methods have been employed to minimize the damages caused by this fungus, chemical control can leave residues to man and nature; physical control by the use of gamma radiation in combination with modified atmosphere and cold storage. The use of gamma radiation helps to reduce the severity of the pathogen assist in the ripening process of fruits, even at low doses (0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 kGy chemical properties such as pH, soluble solids, acid ascorbic, titratable acidity and also the quality parameters of the pulp showed no damage that are ideal for trade and consumption of mangoes. This treatment can be extended for use in the management of diseases such as natural infections for penducular rot complex that has as one of L. theobroma pathogens involved.

  19. Low doses of gamma radiation in the management of postharvest Lasiodiplodia theobromae in mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alice Maria Gonçalves; Lins, Severina Rodrigues Oliveira; Silva, Josenilda Maria da; Oliveira, Sônia Maria Alves de

    2015-01-01

    The postharvest life of mango is limited by the development of pathogens, especially fungi that cause rot, among which stands out the Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Several control methods have been employed to minimize the damages caused by this fungus, chemical control can leave residues to man and nature; physical control by the use of gamma radiation in combination with modified atmosphere and cold storage. The use of gamma radiation helps to reduce the severity of the pathogen assist in the ripening process of fruits, even at low doses (0.25, 0.35 and 0.45 kGy) chemical properties such as pH, soluble solids, acid ascorbic, titratable acidity and also the quality parameters of the pulp showed no damage that are ideal for trade and consumption of mangoes. This treatment can be extended for use in the management of diseases such as natural infections for penducular rot complex that has as one of L. theobroma pathogens involved. PMID:26413068

  20. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  1. COMPORTAMIENTO DE ESPECIES DE FRUTALES AMAZÓNICOS DE UN MODELO DIVERSIFICADO EN AREAS DE LA “ASOCIACIÓN DE PRODUCTORES AGROPECUARIOS VEINTICUATRO DE OCTUBRE”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Gonzáles Coral

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento de cuatro especies de frutales amazónicos bajo  un modelo de diversificación instalada en la parcela del Sr. Ezequiel García Tapullima (UTM 9548994; 0669126. El suelo del área es desde franco (0-20cm a franco arcilloso (20-40 cm, pH fuertemente ácido y porcentaje (% de materia orgánica  de medio a bajo. La metodología del trabajo consistió en Investigación Acción  Participativa. Se instaló un modelo diversificado (5m x 5m  con plantones de macambo (Theobroma bicolor, caimito (Pouteria caimito, copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum  y cacao (Theobroma cacao, sembrados con una densidad de 400 plantas por hectárea (5m x 5m. A los 15 meses de instalado, se evaluó el porcentaje de prendimiento, mediciones biométricas trimestrales del crecimiento en 10 individuos por especie, elegidos al azar de un área de 0.5 hectáreas. Se encontró que el 80% de plantas de las cuatro especies se encontraban en  estado de foliación. Las especies que presentaron mejor comportamiento fueron T. bicolor y P. caimito  con una altura de 293.1 cm y 193.2 cm; y un diámetro basal promedio de 5.8 cm y 2.1 cm respectivamente, T. grandiflorum  presentó los menores registros con una altura promedio de 84.3 cm y diámetro basal de 1.4 cm.

  2. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Gregory R Ziegler; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthfu...

  3. Antioxidant effects of an ozonized theobroma oil formulation on damaged-inflammatory rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Y.; Diaz, M.F.; Hernandez, F.; Gila, D.; Ga, G.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a cosmetic formulation elaborated with ozonized theobroma oil may exert beneficial effects in the restoring of the antioxidant activity on the skin of rats previously irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0.5 g of the formulation was applied on the skin of rats for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in a homogenate of rat skin. Malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and total hydroperoxide (THP) content were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using these parameters, antioxidant and oxidant activity, redox index and oxidative stress grade were determined. The total antioxidant activity was significantly increased while the redox index, total oxidant activity and oxidative stress grade decreased significantly in damaged rats treated with the formulation. These results show the antioxidant properties of the cosmetic formulation due to the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx, preventing skin injury induced by ultraviolet irradiation. (Author).

  4. Antioxidant effects of an ozonized theobroma oil formulation on damaged-inflammatory rat skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a cosmetic formulation elaborated with ozonized theobroma oil may exert beneficial effects in the restoring of the antioxidant activity on the skin of rats previously irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0.5 g of the formulation was applied on the skin of rats for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in a homogenate of rat skin. Malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD) and total hydroperoxide (THP) content were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using these parameters, antioxidant and oxidant activity, redox index and oxidative stress grade were determined. The total antioxidant activity was significantly increased while the redox index, total oxidant activity and oxidative stress grade decreased significantly in damaged rats treated with the formulation. These results show the antioxidant properties of the cosmetic formulation due to the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx, preventing skin injury induced by ultraviolet irradiation. (Author).

  5. New potato micro-tuber-inducing cyclohexene compounds related to theobroxide from Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Ryo; Takahashi, Kosaku; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Nabeta, Kensuke

    2008-08-01

    Two new cyclohexene compounds related to theobroxide (3) were isolated from the mycelia of Lasiodiplodia theobromae OCS71. The structures of these compounds were determined to be (4S,5S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methyl-cyclohex-2-enone (1) and (3aS,4R,5S,7aR)-4,5-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3a,4,5,7a-tetrahydrobenzo[1,3]dioxol-2-one (2) by means of spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlation to 3. Compound 2 was shown to take up the carbonate ion to form a carbonic acid ester non-enzymatically. The compounds also showed potato micro-tuber-inducing activities at a concentration of 10(-3) M, using a culture of single-node segments of potato stems in vitro. PMID:18685216

  6. Treatment with intrastromal and intracameral voriconazole in 2 eyes with Lasiodiplodia theobromae keratitis: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Nonpassopon, Manachai; Nimvorapun, Nutthida; Santanirand, Pitak

    2015-02-01

    To report the clinical presentation and the role of intrastromal and intracameral voriconazole injection in the management of rare cases of fungal keratitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae.Two eyes of 2 patients with Lasiodiplodia keratitis unresponsive to topical and oral antifungal medications were included in this study. Diagnosis of Lasiodiplodia keratitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis, including culture-based (case 1 and 2) and DNA sequencing techniques (case 2 only).The first patient presented with multiple satellite lesions and one of these infiltrates spread deeply into the cornea, forming a stromal abscess. Another patient had a large full-thickness corneal infiltrates with several fungal balls in the anterior chamber, requiring a limbus-to-limbus therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Despite aggressive topical therapy, the stromal abscess continued to worsen in the first case and recurrent keratitis was observed postoperatively in the second case. Voriconazole 50 μg/0.1 mL was administered intracamerally and intrastromally around the fungal abscess as adjuncts to topical antimycotics in the first case. The second patient who needed therapeutic keratoplasty was treated with an intracameral injection of 50 μg/0.1 mL voriconazole at the end of surgery. Postoperatively, 100 μg/0.1 mL voriconazole was also injected intracamerally after the recurrence of infection was noted in the graft. Reinjections were given 48 hours apart in both cases. After the injections, all corneal and anterior chamber lesions were reduced in size and density and completely resolved within 4 weeks.Intrastromal and intracameral voriconazole injections may offer safe and effective treatment options for L theobromae keratitis. PMID:25674759

  7. Treatment With Intrastromal and Intracameral Voriconazole in 2 Eyes With Lasiodiplodia theobromae Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Nonpassopon, Manachai; Nimvorapun, Nutthida; Santanirand, Pitak

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To report the clinical presentation and the role of intrastromal and intracameral voriconazole injection in the management of rare cases of fungal keratitis caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Two eyes of 2 patients with Lasiodiplodia keratitis unresponsive to topical and oral antifungal medications were included in this study. Diagnosis of Lasiodiplodia keratitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis, including culture-based (case 1 and 2) and DNA sequencing techniques (case 2 only). The first patient presented with multiple satellite lesions and one of these infiltrates spread deeply into the cornea, forming a stromal abscess. Another patient had a large full-thickness corneal infiltrates with several fungal balls in the anterior chamber, requiring a limbus-to-limbus therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Despite aggressive topical therapy, the stromal abscess continued to worsen in the first case and recurrent keratitis was observed postoperatively in the second case. Voriconazole 50 μg/0.1 mL was administered intracamerally and intrastromally around the fungal abscess as adjuncts to topical antimycotics in the first case. The second patient who needed therapeutic keratoplasty was treated with an intracameral injection of 50 μg/0.1 mL voriconazole at the end of surgery. Postoperatively, 100 μg/0.1 mL voriconazole was also injected intracamerally after the recurrence of infection was noted in the graft. Reinjections were given 48 hours apart in both cases. After the injections, all corneal and anterior chamber lesions were reduced in size and density and completely resolved within 4 weeks. Intrastromal and intracameral voriconazole injections may offer safe and effective treatment options for L theobromae keratitis. PMID:25674759

  8. Quantificação de biomassa e geração de certificados de emissões reduzidas no consórcio seringueira-cacau Biomass quantification and emisson reduction certificates for rubber-cocoa intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Karina Cotta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram quantificar a biomassa vegetal e analisar o potencial de geração de Certificados de Emissões Reduzidas (CERs em um consórcio de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis M. Arg. aos 34 anos de idade com cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. aos 6 anos de idade. O experimento foi realizado nas Fazendas Reunidas Vale do Juliana, em Igrapiúna, Bahia. A quantificação da biomassa arbórea foi feita utilizando-se o método direto e destrutivo de cinco seringueiras e 10 cacaueiros, selecionados em uma área de 2,2 ha. A biomassa da serapilheira foi quantificada por meio da coleta do material sobre o solo. O estoque de carbono no consórcio seringueira-cacau foi de 91,5 Mg C ha-1. Desse total, 84,7 Mg C ha-1 estavam estocados na seringueira, 5,2 Mg C ha-1 no cacaueiro e 1,6 Mg C ha-1 na serapilheira. O carbono contabilizado no consórcio correspondeu a 336 Mg CO2eq. ha-1, que equivalem à geração de 336 CERs ha-1. O consórcio seringueira-cacau apresentou capacidade para estocagem de carbono, podendo trazer grandes contribuições para a redução dos gases de efeito estufa na atmosfera, e isso o credencia como atividade promissora na geração de projetos candidatos ao recebimento de créditos de carbono.The objective of this work were to quantify plant biomass and analyze the potential for generating Emission Reduction Certificates (ERCs of 34-year-old rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis M.Arg intercropped with 6-year-old cacao (Theobroma cacao L.. The experiment was conducted on the farms Fazendas Reunidas Vale do Juliana, Igrapiúna, BA. Tree biomass quantification was carried out using the direct destructive method by harvesting five rubber trees and ten cocoa trees, in an area of 2.2 ha. Litter biomass was quantified by collecting material from the ground. Total carbon storage in rubber - cacao intercropping was 91.5 Mg C ha-1. Of this, 84.7 Mg C ha-1 were stored in rubber trees, 5.22 Mg C ha-1 in cacao trees and 1.67 Mg C ha

  9. Extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R C

    2004-10-01

    The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s).

  10. Gene expression changes during the gummosis development of peach shoots in response to Lasiodiplodia theobromae infection using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eGao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a causal agent of peach (Prunus persica L. tree gummosis, serious disease affecting peach cultivation and production. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis remains unclear. RNA-Seq was performed to investigate gene expression in peach shoots inoculated or mock-inoculated with L.theobromae. A total of 20772 genes were detected in eight samples; 4231, 3750, 3453, and 3612 differentially expressed genes were identified at 12, 24, 48, and 60 h after inoculation, respectively. Furthermore, 920 differentially co-expressed genes (515 upregulated and 405 downregulated were founded, respectively. Gene ontology annotation revealed that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and metabolism, uridine diphosphate-glucosyltransferase activity, and photosynthesis were the most differentially regulated processes during gummosis development. Significant differences were also found in the expression of genes involved in glycometabolism and in ethylene or jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling. These data illustrate the dynamic changes in gene expression in the inoculated peach shoots at the transcriptome level. Overall, gene expression in defense response and glycometabolism might result in the gummosis of peach trees induced by L.theobromae.

  11. Gene Expression Changes during the Gummosis Development of Peach Shoots in Response to Lasiodiplodia theobromae Infection Using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Yuting; Li, Zhi; Zhang, He; Ye, Junli; Li, Guohuai

    2016-01-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a causal agent of peach (Prunus persica L.) tree gummosis, a serious disease affecting peach cultivation and production. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis remains unclear. RNA-Seq was performed to investigate gene expression in peach shoots inoculated or mock-inoculated with L. theobromae. A total of 20772 genes were detected in eight samples; 4231, 3750, 3453, and 3612 differentially expressed genes were identified at 12, 24, 48, and 60 h after inoculation, respectively. Furthermore, 920 differentially co-expressed genes (515 upregulated and 405 downregulated) were found, respectively. Gene ontology annotation revealed that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and metabolism, uridine diphosphate-glucosyltransferase activity, and photosynthesis were the most differentially regulated processes during gummosis development. Significant differences were also found in the expression of genes involved in glycometabolism and in ethylene and jasmonic acid biosynthesis and signaling. These data illustrate the dynamic changes in gene expression in the inoculated peach shoots at the transcriptome level. Overall, gene expression in defense response and glycometabolism might result in the gummosis of peach trees induced by L. theobromae. PMID:27242544

  12. Calogênese do híbrido Theobroma grandiflorum x T. obovatum (Sterculiaceae Calogenesis of Theobroma grandiflorum x. T. obovatum hibrid (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgini Augusto Venturieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O declínio da cacauicultura na amazônia tem sido causado pela doença vassoura-de-bruxa (Crinipellis perniciosa. Um híbrido interespecífico do mesmo gênero (Theobroma grandiflorum x T. obovatum tem demonstrando resistência a esta doença. Avaliou-se a calogênese deste híbrido com a finalidade de sua propagação massiva. Os explantes usados (tegumento, cotilédone e embrião foram postos para desenvolver em condições estéreis em meio de cultura LPm mais água de coco (50 ml/l, glucose (20 g/l, 2,4 - D (2 mg/l, Thidiazuron - TDZ nas concentrações de 0, 5 e 10 µg/l, carvão ativado (2 g/l em gelrite (2 g/l a um pH de 5,8. Cada concentração de TDZ x tipo de tecido foi considerado um tratamento. As culturas foram mantidas no escuro, à temperatura de 22 ± 2 ºC. Os tecidos não mostraram diferenças significativas quanto a proporção do explante recoberto por calos (p= 0,14 embora notou-se que nos cotilédones tenha sido maior. A dosagem de TDZ nitidamente não influenciou no recobrimento de calos (p= 0,94. Quanto a freqüência, os tecidos mostraram diferentes capacidades de desenvolver calos (p= 0,02 sem mostrar-se influenciados pela dosagem de TDZ (p = 0,66. Os explantes de cotilédones foram os que formaram calos em maior freqüência. Houve uma leve tendência de que quanto menor a dosagem de TDZ maior a freqüência de calos obtidos. Não foi constatada interação entre tipo de calo/frasco x dosagem de TDZ (p = 0,32.Decline of cocoa plantations in Amazonia has been attributed to Witches-broom-disease (Crinipellis perniciosa. An interspecific hybrid (Theobroma grandiflorum x T. obovatum has demonstrated resistance to this disease. Calogenesis of this hybrid was evaluated, in preparation for its mass propagation. The explants used (tegument, cotyledons and embryos were developed in sterile conditions in LPm media plus coconut milk (50 ml/l, glucose (20 g/l, 2,4 - D (2 mg/l, Thidiazuron - TDZ at concentrations of 0, 5 e 10 µg

  13. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.

  14. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa.

  15. Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G A; Sarria, G A; Martinez, G; Varon, F; Drenth, A; Guest, D I

    2016-04-01

    Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are among the most important plant pathogens in agriculture. Epidemics caused by P. infestans precipitated the great Irish famine and had a major impact on society and human history. In the tropics, P. palmivora is a pathogen of many plant species including cacao (Theobroma cacao), citrus (Citrus sp.), durian (Durio zibethines), jackfruit (Artrocarpus heterophyllus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and several palm species including coconut (Cocos nucifera), and the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as determined recently. The first localized epidemics of bud rot in oil palm in Colombia were reported in 1964. However, recent epidemics of bud rot have destroyed more than 70,000 ha of oil palm in the Western and Central oil palm growing regions of Colombia. The agricultural, social, and economic implications of these outbreaks have been significant in Colombia. Identification of the pathogen after 100 years of investigating the disease in the world enabled further understanding of infection, expression of a range of symptoms, and epidemiology of the disease. This review examines the identification of P. palmivora as the cause of bud rot in Colombia, its epidemiology, and discusses the importance of P. palmivora as a major threat to oil palm plantings globally.

  16. Anti-Oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed F; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Rezaei, Parizad; Nabavi, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis of different serious chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Recent research has been focused on the beneficial role of dietary antioxidants against oxidative stress both under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Theobroma cacao L. (cacao tree) is an evergreen tree which is native to South America. It is a plant of great economic importance and its seeds are commonly used to produce cocoa powder and chocolate. In addition to its uses in food industry, cocoa is a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. There is a plethora of in vitro and in vivo studies that report cocoa antioxidant capacity. The protective activity of cocoa seems to be due to its phytochemical constituents, especially catechins. However, bioavailability of cocoa polyphenolic constituents following oral administration is very low (nanomolar concentrations). In the present paper, we critically reviewed the available literature on the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of cocoa and its polyphenolic constituents. In addition to these, we provide brief information about cultivation, phytochemistry, bioavailability and clinical impacts of cocoa. PMID:26059107

  17. Bud Rot Caused by Phytophthora palmivora: A Destructive Emerging Disease of Oil Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G A; Sarria, G A; Martinez, G; Varon, F; Drenth, A; Guest, D I

    2016-04-01

    Oomycetes from the genus Phytophthora are among the most important plant pathogens in agriculture. Epidemics caused by P. infestans precipitated the great Irish famine and had a major impact on society and human history. In the tropics, P. palmivora is a pathogen of many plant species including cacao (Theobroma cacao), citrus (Citrus sp.), durian (Durio zibethines), jackfruit (Artrocarpus heterophyllus), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and several palm species including coconut (Cocos nucifera), and the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as determined recently. The first localized epidemics of bud rot in oil palm in Colombia were reported in 1964. However, recent epidemics of bud rot have destroyed more than 70,000 ha of oil palm in the Western and Central oil palm growing regions of Colombia. The agricultural, social, and economic implications of these outbreaks have been significant in Colombia. Identification of the pathogen after 100 years of investigating the disease in the world enabled further understanding of infection, expression of a range of symptoms, and epidemiology of the disease. This review examines the identification of P. palmivora as the cause of bud rot in Colombia, its epidemiology, and discusses the importance of P. palmivora as a major threat to oil palm plantings globally. PMID:26714102

  18. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  19. Food of the gods: cure for humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillinger, T L; Barriga, P; Escárcega, S; Jimenez, M; Salazar Lowe, D; Grivetti, L E

    2000-08-01

    The medicinal use of cacao, or chocolate, both as a primary remedy and as a vehicle to deliver other medicines, originated in the New World and diffused to Europe in the mid 1500s. These practices originated among the Olmec, Maya and Mexica (Aztec). The word cacao is derived from Olmec and the subsequent Mayan languages (kakaw); the chocolate-related term cacahuatl is Nahuatl (Aztec language), derived from Olmec/Mayan etymology. Early colonial era documents included instructions for the medicinal use of cacao. The Badianus Codex (1552) noted the use of cacao flowers to treat fatigue, whereas the Florentine Codex (1590) offered a prescription of cacao beans, maize and the herb tlacoxochitl (Calliandra anomala) to alleviate fever and panting of breath and to treat the faint of heart. Subsequent 16th to early 20th century manuscripts produced in Europe and New Spain revealed >100 medicinal uses for cacao/chocolate. Three consistent roles can be identified: 1) to treat emaciated patients to gain weight; 2) to stimulate nervous systems of apathetic, exhausted or feeble patients; and 3) to improve digestion and elimination where cacao/chocolate countered the effects of stagnant or weak stomachs, stimulated kidneys and improved bowel function. Additional medical complaints treated with chocolate/cacao have included anemia, poor appetite, mental fatigue, poor breast milk production, consumption/tuberculosis, fever, gout, kidney stones, reduced longevity and poor sexual appetite/low virility. Chocolate paste was a medium used to administer drugs and to counter the taste of bitter pharmacological additives. In addition to cacao beans, preparations of cacao bark, oil (cacao butter), leaves and flowers have been used to treat burns, bowel dysfunction, cuts and skin irritations.

  20. Evaluation of Fungicides on Growth and Conidial Germination of Verticillium theobromae Isolated from Plantain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igeleke, C. L.; Ayanru, D. K. G.

    An evaluation of three fungicides, namely, benomyl [methyl l-(butyl-carbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole carbamate], calixin (tridomorph) and dithane M-45 (mancozeb), was carried out for their inhibitory effects on Verticillium theobromae, the causal organism of cigar-end rot disease of plantain (Musa paradisiaca). The LD50 of calixin, benomyl and dithane M-45 in inhibiting mycelial growth, were 0.14, 0.98 and 535.17 µg mL-1, respectively. Calixin was also the most effective in conidial germination inhibition with an LD50 of 21.78 µg mL-1, as compared with dithane M-45 86.39 µg mL-1 and benomyl 275.50 µg mL-1. Germ tubes of the test organism were distorted by the fungicides at varying concentrations. Calixin had greater distortion effect at a lower concentration of 10 µg mL-1, dithane M-45 (100 µg mL-1) and benomyl (1000 µg mL-1). The relevance of these results in relation to the control and management of cigar-end rot disease of plantain is discussed.

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism changes in Prunus persica gummosis infected with Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Gao, L; Wang, Y T; Zhu, W; Ye, J L; Li, G H

    2014-05-01

    Peach gummosis represents a significant global disease of stone fruit trees and a major disease in the south peach production area of the Yangtze River of China. In this study, the carbohydrate composition of peach shoots during infection by Lasiodiplodia theobromae was examined. The expression of genes related to metabolic enzymes was also investigated. Control wounded and noninoculated tissue, lesion tissue, and wounded and inoculated surrounding lesion tissue of peach shoots were analyzed. Soluble sugars, glucose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose significantly increased in inoculated tissues of peach shoots compared with control tissues at different times after inoculation. Accumulation of polysaccharides was also observed by section observation and periodic acid Schiff's reagent staining during infection. Analysis using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the abundance of key transcripts on the synthesis pathway of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-D-glucuronate, UDP-D-galactose, and UDP-D-arabinose increased but the synthesis of L-galactose and guanosine diphosphate-L-galactose were inhibited. After inoculation, the transcript levels of sugar transport-related genes (namely, SUT, SOT, GMT, and UGT) was induced. These changes in sugar content and gene expression were directly associated with peach gum polysaccharide formation and may be responsible for the symptoms of peach gummosis. PMID:24283537

  2. Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Preussomerins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae ZJ-HQ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Senhua; Chen, Dongni; Cai, Runlin; Cui, Hui; Long, Yuhua; Lu, Yongjun; Li, Chunyuan; She, Zhigang

    2016-09-23

    Two new chlorinated preussomerins, chloropreussomerins A and B (1 and 2), together with nine known preussomerin analogues, 3-11, were obtained from the endophytic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae ZJ-HQ1. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were both determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction using Cu Kα radiation. Chloropreussomerins A and B (1 and 2) are the first chlorinated compounds in the preussomerin family, and preussomerin M (3) is reported for the first time as a natural product. Compounds 1 and 2 showed potent in vitro cytotoxicity against A549 and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 5.9 to 8.9 μM, and compounds 4-7 exhibited significant bioactivity against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 2.5-9.4 μM. In the antibacterial assay, compounds 1, 2, 5-7, and 11 exhibited significant activities against Staphylococcus aureus, with MIC values between 1.6 and 13 μg/mL. PMID:27560695

  3. Application of 1H NMR for the characterisation of cocoa beans of different geographical origins and fermentation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Palla, Luigi; Acquotti, Domenico; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-15

    This study reports for the first time the use of (1)H NMR technique combined with chemometrics to study the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans of different varieties, origin and fermentation levels. Results of PCA applied to cocoa bean (1)H NMR dataset showed that the main factor influencing the cocoa bean metabolic profile is the fermentation level. In fact well fermented brown beans form a group clearly separated from unfermented, slaty, and underfermented, violet, beans, independently of the variety or geographical origin. Considering only well fermented beans, the metabolic profile obtained by (1)H NMR permitted to discriminate between some classes of samples. The National cocoa of Ecuador, known as Arriba, showed the most peculiar characteristics, while the samples coming from the African region showed some similar traits. The dataset obtained, representative of all the classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was therefore useful to characterise fermented cocoa beans as a function of their origin and fermentation level.

  4. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes.

  5. Removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solution using sulphuric acid activated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study the adsorption of Basic Violet, 14 from aqueous solution onto sulphuric acid activated materials prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum (CS) and Theobroma cacao (TS) shells were investigated. The experimental data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results showed that CS has a superior adsorption capacity compared to the TS. The adsorption capacity was found to be 1416.43 mg/g for CS and 980.39 mg/g for TS. The kinetic data results at different concentrations were analysed using pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order model. Boyd plot indicates that the dye adsorption onto CS and TS is controlled by film diffusion. The adsorbents were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The materials used in this study were economical waste products and hence can be an attractive alternative to costlier adsorbents for dye removal in industrial wastewater treatment processes. PMID:27330899

  6. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes. PMID:27283632

  7. Análise florística e estrutural de sistemas agroflorestais das várzeas do rio Juba, Cametá, Pará Floristic and structural analysis of agroforestry floodplain systems of the Juba river, Cametá, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Roberto Miranda dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a composição florística e a estrutura de sistemas agroflorestais (SAF nas várzeas do rio Juba, Município de Cametá-PA. Utilizou-se sete parcelas de 0,25 ha (50 m x 50 m em SAF tradicionais. Cada parcela foi dividida em 25 sub-parcelas de 10 m x 10 m. As espécies foram classificadas quanto aos tipos de usos e em três níveis de comercialização. Nos sete SAF foram inventariados 21060 indivíduos/ha com CAP e" 10 cm ou (média de 3009 indivíduos/ha, pertencentes a 27 famílias, 53 gêneros e 61 espécies. Cinco espécies (8 % são comuns aos sete SAF. O uso energético (lenha e carvão foi o mais freqüente (63 %. Os SAF apresentaram maior percentual de espécies comerciais (46 %. Espécies comumente encontradas nas várzeas da Amazônia brasileira foram importantes nesse estudo: Euterpe oleracea Mart., Theobroma cacao L., Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb., Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. e Carapa guianensis Aubl. Euterpe oleracea e Theobroma cacao, juntas apresentaram Dr média de 80 % e IVImédio de 48 %. Os valores médios de abundância, área basal e IVI, bem como os percentuais de espécies potenciais e comerciais indicam grandes possibilidades de sustentabilidade se adotado manejo adequado e racional nesses importantes ecossistemas antrópicos da Amazônia Oriental.This study analyzed the floristic composition and the structure of traditional agroforestry systems (SAF in the floodplains of the river Juba, Cametá, Pará. The survey was made on seven plots of 0.25 ha (50 m x 50 m. Each plot was divided into 25 sub-plots of 10 m x 10 m. The species were classified in types of use and levels of commercialization. In seven SAF were surveyed 21060 individuals/ha with CAP e" 10 cm or (average of 3009 individuals/ha, belonging to 27 families, 53 genera and 61 species. Five species (8% were common to the seven SAF. The most frequent (63 % use of species was energy (firewood and coal. Most species were commercial (46%. Species

  8. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  9. Temporal and spatial resource use by female three-toed sloths and their young in an agricultural landscape in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Oscar; Vaughan, Christopher; Herrera, Geovanny; Guries, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    The information on ecological behavior of wild sloths is very scarce. In this study we determined the home ranges and resources used by three adult female three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) and their four young in an agricultural matrix of cacao (Theobroma cacao), pasture, riparian forests and living fencerows in Costa Rica. Births occurred during November-December and the young became independent at five to seven months of age. Initially, mothers remained fixed in one or a few trees, but expanded their use of resources as young sloths became independent from them. Mothers initially guided the young to preferred food and cover resources, but they gradually left their young in small nucleus areas and colonized new areas for themselves. Home range sizes for young sloths (up to seven months of age) varied between 0.04-0.6 hectares, while home range sizes for mothers varied from 0.04-25.0 hectares. During the maternal care period, 22 tree species were used, with the most common being Cecropia obtusifolia (30.9%), Coussapoa villosa (25.6%), Nectandra salicifolia (12.1%), Pterocarpus officinalis (5.8%) and Samanea saman (5.4%). However, young sloths used only 20 tree species, with the most common being C. villosa (18.4%), S. saman (18.5%) and N. salicifolia (16.7%). The cacao agroforest was used only by mother sloths and never by their young following separation. However, in the riparian forest, both mother sloths and young used the tree species. A total of 28 tree species were used by the mother sloth; including the food species: C. obtusifolia, C. villosa, N. salicifolia and P. officinalis. However, the young used 18 trees species in this habitat with N. salicifolia and S. saman most commonly used, although they rested and fed during the day in C. obtusifolia, C. villosa and O. sinnuata. The cacao agroforest with adjacent riparian forests and fencerows provides an important habitat type that links the smaller secondary forests and other patches. PMID:22208090

  10. Intensity of Ground Cover Crop Arachis pintoi, Rhizobium Inoculation and Phosphorus Application and Their Effects on Field Growth and Nutrient Status of Cocoa Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Arachis pintoiis potentially as a cover crop for cocoa (Theobroma cacaoL. farm, however information regarding its effect on the growth of cocoa plants in the field is very limited. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the combined influence of ground cover crop A. pintoi, rhizobial bacterial inoculation and phosphorus (P fertilizer on the growth of cocoa in the field and nutrient status. This experiment laid out in split-split plot design consisted of three levels of cover crop (without, A. pintoiand Calopogonium caeruleum, two levels of rhizobium inoculation (not inoculated and inoculated and two levels of phosphorus application (no P added and P added. The results showed that in field condition the presence of A. pintoias cover crop did not affect the growth of cocoa. On the other hand, C. caeruleumas cover crop tended to restrict cocoa growth compared to A. pintoi. Application of P increased leaf number of cocoa plant. Biomass production of A. pintoiwas 40% higher than C. caeruleum. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents were not affected by ground cover crops, though higher value (0.235% N and 1.63% organic C was obtained from combined treatments of inoculation and P addition or neither inoculation nor P addition. In the case of no rhizobium inoculation, soil N content in cocoa farm with A. pintoicover crop was lower than that of without cover crop or with C. caeruleum. Cover crop increased plant N content when there was no inoculation, on the other hand rhizobium inoculation decreased N content of cocoa tissue. Tissue P content of cocoa plant was not influenced by A. Pintoicover crop or by rhizobium inoculation, except that the P tissue content of cocoa was 28% higher when the cover crop was C. caeruleumand inoculated. Key words : Arachis pintoi, Theobroma cacao, Calopogonium caeruleum, rhizobium, nitrogen, phosphorus.

  11. 21 CFR 163.114 - Lowfat cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lowfat cocoa. 163.114 Section 163.114 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.114 Lowfat cocoa. (a) Description. Lowfat cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is...

  12. 21 CFR 163.113 - Cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cocoa. 163.113 Section 163.113 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.113 Cocoa. (a) Description. Cocoa is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to...

  13. 21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breakfast cocoa. 163.112 Section 163.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.112 Breakfast cocoa. (a) Description. (1) Breakfast cocoa is the food prepared by pulverizing the material remaining after part of...

  14. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section 163.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates....

  15. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely...

  16. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate. 163.123 Section 163.123 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Sweet chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  17. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  18. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  19. Data from mass spectrometry, NMR spectra, GC-MS of fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranga, Carla C; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-09-01

    The data described herein is related to the article with the title "Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings" C.C. Uranga, J. Beld, A. Mrse, I. Cordova-Guerrero, M.D. Burkart, R. Hernandez-Martinez (2016) [1]. Data includes nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC-MS data used for the identification and characterization of fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. GC-MS traces are also shown for incubations in defined substrate, consisting in Vogel׳s salts supplemented with either 5% grapeseed oil or 5% glucose, the two combined, or 5% fructose. Traces for incubations in the combination of 5% grapeseed oil and 5% glucose for different fungal species are also included. Images of mycelium morphology when grown in 5% glucose with or without 5% grapeseed oil are shown due to the stark difference in mycelial pigmentation in the presence of triglycerides. High concentration gradient data for the plant model Nicotiana tabacum germinated in ethyl stearate (SAEE) and ethyl linoleate (LAEE) is included to show the transition between growth inhibition and growth induction in N. tabacum by these compounds. PMID:27274528

  20. Data from mass spectrometry, NMR spectra, GC–MS of fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Uranga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described herein is related to the article with the title “Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings” C.C. Uranga, J. Beld, A. Mrse, I. Cordova-Guerrero, M.D. Burkart, R. Hernandez-Martinez (2016 [1]. Data includes nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and GC–MS data used for the identification and characterization of fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. GC–MS traces are also shown for incubations in defined substrate, consisting in Vogel׳s salts supplemented with either 5% grapeseed oil or 5% glucose, the two combined, or 5% fructose. Traces for incubations in the combination of 5% grapeseed oil and 5% glucose for different fungal species are also included. Images of mycelium morphology when grown in 5% glucose with or without 5% grapeseed oil are shown due to the stark difference in mycelial pigmentation in the presence of triglycerides. High concentration gradient data for the plant model Nicotiana tabacum germinated in ethyl stearate (SAEE and ethyl linoleate (LAEE is included to show the transition between growth inhibition and growth induction in N. tabacum by these compounds.

  1. Pathogen Identification and Occurrence of Cacao Black Pod in Hainan Province%海南省可可黑果病病原鉴定及其发生规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑利伟; 刘爱勤; 孙世伟; 高圣风; 苟亚峰; 谭乐和

    2014-01-01

    采用形态特征鉴定及rDNA-ITS序列分析相结合的方法,对海南可可黑果病病原进行鉴定,并通过定点连续调查研究该病在海南的发生规律.结果表明,该病病原为柑橘褐腐疫霉(Phytophthora citrophthora).降雨量对该病的发生有着显著的影响,在海南发病高峰期一般在9~11月份.

  2. 可可核心种质遗传多样性及果实性状与SSR标记关联分析%Genetic Diversity and Association Analysis of Cacao Germplasm Using SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付鹏; 秦晓威; 郝朝运; 闫林; 伍宝朵; 赖剑雄

    2016-01-01

    利用15对SSR引物,分析具有广泛来源的70份可可资源的遗传多样性.结果表明,15对引物共扩增出76个条带,其中50个多态性条带,占总带数的65.8%.70份可可资源间遗传相似系数(SM)在0.341 ~0.943之间,平均值为0.625,说明可可资源具有丰富的遗传多样性.在相似系数为0.65水平上,可将70份可可资源分成10类.利用Structure 2.3.2软件分析群体结构,结合可可果实相关性状的表型数据,采用Tassel 2.1的一般线性模型(General linear model,GLM)进行关联分析;结果表明18个位点与果重、果壳重、果长、果径围、果壳厚显著相关(p<0.05),各位点对表型变异贡献率为5.5%~13.1%.

  3. Determination of Acetonin Cacao Pigment by Head Space Gas Chromategraphy%顶空气相色谱法测定可可色素中的丙酮残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小华; 罗香

    2004-01-01

    建立了测定可可色素中的丙酮残留的方法.将可可色素溶解于水中,水浴加热,顶空进样,GC-FID检测,通过保留时间定性,外标直线法定量.实验表明,当平衡时间为50min,平衡温度为40℃,盐析剂为NH4C1且用量为0.4g时,丙酮的回收率为93.5%一100.8%,相对标准偏差为3.21%.分析结果表明顶空气相色谱法测定可可色素中的丙酮残留量方法操作简便、快速、准确性和精密度良好.

  4. Correlation Analysis Among Main Pod Agronomic Traits and Path Analysis on Yield Factor in Cacao%可可果实主要农艺性状相关性及产量因素的通径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李付鹏; 王华; 伍宝朵; 赵溪竹; 秦晓威; 赖剑雄

    2014-01-01

    以79份可可资源为材料,对其果实和种子性状进行相关和通径分析.结果表明:(1)每果种子干重与其他性状的相关系数均表现为正相关,果实经济系数与果重、果壳重、果长、果径围、果壳厚表现出极显著负相关,说明果实越大,就会有更多光合产物分配到果壳中.(2)通径分析结果表明:果壳重对每果种子干重的效应为负,其它性状对每果种子干重均为正向效应;其中单粒重对每果种子干重的贡献最大,单粒重每增加1个单位,每果种子干重会提高0.663 8个单位.每果粒数和果重每增加1个单位,每果种子干重分别提高0.625 4和0.327 9个单位.因此,可可育种过程中要着重关注单粒重、每果粒数和果重等性状.

  5. Estudio del contenido de compuestos bioactivos del cacao y su aplicación en la obtención de un ingrediente rico en (poli)fenoles para el diseño de un chocolate enriquecido

    OpenAIRE

    Cienfuegos-Jovellanos Fernández, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Actualmente, existe un interés por la demanda de alimentos saludables que puedan tener un efecto beneficioso para la salud de los consumidores. La evidencia científica avala que el consumo de determinados compuestos presentes en los alimentos de forma natural, tiene una relación inversa con la disminución del riesgo de padecer enfermedades, como enfermedades cardiovasculares, cáncer y otras enfermedades degenerativas. Entre estos componentes presentes en los alimentos de origen vegetal, l...

  6. Estimation des changements des cours du café et du cacao: Filtre de Kalman, filtre de Hodrick-Prescott et modélisation à partir de processus markovien

    OpenAIRE

    Bationo, Rakissiwinde; HOUNKPODOTE, Hilaire

    2009-01-01

    This aim of this study is to estimate the price of coffee and cocoa using a methodology based on Hodrick-Prescott filter, Kalman filter and a Markov Switching Model which, unlike linear models, allows the parameters to vary depending on the economic situation, the transitions between regimes are governed by a Markov chain. Our results show that the Hodrick-Prescott filter gives only the general trend of the series while the Kalman filter approach the best real trend of the series. The Markov ...

  7. 发酵方式对海南可可豆特性和风味的影响分析%Effect of Fermentation Methods on Characteristics and Flavor of Hainan Cacao Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房一明; 徐飞; 谷风林; 初众; 谭乐和; 赖剑雄

    2012-01-01

    Use the different fermentation methods,such as wooden box,plate,heap,intelligence incubator.Test the weight,absorbance at 240 nm,water content,pH and chroma were detected,and electronic nose was applied to detect the difference of dried and roasted fermented beans of Hainan cocoa beans,the principal component analysis(PCA) was used to analyze the data.The results show that different fermentation methods,obviously influence the quality and flavor of Hainan cocoa beans.Hainan cocoa beans fermented in heaps or in wooden box are different of other methods in quality electronic sensory flavor analysis.Fermented in heaps or in wooden box is suitable for Hainan cocoa beans.These two fermentation technology can improve the quality of Hainan cocoa beans.%检测了木箱子发酵、竹盘子发酵、堆积发酵和智能培养箱发酵等不同发酵方式下的海南可可豆的单粒重、吸光度、水分、pH、色度,并采用电子鼻测定了未烘烤和烘烤后的可可豆风味,对响应结果进行了主成分分析(PCA)。结果表明:不同发酵方式下的可可豆特性差异明显,采用木箱子和堆积发酵后的可可豆与竹盘子和智能培养箱发酵后的可可豆在电子感官风味分析上差异较大。认为木箱子发酵和堆积发酵为适合海南可可豆的发酵方式,利用该技术可以提高海南可可发酵豆的品质。

  8. Evaluación de algunos componentes del rendimiento en una plantación de hibridos de cacao de 5 años de edad en la región de granada (meta)

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar, Germán; Ortiz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    EI propósito de este estudio fue determinar las condiciones de polinización en una plantación de híbridos de 5 anos de edad en la región de Granada y de evaluar sus efectos sobre el rendimiento del cultivo. El índice de rareza del polen (A) encontrado en condiciones de polinización natural fue de 1,07,10 que indica unas condiciones de polinización deficientes que repercuten en un escaso llenado de las mazorcas EI 10,5% de las flores abortaron par un bajo aporre de polen (subpolinización) y el...

  9. Characterization of cocoa fiber and its effect on the antioxidant capacity of serum in rats Caracterización de la fibra de cacao y su efecto sobre la capacidad antioxidante en suero de animales de experimentación

    OpenAIRE

    Lecumberri, E. (E.); R. Mateos; Ramos, S.; M. Alía; P. Rúperez; Goya, L; M. Izquierdo-Pulido; Bravo, L.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the physico-chemical properties of cocoa fibre (CF), to analyze its polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity in vitro, and to investigate the effect of the administration of a polyphenolic extract of this cocoa fiber on the antioxidant capacity of the serum in rats. Methods and materials: Dietary fiber (DF) composition and polyphenolic (PP) content of the cocoa fiber were analyzed. The antioxidant capacity of the CF was determined by ...

  10. Description concise et analyse des systèmes utilisés dans la région Sud du Cameroun pour le séchage du cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanmogne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Concise Description and Analysis of Methods Used for Cocoa Drying in the South Region of Cameroon. An inventory of drying methods and types of cocoa dryers used by farmers in rural zone of South Cameroon was made. These include direct solar drying which is predominant and thermal drying using energy from burning wood. Different types of dryers are associated with each of these drying methods. These consist of "autobus" dryer in south zone, dryer on cemented area in center zone, firewood dryer in south -west zone and ground dryer used in the South Region of Cameroon. An analysis of real needs in drying in the rural zone and an appraisal of available means to accomplish them were done using an investigation carried out among rural farmers. Cocoa conservation is very difficult because climatic condition is unfavorable during production. Local unit of measurement, which is bag, weighs about 50 to 80 kilograms. Cocoa buying price from the producer is very high at the end of production. Mean duration of fermentation is 7 days. A laboratory determination of water content in dry base of cocoa samples used during the investigation shows that it varies from 10 to 20% instead of the 8%, which is the recommended water content. The range of water content found shows that drying is inadequate.

  11. Efecto de los compuestos fenólicos apigenina, catequinas del cacao,ácido rosmarínico y eriocitrina sobre la carcinogénesis oral inducida por DMBA en hámsters

    OpenAIRE

    Baldasquín Cáceres, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    El carcinoma oral de células escamosas es el cáncer más frecuente de cabeza y cuello, y está caracterizado por una baja tasa de supervivencia y mal pronóstico. La quimioprevención de esta enfermedad mediante extractos naturales constituye un importante campo de investigación en la actualidad. En el presente estudio hemos aplicado el modelo de carcinogénesis oral inducida por 7,12-dimetil-1,2-benzatraceno (DMBA) sobre 61 hámster sirios (Mesocricatus auratus) para estudiar el efecto quimiopre...

  12. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  13. Antioxidant effect of an ozonized theobroma oil formulation on damaged-inflammatory rat skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, Yaima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether a cosmetic formulation elaborated with ozonized theobroma oil may exert beneficial effects in the restoring of the antioxidant activity on the skin of rats previously irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0.5 g of the formulation was applied on the skin of rats for five days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT activity were determined in a homogenate of rat skin. Malondialdehyde (MDA, conjugated dienes (CD and total hydroperoxide (THP content were determined as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Using these parameters, antioxidant and oxidant activity, redox index and oxidative stress grade were determined. The total antioxidant activity was significantly increased while the redox index, total oxidant activity and oxidative stress grade decreased significantly in damaged rats treated with the formulation. These results show the antioxidant properties of the cosmetic formulation due to the stimulation of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx, preventing skin injury induced by ultraviolet irradiation.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si una formulación cosmética elaborada con aceite de teobroma ozonizado puede ejercer efectos beneficiosos en la restauración de la actividad antioxidante sobre la piel de ratas previamente irradiadas con luz ultravioleta. Fue aplicada 0,5 g de la formulación sobre la piel de ratas durante cinco días. La actividad de las enzimas superóxido dismutasa (SOD, glutatión peroxidasa (GPx, y catalasa fueron determinadas en homogeneizado de piel de ratas. Los contenidos de malonildialdehído (MDA, dienos conjugados (DC e hidroperóxidos totales (HPT fueron considerados como los biomarcadores de daño oxidativo. Con todos estos parámetros fueron determinados las actividades antioxidantes y oxídantes, índice redox y grado de estrés oxidativo. La actividad antioxidante total fue incrementada significativamente, mientras

  14. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its 13C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp

  15. Chemical and rheological properties of a starch-rich fraction from the pulp of the fruit cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vriesmann, Lucia C.; Silveira, Joana L.M. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Petkowicz, Carmen L. de O [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular, CP 19046, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: clop@ufpr.br

    2009-03-01

    The pulp obtained from the fruit of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) was extracted with hot aqueous 0.1% citric acid to give fraction 0.1CA-2 in 15% yield. This was the predominant component polysaccharide, 91% of which was composed of starch, by an iodine test and monosaccharide composition, and its {sup 13}C NMR spectrum was consistent with that of a high amylose starch. The content of amylose found in fraction 0.1CA-2 was 71%. This value is higher than those of common starches of cereal grains, tubers, roots, and other fruits. The fraction was submitted to rheological examination, gels being prepared on heating with concentrations of 4 to 7% (w/w). A non-Newtonian behavior was observed, and gel viscosity and strength depended on the concentration. The presence of starch, as well as the presence of previously investigated pectin, conferred the high viscosity and gelling capability of the pulp.

  16. Caracterização cultural, morfológica e patogênica de Lasiodiplodia theobromae associado a frutíferas tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilson Silva Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae é um fungo cosmopolita, polífago e oportunista, com reduzida especialização patogênica, capaz de infectar espécies de plantas em regiões tropicais e temperadas, causando os mais variados sintomas. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar isolados de L. theobromae associados a frutíferas tropicais na região nordeste, considerando os aspectos cultural, morfológico e patogênico. Foram avaliados o crescimento micelial, coloração da colônia, dimensões dos conídios e patogenicidade dos isolados em mudas de cajazeira (Spondia mombin L., cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., gravioleira (Annona muricata L. e umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arruda. Os dados de caracterização morfológica e cultural revelaram diversidade na população do patógeno. Alta variabilidade patogênica foi também detectada, embora não tenha sido possível observar especificidade patogênica em cajueiro. O umbuzeiro apresentou maior resistência relativa ao fungo. Os dados demonstraram também uma interação entre as características morfo-culturais e a patogenicidade dos isolados de L. theobromae.

  17. (1→6)- and (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucans from Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMBJ: Structural characterization and pro-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Kassandra S M; Di Bastiani, Mirela; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C; Costa, Mírian F; Toledo, Karina A; Iacomini, Marcello; Babosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H; Nascimento, Valéria M G

    2015-11-20

    The chemical composition and structural characterization of exopolysaccharides from the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMBJ are described, and the immunomodulatory activity of a purified β-glucan was evaluated. L. theobromae MMBJ produced three different β-glucans. One, fraction PEPS, was a branched (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucan and was insoluble in cold water. The other two, fractions SEPS-005R and SEPS-10E, were characterized as linear (1→6)-β-glucans with molar mass of 1.8×10(6)Da and 7.0×10(3)Da, respectively. From a total of 2.2g/L of EPS produced by L. theobromae through submerged fermentation, 1.5g/L (67%) was of the branched (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucan, while 25% (w/w) were linear (1→6)-β-glucans. Tests conducted with macrophages showed that the high molar mass (1→6)-β-glucan fraction (SEPS-005R) induced a pro-inflammatory response pattern. PMID:26344312

  18. Flowering levels, harvest season and yields of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Níveis de floração, período de safra e produção do cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgini Augusto Venturieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, a specie native to Amazonia, has been planted commercially in Brazil to satisfy the demand for the flavorful juice obtained from the pulp around its seeds. The trees are notorious for low and irregular fruit production. Data gathered over two seasons from trees in a germplasm collection in Pará, Brazil, showed that some of them fruited more regularly than others. Differences in fruit production correlated to differences in flower production. Tree-to-tree variation in flower production, fruit production, and consistency of both over time suggest considerable scope for improving yields by selection. Hand pollinations resulted in a much higher frequency of fruit set than open pollinations, indicating that lack of effective pollination is also a reason for low yield. However, attempts to increase the level of effective pollination are handicapped by low knowledge about the pollinators of cupuassu and their behavior.Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum é uma espécie nativa da Amazônia que vem sendo plantada comercialmente no Brasil para satisfazer a demanda pelo seu suco, de sabor marcante, obtido da polpa que envolve as suas sementes. As árvores não notórias pela sua baixa e irregular produtividade. Dados obtidos de dois períodos produtivos, de árvores de uma coleção de germoplasma no estado do Pará, Brasil, mostraram que algumas delas frutificam mais irregularmente que outras. Diferenças na produção de frutos foram correlacionadas à diferenças na produção de flores. Variações entre plantas nas produções de flores e de frutos, e a repetibilidade de ambos ao longo do tempo sugerem melhoria das colheitas por seleção. Polinizações manuais resultaram em aumento no pegamento dos frutos, indicando que a falta de polinizador efetivo é também um causa da produtividade baixa. Entretanto, tentativas para aumentar o nível de polinização efetiva são dificultadas pelo pouco conhecimento sobre os

  19. Development and evaluation of emulsifying systems of the material grease from Brazilian flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Dourado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oils and butter of seed from Brazilian biodiversity are extending the range of innovative products for cosmetics development. They have a fat potential similar to skin composition, leading to the improved performance of these product. Aims: Improve the emulsions spreadability through prior screening of grease composition and studying the viscosity, and the emulsions accelerated stability. Methods: Emulsions were formulated using oils from semiarid plants from Bahia: Syagrus coronate, Pachira retusa, and Pachira aquatica, so as to compare them with oils already standard in the production of cosmetics. Spreadability and stability tests were made comparing the results. The same criteria were used with Amazon seed butter: Virola surinamensis, Butyrospermum parkii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum. For the emulsions screening and performance, a system was developed for oil/ butter, following tests of accelerated stability, viscosity, and spreadability. Results: The combined system of spreadability was optimized using screening. Emollients containing oleic and palmitic acids, and light chain fatty acids obtained good spreadability. The oil emulsion containing Pachira retusa and Virola surinamensis butter had a higher viscosity. Conclusions: With high content of fatty acids such as oleic, palmitic or the light chain fatty acids obtain an appropriated appearance, texture, and spreadability for cosmetic use. Thus, oils with a low fatty acid content may be combined with butter that have a high fatty acid content and vice-versa. Analyzing and strategically combining grease composition, one can optimize the performance of cosmetic formulations.

  20. Characterization of the fermentation process by gas chromatography Lasiodiplodia theobromae and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a fungus, which has been reported by some authors as a high yield producer of the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). An indigenous strain of this fungus has been used for producing a fermentation broth with a high JA concentration by the Cuban Research Institute for Sugar Cane Derivatives (ICIDCA), registered as BIOJAS. The broth has been applied to some agricultural crops and demonstrated its economic feasibility as plant growth regulator and biological control of various phytopathogenic microorganisms and pests. Both fermentation broth and biomass from this fungus contain some other metabolites having bioactive properties, for instance, fatty acids. This paper shows the composition and quantification of fatty acids in the biomass using Gas Chromatography (GC) and the identification of substances profile in fermentation broth by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The most fatty acids in the biomass are palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, being oleic acid the major component. On the other hand, 2,32 % of fatty acid esters; 2,47 % of alkenes; 14,40 % of alcohols; 30,15 % of aldehydes and 21,73 % of paraffins were detected in the composition of fermentation broth

  1. Screening of bacterial biocontrols against sapstain fungus (Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat.) of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajitha, K L; Maria Florence, E J; Dev, Suma Arun

    2014-09-01

    Diverse bacterial biocontrol agents from various sources of aerobic composts against the sapstain fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae in rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were isolated, screened and identified by various morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. The inhibitory effect of seventeen bacterial isolates was examined and seven exhibited inhibition towards the sapstain fungus. Among the seven antagonists, six were conclusively identified as Bacillus subtilis and one as Paenibacillus polymyxa using 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing. This is the first report on the occurrence of P. polymyxa, a potent biofertilizer and antagonist in vermicompost. HiCrome Bacillus agar was identified as an effective medium for differentiation of B. subtilis from other Bacillus species. The present work demonstrates the efficacy of the antagonistic property of B. subtilis strains against rubberwood sapstain fungus. Culture-based antagonistic inhibition displayed by B. subtilis can be extended to cater to the biocontrol requirements of wood-based industries against the stain fungus. The study showed the utility of an integrated approach, employing morphological, biochemical and molecular tools for conclusive identification of several bacterial isolates present in aerobic composts from diverse sources. PMID:25049165

  2. Quantitative real-time PCR normalization for gene expression studies in the plant pathogenic fungi Lasiodiplodia theobromae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolinelli-Alfonso, Marcos; Galindo-Sánchez, Clara Elizabeth; Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina

    2016-08-01

    Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a highly virulent plant pathogen. It has been suggested that heat stress increases its virulence. The aim of this work was to evaluate, compare, and recommend normalization strategies for gene expression analysis of the fungus growing with grapevine wood under heat stress. Using RT-qPCR-derived data, reference gene stability was evaluated through geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper applications. Based on the geometric mean using the ranking position obtained for each independent analysis, genes were ranked from least to most stable as follows: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), actin (ACT), β-tubulin (TUB) and elongation factor-1α (EF1α). Using RNAseq-derived data based on the calculated tagwise dispersion these genes were ordered by increasing stability as follows: GAPDH, ACT, TUB, and EF1α. The correlation between RNAseq and RTqPCR results was used as criteria to identify the best RT-qPCR normalization approach. The gene TUB is recommended as the best option for normalization among the commonly used reference genes, but alternative fungal reference genes are also suggested. PMID:27237774

  3. Comparing the thermo-physical characteristics of lard and selected plant fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanty, N. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the thermo-physical properties of lard and plant fats may help to formulate alternative fat substitutes for halal food applications. In this study, plant-based fats, namely avocado butter (Persea americana, cocoa butter (Theobroma cacao L., palm oil (Elaeis guinensis and mee fat (Madhuca longifolia are compared to lard with respect to the basic physico-chemical parameters, fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG compositions, and melting and solidification behaviors. Although plant fats are completely different from lard with respect to fatty acid and TAG compositions, they share some common thermal features with lard. Based on thermal analysis, lard and plant fats, except cocoa butter, are found to have thermal transitions in both low (< 0 °C and high (> 0 °C melting regions of their cooling and melting curves. According to pulse NMR data, mee fat and lard are found to display closely similar solidification profiles in the temperature range of 0-25 °C, while palm oil and lard are found to have similar solidification profiles in the temperature range between 25-40 °C. Hence, the thermo-physical property comparison between plant fats and lard may be useful to formulate a fat blend which simulates the thermal properties of lard.

    La comparación de las propiedades térmica y mecánicas de la manteca de cerdo y la de determinadas grasas de plantas, podría ayudar a formular sustitutos alternativos de las grasas para aplicaciones alimentarias. En este estudio, basado en materias grasas vegetales como, aguacate (Persea americana, manteca de cacao (Theobroma cacao L., palma aceitera (Elaeis guinensis y grasa de mee (Madhuca longifolia se comparan con la manteca de cerdo con respecto a parámetros físico-químicos, composiciones en ácidos grasos y triglicéridos (TAG, y comportamientos de los parámetros de fusión y de solidificación. Aunque las grasas de plantas

  4. Aislamiento de microorganismos para control biológico de Moniliophthora roreri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Yanet Suárez Contreras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri es un hongo que causa la moniliasis, una enfermedad de la mazorca en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao, con pérdidas hasta del 60% de la cosecha. El control biológico utilizando microorganismos endófitos surge como una alternativa para el manejo de esta enfermedad. En la presente investigación se evaluaron microorganismos con potencial para control biológico de M. roreri en Norte de Santander, Colombia. Para el efecto, se aisló e identificó este fitopatógeno y se utilizaron protocolos de desinfección de los posibles microorganismos antagonistas con siembras por diluciones seriadas, selección de los géneros microbianos con mayor potencial antagónico y evaluación de las cepas por la prueba de plato dual para evaluar el efecto biocontrolador de los hongos y la antibiosis para bacterias. Se tomaron muestras en los municipios de Cúcuta, Sardinata, El Tarra, Tibú y El Zulia, de las cuales se aislaron 17 cepas del fitopatógeno y 20 entre hongos y bacterias. De éstas se seleccionaron cuatro cepas de hongos y tres de bacterias por su capacidad antagónica contra M. roreri. Los mejores porcentajes de inhibición de crecimiento radial (PICR se alcanzaron con Paecilomyces sp. (HC002 vs M. roreri, con una media de 80.72%, seguido del tratamiento con Paecilomyces sp. (HZ002 vs M. roreri con 79.45%. Se demostró que el hongo Paecilomyces sp. también tiene un alto potencial antagónico in vitro frente a M. roreri. Al evaluar la antibiosis de las bacterias aisladas, se encontró que Bacillus brevis (BZ005 fue la más efectiva en todos los sitios del estudio, con porcentajes superiores a 89%.

  5. Identification, classification and differential expression of oleosin genes in tung tree (Vernicia fordii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Cao

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerols (TAG are the major molecules of energy storage in eukaryotes. TAG are packed in subcellular structures called oil bodies or lipid droplets. Oleosins (OLE are the major proteins in plant oil bodies. Multiple isoforms of OLE are present in plants such as tung tree (Vernicia fordii, whose seeds are rich in novel TAG with a wide range of industrial applications. The objectives of this study were to identify OLE genes, classify OLE proteins and analyze OLE gene expression in tung trees. We identified five tung tree OLE genes coding for small hydrophobic proteins. Genome-wide phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment demonstrated that the five tung OLE genes represented the five OLE subfamilies and all contained the "proline knot" motif (PX5SPX3P shared among 65 OLE from 19 tree species, including the sequenced genomes of Prunus persica (peach, Populus trichocarpa (poplar, Ricinus communis (castor bean, Theobroma cacao (cacao and Vitis vinifera (grapevine. Tung OLE1, OLE2 and OLE3 belong to the S type and OLE4 and OLE5 belong to the SM type of Arabidopsis OLE. TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR methods were used to study the differential expression of OLE genes in tung tree tissues. Expression results demonstrated that 1 All five OLE genes were expressed in developing tung seeds, leaves and flowers; 2 OLE mRNA levels were much higher in seeds than leaves or flowers; 3 OLE1, OLE2 and OLE3 genes were expressed in tung seeds at much higher levels than OLE4 and OLE5 genes; 4 OLE mRNA levels rapidly increased during seed development; and 5 OLE gene expression was well-coordinated with tung oil accumulation in the seeds. These results suggest that tung OLE genes 1-3 probably play major roles in tung oil accumulation and/or oil body development. Therefore, they might be preferred targets for tung oil engineering in transgenic plants.

  6. Morphology, Physiology, and Anatomy of Penny Fern (Drymoglossum phyloselloidesand Its Effect on Cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Yuliasmara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the anatomy, physiology and morphology of penny fern (Drimoglosum phylloseloides and its effect on cocoa. Morphological observation of penny fern used microscope to observe the roots, stems, leaves and spores. Physiology of penny fern was observed based on number of stomata and stomatal conductance using stomata printing method, while the amount of chlorophyll based on spectrophotometric method and rate of transpiration used cobalt chloride paper. Penny fern anatomy on cross-sectional and longitudinal in roots, stems and leaves. Penny fern growth was observed based the length of tendrils once a week during rainy and dry season. While the effect of penny fern invasion was observed based on variable leaf area with gravimetric method, the cross-section of attacked cacao branch using microtom and microscope and chlorophyll content by chlorophyll meter. Results showed that penny fern is a epiphytic weed which was crassulaceae acid metabolism plants that have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide at night and carry out photosynthesis during the day with closed stomata. Penny ferns reproduce using spores. The growth rate of penny fern 2.18 cm/week during the dry season and while in rainy season 3.89 cm/week. Penny fern leaf contains 0.0212 mg/g chlorophyll. Penny fern stomata density was 18.33/mm 2 with a width of opening stomata at night 26.3 µm which caused a veryslow rate of transpiration of 0.69 mm 2 /seconds. The existence penny fern on cocoa decreased leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased crop productivity which was indicated by decreasing in number of flowers, number of small, medium fruit, and large pods. However it had no effect on the number of leaves on one side flush cocoa. Key words: Drimoglosum phylloseloides, weeds, decrease productivity, Theobroma cacao

  7. Evaluation of different fermentation processes for use by small cocoa growers in mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, C; López-Andrade, Procopio Alejandro; Ramírez-Guillermo, Miguel A; Guerra Ramírez, Diana; Caballero Pérez, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate four different cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fermentation conditions and their effect on fermented bean quality, in order to be able to recommend the most suitable condition to producers in the municipality of Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Fermentations were carried out in square wooden boxes with capacity for 1000, 300, and 100 kg of fresh beans, as well as a rotary drum with capacity for 500 kg thereof. The fermentation process was carried out for 7 days, and the response variables measured were mass temperature, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, and acidity. The TSS were totally depleted after 2 days, during which time the yeasts transformed them into ethanol at temperatures of 25-35°C. The most notable temperature increase in the four treatments was 49°C on the third day, corresponding to a decrease in pH from 6.31 ± 0.40 to 4.76 ± 0.03 and an increase in acidity from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 1.17 ± 0.25 g kg(-1), due to the formation of organic acids. There were no significant differences among the four treatments (Tukey α = 0.05). The cut test showed that fermentation in 300- and 100-kg boxes and in the 500-kg rotary drum produced the same effect on fermentation quality, but the 1000-kg boxes exhibited lower quality (Tukey α = 0.05). PMID:27625772

  8. Polyclonal Antibody-based ELISA in combination with specific PCR amplification of ITS 1 regions for the detection and quantitation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of 2 gummosis in cashew nut plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniz, C.R.; Freire, F.C.O.; Viana, F.M.P.; Cardoso, J.E.; Correia, D.; Jalink, H.; Kema, G.H.J.; Silva, G.F.; Guedes, M.I.F.

    2012-01-01

    Members of Botryosphaeriaceae family are associated with serious diseases in different plants 18 across the world. In cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.), the fungus Lasiodiplodia 19 theobromae causes a severe group of symptoms related to gummosis that results in decreased nut 20 productio

  9. Design and optimization of hot-filling pasteurization conditions: Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) fruit pulp case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Rui C; Silva, Cristina L M

    2003-01-01

    Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) is an Amazonian tropical fruit with a great economic potential. Pasteurization, by a hot-filling technique, was suggested for the preservation of this fruit pulp at room temperature. The process was implemented with local communities in Brazil. The process was modeled, and a computer program was written in Turbo Pascal. The relative importance among the pasteurization process variables (initial product temperature, heating rate, holding temperature and time, container volume and shape, cooling medium type and temperature) on the microbial target and quality was investigated, by performing simulations according to a screening factorial design. Afterward, simulations of the different processing conditions were carried out. The holding temperature (T(F)) and time (t(hold)) affected pasteurization value (P), and the container volume (V) influenced largely the quality parameters. The process was optimized for retail (1 L) and industrial (100 L) size containers, by maximizing volume average quality in terms of color lightness and sensory "fresh notes" and minimizing volume average total color difference and sensory "cooked notes". Equivalent processes were designed and simulated (P(91)( degrees )(C) = 4.6 min on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores) and final quality (color, flavor, and aroma attributes) was evaluated. Color was slightly affected by the pasteurization processes, and few differences were observed between the six equivalent treatments designed (T(F) between 80 and 97 degrees C). T(F) >/= 91 degrees C minimized "cooked notes" and maximized "fresh notes" of cupuaçu pulp aroma and flavor for 1 L container. Concerning the 100 L size, the "cooked notes" development can be minimized with T(F) >/= 91 degrees C, but overall the quality was greatly degraded as a result of the long cooling times. A more efficient method to speed up the cooling phase was recommended, especially for the industrial size of containers.

  10. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  11. Ocorrência endofítica de Lasiodiplodia theobromae em tecidos de cajueiro e sua transmissão por propágulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emilson Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae, agente causal da resinose e da podridão-preta-da-haste é o principal patógeno do cajueiro no semi-árido nordestino. Esse patógeno é reconhecido em outros hospedeiros pela capacidade de colonizar tecidos vegetais sem aparente sintoma. Essa característica é de grande importância epidemiológica, prognosticando medidas de exclusão no manejo da doença. A ocorrência epidêmica da resinose em áreas isoladas reforça a hipótese dos propágulos assintomáticos do hospedeiro servirem como fonte de inoculo primário. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a capacidade de L. theobromae de sobreviver em tecidos de cajueiro sem apresentar sintomas e estimar a transmissão deste patógeno via propágulos. A presença do fungo a diferentes distâncias do cancro e nas duas direções em relação ao mesmo (descendente e ascendente foi determinada pelo plaqueamento de tecidos de troncos infectados. Na outra parte do trabalho, foram coletados em pomares comerciais sementes de plantas sem sintomas e com sintomas severos de resinose. Estas foram semeadas separadamente e as plântulas obtidas foram enxertadas com garfos provenientes de ramos de plantas sadias e ramos de plantas severamente infectadas, perfazendo-se todas as combinações de origem da semente e garfos. As mudas produzidas conforme os quatro tratamentos foram plantadas sob condições favoráveis à doença. L. theobromae foi isolado até 80 cm, tanto na direção ascendente como na descendente em relação do cancro. A interação garfo de planta doente e semente de planta doente apresentou maior incidência da resinose do que a interação garfo de planta sadia e semente de planta doente, mostrando que o garfo também contribui no aumento da incidência.. A interpretação desses resultados evidencia o caráter endofítico de L. theobromae e o propágulo infectado como veículo de introdução da doença no pomar.Lasiodiplodia theobromae, agent of gummosis

  12. FRACIONAMENTO DE PROTEÍNAS DE SILAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE EMURCHECIDO OU COM FARELO DE CACAU PROTEIN FRACTIONING OF SILAGE OF ELEPHANTGRASS WILTED OR WITH COCOA MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Desenvolveu-se o experimento para determinar as frações que compõem as proteínas da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Camaroon submetido ao emurchecimento ou à adição de diferentes níveis de farelo de cacau. O capim-elefante utilizado foi colhido aos 50 dias de rebrota após o corte de uniformização e submetido aos seguintes tratamentos: capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por oito horas, e capim-elefante sem emurchecimento com níveis de 0 %, 7 %, 14%, 21 % e 28 % de farelo de cacau (FC (% da matéria natural. Acondicionou-se o material em silos de PVC com capacidade para 5,3 litros, que foram abertos após 45 dias. Para todas as frações de proteínas estimadas, o tratamento emurchecido apresentou valores semelhantes (P>0,05 ao do tratamento sem emurchecimento. As frações protéicas foram influenciadas pelas adições de FC, verificando-se redução dos teores das frações A e B1+B2 e aumentos das frações B3 e C, para os níveis crescentes de FC.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conservação de forragens, forrageira, Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon, subproduto, Theobroma cacao L.

    The experiment was conducted to determine the fractions that compose the protein of silage on the submitted elephant grass forage to wilting under the sun light for eight hours. Other treatments involved the same elephant grass without exposing to sun light but with addition of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28% of cocoa meal (CM at the ensilage processing. The PVC silos used in the experiment were 5.3 liters in capacity, and were opened in 45 days. To all protein-estimated fractions, the wilted treatment showed similar values (P>.05 to the treatment without wilting. The protein fractions were influenced by CM addictions, verifying reduction in contents of A and B1+B2 fractions and increase in B3 and C fractions, with CM increasing levels

  13. DEGRADABILIDADE IN SITU DA MATÉRIA SECA, DA PROTEÍNA BRUTA E DA FRAÇÃO FIBROSA DE CONCENTRADOS E SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDUSTRIAIS IN SITU DEGRADABILITY OF DRY MATTER, CRUDE PROTEIN AND FIBROUS FRACTION OF CONCENTRATE AND AGROINDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, da proteína bruta (PB, da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e da fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do milho (Zea mays, do farelo de soja (Glicyne max L., da torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. e do farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.. Incubaram-se amostras de cada alimento no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0; 3; 6; 12; 24 e 48 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da MS, PB, FDN e FDA, para a taxa de passagem de 5%/hora, foram relativamente baixas (abaixo de 60%, exceto para a PB do farelo de soja (acima de 65%. O farelo de soja apresentou os maiores coeficientes de degradação, tanto para MS e PB como também para os constituintes da parede celular, seguido do milho, torta de dendê e farelo de cacau. O farelo de cacau apresentou as menores taxas de degradação ruminal.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Farelo de cacau, incubação ruminal, torta de dendê. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF ruminal degradability of corn (Zea mays, soybean meal (Glicyne max L., palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L.. Samples of each feed were incubated in rumens of three steers for periods of 0; 3; 6; 12; 24 and 48 hours. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF effective degradabilities, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were relatively low (lower than 60%, except for soybean meal CP (higher than 65%. Soybean meal showed the greatest degradation coefficients for DM and CP as so as for cellular wall constituents, followed by corn, palm kernel cake and cocoa meal. Cocoa meal showed the lowest ruminal degradation rates.

    KEY WORDS: Cocoa meal, incubation ruminal, palm kernel cake.

  14. Effect of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and pycnidial production of Lasiodiplodia theobromae in physic nut (Jatropha curcas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, P; Prakasam, V; Jonathan, E I; Samiyappan, R; Natarajan, C

    2013-07-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas) is an important commercial bio-diesel plant species and is being advocated for development of waste and dry land. The collar and root rot caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is an important soil borne disease which causes considerable yield loss in this crop. In this study, the effects of culture media, temperature, photoperiod, carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on mycelial growth and pycnidial production were evaluated. Among the growth media tested, potato dextrose agar supported the highest growth followed by potato sucrose agar and corn meal agar. Among several carbon sources tested, carboxy methyl cellulose and sucrose were found superior for growth and pycnidial production. The nitrogen sources viz., ammonium oxalate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were recorded maximum mycelial growth and pycnidial production. The fungus grows at pH 5.0-9.0 and optimum growth was observed at pH 7.0. PMID:24640243

  15. Produção e caracterização de biomassa extracelular obtida por fermentação submersa usando Lasidioplodia theobromae isolado do cacau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josileide Gonçalves Borges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gomas produzidas por microrganismos são usadas como modificadores de alimentos e a biomassa residual para isolamento de seus constituintes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e caracterizar biomassa extracelular por fermentação submersa com Lasidioplodia theobromae isolado de cacau da Bahia com morte descendente. Foram testadas quatro fontes de carbono fermentadas a 28 ºC, 180 rpm por 72 horas. A que resultou em maior produção de biomassa foi avaliada quanto à variação da concentração e pH. As frações obtidas foram caracterizadas por infravermelho (FTIR e análise por termogravimetria (TG, composição centesimal e monossacarídica. A fermentação submersa da sacarose comercial a 40 g.L-1 em pH 4,0 por L. theobromae resultou em máxima produção da fração I (8,64g.L-1, e a 50g.L-1, pH 5,0, da fração II (23,69 g.L-1. Os espectros de FTIR mostraram presença de grupos amino, poliois e ésteres, e nas análises termogravimétricas observaram-se três eventos de perda de massa em diferentes intensidades. As frações contêm mesma composição em proporções diferenciadas, sendo fontes de proteínas (19,88-29,45%, lipídios (11,07-28,79%, cinzas (3,55-3,88%, e carboidratos (30,16-37,96% compostos unicamente de glicose e manose em diferentes proporções, portanto ambas glucomananas. As frações apresentam propriedades e potencial desejáveis para ampla utilização em processos biotecnológicos de alta relevância científica.

  16. Lasiodiplodan, an exocellular (1→6)-β-D: -glucan from Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI: production on glucose, fermentation kinetics, rheology and anti-proliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Cunha, Mário A; Turmina, Janaína A; Ivanov, Raphael C; Barroso, Roney R; Marques, Patrícia T; Fonseca, Eveline A I; Fortes, Zuleica B; Dekker, Robert F H; Khaper, Neelam; Barbosa, Aneli M

    2012-08-01

    Lasiodiplodan, an exopolysaccharide of the (1→6)-β-D: -glucan type, is produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI when grown under submerged culture on glucose. The objective of this study was to evaluate lasiodiplodan production by examining the effects of carbon (glucose, fructose, maltose, sucrose) and nitrogen sources (KNO(3), (NH(4))(2)SO(4), urea, yeast extract, peptone), its production in shake flasks compared to a stirred-tank bioreactor, and to study the rheology of lasiodiplodan, and lasiodiplodan's anti-proliferative effect on breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Although glucose (2.05 ± 0.05 g L(-1)), maltose (2.08 ± 0.04 g L(-1)) and yeast extract (2.46 ± 0.06 g L(-1)) produced the highest amounts of lasiodiplodan, urea as N source resulted in more lasiodiplodan per unit biomass than yeast extract (0.74 ± 0.006 vs. 0.22 ± 0.008 g g(-1)). A comparison of the fermentative parameters of L. theobromae MMPI in shake flasks and a stirred-tank bioreactor at 120 h on glucose as carbon source showed maximum lasiodiplodan production in agitated flasks (7.01 ± 0.07 g L(-1)) with a specific yield of 0.25 ± 0.57 g g(-1) and a volumetric productivity of 0.06 ± 0.001 g L(-1) h(-1). A factorial 2(2) statistical design developed to evaluate the effect of glucose concentration (20-60 g L(-1)) and impeller speed (100-200 rpm) on lasiodiplodan production in the bioreactor showed the highest production (6.32 g L(-1)) at 72 h. Lasiodiplodan presented pseudoplastic behaviour, and the apparent viscosity increased at 60°C in the presence of CaCl(2). Anti-proliferative activity of lasiodiplodan was demonstrated in MCF-7 cells, which was time- and dose-dependent with an IC(50) of 100 μg lasiodiplodan mL(-1). PMID:22399240

  17. Properties of An Oral Nanoformulation of A Molecularly Dispersed Amphotericin B Comprising A Composite Matrix of Theobroma Oil and Bee’S Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe See Wei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An amphotericin B-containing (AmB solid lipid nanoparticulate drug delivery system intended for oral administration, comprised of bee’s wax and theobroma oil as lipid components was formulated with the aim to ascertain the location of AmB within the lipid matrix: (a a homogenous matrix; (b a drug-enriched shell; or (c a drug enriched core. Both the drug-loaded and drug-free nanoparticles were spherical with AmB contributing to an increase in both the z-average diameter (169 ± 1 to 222 ± 2 nm and zeta potential (40.8 ± 0.9 to 50.3 ± 1.0 mV of the nanoparticles. A maximum encapsulation efficiency of 21.4% ± 3.0%, corresponding to 10.7 ± 0.4 mg encapsulated AmB within the lipid matrix was observed. Surface analysis and electron microscopic imaging indicated that AmB was dispersed uniformly within the lipid matrix (option (a above and, therefore, this is the most suitable of the three models with regard to modeling the propensity for uptake by epithelia and release of AmB in lymph.

  18. 琯溪蜜柚CmPME1的克隆及其在果实发育过程中的表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of CmPME1 During Fruit Development of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志发; 潘腾飞; 潘东明

    2015-01-01

    利用RT-PCR技术从‘琯溪蜜柚’中克隆得到1条PME (pectinmethylesterase)基因的ORF序列,命名为CmPME1.该序列编码一个含有582个氨基酸的蛋白质,分子量63.37 ku,该蛋白属于稳定的碱性亲水性蛋白.同源性分析表明:其编码的氨基酸序列与可可树(Theobroma cacao)、毛果杨(Populus trichocarpa)的同源性分别为76%、74%,与甜橙的氨基酸序列同源性高达99%.实时荧光定量PCR结果表明,随着果实的发育,CmPME1的表达量逐渐升高,在花后170d达到最高,然后逐渐降低,远中柱汁胞CmPME1的表达量高于近中柱.

  19. 巧克力对心血管系统的抗氧化与保健作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳(摘)

    2008-01-01

    近年来有关梧桐科植物可可树Theobroma cacao L.产品(包括巧克力)对心血管的保健作用报道颇多。巧克力特别是不含牛奶的黑巧克力和高浓度的可可液剂由于其富含具有抗氧化和免疫调节作用的物质——黄酮类,吸引了许多学者研究其对心血管病(CVD)的心脏保护作用。2007年一项包括5次随机、对照试验的汇总分析发现:每天摄入富含可可的饮食可以显著降低收缩压和舒张压。

  20. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. PMID:24547813

  1. Modulation of activity of the adipocyte aquaglyceroporin channel by plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cals-Grierson, M-M

    2007-02-01

    The plasma membrane protein, aquaglyceroporin-7 (AQP7) is exclusively expressed in adipocytes and appears to be a channel for glycerol entry and exit. It is possible that by facilitating the opening of these channels, the loss of intracellular glycerol could be encouraged and thus reduce the size of the lipid reservoir. Human preadipocytes and mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to develop an adipocytic phenotype by culture in a semi-defined medium. After 7 days, the expression of AQP7 message had increased by 37-fold, a level which could be further up-regulated by troglitazone or retinoic acid or down-regulated by insulin. The mature adipocytes also expressed immunoreactive aquaporin (AQP) channel protein as assessed by immunocytochemistry and Western blot. The addition of adrenaline to the culture medium stimulated the release of glycerol (blockable by HgCl(2)). Plant extracts, with potential anti-cellulite properties, were tested for their effect on glycerol elimination. These included wild yam root (Dioscorea opposita), cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao), horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) seed and bark and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Of these, D. opposita appeared to induce a dose-dependent glycerol release. The results show that our assay can help to identify modulators of AQP7 channel expression and activation in adipocytes. PMID:18489306

  2. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  3. Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23637048

  4. Population of bacteria from soil in Tudu-Aog village, Passi district, Bolaang Mongondow, North Sulawesi

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    RIANI HARDININGSIH

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to know the population of bacteria from soil in Tudu-Aog village, Passi district, Bolaang Mongondow, North Sulawesi, the purpose of the research was to study the population of bacteria from soil. Fourthy six soil samples were taken from two location, namelyTudu-Aog village and Bugis mountain. Isolation was done by dilution methods on YEMA medium (for Rhizobium bacteria, Winogradsky’s (for Azotobacter bacteria, Pycosvkaya (for Phosphat Solubilizing Bacteria, and selective Difco Pseudomonas (for Pseudomonas bacteria. Incubation at room temperature (27-280C until 15 days, and the enumeration with plate count method. The highest enumeration of Rhizobium bacteria with plant rhizosphere of Alocasia esculenta (27x105 CFU/g soil, Theobroma cacao (29x105 CFU/g soil,and Euphorbia paniculata (26x105 CFU/g soil, Azotobacter bacteria with plant rhizosphere of Lycopersicum esculantum (38x105 CFU/g soil, Eugenia aromaticum (43x105 CFU/g soil, Andropogon sp. (34x105 CFU/g soil, Phosphat Solubilizing bacteria with plant rhizosphere of Sechium edule (27x105 CFU/g soil, Cinnamomum sp. (48x105 CFU/g soil, Cyathea sp. (72x105 CFU/g soil, and Pseudomonas bacteria with plant rhizosphere of Oryza sativa (18x105 CFU/g soil, Vanilla sp. (12x105 CFU/g soil, dan Saurauia sp.(19x105 CFU/g soil.

  5. The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in chocolate quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Rosane F; Wheals, Alan E

    2004-01-01

    The first stage of chocolate production consists of a natural, seven-day microbial fermentation of the pectinaceous pulp surrounding beans of the tree Theobroma cacao. There is a microbial succession of a wide range of yeasts, lactic-acid, and acetic-acid bacteria during which high temperatures of up to 50 degrees C and microbial products, such as ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid, kill the beans and cause production of flavor precursors. Over-fermentation leads to a rise in bacilli and filamentous fungi that can cause off-flavors. The physiological roles of the predominant micro-organisms are now reasonably well understood and the crucial importance of a well-ordered microbial succession in cocoa aroma has been established. It has been possible to use a synthetic microbial cocktail inoculum of just 5 species, including members of the 3 principal groups, to mimic the natural fermentation process and yield good quality chocolate. Reduction of the amount of pectin by physical or mechanical means can also lead to an improved fermentation in reduced time and the juice can be used as a high-value byproduct. To improve the quality of the processed beans, more research is needed on pectinase production by yeasts, better depulping, fermenter design, and the use of starter cultures. PMID:15462126

  6. Identification and isolation of full-length cDNA sequences by sequencing and analysis of expressed sequence tags from guarana (Paullinia cupana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirêdo, L C; Faria-Campos, A C; Astolfi-Filho, S; Azevedo, J L

    2011-01-01

    The current intense production of biological data, generated by sequencing techniques, has created an ever-growing volume of unanalyzed data. We reevaluated data produced by the guarana (Paullinia cupana) transcriptome sequencing project to identify cDNA clones with complete coding sequences (full-length clones) and complete sequences of genes of biotechnological interest, contributing to the knowledge of biological characteristics of this organism. We analyzed 15,490 ESTs of guarana in search of clones with complete coding regions. A total of 12,402 sequences were analyzed using BLAST, and 4697 full-length clones were identified, responsible for the production of 2297 different proteins. Eighty-four clones were identified as full-length for N-methyltransferase and 18 were sequenced in both directions to obtain the complete genome sequence, and confirm the search made in silico for full-length clones. Phylogenetic analyses were made with the complete genome sequences of three clones, which showed only 0.017% dissimilarity; these are phylogenetically close to the caffeine synthase of Theobroma cacao. The search for full-length clones allowed the identification of numerous clones that had the complete coding region, demonstrating this to be an efficient and useful tool in the process of biological data mining. The sequencing of the complete coding region of identified full-length clones corroborated the data from the in silico search, strengthening its efficiency and utility. PMID:21732283

  7. Host Plant and Leaf-Age Preference of Luprops tristis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae: Lupropini: A Home Invading Nuisance Pest in Rubber Plantation Belts

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    Sabu K. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive seasonal invasion by the litter-dwelling beetle Luprops tristis, into residential buildings prior to monsoon rains, and their prolonged state of dormancy render them a very serious nuisance pest in rubber plantations in the Western Ghats in southern India. Feeding preferences of L. tristis towards leaf litter of seven trees co-occurring in rubber plantations, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, mango (Mangifera indica, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, wild jack (Artocarpus hirsutus, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, cassia (Cassia fistula, sapota (Manilkara zapota and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were analyzed with no-choice and multiple-choice leaf disc tests. Results showed that L. tristis is a generalist feeder with a defined pattern of preference, with the leaf litter of rubber being the most preferred followed by those of jackfruit and cocoa. Tender leaves were preferred over mature leaves except for cocoa and sapota. Equal preference towards tender and mature cocoa leaves, presence of patches of cocoa plantations and the scarce distribution of other host plants in rubber plantation belts leads to the proposal that in the absence of tender and mature rubber leaves, cocoa becomes the major host plant of L. tristis.

  8. The antioxidant activity of cocoa

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    Hasan Kilicgun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed to determine the antioxidant effects of Cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L., which is commonly used in both chocolate and cocoa drinks all over the world , on lipid peroxidation, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, glutathione (GSH and protein oxidation levels in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 treated for male Wistar rats. Two control groups and one treatment group of rats were formed. The control groups were nourished with a standard diet, while the Cocoa group was nourished with standard diet which was enriched with % 6 by weight dried Cocoa powder. After three months, a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 was performed in Control II (CCl4 and Cocoa groups (1ml/kg, as 20% in olive oil intraperitoneally and single dose of olive oil was administered (1ml/kg,i.p. in the same way as rats in Control I group. They were sacrificed two hours later. Lipid peroxide levels in liver, protein oxidation in liver, glutathione levels in liver, ALT and AST in plasma were measured. Cocoa decreased liver lipid peroxide, liver glutathione levels and plasma ALT and AST activities previously increased by CCl4 treatment, to the Control I levels The protein oxidation levels in the rats in the Cocoa group compared with the rats in CCl4 treated control group were found to have significantly lessened. These fi ndings suggest that cocoa has strong antioxidant activity because of the fact that cocoa inhibits liver injury.

  9. Carbon stock assessment of two agroforestry systems in a tropical forest reserve in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, R.D.; Sales, R.F.; Estrella, R.; Saplaco, S.R.; Castillo, A.S.A.; Cruz, R.V.O.; Pulhin, F.B. [University of Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). College of Forestry & Natural Resources Environmental Forestry Programme

    2001-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) that causes global warming. Thus, land uses such as an agroforestry system have a significant role in moderating climate change since they can be sources and sinks of carbon. The aim of the study was to generate data on the carbon stocks of two agroforestry systems, specifically a Gmelina arborea-Theobroma cacao multistorey system and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium hedges at the agroforestry research and demonstration area inside a forest reserve in Southern Luzon, Philippines. The multistorey system had a mean biomass of 258 Mg C ha{sup -1} and a carbon density of 185 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Carbon was stored in the various pools in the following order of magnitude: soil > tree biomass (above-ground) > necromass > understorey vegetation > roots. The Gliricidia hedgerow had a biomass density of 3.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}; total carbon density was 93 Mg C ha{sup -1}, of which 92 Mg C ha{sup -1} was in the soil.

  10. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases. PMID:26572874

  11. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

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    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  12. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity.

  13. Agroindustrial byproducts in diets for Nile tilapia juveniles

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    João Sérgio Oliveira Carvalho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate performance and body composition of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed diets containing byproducts aerial parts of cassava meal (Manihot esculenta, mesquite pod meal (Prosopis juliflora, cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis and to analyze the economic viability of the feed. A total of 1,350 juvenile males (100 g were distributed in 15 cages (1 m³ in completely randomized design with five treatments (basal diet and four test diets and three replicates. The following aspects were evaluated: final weight, total feed intake, total weight gain, feed conversion, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and survival rate, dry matter, crude protein, fat and ash body, the average cost of feed per kilogram of weight gain and economic efficiency rate. No differences were observed for total consumption of food or survival rate. For other variables, the inclusion of cocoa and cassava meal impaired fish performance. No differences were observed for dry matter, crude protein and body ash. The lower body fat accumulation was recorded for the tilapia fed palm kernel cake. The best economic indicators were found to diets containing palm kernel cake. The byproducts evaluated can be used up to 150 g/kg in feed formulation, providing good performance and economic rate for Nile tilapia.

  14. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

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    Erin Sills

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individuals said that they were seeking better product differentiation and marketing than has been achieved under the organic and Fairtrade systems. Many suggested that more direct recognition of individual growers and the unique value of their cocoa throughout the production chain would be more helpful than certification for small companies in the cocoa supply chain. These findings suggest new marketing techniques that convey an integration of meaning into the cocoa and chocolate supply chain as a differentiation strategy. This involves integration of the story of producers’ commitment and dedication; shared producer and consumer values of social and environmental responsibility; and personal relationships between producers and consumers. This marketing approach could enhance the ability of smaller companies to successfully vie with their larger competitors and to produce cocoa in a more environmentally and socially acceptable manner.

  15. Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankara, Arnadi Ramachandrayya; Azmidah, Aysha; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2012-02-01

    Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even today. Preclinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that the commonly used dietary agents like Allium sativum (garlic), Camellia sinensis (tea), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry), Ferula asafoetida (asafoetida), Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind), Glycine max (soyabean), Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), Piper betle (beetle leaf), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Ocimum gratissimum (wild basil), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Vitis vinifera (grapes) protect against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic studies have shown that the beneficial effects of these phytochemicals in preventing the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are mediated by the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The present review for the first time collates the hepatoprotective effects of these agents and also emphasizes on aspects that need future research to establish their utility in humans. PMID:22119904

  16. Study on Competition Characteristics of a Land Cover Crop Arachis pintoito Growth of Cocoa

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    John Bako Baon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of ground cover crop, such as Arachis pintoiin cocoa farm may enhance physical, chemistry and biological fertility of soil. Nevertheless, the presence of those cover crops potentially increase the competition with main crop in various means. The primary objective of this study was to investigate kinds of competition raised when cocoa plants cultivated with ground cover crop of A. pintoi. This study consisted of three experiments. The first experiment aimed to study possible allelopatic competition using root exudates solution of A. Pintoi as well as Leucaena leucocephalaand Adenanthera microsperma as check for being used for watering cocoa plants. The second experiment aimed to study the competition between A. pintoiand cocoa plants in field condition with 1 cover crop fully overlay ground surrounding cocoa basal trunk, 2 no cover crop overlay ground surrounding cocoa basal trunk in a distance of 40 cm in diameter, and 3 no cover crop as check. Third experiment aimed to study the competition between A. pintoiand cocoa plants in limited growth medium (pot, using 10 cm stolon shoots each 4, 2 and 0 shoots per pot. Results showed that A. Pintoidid not produce alleopatic exudates to restrict cocoa growth. Population of A. Pintoi had negative effect on cocoa plant growth in the field by reducing fresh trunk weight and dry root weight, even greater negative effect found in cocoa plant grown in limited growth medium by also reducing dry leaf and trunk weight and leaf area. Key words: Theobroma cacao, Arachis pintoi, allelopathy, competition, denantheramicrosperma, Leucaena leucocephala

  17. Effects of land-use change on community composition of tropical amphibians and reptiles in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, Thomas C; Iskandar, Djoko T; Motzke, Iris; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of anthropogenic land-use change on the amphibians and reptiles of the biodiverse tropical forests of Southeast Asia. We studied a land-use modification gradient stretching from primary forest, secondary forest, natural-shade cacao agroforest, planted-shade cacao agroforest to open areas in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. We determined species richness, abundance, turnover, and community composition in all habitat types and related these to environmental correlates, such as canopy heterogeneity and thickness of leaf litter. Amphibian species richness decreased systematically along the land-use modification gradient, but reptile richness and abundance peaked in natural-shade cacao agroforests. Species richness and abundance patterns across the disturbance gradient were best explained by canopy cover and leaf-litter thickness in amphibians and by canopy heterogeneity and cover in reptiles. Amphibians were more severely affected by forest disturbance in Sulawesi than reptiles. Heterogeneous canopy cover and thick leaf litter should be maintained in cacao plantations to facilitate the conservation value for both groups. For long-term and sustainable use of plantations, pruned shade trees should be permanently kept to allow rejuvenation of cacao and, thus, to prevent repeated forest encroachment. PMID:20151989

  18. Determination of Theobromine and Caffeine in Cocoa Powder and Cacao Shell Tincture by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定可可粉和可可壳酊中的可可碱和咖啡因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阚颖; 张龙根; 董姚萍; 陈加林; 宫梅

    2000-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱法测定可可粉和可可壳酊中的可可碱及咖啡因含量,固定相为Hypersil ODS,流动相为甲醇-醋酸-水(20:1:79),紫外检测波长275nm.样品中可可碱和咖啡因的回收率分别为98.6%±0.71%和97.1%±0.80%,变异系数为0.80和1.49.

  19. Caracterización cromatográfica y espectroscópica de un pigmento rojo obtenido a partir de Bothryodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grolamys Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la producción microbiológica de los jasmonatos a partir del hongo Bothryodiplodia theobromae se obtiene una gran variedad de metabolitos, muchos de los cuales no han sido caracterizados y pueden presentar interesantes propiedades bioactivas que conduzcan a su posible aplicación. Lograr la identificación, caracterización y cuantificación de estos metabolitos constituye un problema analítico novedoso y complejo que es necesario abordar y que puede resolverse empleando diferentes métodos cromatográficos y espectroscópicos. En el presente trabajo se lleva a cabo el estudio de caracterización cromatográfica y espectroscópica de la fracción acuosa que resulta del procedimiento de separación por extracción líquido-líquido con solventes de diferente polaridad del caldo de fermentación, donde queda el pigmento rojo. La fracción acuosa resultó ser la más purificada y se caracterizó espectroscópicamente por UV e IR y cromatográficamente por TLC y HPLC. Se establecieron las condiciones cromatográficas por HPLC utilizando una columna RP-18 para definir el perfil cromatográfico de la fracción, se purificó la misma por columna de Sephadex LH-20 y se obtuvo un compuesto que sugiere una estructura similar a un flavonoide del tipo antocianina.

  20. 龙眼焦腐病菌及其生物学特性%Biological characteristics of Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pat. causing black-rotten disease of longan fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居念; 林河通; 谢联辉; 林奇英

    2005-01-01

    龙眼焦腐病菌[Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griff.& Maubl]是龙眼果实贮藏期焦腐病害的病原菌.本试验观察了龙眼焦腐病菌的形态特征和为害果实症状,研究了温度、pH、湿度、C源、光照对菌丝生长、产孢和孢子萌发的影响.结果表明:龙眼焦腐病菌菌丝生长的最适温度为28-30 ℃,最适pH为6.0-7.0;产生子座的最适温度为30 ℃,最适pH为6.0;分生孢子萌发的最适温度为25-35 ℃,最适pH为5.0-8.0.分生孢子的萌发要求高湿度,其萌发率随着相对湿度的增加而提高,在水中的萌发率可达88.5%,而在相对湿度低于86%时孢子不能萌发.蔗糖、葡萄糖有利于菌丝的生长;蔗糖有利于子座的产生;蔗糖、葡萄糖、麦芽糖和甘露醇均可促进分生孢子的萌发.连续光照有利于分生孢子器的产生.菌丝体的致死温度为52 ℃(10 min),分生孢子的致死温度为53 ℃(10 min).