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Sample records for cabras al postparto

  1. Hemorragia postparto Postpartum haemorrhage

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    H. Karlsson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia postparto es una de las complicaciones obstétricas más temidas y es una de las tres primeras causas de mortalidad materna en el mundo. Universalmente se define como la pérdida hemática superior a 500 ml tras un parto vaginal o a 1.000 ml tras una cesárea. La hemorragia postparto precoz (HPP es aquella que ocurre durante las primeras 24 horas tras el parto y es generalmente la más grave. Las causas de HPP incluyen atonía uterina, traumas/laceraciones, retención de productos de la concepción y alteraciones de la coagulación, siendo la más frecuente la atonía. El diagnóstico es clínico y el tratamiento ha de abarcar unas medidas generales de soporte vital y otras más específicas de carácter etiológico. Afortunadamente, es potencialmente evitable en la mayoría de los casos si se sigue una adecuada estrategia de prevención activa y sistemática en la fase de alumbramiento de todos los partos.Postpartum haemorrhage is one of the most dreaded obstetric complications and one of the three main causes of maternal mortality in the world. It is universally defined as haematic loss above 500 ml following a vaginal delivery or above 1,000 ml following a caesarean. An early postpartum haemorrhage (EPH is one that occurs during the first 24 hours following delivery and is generally the most serious. The causes of EPH include uterine atony, trauma/lacerations, retention of products of conception and alterations of coagulation, with atony being the most frequent. Diagnose is clinical and treatment must include general life support measures and other more specific measures of an etiological character. Fortunately, in the majority of cases it is potentially avoidable if an adequate strategy of active and systematic prevention is followed in the delivery phase of all labors.

  2. Depresión postparto, apoyo social y calidad de vida en mujeres de Cali, Colombia.

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    Gladys Eugenia Canaval

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar si las mujeres expresan sintomatología depresiva durante la etapa prenatal y postnatal; si la calidad de vida y el apoyo social se relacionan con la sintomatología depresiva en el postparto y establecer cuáles de las variables estudiadas son predictoras de la sintomatología depresiva en el postparto. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: Escala de Apoyo Social, Indice de Calidad de Vida, Escala de Depresión y Cuestionario de Factores de Riesgo, aplicados en el embarazo; todos se repitieron en el postparto, excepto el cuestionario de factores de riesgo. La edad promedio de las mujeres de la muestra fue 26 años, tenían unión libre 54% de ellas y edad gestacional promedio de 21 semanas al primer control; 66% de las mujeres expresaron sintomatología depresiva en la etapa prenatal y el 57% en el postparto. Se realizó regresión múltiple con la variable dependiente sintomatología depresiva en el postparto y las variables medidas en el embarazo y en el postparto. Con las variables del embarazo, calidad de vida, tamaño de la red de apoyo, conflicto con la red de apoyo, necesidad de apoyo, satisfacción con el apoyo social y factores de riesgo, se obtuvo un R2 = .67; esas mismas variables medidas en el postparto excepto la de factores de riesgo, explican 65% de la varianza de la sintomatología depresiva en el postparto. La discusión se centra en la relación de las variables medidas con la sintomatología depresiva y específicamente las que aportan a la varianza explicada en la regresión múltiple; se presentan las implicaciones para la práctica de medidas anticipatorias y de cuidado de enfermería a mujeres vulnerables de depresión. Se destaca la importancia del apoyo social y la calidad de vida; se recomienda tenerlos en cuenta en la atención a las mujeres, en especial en la atención que brindan los profesionales de enfermería a través de la aplicación del cuidado transdimensional.

  3. Génesis de la estructura arqueada de la Sierra de las Cabras al Gibalto (Subbético, provincias de Málaga y Granada, España

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    Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Subbetic sierras of Las Cabras to the Gibalto form an arched structure, giving it a high relief, constituted by many tectonic slices, verging to the South in its southern border and to the North and West in its concave border. Although it could be interpreted as an allochthonous structure, really is rooted in the transitional area between the Median and the Internal Subbetic. Several local factors have influenced this complex structure, but the final cause is the oblique collision (transpression of the In-ternal Zone against External Zone of the Betic Chain, producing an important strike-slip system.

    Las sierras subbéticas de las Cabras al Gibalto forman una estructura arqueada, que da un fuerte relieve, constituida por escamas tectónicas, vergentes al sur en su borde convexo, meridional, y al nor-te y oeste en su borde cóncavo. Aunque podría interpretarse como una estructura alóctona, se en-cuentra enraizada en el área de tránsito entre el Subbético Medio y el Interno. En su génesis han in-fluido varios factores locales pero la causa que controla a todos ellos es la colisión oblicua, en trans-presión, de la Zona Interna Bética contra la Externa, que produjo un importante sistema de desgarre.

  4. Actividad ovárica durante el postparto temprano de vacas cebú en amamantamiento.

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    Henao Guillermo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estudiar la actividad ovárica durante el postparto temprano de vacas Cebú en amamantamiento, se determinaron las características del desarrollo folicular y lúteo durante los primeros dos meses postparto en cinco vacas de 5,3 ±1,6 años de edad y 383 ± 29,6 kg de peso vivo, que tuvieron el último parto normal. La investigación se realizó en el Centro "Cotové" de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede de Medellín, ubicado en el municipio de Santa Fe de Antioquia, correspondiente a una zona ecológica de bosque seco tropical (bs-T. A cada vaca se le practicó examen ultrasonográfico ovárico y determinación de la concentración sérica de progesterona por radioinmunoanálisis tres veces por semana y se le realizó detección de estros a partir del día del parto. La dinámica folicular durante el postparto temprano se caracterizó por un desarrollo precoz (desde el día seis postparto de ondas foliculares conformadas por cohortes de 6,0 ± 0,4 folículos antrales de los cuales se formó un folículo dominante (FD que alcanzó un diámetro de 10,4 ± 0,5 mm al día 12,8 ± 2,0. La duración promedio de las ondas foliculares fue 9,6 ± 2,7 días. Las características de los folículos dominantes y subordinados no presentaron diferencias (p>0,05 entre vacas. De las cinco vacas analizadas, tres presentaron su primera ovulación postparto al día 34,4 ± 12,3 sin signos de estro y dos de ellas presentaron una segunda ovulación con signos de estro antes de los 60 días postparto, para un intervalo interovulatorio de 19 ±5 días y un intervalo parto primer estro de 49 ± 8 días. El primer folículo ovulatorio midió 12,0 ± 0,8 mm de diámetro y fue semejante (p>0,05 al promedio de los diámetros de los demás Fds. Después de la primera ovulación se formó un cuerpo lúteo (CL de 16,7 ± 1,3 mm de diámetro, con una vida media de 11,3 ± 3,8 días y un máximo de 1,0 ± 0,3 ng/ml de progesterona. El CL formado después de la

  5. Hipertensión postparto: una revisión de la literatura y los protocolos de manejo

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    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano; Gerardo Alfonso Galeano-Triviño; Daniel Alejandro Fernández-Bolaños; Karen Liseth Chito-Castro; Valentina Coronado-Abella

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. La hipertensión postparto corresponde a la presencia de cifras tensionales sistólicas superiores a 140 mmHg o diastólicas mayores a 90 mmHg, medidas en 2 ocasiones con una diferencia de 4 horas; las cuales aparecen o se sostienen en el puerperio, hasta las 12 semanas posteriores al parto (1,2). Actualmente, a excepción de la crisis hipertensiva, el manejo de la hipertensión en el posparto no está estandarizado. Objetivo. Realizar una revisión bibliográfica acerca del manejo de l...

  6. Paracetamol vs ibuprofeno para el dolor de la episiotomía en las 42 horas postparto

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    Palomo González, M. Ángeles; González González, Cecilia; Díaz Mosquera, Esther; Díez González, Rosario; García Pardo, Pilar; Peraza Casanueva, M. Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluación de la eficacia analgésica para el dolor de la episiotomía entre el paracetamol y el Ibuprofeno, en las primeras 42 horas postparto. Método: Estudio cuasi-experimental (prospectivo y simple ciego) en mujeres que dieron a luz en el HOSPITAL UNIVERSITARIO CENTRAL DE ASTURIAS (OVIEDO), excluyendo alérgicas, patologías asociadas ó aquellas que el idioma impidiese un correcto entendimiento. Dos grupos: 1) Paracetamol 1 gr; 2) Ibuprofeno 600 mg. Tamaño de muestra: 110 por grupo ...

  7. Low birth weight in Mexico: new evidence from a multi-site postpartum hospital survey Bajo peso al nacer en México: nueva evidencia a partir de una encuesta postparto multi-hospitalaria

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    Reanne Frank

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to cases of low birth weight among a sample of Mexican women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present analysis utilizes data from a post partum survey of 565 women implemented in eight different social security hospitals in western Mexico during 2001. Women giving birth to low weight infants (2.5 kgs were oversampled and make up half of the sample. RESULTS: A series of logistic regression equations are presented that estimate the risk of low birth weight. Study findings indicate that, although behavioral factors appear to be highly significant in predicting the odds of low birth weight, socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors were found to be important in determining utilization of prenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: The key role of behavioral characteristics in determining low birth weight risk and the role of socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors in determining prenatal care usage highlights the need to improve prenatal care utilization by disadvantaged populations.OBJETIVO: Objetivo. Identificar los factores relacionados con el bajo peso al nacer en mujeres mexicanas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizan datos de una encuesta recientemente aplicada en 2001 a 565 mujeres en condición de posparto, en ocho hospitales de la Secretaría de Salud, en el Occidente de la República Mexicana, que permite una evaluación detallada de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de bajo peso. La mitad de las mujeres había dado a luz a recién nacidos de bajo peso (menos de 2.5 kgs y el resto de peso normal. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una serie de regresiones logísticas que estiman el riesgo de bajo peso al nacer. RESULTADOS: Los resultados indican que mientras los factores de comportamiento están asociados significativamente al bajo peso al nacer, los factores sociodemográficos y socioeconómicos están más relacionados con la utilización de servicios de atención prenatal. CONCLUSIONES: El papel clave de las

  8. Hipertensión postparto: una revisión de la literatura y los protocolos de manejo

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    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La hipertensión postparto corresponde a la presencia de cifras tensionales sistólicas superiores a 140 mmHg o diastólicas mayores a 90 mmHg, medidas en 2 ocasiones con una diferencia de 4 horas; las cuales aparecen o se sostienen en el puerperio, hasta las 12 semanas posteriores al parto (1,2. Actualmente, a excepción de la crisis hipertensiva, el manejo de la hipertensión en el posparto no está estandarizado. Objetivo. Realizar una revisión bibliográfica acerca del manejo de la hipertensión postparto, exceptuando la crisis hipertensiva. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda de la literatura publicada en las bases de datos: Pubmed, Tripdatabase, Science Direct, Embase biomedical, Scielo y Ebsco, con los términos: postpartum period, pregnancy induced hypertension, pregnancy induced hypertension and diagnosis, pregnancy induced hypertension and treatment, postpartum hypertension and management; en inglés y con sus equivalentes en español, sin limitación cronológica. Resultados. Se obtuvieron alrededor de 55 artículos con información oportuna para cumplir con los objetivos de la presente revisión; entre ellos, una revisión sistemática, cuatro ensayos clínicos y dos guías de manejo. Conclusión. A pesar de que existen muchos fármacos considerados compatibles con la lactancia, existe poca evidencia sobre su seguridad para el lactante. No se recomienda el manejo farmacológico de la hipertensión postparto leve a moderada. El manejo con fármacos antihipertensivos es mandatorio en hipertensión severa.

  9. Abordaje de la depresión postparto

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    Giralda Sancha, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) establece que de los 136 millones de partos que se producen cada año, 20 millones experimentan complicaciones de diversos tipos. El propósito de este trabajo fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica sobre la depresión postparto, proporcionando conocimiento sobre la patología a los profesionales del equipo de salud, especialmente a enfermeras y matronas. Con sus consultas, este colectivo tiene la oportunidad de fomentar la Educación para Salud y reducir...

  10. Reactivación ovárica postparto en bovinos. Revisión.

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    Henao Restrepo Guillermo

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas semanas de la gestación, la placenta bovina aumenta la síntesis de estradiol a un nivel que supera centenas de veces la cantidad que produce durante el estro. Ese alto nivel de estradiol produce una retroalimentación negativa prolongada sobre el hipotálamo, que inhibe la síntesis y liberación de hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH y por lo tanto en la sangre no circulan las hormonas hipofisiarias que estimulan el crecimiento folicular. Bajo esta condición hormonal, los folículos ováricos se pueden desarrollar hasta formar antro, pero debido a la ausencia de estímulo gonadotrópico, su crecimiento es limitado y no alcanza a formar ondas foliculares. Con la expulsión de la placenta durante el parto, se termina la producción de estradiol y el hipotálamo inicia la recuperación de la capacidad de sintetizar GnRH y de restablecer paulatinamente la sensibilidad a los estrógenos ováricos para restaurar el mecanismo de retroalimentación positivo que controla la liberación de las hormonas folículoestimulante (FSH y luteinizante (LH para estimular el crecimiento y la maduración final del folículo, la síntesis de estradiol, la expresión del estro y la ovulación. Después del parto las altas demandas de nutrientes requeridos para la síntesis de grandes volúmenes de leche, la limitada capacidad de consumo de alimentos y las inadecuadas concentraciones de nutrientes en los alimentos consumidos, producen un balance energético negativo (BEN. Esta situación induce una respuesta compensatoria (homeorresis que compromete el tejido adiposo, el hígado, los músculos y los huesos. El desbalance energético retarda la reanudación de los ciclos estrales postparto y dependiendo de su intensidad, puede limitar el crecimiento de los folículos ováricos. Paulatinamente, en tiempo variable con la genética, la producción de leche, la adaptación al ambiente, la salud y la disponibilidad de nutrientes, se

  11. Cuidado de enfermería en el hogar a una madre con vih/sida y su recien nacido durante el postparto: un estudio de caso

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    Arévalo Venegas, Claudia Elena

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo buscó describir el cuidado de enfermería en el hogar, a una madre con VIH/SIDA y su recién nacido durante el postparto, basado en las cinco categorías de la Teoría de Kristen Swanson, en Bogotá durante el II semestre de 2014. Por medio de un estudio de caso, utilizando la estrategia de seguimiento domiciliario en donde se realizaron 5 visitas al hogar, durante las cuales se desarrolló un plan de cuidado basado en las taxonomías NANDA, NIC, NOC. Previamente se realizó revisión de ...

  12. CALIDAD BACTERIOLÓGICA DE LECHE CRUDA DE CABRA PRODUCIDA EN MIRAVALLES, PUEBLA

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    R. Morales-Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se determinó la presencia de Bacterias Mesófilas Aerobias (BMA; Bacterias Coliformes Totales (BCT; Bacterias Coliformes Fecales (BCF y Salmonella, como indicadores microbiológicos para evaluar las buenas prácticas de manejo (BPM y de higiene (BPH, durante el proceso de producción de leche cruda de cabra. Las muestras de leche se colectaron semanalmente de hatos ganaderos en Miravalles, Oriental, Puebla. Se eligieron 10 productores de leche al azar de un total de 55, incluyendo dos modalidades de manejo: pastoreo y estabulado. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza, la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis y análisis por conglomerados. Todas las muestras de leche cruda de cabra, cumplieron con la norma 92/46/EEC y la NMX-F-COFOCALEC-2007, respecto al número de BMA, sin embargo, el 50% de las muestras de leche excedieron los límites microbiológicos establecidos para BCT y BCF (NOM-243-SSA1-2010. Estos resultados correspondieron a muestras de leche provenientes de cabras bajo manejo estabulado. En contraste, las muestras que cumplieron satisfactoriamente las normas, fueron para hatos ganaderos en pastoreo con un número menor de cabezas. Finalmente, no se detectó Salmonella en las muestras de leche cruda.

  13. Depresión postparto, apoyo social y calidad de vida en mujeres de Cali, Colombia.

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    Gladys Eugenia Canaval; Marta Cecilia González; Lucy Martínez Schallmoser; María Clara Tovar; Celmira Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar si las mujeres expresan sintomatología depresiva durante la etapa prenatal y postnatal; si la calidad de vida y el apoyo social se relacionan con la sintomatología depresiva en el postparto y establecer cuáles de las variables estudiadas son predictoras de la sintomatología depresiva en el postparto. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: Escala de Apoyo Social, Indice de Calidad de Vida, Escala de Depresión y Cuestionario de Factores de Riesgo,...

  14. La depresión postparto : un estudio exploratorio con una muestra de mujeres valencianas

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    Martínez Besteiro, Elvira; Toledo Aliaga, Mercedes; Pineda, María; Monleón Alegre, J.; Ferrero Berlanga, Javier; Barreto Martín, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio era analizar la existencia de depresión postparto (depresión y ansiedad) en una muestra de mujeres de la Comunidad Valenciana así como su evolución dos meses después del parto. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 101 muje

  15. Efecto de la suplementación con plantas aromáticas en leche y queso de cabra de la raza murciano-granadina

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    Boutoial, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    La región de Murcia se ha caracterizado por ser eminentemente agraria, donde la fabricación del queso de cabra ocupa una posición muy importante en la economía regional. El Queso de Murcia al Vino es, sin duda, uno de los principales quesos de cabra elaborados en España, además esta Región en los últimos años ha apostado por el desarrollo de nuevas variedades de quesos (mediante el empleo de nuevas formas de presentación de los cuajos animales o el uso de coagulantes vegetales) o de sistemas ...

  16. UTILIZACIÓN DE Atriplex canescens Y Opuntia ficus indica EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN DE CABRAS LACTANTES DURANTE LA SEQUÍA

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    Jorge Urrutia-Morales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilización de Atriplex canescens y Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes durante la sequía. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del Atriplex (Atriplex canescens y nopal (Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes y la producción de leche durante la sequía. Durante los meses secos, entre mayo y agosto de 2005 y entre mayo y junio de 2006, se realizaron tres experimentos en la región semiárida de San Luis Potosí, México. En el primero, se probaron dos tratamientos: CO mantenidas en confinamiento y alimentación controlada (n=10 y AT mantenidas en pastoreo con Atriplex (n=10. En el segundo se aplicaron dos tratamientos: AT Atriplex (n=5 y NP Atriplex más nopal (n=5. En el tercero tres tratamientos: AT Atriplex (n=5, NP-1,0 Atriplex más 1,0% de nopal (n=4 y NP-1,5 Atriplex más 1,5% de nopal (n=5. En el primer experimento las cabras mantuvieron su peso, pero la producción de leche se redujo al 30% bajo confinamiento y menos del 8,0% en Atriplex al final del experimento. En el segundo, las cabras perdieron peso, a pesar de que la producción inicial de leche fue menor de 300 g/d. Las alimentadas con Atriplex redujeron su producción a casi la mitad de la producción inicial, mientras que la inclusión de nopal mantuvo la producción relativamente estable. En el tercer experimento, las cabras alimentadas con Atriplex mantuvieron el peso corporal, pero después de siete semanas la producción de leche fue del 25% de la producción inicial, a pesar de que esta fue de apenas 300 g diarios. En cambio, en las cabras suplementadas con nopal, la producción sólo se redujo al 45 y 64% de la producción inicial. Estos resultados son importantes para los caprinocultores de la región semiárida de México, donde las cabras podrían mantener una buena condición corporal, además de una producción de 150 a 250 g diarios de leche durante la época crítica utilizando Atriplex y nopal.

  17. Nutritional and therapeutic use of goat milk/ Uso nutricional e terapêutico do leite de cabra

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    Horaci Jaqueline Silva de Souza Ribeiro

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This literature review had as objectives to describe the goats milk composition and its utilization in human feed. Due its good nutritional value, good digestibility and acceptability, and a low allergenic potential, the goat’s milk has been recommended for children, elderly and convalescent persons. However, it cannot be recommended to every child allergic to cow’s milk, because in some cases, serious threat to life can also occur with goat’s milk.Esta revisão de literatura teve como objetivo descrever a composição e a utilização do leite de cabra na alimentação humana. Por seu alto valor nutricional, boa digestibilidade, boa aceitação e um baixo potencial alergênico, o leite de cabra tem sido recomendado para crianças, pessoas idosas e convalescentes. Porém, o leite de cabra não pode ser recomendado indistintamente para todas as crianças alérgicas ao leite de vaca, pois a sua utilização pode causar, em alguns casos, sérios danos à saúde das mesmas.

  18. Proceso de elaboración de yogur deslactosado de leche de cabra Processo para elaboração de iogurte deslactosado de leite de cabra

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    Virginia Antonieta Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar un proceso para la elaboración de yogur deslactosado de leche de cabra, realizando en forma simultánea la hidrólisis de la lactosa y la fermentación. Se utilizaron tres dosis de una β-galactosidasa ácida de origen fúngico (Aspergillus oryzae: 1253, 2506 y 3759 unidades/L, usando como referente una muestra sin enzima. Luego de una incubación de 5 horas a 38 °C y posterior conservación durante 24 horas a 4 °C, se determinaron las concentraciones de glucosa, galactosa, lactosa, pH y acidez titulable. Teniendo en cuenta una concentración de lactosa en leche de 4,42 g.100 mL-1, el mayor porcentaje de hidrólisis obtenido en el yogur (82,6%, p O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um processo para a elaboração de iogurte deslactosado de leite de cabra, realizando de forma simultânea a hidrólise da lactose e a fermentação. Utilizaram-se três doses de uma β-galactosidase ácida de origem fúngica (Aspergillus oryzae: 1253, 2506 e 3759 unidades/L, usando como referente uma amostra sem enzima. Após uma incubação de 5 horas a 38 °C e posterior conservação durante 24 horas a 4 °C, determinaram-se as concentrações de glicose, galactose, lactose, pH e acidez titulável. Considerando uma concentração de lactose em leite de 4,42 g.100 mL-1, a maior porcentagem de hidrólise obtida no iogurte (82,6%, p < 0,0001 foi conseguida com 2506 unidades/L de enzima, enquanto que sem o agregado de enzima a porcentagem foi de 48,5%. Conclui-se que o processo utilizado permitiria, somente numa etapa, a elaboração de um iogurte que além de ter as propriedades hipoalergênicas e nutricionais próprias do leite de cabra, por seu baixo conteúdo de lactose, se converteria num alimento de características funcionais de grande utilidade para aquelas pessoas que padecem intolerância ao açúcar do leite.

  19. Una metodología para evaluar el comportamiento de interacción genotipo-intrambiente con fines de selección en cabras lecheras

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    B. López

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Conocida la universalidad del componente de interacción genotipo ambiente en el modelo fenotípico, el cual incluye otros dos componentes: el genotipo con sus efectos aditivos, dominantes y epistáticos, y el componente ambiental con sus efectos permanentes y temporales; se hace evidente que la selección de individuos en un ambiente dado no garantiza que manifiesten el mismo comportamiento cuando el ambiente es diferente. Con los resultados de investigaciones preliminares efectuadas por los autores, se propone una metodología basada en el modelo de regresión lineal, capaz de medir los efectos de interacción genotipo-intrambiente (ambientes fisiológicos de la curva de lactación para su evaluación con fines de selección del comportamiento diferencial que manifiestan los genotipos ante diversas condiciones ambientales. Se utilizan los registros mensuales de la producción láctea anual de 14 cabras «Saanen» en su primera lactación y se compara el comportamiento de interacción genotipo ambiente entre ellas. Los valores α y β de cada recta (cabra, fueron estimados considerando la producción mensual de cada cabra (fenotipo como la variable dependiente y los efectos ecológicos estandarizados como la variable independiente. Se graficaron y proyectaron las rectas de regresión de cada cabra a ± dos desviaciones estándar de los efectos ecológicos en el eje de las abscisas, se comparan los coeficientes β mediante pruebas de hipótesis «t»; poniéndose de manifiesto los efectos de interacción genotipo ambiente entre cabras al demostrarse que las pendientes de las rectas son diferentes. En esta metodología los valores de β cercanos a cero indican que los genotipos son estables

  20. Hemofilia adquirida en el postparto. Presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    María Antonia Cabezas Poblet; Roberto Pérez García; Alejandro Argíz Muñiz; Yenisey Quintero Méndez

    2012-01-01

    Las hemorragias del periparto son la principal causa de morbilidad materna extremadamente grave y de muerte materna en Cuba y en el mundo. La hemofilia A adquirida es un trastorno hemorrágico poco frecuente, caracterizado por la presencia de anticuerpos contra el factor VIII (FVIII) circulante. Se presenta el caso de una gestante de 36 años de edad, con embarazo a término, que tiene parto eutócico y presenta manifestaciones hemorrágicas en el postparto inmediato, secundarias a hematoma de la...

  1. Utilización de Atriplex canescens y Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes durante la sequía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Urrutia-Morales

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del Atriplex (Atriplex canescens y nopal (Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes y la producción de leche durante la sequía. Durante los meses secos, entre mayo y agosto de 2005 y entre mayo y junio de 2006, se realizaron tres experimentos en la región semiárida de San Luis Potosí, México. En el primero, se probaron dos tratamientos: CO mantenidas en confinamiento y alimentación controlada (n=10 y AT mantenidas en pastoreo con Atriplex (n=10. En el segundo se aplicaron dos tratamientos: AT Atriplex (n=5 y NP Atriplex más nopal (n=5. En el tercero tres tratamientos: AT Atriplex (n=5, NP-1,0 Atriplex más 1,0% de nopal (n=4 y NP-1,5 Atriplex más 1,5% de nopal (n=5. En el primer experimento las cabras mantuvieron su peso, pero la producción de leche se redujo al 30% bajo confinamiento y menos del 8,0% en Atriplex al final del experimento. En el segundo, las cabras perdieron peso, a pesar de que la producción inicial de leche fue menor de 300 g/d. Las alimentadas con Atriplex redujeron su producción a casi la mitad de la producción inicial, mientras que la inclusión de nopal mantuvo la producción relativamente estable. En el tercer experimento, las cabras alimentadas con Atriplex mantuvieron el peso corporal, pero después de siete semanas la producción de leche fue del 25% de la producción inicial, a pesar de que esta fue de apenas 300 g diarios. En cambio, en las cabras suplementadas con nopal, la producción sólo se redujo al 45 y 64% de la producción inicial. Estos resultados son importantes para los caprinocultores de la región semiárida de México, donde las cabras podrían mantener una buena condición corporal, además de una producción de 150 a 250 g diarios de leche durante la época crítica utilizando Atriplex y nopal.

  2. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche de cabra de Querétaro, Querétaro, México

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Prado Flores; Gilberto Díaz González; Rey Gutiérrez Tolentino; Salvador Vega y León; Mario Noa Pérez; Enedina Chávez García

    2007-01-01

    Se cuantifi caron los niveles de plaguicidas organoclorados (PO) y sus metabolitos en 40 muestras de leche cruda de cabra, por cromatografía gas-líquido con detector de captura de electrones (ECD Ni63). Las muestras de leche se obtuvieron de la Unidad Experimental de la Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, durante la primavera de 2003. En todas las muestras se encontró al menos uno de los PO o sus metabolitos estudiados. Las frecuencias de ocurrencias más altas se encontraron para hept...

  3. Creación de un repositorio digital en la Biblioteca Pública de Cabra

    OpenAIRE

    Torralbo Espinosa, Visitación

    2016-01-01

    Proyecto para la creación de un repositorio digital con tecnología Omeka para la Biblioteca Pública de Cabra. Projecte per a la creació d'un repositori digital amb tecnologia Omeka per a la Biblioteca Pública de Cabra. Bachelor thesis for the Information and Communication Science program on Information and Documentation.

  4. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE LEITE DE CABRA FERMENTADO PREBIÓTICO COM BAIXO TEOR DE LACTOSE ADICIONADO DE β- CICLODEXTRINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Barros Cenachi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os consumidores, atualmente, estão interessados em alimentos que, além de nutrir, possam trazer benefícios à saúde. O leite de cabra e seus derivados apresentam um importante papel como fonte de cálcio, gordura de elevada digestibilidade, proteína de alto valor biológico e hipoalergenicidade. Atendendo à demanda por derivados láteos saudáveis, um laticínio de pequeno porte de Coronel Pacheco tem fabricado leite de cabra fermentado natural, enfrentando, contudo, sérias dificuldades na coagulação do leite de seu rebanho: o produto formava uma coalhada muito tênue e fluida; outra dificuldade enfrentada era o sabor "caprino" característico do leite de cabra que diminuía a aceitabilidade do leite fermentado entre seus consumidores. Desse modo, visando solucionar a dificuldade de coagulação desse derivado lácteo, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar o processo de fabricação de leite de cabra fermentado natural para esse laticínio. Foram testados diferentes tratamentos a fim de tornar a coalhada formada pela coagulação do leite de cabra mais consistente e melhorar a aceitabilidade sensorial do produto obtido. A partir de testes preliminares e da caracterização físico-química e microbiológica da matéria-prima, foram desenvolvidas duas formulações de leite de cabra fermentado concentrado: uma adicionada apenas de inulina, e outra de inulina, β-ciclodextrina e lactase; também foi realizada caracterização físico-química e microbiológica das formulações desenvolvidas e avaliada a aceitabilidade sensorial dessas formulações em relação ao sabor, aroma, textura e impressão global empregando escala hedônica de nove pontos. A pós-acidificação e a contagem de bactérias láticas viáveis das formulações foram acompanhadas por 30 dias. Observou-se que o processo de concentração por evaporação e adição de inulina foi eficiente para tornar mais consistente a coalhada produzida. Verificou-se tamb

  5. EFEITOS DA TEMPERATURA DE ARMAZENAMENTO E DO TEMPO NA CONTAGEM DE CÉLULAS SOMÁTICAS NO LEITE DE CABRA

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    Guilherme Nunes de Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura e o tempo de armazenamento de amostras de leite de cabra têm sido identificados como possíveis fatores que influenciam na contagem de células somáticas (CCS. Com objetivo de estabelecer o efeito da temperatura e do tempo de armazenamento de amostras de leite de cabra, foram realizadas em 320 alíquotas de amostras de leite de 20 cabras a CCS utilizando o equipamento Somacount 300 (Bentley Instruments. Foi adicionado o conservante bronopol nas amostras de leite e estas mantidas a temperatura de As amostras de leite foram 5º, 10º, 20º e 30ºC e analisadas com 1, 3, 5 e 7 dias após a coleta. A temperatura e tempo de armazenamento não influenciaram significativamente a CCS (P>0,05. Os resultados de CCS em amostras de leite armazenadas a 10º, 20º e 30ºC foram sensivelmente menor em relação as amostras armazenadas a 5ºC. Considerando uma variação menor de 9%, os resultados da CCS em condições experimentais podem ser aceitos para monitoramento da qualidade do leite e saúde da glândula mamária em rebanhos caprinos leiteiros.

  6. Composición nutricional, consumo e índices de palatabilidad relativa de los frutos de tres acacias en la alimentación de ovejas y cabras

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    F Quiroz-Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar la composición nutricional de los frutos de Acacia farnesiana, Acacia macilenta y Acacia cochliacantha y medir en las cabras y las ovejas el consumo de frutos (CF, el índice de palatabilidad relativo (IP y su correlación con la composición nutricional de los frutos. Se utilizaron 16 hembras: 8 ovejas F1 Dorper X Pelibuey de 18,5 ± 1,5 kg de peso vivo y 8 cabras Criollas de 20,6 ± 1,8 kg de peso vivo. Los animales fueron alojados en corrales individuales (1,0 x 1,20 m y se les ofreció a libre acceso los frutos de las tres acacias y rastrojo de maíz (RM al mismo tiempo las 24 horas durante 15 días. El contenido de fibras detergentes ácida y neutra (P < 0,01, fenoles totales (FT y taninos condensados (TC (P < 0,01 fue diferente entre los frutos. Los frutos de A. farnesiana y A. cochliacantha fueron los más consumidos por las cabras (P < 0,01, y las ovejas consumieron más frutos de A. cochliacantha. En promedio el CF fue mayor en las cabras (P < 0,05, pero el IP fue mayor en las ovejas (P < 0,01. El CF y el IP tuvieron correlación positiva con el contenido de proteína (P < 0,01 y FT (P < 0,05 y negativa con el contenido de fibras detergentes ácida y neutra (P < 0,01. Se concluye que los frutos de A. farnesiana y A. cochliacantha tienen más valor alimenticio para ovejas y cabras por el menor contenido de fibras detergentes neutro y ácido y el mayor índice de palatabilidad observado.

  7. La cepa de yogur en leche de vaca y cabra como suplemento en corderos de levante

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    Nubia E. Flechas-F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  obtención de  productos pecuarios  inocuos para la salud humana cobra cada vez más fuerza. Por esta razón surge la tendencia al empleo de probióticos  que  administrados  a  los  animales provocan  efectos  benéficos  mediante modificaciones en  la población microbiana de su tracto digestivo. Se realizó un estudio con 25 corderos en etapa de  levante, con el  fin de evaluar el  efecto  de  el  uso  de  la  cepa  de  yogur (Lactobacillus  bulgaricus  y  Streptococcus thermophylus  preparado  en  leche  de  vaca  y leche de cabra sobre el crecimiento y  la ganancia de peso, con una duración de 30 días, la dieta estuvo  conformada  por  forraje  a  voluntad  y suplementación  con maíz  y  concentrado.  Los tratamientos  fueron:  yogur a base de  leche de vaca, dosis de 10 y 20 cm3; yogur a base de  leche de cabra, dosis 10 y 20 cm3 y control agua como placebo, 10 cm3. Se suministro  la cepa cada 3 días  y  se  pesaron  los  animales  una  vez  por semana, se realizó química sanguínea al inicio y al  final del ensayo. El peso para  los diferentes

  8. Perfil microbiológico, celular e fatores de risco associados à mastite subclínica em cabras no semiárido da Paraíba Cellular and microbiological profiles and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in goats in the semi-arid region of Paraíba

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia B. Neves; Elizabeth S. Medeiros; Valezka V. Sá; Camboim, Expedito K. A.; Felício Garino Jr; Rinaldo A. Mota; Sérgio S. Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    Foi realizado um estudo da mastite subclínica em nove rebanhos de cabras leiteiras no semiárido paraibano com o objetivo de determinar a ocorrência da infecção, avaliar o perfil microbiológico e celular do leite, testar a sensibilidade dos microorganismos isolados frente a antimicrobianos além de identificar os fatores de risco. Foram utilizadas 131 cabras leiteiras das quais foram colhidas 261 amostras de leite para exame microbiológico e 131 para contagem de células somáticas (CCS). Na ocas...

  9. Hemofilia adquirida en el postparto. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Cabezas Poblet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Las hemorragias del periparto son la principal causa de morbilidad materna extremadamente grave y de muerte materna en Cuba y en el mundo. La hemofilia A adquirida es un trastorno hemorrágico poco frecuente, caracterizado por la presencia de anticuerpos contra el factor VIII (FVIII circulante. Se presenta el caso de una gestante de 36 años de edad, con embarazo a término, que tiene parto eutócico y presenta manifestaciones hemorrágicas en el postparto inmediato, secundarias a hematoma de la rafia que requiere de hemoterapia. Luego presenta hematoma del miembro superior derecho secundario a accidente vascular que requiere de reparo quirúrgico. La evolución tórpida del puerperio, caracterizada por hemorragia mantenida por la rafia y por el brazo intervenido, hace sospechar la presencia de un trastorno hematológico. Se constata una disminución del factor FVIII, que implica el diagnóstico de hemofilia A adquirida, se impone tratamiento con concentrado de factor VIIa recombinante (FVIIar y ciclofosfamida. La evolución posterior fue favorable, la paciente se egresa sin secuelas.

  10. Estudio del empleo de coagulantes vegetales en la elaboración de quesos de cabra

    OpenAIRE

    García Alcaraz, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Tesis por compendio de publicaciones En esta Memoria de Tesis Doctoral, una vez analizadas las diferentes estrategias que actualmente se aplican para la mejora de la calidad de los productos derivados de la leche de cabra, se realizaron cuatro estudios para desarrollar un queso de cabra con coagulante vegetal. En el primero de ellos, se compararon cuatro tipos de queso fresco (elaborados con cuajo, coagulante microbiano y dos variedades de coagulante vegetal). Los resultados indicaron que ...

  11. Hemofilia adquirida en el postparto. Presentación de un caso Postpartum Acquired Hemophilia. A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yenisey Quintero Méndez; Alejandro Argíz Muñiz; María Antonia Cabezas Poblet; Roberto Pérez García

    2012-01-01

    Las hemorragias del periparto son la principal causa de morbilidad materna extremadamente grave y de muerte materna en Cuba y en el mundo. La hemofilia A adquirida es un trastorno hemorrágico poco frecuente, caracterizado por la presencia de anticuerpos contra el factor VIII (FVIII) circulante. Se presenta el caso de una gestante de 36 años de edad, con embarazo a término, que tiene parto eutócico y presenta manifestaciones hemorrágicas en el postparto inmediato, secundarias a hematoma de la ...

  12. Importancia de las técnicas hipopresivas en la prevención de la incontinencia urinaria postparto

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Guisado, María del Mar; González Segura, Rocío; Hernández Llorente, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: 1. Conocer los efectos de las Técnicas Hipopresivas sobre el suelo pélvico y los beneficios de su inclusión en rehabilitación postparto. 2. Aumentar el interés del colectivo de matronas por formarse en Técnicas Hipopresivas y mejorar así la calidad de vida de las mujeres. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en los buscadores GOOGLE, MEDLINE, INDEX, CINAHL, revisiones sistemáticas de la COCHRANE y literatura nacional así como de estudios presentados en congresos especiali...

  13. Disposición plasmática de amikacina en cabras, aplicada por vía intramuscular Amikacin plasmatic disposition in goats, after intramuscular single dose

    OpenAIRE

    C. ERRECALDE; Prieto, G.; I. PUELLES; H GARCIA OVANDO

    2000-01-01

    Amikacina es un antimicrobiano semisintético perteneciente al grupo de los aminoglucósidos. El principal objetivo del presente estudio fue describir el comportamiento farmacocinético de amikacina en cabras, con el propósito de entregar antecedentes para una correcta dosificación por la vía intramuscular. Para esto, se administró una dosis de 5 mg/kg de amikacina por vía intramuscular. Se determinaron las concentraciones plasmáticas del antibiótico mediante el método microbiológico, utilizando...

  14. ÍNDICE DE PERSISTENCIA Y DESCRIPCIÓN DE LOS PRIMEROS 100 DÍAS DE LA CURVA DE LACTANCIA DE CABRAS SAANEN PRIMÍPARAS Y MULTÍPARAS MANTENIDAS EN CONFINAMIENTO Persistence index and description of first 100 days of the lactation curve of primiparous and multiparous Saanen goats maintained in confinement

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    René Garcés A.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para describir la producción de leche durante los primeros 100 días de lactancia en un rebaño de cabras Saanen en confinamiento, divididas en dos grupos de acuerdo a su número ordinal de partos (Grupo I: primíparas; Grupo II: multíparas. Se evaluó la leche producida en el período en base a controles semanales y se calculó la producción individual promedio del rebaño completo, producción individual promedio para cada grupo, puntos máximos y mínimos de producción e índice de persistencia (IP. Para determinar diferencias estadísticas entre ambos grupos se utilizó ANDEVA. La producción individual promedio de leche fue 244,2 ± 13,9 L y 272,2 ± 13,3 L para las cabras primíparas y para las multíparas, respectivamente. El peak alcanzado para el grupo primíparas fue 2,68 ± 0,15 L (6ª semana post-parto y para el grupo multíparas fue 2,94 ± 0,14 L (10ª semana post-parto. El punto mínimo de producción alcanzado fue 2,30 ± 0,16 L y 2,65 ± 0,20 L para el grupo I y II respectivamente. En ambos grupos la producción mínima se produjo en la 14ª semana post-parto. La producción de leche en las del grupo II fue mayor que las del grupo I (P 0,05.A study was performed in order to describe milk production during the first 100 lactation days in a Saanen goat herd in confinement, divided into two groups according to parturition ordinal number (I: primiparous, II: multiparous. Milk production was evaluated based on weekly controls and average individual production of the whole herd, average individual production for each group, maximum and minimum production points, and Persistence Index (IP. ANOVA was used to determine between-group statistical differences. Average individual milk production was 244.2 ± 13.9 L and 272.2 ± 13.3 L for primiparous and multiparous goats, respectively. The peak reached by the primiparous group was 2.68 ± 0.15 L (6th week post-parturition and that of the multiparous group was 2

  15. Valores de transaminasas en cabras criollas infectadas con Trypanosoma vivax Transaminases values in Creole goats infected with Trypanosoma vivax

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    Emir Espinoza

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente comunicación reporta los valores de las enzimas transaminasas, Aspartatoaminotransferasa (AST y Alaninaaminotransferasa (ALT encontrados en sueros de cabras infectadas con la cepa de Trypanosoma vivax Stock (TvIIV y sus controles. Las determinaciones se realizaron durante un lapso experimental de diez semanas, divididos en dos períodos iguales (pre y post-infección por intermedio de un método colorimétrico, utilizando kits comerciales. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba t Student's. En el caso de la AST, la comparación de las medias parciales de ambos grupos infectado y control, no indicó diferencias estadísticas. Con respecto a la ALT, la contrastación de las medias parciales de pre y post-infección del grupo de cabras infectadas, señaló diferencias significativas (PThe present communication reports the transaminases enzymes values Aspartatoaminotransferase (AST and Alaninaaminotransferase (ALT in serum from goats infected with the Trypanosoma vivax Stock (TvIIV. The determinations were realized during a ten week experimental period divided into two equal periods (pre- and post-infection by colorimetric method, using commercial kits. The dates were analyzed through the t Student's test. In the AST case, the comparison between partial means of infected and control groups did not show any statistical differences. In relation to ALT, the contrast of partial means to pre- and post-infection from infected goats group indicated significant differences (P<0.01.

  16. ASPECTOS COMPOSICIONAIS, PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS, NUTRICIONAIS E SENSORIAIS DO LEITE DE CABRA: UMA REVISÃO

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    Danielle Barros Cenachi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre aspectos composicionais e propriedades funcionais, nutricionais e sensoriais do leite de cabra aplicados à sua tecnologia de processamento. A escassez de publicações contendo informações específicas sobre o leite de cabra motivou a realização deste artigo. Para a realização da revisão bibliográfica foi feita uma busca de artigos científicos nas bases de dados da SpringLink, Nature, Scientific Electronic Library Online, principalmente, acessados através do portal de periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior por intermédio do Sistema Integrado de Gestão Acadêmica da UFJF. As principais palavras-chave utilizadas como descritor do assunto foram "leite de cabra" em português, em inglês "goat milk" e em espanhol "leche de cabra". O leite de cabra tem um importante papel como fonte de cálcio, de gordura de elevada digestibilidade, de proteína de alto valor biológico e hipoalergenicidade. Comparando o leite caprino com o leite bovino em relação aos aspectos composicionais, observou-se que os leites das duas espécies são distintos. Informações específicas sobre o leite de cabra facilitam o seu processamento e desenvolvimento de novos produtos a partir deste. As propriedades nutricionais e funcionais do leite de cabra justificam sua singularidade e demonstram que o leite caprino e seus produtos representam um nicho promissor para diversificar e inovar a indústria láctea. As propriedades sensoriais relativas ao sabor e odor do leite de cabra representam dificuldades para a sua aceitação, sendo necessárias pesquisas para melhorar estas características.

  17. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    OpenAIRE

    J Ipinza-Regla; D González; Figueroa, G

    2015-01-01

    Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B). La metodolo...

  18. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE IOGURTE TIPO SUNDAE SABOR MARACUJA FEITO A PARTIR DE LEITE DE CABRA

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    Tatiane F. Araújo,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a viabilidade do leite de cabra na fabricação de iogurte como alternativa ao consumo de derivados lácteos fabricados com este leite. Foram fabricados dois iogurtes, variando-se a matéria láctea base: leite de cabra e leite de vaca. Os dois tipos de iogurtes foram fabricados em três bateladas, em ocasiões diferentes. As variáveis avaliadas foram: pH, acidez titulável (% de ácido lático, gordura e perfil de textura (firmeza, mastigabilidade, coesividade e gomosidade. Na análise sensorial, os testes de aceitação foram realizados em duas sessões, nas quais se avaliou a impressão global das amostras. Na primeira sessão os provadores (n=50 avaliaram as amostras codificadas com números de três dígitos aleatórios (teste cego, ou seja, os mesmos não tinham informação a respeito do iogurte que estavam avaliando; na segunda sessão, a amostra foi servida com a informação (iogurte de leite de cabra. Os dados foram avaliados estatisticamente utilizando-se análise de variância (ANOVA. Para comparação de médias utilizou-se o teste de Tukey. As análises físico-químicas demonstraram alta similaridade nas variáveis avaliadas entre os iogurtes feitos com leite de cabra e leite de vaca. No entanto, o iogurte de leite de vaca apresentou maior teor de gordura (p<0,05. Ambos os iogurtes apresentaram perfil de textura similar. A análise sensorial indicou a mesma aceitação para os dois tipos de iogurtes. A informação «feito com leite de cabra» não influenciou na aceitação do respectivo iogurte. Conclui-se que a produção de iogurte tipo sundae sabor maracujá constitui uma alternativa viável para a colocação no mercado de produtos lácteos fermentados derivados do leite de cabra.

  19. Utilización del medio mrs-s en el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas mesofilas en leche de cabra

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Rueda, Aurora; Fortes F., Celia L. de Luces

    2010-01-01

    Con el fin de evaluar el MRS-S (Sorbato al 0.10%) en el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas se cultivaron muestras de leche de cabra cruda en MRS-S y PCA en profundidad y se incubaron en aerobiósis a 320C durante 48 horas. Los cocos gram positivos, catalasa negativos que crecieron en MRS-S se aislaron y sometieron a caracterización preliminar a través del crecimiento en agar MRS-S, MRS-T (tetraciclina 0.20 µg/ml), N-L (bacterias aromáticas), reducción de la leche tornasolada a 40 y 21oC y creci...

  20. Efecto de la nutrición sobre la duración del anestro postparto en vacas de cría Effect of nutrition on the length of postpartum anestrus in beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Donzelli; R. C. Catalano; J.C. BURGES; Machado, C. F

    2010-01-01

    Unos de los aspectos fundamentales para el éxito económico y productivo en los rodeos de cría es la eficiencia reproductiva. El estado nutricional es uno de los principales factores que regulan la respuesta reproductiva y se ha señalado que el mismo puede ser evaluado a través de la condición corporal. Un inadecuado consumo de nutrientes pre y postparto puede afectar la duración del anestro postparto. Es posible que las hormonas IGF-I, tiroideas y prolactina interactúen en el restablecimiento...

  1. Calidad de atención del parto y postparto en el Centro Hospital Joaquín Paz Borrero de Cali, Colombia, 1991

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    Xenia Edith Chong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-prospectivo entre septiembre y diciembre de 1991 en el Centro Hospital Joaquín Paz Borrero de Cali, Colombia, para determinar la eficacia y condiciones de eficiencia del subprograma de atención del parto y postparto. En 76 usuarias del subprograma se analizaron el cumplimiento de las normas de admisión, remisión, indicaciones o enseñanzas, diligenciamiento de los registros, atención durante el período del parto, puerperio inmediato y mediato, control del postparto, la oportunidad de la atención y la percepción de las usuarias hacia los servicios recibidos. Aleatoriamente se sustrajo una submuestra de 30 usuarias a las que se les aplicó una lista de verificación para evaluar la calidad de atención ofrecida por el personal del servicio de obstetricia. Casi 80% de las usuarias percibieron la atención como buena. El cumplimiento de las normas de admisión según el análisis de los registros y la observación estructurada fue adecuado en 61% de las usuarias. Los controles indicados durante el trabajo de parto no se realizaron por completo en 100% de las usuarias y las condiciones de eficacia del servicio de obstetricia mostraron un promedio general de 38.2% lo que indicó que la calidad potencial del servicio no fue lo suficientemente adecuada para la atención del parto y postparto.

  2. Suplementação materna com retinil palmitato no pós-parto imediato: consumo potencial por lactentes Suplementación materna con retinil palmitato en el post-parto inmediato: consumo potencial por lactantes Maternal supplementation with retinyl palmitate during immediate postpartum period: potential consumption by infants

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    Danielle Soares Bezerra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da suplementação materna com dose única de retinil palmitato no pós-parto para o fornecimento de vitamina A ao lactente. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico realizado em Natal (RN, entre março e dezembro de 2007, com 85 mulheres aleatoriamente distribuídas em dois grupos. As suplementações de retinil palmitato no pós-parto corresponderam à dose única de 200.000 (grupo experimento UI e 0 UI (grupo controle. A quantificação do nível de retinol no leite foi obtida pelo método de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Com base nas concentrações de retinol obtidas no leite materno e por meio de simulações, foi calculado o consumo de vitamina A dos lactentes nos momentos 24h e 30 dias pós-parto. RESULTADOS: No momento 24h pós-parto, o fornecimento diário de retinol ao recém-nascido via colostro foi de 1,63 µmol para o grupo controle e 2,9 µmol para o grupo experimento, considerando ingestão adequada de 1,40 µmol/dia e volume de leite consumido de 500 mL/dia. Trinta dias pós-parto, esses valores corresponderam a 0,64 µmol/dia (controle e 0,89 µmol/dia (experimento, um aumento de 39% na concentração de retinol no grupo experimento em relação ao grupo controle ou 64% da recomendação para lactentes de zero a seis meses de idade. CONCLUSÕES: A suplementação materna com 200.000 UI de retinil palmitato no pós-parto imediato e a promoção de práticas de aleitamento materno são eficientes para melhorar o estado nutricional em vitamina A do binômio mãe-filho.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación materna con dosis única de retinil palmitato en el post-parto para proveer de vitamina A al lactante. MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico realizado en Natal (Noreste de Brasil, entre marzo y diciembre de 2007, con 85 mujeres aleatoriamente distribuidas en dos grupos. Las suplementaciones de retinil palmitato en el post-parto correspondieron a la dosis única de 200.000 (grupo experimento UI y 0 UI

  3. Uso de la acupuntura en el tratamiento de la depresión postparto. Revisión sistemática de la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Bernal, Leonor Milena

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes La depresión postparto es una entidad clínica que se presenta con frecuencia y que tiene múltiples consecuencias sobre la mujer, su hijo y su núcleo familiar. El manejo convencional incluye terapia conductual, psicoterapia y medicamentos antidepresivos que tienen reacciones adversas y son mal vistos por algunos pacientes. La acupuntura es una alternativa terapéutica útil en estos casos, sin embargo este problema no ha sido abordado de manera sistemática. Obje...

  4. Caracterización del dolor postparto en una población de mujeres del Instituto Materno Infantil –Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Piedrahita, Paula Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El dolor perineal posparto vaginal es un problema frecuente en las mujeres. No hay estudios sobre sus características en mujeres colombiana. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia, severidad y factores asociados con el dolor perineal postparto en mujeres del Instituto Materno Infantil de Bogotá Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal, fueron incluidas 133 pacientes en posparto vaginal, a quienes se les interrogó mediante la escala numérica del dolor (de 0-10) sobre el dolor pe...

  5. Adición de aceites vegetales a la dieta de cabras lecheras: efecto sobre el contenido de ácidos grasos de la grasa láctea

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    AL Martínez Marín

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar el efecto de la adición de aceites vegetales de diferente grado de insaturación a la dieta de cabras lecheras sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos de la grasa láctea. Doce cabras de raza Malagueña fueron asignadas al azar a uno de cuatro tratamientos: dieta basal sin aceite añadido y la misma dieta basal adicionada con 48 g/d de aceite de girasol alto oleico, aceite de girasol normal o aceite de lino. La dieta estuvo compuesta por heno de alfalfa (30% y un concentrado granulado (70% en el que se incluyó el aceite correspondiente. Todos los aceites redujeron el contenido de ácidos grasos saturados de cadena media de la grasa láctea (P 0,05. El aceite de girasol normal incrementó el contenido de los ácidos C18:1t10, vaccénico y ruménico y aumentó el valor de la ratio linoleico/α-linolénico (P 0,05. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que la adición de aceite de lino a la dieta de cabras en lactación, en comparación con la de los aceites de girasol alto oleico y normal, modifica el perfil de ácidos grasos de la grasa láctea en un sentido más favorable desde el punto de vista de la salud humana.

  6. Utilización del medio Mrs-s en el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas mesofilas en leche de cabra Utilización del medio Mrs-s en el aislamiento de bacterias lacticas mesofilas en leche de cabra

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes F. Celia L. de Luces; Peña Rueda Aurora

    1990-01-01

    Con el fin de evaluar el MRS-S (Sorbato al 0.10%) en el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas se cultivaron muestras de leche de cabra cruda en MRS-S y PCA en profundidad y se incubaron en aerobiósis a 320C durante 48 horas. Los cocos gram positivos, catalasa negativos que crecieron en MRS-S se aislaron y sometieron a caracterización preliminar a través del crecimiento en agar MRS-S, MRS-T (tetraciclina 0.20 µg/ml), N-L (bacterias aromáticas), reducción de la leche tornasolada a 40 y 21oC y creci...

  7. Achados bioquímicos, eletrolíticos e hormonais de cabras acometidas com toxemia da prenhez

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo J.C. Souto; José Augusto B. Afonso; Carla L. Mendonça; Cleyton C.D. Carvalho; Alonso P. Silva Filho; Jobson F.P. Cajueiro; Elizabeth H.F. Lima; Pierre C. Soares

    2013-01-01

    A abrangência dos estudos sobre a toxemia da prenhez (TP) tem sido constante e inovadora em alguns conceitos, porém o estudo dos casos clínicos naturais em cabras é inexistente no Brasil. Diante disso, realizou-se análise das alterações clínicas, do perfil bioquímico, eletrolítico e hormonal com o objetivo de compreender a fisiopatogenia da enfermidade. Foram avaliadas 22 cabras atendidas na Clínica de Bovinos, Campus Garanhuns/UFRPE, diagnosticadas com TP, no período de 2007 a 2012. Realizou...

  8. Hemofilia adquirida en el postparto. Presentación de un caso Postpartum Acquired Hemophilia. A Case Report

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    Yenisey Quintero Méndez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las hemorragias del periparto son la principal causa de morbilidad materna extremadamente grave y de muerte materna en Cuba y en el mundo. La hemofilia A adquirida es un trastorno hemorrágico poco frecuente, caracterizado por la presencia de anticuerpos contra el factor VIII (FVIII circulante. Se presenta el caso de una gestante de 36 años de edad, con embarazo a término, que tiene parto eutócico y presenta manifestaciones hemorrágicas en el postparto inmediato, secundarias a hematoma de la rafia que requiere de hemoterapia. Luego presenta hematoma del miembro superior derecho secundario a accidente vascular que requiere de reparo quirúrgico. La evolución tórpida del puerperio, caracterizada por hemorragia mantenida por la rafia y por el brazo intervenido, hace sospechar la presencia de un trastorno hematológico. Se constata una disminución del factor FVIII, que implica el diagnóstico de hemofilia A adquirida, se impone tratamiento con concentrado de factor VIIa recombinante (FVIIar y ciclofosfamida. La evolución posterior fue favorable, la paciente se egresa sin secuelas.Periparturient hemorrhages are the leading cause of extremely serious maternal morbidity and maternal death in Cuba and the world. Acquired Hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by the presence of antibodies against circulating factor VIII (FVIII. We present the case of a 36 years old pregnant woman with term pregnancy and vaginal delivery that suffers from hemorrhagic manifestations in the immediate postpartum secondary to raffia hematoma, requiring blood transfusion. Then she presents a bruise in the right upper limb secondary to stroke that requires surgical repair. The postpartum torpid evolution characterized by sustained bleeding raffia and the surgically treated arm, makes us suspect of the presence of a blood disorder. We observed a decrease in the FVIII factor, which involves the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia and requires treatment with

  9. PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD FISICOQUÍMICA DE LECHE DE CABRAS SUPLEMENTADAS CON FORRAJE VERDE HIDROPÓNICO DE MAÍZ

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    Mario Garc\\u00EDa-Carrillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la producción y calidad fisicoquímica de leche de cabras al ser suplementadas con dietas que contenían forraje verde hidropónico de maíz. Este estudio se desarrolló en la Comarca Lagunera de Coahuila, México durante los meses de marzo a agosto de 2011. Para la dieta 1 se empleó una relación 85:15 (base seca de alfalfa henificada y forraje verde hidropónico (AH: FVH. La dieta 2 se formuló con una relación 70:30 de AH y FVH, mientras que la dieta testigo tuvo una relación 87.5:12.5 de alfalfa henificada y vaina de mezquite. Se utilizó un diseño en triple cuadro latino. La producción y calidad de leche fueron mayores al suministrar la dieta compuesta con alfalfa henificada y forraje verde hidropónico de maíz al 30%.

  10. La producción de cabras en la cañada de Huamuxtitlán, estado de Guerrero.

    OpenAIRE

    Melchor García, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Se caracterizó el sistema de producción y el tipo de cabras en la Cañada de Huamuxtitlán en la Montaña de Guerrero. Se realizaron 70 entrevistas con un cuestionario en el que se registró información de la familia, tierra, cultivos, prácticas de manejo y la comercialización. Para la caracterización de las cabras se midieron 263 cabras adultas. Se registró el sexo, raza, edad, caracteres externos y 18 variables zoométricas. La información del sistema de producción y de las cabras se analizó med...

  11. VARIACIONES EN EL PESO Y LA CONDICIÓN CORPORAL POSTPARTO Y SU RELACIÓN CON ALGUNOS PARÁMETROS DE EFICIENCIA REPRODUCTIVA EN VACAS CEBÚ VARIATION IN POSPARTUM WEIGHT AND BODY CONDITION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH SOME REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY PARAMETERS IN ZEBU CATTLE

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    Camilo Andrés Mejía Osorio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en una zona de vida de bh-T a una altura promedio de 82 msnm con temperatura de 28ºC. Se emplearon 40 vacas Cebú multíparas, en pastoreo, a las cuales se les monitorearon las variaciones de peso y de condición corporal 15 días antes del parto, al momento del parto y a partir de este cada 15 días hasta los 135 días postparto. Se recolectaron muestras sanguíneas a 25 de estas vacas para determinar la presencia de cuerpos cetónicos y realizar la dosificación de AGNE en suero. El número de parto, el peso y la condición corporal preparto y al momento del parto presentaron efecto significativo sobre el peso hasta los 120 días postparto y sobre la condición corporal hasta los 135 días postparto, cuando fueron analizados como valor absoluto (r² desde 0,32 hasta 0,95; P The present study was conducted in the bh-T life zone at an elevation of 82 masl and a mean temperature of 28°C. Forty multiparous Zebu cows in pasture were monitored for weight and body condition changes fifteen days before calving, at calving and every fifteen days for 135 days after calving. Blood samples of 25 of these cows were taken to determine the presence of ketonic bodies and conduct NEFA dosages in serum. Calving order, weight and body condition both prepartum and at calving had significant effects on weight up to 120 days postpartum and on body condition up to 135 days postpartum, when analyzed as absolute values (r² from 0,32 to 0,95; P < 0,003 and r² from 0,35 to 0,62; P < 0,001, respectively. When the same variables were analyzed as percentages of the prepartum value, calving order significantly affected weight between 15 and 60 days pospartum (r² from 0,15 to 0,21; P < 0,05. Ketone bodies were not detected via the semi-quantitative test proposed. A positive correlation was documented between weight values and body condition (r from 0,45 to 0,82; P < 0,003 and negative correlations were documented between NEFA and

  12. Hormiga argentina Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae y su rol como posible vector de contaminación microbiana en una lechería de cabras Capra hircus Linnaeus, 1758 (Artiodactyla: Bovidae

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    J Ipinza-Regla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de establecer la acción de la hormiga argentina Linepithema humile, como potencial vector mecánico de microorganismos patógenos. Desde un plantel lechero de cabras ubicado en la comuna de Lampa, Región Metropolitana, Chile, se obtuvieron 63 muestras: 21 muestras Control A aspiradas directamente sobre el papel filtro esterilizado previo al paso de las hormigas, 21 muestras de hormigas aspiradas desde papel filtro y 21 muestras posterior al paso de las hormigas (Control B. La metodología incluyó siembras en medios de cultivos nutritivos, selectivos y diferenciales. Posteriormente y según el microorganismo a seguir se continuó con algunas pruebas bioquímicas específicas correspondientes a cada caso. En el presente estudio se decidió investigar la presencia de seis agentes patógenos importantes por su frecuencia en caso de infección en humanos: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Pseudomona aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes y Campylobacter jejuni. En los resultados de este estudio se detectaron cuatro potenciales patógenos: S. aureus, Salmonella spp., P. aeruginosa y E. coli. Además se encontraron otros agentes microbianos: Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Escherichia vulneris, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcencens biog.1, Ewingella americana, Providencia rettgeri, Bacillus spp., Enterobacter aglomerans, Stomatococcus spp., Morganella morganii. Las muestras Control A resultaron negativas. Las muestras de hormigas fueron positivos en 95,23%, en cambio, las muestras controles B presentaron desarrollo bacteriano en 90,47% de los casos, siendo ambos estadísticamente mayores al control A (P < 0,05. Se logró confirmar que L. humile es capaz de transportar agentes microbianos en una lechería de cabras.

  13. Aquisição de imunidade passiva em cabritos alimentados com colostro de cabras com e sem mastite

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    J.F. Alcindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a transferência de imunidade passiva de cabras, que pariram com mastite, para seus respectivos cabritos. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos, a saber: grupo 1 (GI, constituído por cabritos, filhos de cabras sem isolamento microbiológico em ambas as glândulas mamárias, e grupo 2 (GII, composto por cabritos, filhos de cabras com resultado positivo à lactocultura, em pelo menos uma das glândulas mamárias. Foram coletadas amostras de colostro e sangue à parição, bem como às 24 e às 48 horas após o parto/nascimento. O diagnóstico e o monitoramento da mastite nos animais foram realizados por meio do California Mastitis Test (CMT, contagem de células somáticas e isolamento microbiológico. A proteína total foi mensurada pelo método do biureto, e as concentrações de imunoglobulina A (IgA, imunoglobulina G (IgG, transferrina, albumina e haptoglobina por meio da eletrofoerese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE. Os agentes mais isolados na cultura microbiológica foram os Staphylococcus coagulase negativa. Não houve diferença significativa (P<0,05 entre os valores médios de imunoglobulina G (IgG nos cabritos provenientes de cabras com mastite quando comparados aos recém-nascidos oriundos de cabras livres de infecções intramamárias. Da mesma forma, a atividade de gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT não mostrou diferença entre os grupos em todos os momentos avaliados. A ingestão de colostro decorrente de cabras com mastite não causou falha na transferência de imunidade passiva nos respectivos conceptos.

  14. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary

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    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-04-01

    (P£0.01. A partir del 4 día trece al dieciocho se observa pequeñas áreas cubiertas por epitelio plano y la superficie es algo irregular, las glándulas están bien desarrolladas mostrando un lumen amplio, lo cual coincide con el cambio de peso y volumen del útero en forma significativa (P£ 0.01. El día diecinueve post parto la superficie uterina se torna regular, instalándose un epitelio cilíndrico, cambios que se relacionan nuevamente con el cambio en el peso y volumen del útero en forma significativa (P£ 0.01, quedando el útero restaurado a su forma pregrávida aproximadamente a los 30 días postparto. SUMMARY.- This study was carried out in the Histology and Embriology laboratory at the Medicine Veterinary and Zootecny of the Altiplano National University, with alpacas coming from the EPS Rural Alliance (4140 m.a.s.l., Quimsachata Research Center (4050 m.a.s.l. and the Raya Research Center (4130 m.a.s.l. whose objective was the study the process of the uterine involution after parturition from day 0 to 30. For such purpose 34 multiparous alpacas from 4 to 6 year old were selectec. The results were: Macroscopically the uterus weight lost 71,07% (385,25g, 25,54% (138,55g and 3,42% (18,6g at first, second and third period of uterine involution. The weight reducction in the right uterine horn was 55,26% (37,55g, 38,63% (26,25g and 6,11% (4,15g at first, second and third period respectively. The lost sequence of weight in the left horn was 75,50% (159,5g, 19,58% (41,25g and 4,92% (10,4g at first, second and third period respectively. The uterus body declined in weight at 76,6% (87,25g, 17,08% (19,45g and 6,32% (7,2g at first, second and third period successively. The gradual reducction in weight of the cervix was 68,38% (47,15g, 26,10% (18.00g and 5,51% (3,8g at first, second and third period respectively. Histologically: During the first days the uterine surface was irregular and show off endometrial projections the fungiforme aspect, and was coveret with

  15. Iogurte probiótico produzido com leite de cabra suplementado com Bifidobacterium spp

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    V Mazochi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se iogurtes de leite de cabra contendo ou não Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. pseudolongum ou B. bifidum, adicionados ou não de aroma de morango. Os dados obtidos nas análises higiênico-sanitárias e físico-químicas foram dentro dos valores exigidos pela legislação brasileira; apenas o valor encontrado para lactose esteve abaixo do recomendado. Quanto às bactérias do iogurte, não houve diferença na contagem de Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus durante a estocagem, e não foi detectado Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus nas diluições utilizadas. A enumeração de Bifidobacterium spp. manteve-se entre 10(6 e 10(8UFC/mL e não diferiu entre as espécies ao longo do tempo. Considerando-se a adição ou não de aroma, a análise das variáveis tempo e aroma não mostrou diferença estatística. A contagem entre os Bifidobacterium spp. demonstrou que nenhum microrganismo apresentou um comportamento superior a outro. Na análise sensorial, as amostras de iogurtes adicionados ou não de Bifidobacterium spp. e adicionados de aroma de morango não apresentaram diferenças entre si. O estudo mostrou ser possível a elaboração de iogurte de leite de cabra adicionado de Bifidobacterium spp. e de aroma de morango com qualidade assegurada, potencial para uso probiótico e boa aceitação pelo consumidor.

  16. Adición de aceites vegetales a la dieta de cabras lecheras: efecto sobre la digestibilidad y los resultados productivos Diet digestibility and production performance in dairy goats consuming plant oils

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    AL Martínez-Marín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar el efecto de la adición de aceite vegetal y su grado de insaturación sobre la digestibilidad aparente y los parámetros productivos de cabras en lactación. Doce cabras de raza Malagueña fueron asignadas al azar a uno de cuatro tratamientos: sin aceite (CONTROL y 48 g/d de aceite de girasol alto oleico (GAO, aceite de girasol normal (GN o aceite de lino (LIN. La dieta base estuvo compuesta por heno de alfalfa y un concentrado en el que se incluyó el aceite correspondiente y cromo como indicador. El período experimental duró 21 días. La digestibilidad de los componentes de la dieta, con excepción de la grasa, no fue diferente entre los tratamientos (P > 0,05. La inclusión de aceite en la dieta aumentó significativamente la digestibilidad de la grasa (P 0,05 en el consumo de alimentos y la producción y composición de la leche entre los tratamientos. Se concluyó que es posible incluir cantidades moderadas de aceite vegetal rico en ácidos grasos insaturados en la dieta de cabras en lactación sin ocasionar efectos negativos sobre la digestibilidad de los nutrientes o los parámetros productivos.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of differently unsaturated vegetable oils added to dairy goat diets on apparent digestibility and performance traits. Twelve Malagueña goats were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: no oil (CONTROL, 48 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (GAO, regular sunflower oil (RSFO or linseed oil (LIN. The basal diet was made of alfalfa hay and a pelleted concentrate, which included the respective oil and chromium as indicator. The experimental period lasted 21 days. The digestibility of dietary components, except for fat, did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05. Oil inclusion in the diet significantly (P 0.05 in dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition between treatments. It was concluded that moderate amounts of unsaturated plant oils

  17. Utilización de enzimas fibrolíticas en cabras lecheras. Evaluación de su actividad y características fermentativas in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    González García, Eliel

    2004-01-01

    En una serie de experiencias in vivo e in vitro, se evaluaron los efectos de la suplementación con enzimas fibrolíticas a la ración de cabras lecheras. En la experiencia de lactación (Exp.1) se estudió, mediante un diseño 'crossover' con 24 cabras Murciano-Granadinas a mediados de lactación y distribuidas en dos tratamientos (Control: sin suplementación, CON, n = 12; y Promote : suplementadas con enzimas fibrolíticas a 0.47 mL/kg de MS en el concentrado, PRO, n = 12), el comportamiento de los...

  18. Producción de RNI en cultivo de células mononucleares de cabras vacunadas con Rev-1 de Brucilla

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Sánchez, José L.(1), Martínez-Romero, Aurora(1), Hernández-Salgado, José R.(1),; Aurora Martínez-Romero; José R. Hernández-Salgado; Rafael Rodríguez-Martínez; Jesús Vásquez-Arroyo; Pedro A. Robles-Trillo

    2008-01-01

    La brucelosis es una zoonosis antigua que permanece endémica en la mayoría de las ciudades del mundo. La acidificación de los nitritos (NO2 -) permite la producción no enzimática de óxido nítrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica celular mediante la producción de intermediarios reactivos de nitrógeno por las células mononucleares en cabras vacunadas con la cepa mutante de Brucella melitensis Rev-1. Se seleccionaron 10 cabras raza sannen, de 3-4 meses de eda...

  19. Producción de RNI en cultivo de células mononucleares de cabras vacunadas con Rev-1 de Brucilla

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Sánchez, José L.(1), Martínez-Romero, Aurora(1), Hernández-Salgado, José R.(1),; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rafael; Vásquez-Arroyo, Jesús; Robles-Trillo, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    La brucelosis es una zoonosis antigua que permanece endémica en lamayoría de las ciudades del mundo. La acidificación de los nitritos (NO2 -) permite la producción no enzimática de óxido nítrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica celular mediante la producción de intermediarios reactivos de nitrógeno por las células mononucleares en cabras vacunadas con la cepa mutante de Brucella melitensis Rev-1. Se seleccionaron 10 cabras raza sannen, de 3-4 meses de edad...

  20. Educación prenatal: factor asociado al éxito de la lactancia materna

    OpenAIRE

    Zully Araya Cubero; Geovanna Brenes Campos

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo investigar si la educación sobre lactancia materna (LM), durante el periodo prenatal,es un factor que contribuye al éxito de esta, en comparación con la brindada a la puérpera durante su estancia hospitalaria yel postparto. Con el fin de identificar la evidencia científica, se formuló una pregunta clínica en formato PICO. Luego, seutilizaron diversas bases de datos, entre ellas el buscador GOOGLE ACADÉMICO, PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO yCOCHRANE DATABASE par...

  1. Hipofosfatemia y fragilidad osmótica eritrocítica en cabras (Hipofosfatemia and eritrocítica osmótica fragility in gotas

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    Forchetti O

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El fósforo es un nutriente esencial y como fosfato está comprometido en muchas actividades metabólicas del organismo. La concentración de fósforo inorgánico sérico parece tener un efecto directo o indirecto en procesos que podrían contribuir a la hemólisis de los eritrocitos cuando los animales están entre otras, bajo situaciones de estrés metabólico con altas demandas energéticas como son el crecimiento, la gestación el parto y la lactancia. En esta trabajo se encontró en una cabra, una asociación entre fosfatemias persistentemente baja y mayor fragilidad osmótica de sus eritrocitos en comparación con la de otras que en las mismas condiciones fisiológicas, nutricionales y de manejo, mostraron fosfatemias superiores. Se observó además que en la etapa de lactancia el 70 –80 % de los eritrocitos se hemolizaban cuando eran suspendidos en solución buffereada de NaCl al 0,75%, mientras que en iguales condiciones para los eritrocitos de las cabras cuyas concentraciones de fósforo inorgánico habían sido superiores, el porcentaje de hemólisis no superaba el 20%. Ello indicaría la existencia de una clara relación entre hipofosfatemia y aumento en la fragilidad osmótica eritrocítica. Esto podría ser explicado, al menos en parte, por una reducción en la glucólisis anaeróbica, disminución de los niveles de ATP y de 2-3 difosfoglicerato y posible disminución en la síntesis de glutatión reducido (GSH, NAD y NADP, circunstancias que ponen en desventajas metabólicas a estos eritrocitos al tornarlos más frágiles. Phosphorus, one of the essential nutrients, is involved mainly as phosphates in most of body metabolic activities. Blood serum phosphorus concentrations seems to have direct or indirect effects on differents process which could produce hemoysis of red blood cells when the animals are under metabolic stress or high energy requirements. Some of these conditions were produced during growing, pregnancy, partum or

  2. Influência do consumo alimentar na gestação sobre a retenção de peso pós-parto Influencia del consumo alimentario en la gestación sobre la retención de peso post-parto Influence of dietary intake during gestation on postpartum weight retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins

    2011-10-01

    gestantes adultas y saludables que iniciaron el pre-natal en servicio público de salud en el Municipio de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, entre abril y junio de 2005. Las medidas de peso y estatura fueron comparadas en la primera entrevista (hasta 16 semanas de gestación y la medida de peso fue repetida en visita domiciliar 15 días posterior al parto. El Recordatorio de 24 horas fue usado para evaluar el consumo alimentario y fue aplicado en los tres trimestres de la gestación. Fue calculado el consumo promedio de grasa saturada, fibras, azúcar adicionado, gaseosas, alimentos procesados, frutas, verduras y legumbres y la densidad energética de la dieta. La retención de peso fue obtenida por la diferencia entre la medida de peso post-parto y la primera medida realizada. La influencia de la alimentación sobre la retención de peso post-parto fue evaluada por medio de análisis de regresión linear múltiple y fue realizada la prueba para tendencia linear. Las variables utilizadas para ajuste del modelo fueron: índice de masa corporal en el inicio de la gestación, estatura, renta familiar per capita, tabaquismo, edad y escolaridad maternos. RESULTADOS: El índice de masa corporal inicial promedio fue de 24 kg/m2 y la retención promedio de peso fue de 1,9 kg. El aumento del consumo de grasa saturada (p=0,005 y alimentos procesados (p=0,014 aumentaron de forma significativa la retención de peso post-parto, posterior al ajuste por las variables de control. Las demás variables de consumo alimentario no presentaron relación significativa con la retención de peso post-parto. CONCLUSIONES: El mayor consumo de alimentos no saludables, como alimentos procesados, y de grasa saturada influencia el aumento de la retención de peso post-parto.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of dietary intake during gestation on postpartum weight retention. METHODS: A total of 82 healthy pregnant women who began prenatal care at public healthcare services in the Municipality of São Paulo

  3. A lição do nordeste. Severino e Boa-Morte : Cabras marcados para morrer

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    Ana Catarina Oliveira Marques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to develop an intertextual approach to João Cabral de Melo Neto’s Morte e Vida Severina (1956 and Ferreira Gullar’s João Boa-Morte, Cabra marcado para morrer (1962. Both texts are rooted in social protest and participation in the portrayal of the Brazilian Northeast Region. The condition of «severinidade» and «nordestinidade» as topological idiosyncrasy. Textual genres: the «auto de natal» and the «romance de cordel».

  4. Authorship in the interstices of history, biography, reality and memory: Histoire(s du Cinema and Cabra Marcado para Morrer

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    Cecília Sayad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo contrasta Histoire(s du cinéma de Jean-Luc Godard e Cabra Marcado Para Morrer de Eduardo Coutinho, estão engajadas com a questão da autoria no cinema. Enquanto a imagem de Godard enfatiza a capacidade que tem um filme de transmitir a visão de mundo pessoal de um artista, a presença de Coutinho na tela funciona menos como um meio de subjetivar a obra do que como um catalizador instigando cetas reações nos "atores" filmados.

  5. Depresión postparto en pérdida gestacional recurrente. Presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Lilia Arranz Lara; Salvador Gaviño Ambriz; Fernando Escobedo Aguirre

    2005-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 32 años de edad, internada en el Servicio de Medicina Materno-Fetal por antecedentes de óbito y muerte neonatal temprana. Fue entrevistada a partir de las 26 semanas de embarazo por el área de intervención psicológica del Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia por presentar angustia reactiva a pérdidas gestacionales recurrentes. Al término del embarazo inicia depresión gestacional que se prolonga hasta el puerperio, apareciendo los pr...

  6. Pênfigo foliáceo em cabra Boer Pemphigus foliaceous in a Boer goat

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    Juliana Targino Silva Almeida Macêdo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pênfigo foliáceo é uma doença auto-imune crônica da pele observada com freqüência em cães e, com menor freqüência, em outras espécies animais. Neste trabalho é descrito um caso desta enfermidade no semi-árido da Paraíba, em uma cabra da raça Boer, que apresentava lesões crônicas de pele com extensas áreas alopécicas irregulares, esfoliativas, com crostas amareladas e bilaterais que afetavam a região dorsal da escápula, do tórax, do dorso, da parede do abdominal, da garupa, dos membros pélvicos e da cauda. No rodete coronário, havia espessamento da pele e lesões crostosas. Microscopicamente foram observadas hiperqueratose, espongiose e pústulas intracorneais ou subcornais afetando epiderme e infundíbulos. Nas pústulas, havia grande quantidade de neutrófilos, eosinófilos e células acantolíticas. Na derme, havia acentuada congestão e moderado infiltrado inflamatório composto por eosinófilos, raros plasmócitos, linfócitos e macrófagos, principalmente na periferia de capilares e nos folículos pilosos. Os achados macro e microscópicos são característicos de pênfigo foliáceo. Esta enfermidade é rara em caprinos e, provavelmente, este seja o primeiro relato da doença no Brasil.Pemphigus foliaceous is an autoimmune disease of the skin affecting mainly dogs and, with less frequency, other domestic species. A case of this disease is reported in the semiarid of Paraiba, Brazil, in a Boer goat with chronic skin lesions with extensive bilateral exfoliatives areas of alopecia, with yellowish crusts affecting the dorsal scapular region, thorax, abdominal wall, croup, hindlimbs and tail. On the coronary band of the hoofs, thick crusts were observed. Microscopiacally, there were hyperkeratosis, spongiosis, intracorneal and sucorneal pustules affecting the epidermis and follicular infundibula. Large number of neutrophils, eosinophils and acantholitic cells were observed in the pustules. The dermis had congestion and

  7. Peroxidação lipídica em cabras com anemia e doença respiratória tratadas com ferro por via parenteral

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    Renata L. dos Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a progressão da doença e o dano oxidativo em cabras com anemia e doença respiratória mediante aplicação de ferro parenteral. Foram estudadas seis cabras, adultas, com parâmetros eritrocitários indicativos e anemia e manifestações de doença respiratória (tosse, espirros e secreção nasal. O grupo controle foi composto por seis cabras adultas, sadias. As cabras de ambos os grupos após serem submetidos à avaliação clínica receberam dose similar (0,5g de hidróxido férrico em complexo dextrânico, por via intramuscular. Amostras de sangue colhidas com EDTA, antes da aplicação do ferro e 48 horas depois foram utilizadas para determinação da concentração de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. Nas cabras doentes antes da aplicação do ferro os valores de TBARS foram equivalentes aos valores mensurados nos controles antes e após a aplicação do ferro (p>0,05. Os valores mensurados nas cabras doentes foram muito mais elevados (p<0,001 no mesmo grupo de animais depois da aplicação do ferro e nos controles antes e após a aplicação. A aplicação do ferro agravou a condição clinica dos animais com doença respiratória, sendo evidenciada uma condição de toxidade refletida pelo estresse oxidativo. Assim sendo, não se deve recomendar tal suplementação nos caprinos acometidos de doenças do aparelho respiratório.

  8. Esofagitis eosinofílica por sensibilización a proteínas de leche de cabra y oveja Eosinophilic esophagitis due to allergy to sheep and goat milk proteins

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    M. Armisén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La esofagitis eosinofílica, entidad caracterizada por la infiltración de la mucosa esofágica por más de 20 eosinófilos por campo de gran aumento, se suele presentar en forma de disfagia intermitente de larga evolución, pudiendo estar asociada a sensibilización alérgica a aeroalérgenos y/o alimentos. Presentamos el caso de un varón con clínica de disfagia intermitente coincidiendo con la toma de quesos curados de oveja y cabra que precisó asistencia urgente tras la impactación de un comprimido de ibuprofeno a 30 cm de la arcada dentaria. El estudio practicado demostró la existencia de estenosis en el esófago a ese nivel con infiltración eosinofílica difusa y sensibilización a proteínas de la leche de cabra, oveja y vaca, con especial relevancia para la IgG bovina, lactoferrina y albúmina sérica. Tras tratamiento con fluticasona deglutida y medidas de evitación se consiguió la resolución del cuadro clínico y la desaparición de los eosinófilos en la mucosa.Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by the presence of high numbers of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosal layer (> 20 high-power field. It is uncommon in adults but in such cases intermittent dysphagia and food impaction are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of a male with long-standing intermittent dysphagia after eating selected goat and sheep cheese types, who required medical help following the impaction of an ibuprofen pill in the esophagus. A biopsy demonstrated the presence of eosinophilic inflammation, and allergy testing showed specific IgE against proteins in the milk of goats and sheep. Topical steroid therapy with oral fluticasone, and the elimination of these dairy products from the diet induced complete symptom resolution, and biopsy specimens taken 4 months later showed no eosinophils.

  9. CONCENTRAÇÃO SÉRICA DE PROGESTERONA PARA DIAGNÓSTICO PRECOCE DE GESTAÇÃO NA CABRA DOMÉSTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Sérgio Ferraudo; Gilson Hélio Toniollo; Elzylene Léga

    2006-01-01

    Com o objetivo de determinar variações na concentração sérica de progesterona de cabras gestantes ou vazias, primíparas ou multíparas, e com gestação simples ou gemelar, utilizaram-se dezesseis cabras da raça Saanen, para avaliação do momento mais adequado para diagnóstico gestacional pela técnica de dosagem de progesterona por radioimunoensaio. Para isso calcularam-se as médias das concentrações de progesterona desde o dia do acasalamento (dia 0) até o 60o dia, fazendo-se a comparação dos va...

  10. Indução de estro em cabras da raça Toggenburg com dois diferentes dispositivos intravaginais Estrous induction in Toggenburg goats using intravaginal devices

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Maffili; C.A.A. Torres; J.H. Bruschi; J.F. Fonseca; J.H.M. Viana

    2006-01-01

    Doze cabras nulíparas da raça Toggenburg foram distribuídas em dois tratamentos (T1 e T2) para indução do estro. O T1 (n=6) consistiu na inserção da esponja impregnada com 60mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, associado à aplicação de 50µg do análogo sintético d-cloprostenol (PGF). No quarto dia, foram aplicadas 250UI de gonadotropina coriônica eqüina (eCG) e, no quinto, a esponja foi retirada. O T2 (n=6) diferiu somente quanto ao dispositivo empregado, que foi o CIDR-G®. Seis cabras do T1 ...

  11. Estudi de la biologia reproductiva de la cabra de mar, "Maja brachydactyla": aparell reproductor i qualitat de les postes en captivitat

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Simeó, Carles

    2012-01-01

    La cabra de mar, Maja brachydactyla, és una espècie de cranc (Decapoda: Brachyura) molt apreciada gastronòmicament i d’interès pesquer en varis països d’Europa, com ara França, el Regne Unit o Irlanda. El consum de cabra de mar a Espanya supera les captures de zones pesquera com Galícia o Astúries, i aproximadament el 75% de les cabres de mar comercialitzades a través dels mercats majoristes són importades d’altres països europeus. A Espanya, la principal zona de captura és Galícia, on la pes...

  12. Período anovulatório pós-parto em cabras da raça Serrana paridas no Inverno

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Valentim, Ramiro; Azevedo, Jorge; Maurício, Raimundo; Galvão, Lurdes; Mendonça, Álvaro; Cardoso, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objectivo de estudar a duração do período anovulatório pós-parto, em cabras da raça Serrana, ecótipo Transmontano, paridas no final do Inverno. Neste sentido, na cidade de Bragança (latitude 41° 49' N, longitude 6° 40' W e altitude 720 metros), mais precisamente na Quinta de Santa Apolónia, pertencente à Escola Superior Agrária de Bragança, um grupo de vinte e quatro cabras da raça Serrana, ecótipo Transmontano, com 2 a 3 anos de idade, foi escolhido pa...

  13. Desarrollo de yogurt con capacidad antioxidante elaborado con leche de cabra (Capra hircus) y tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Enrique Alvarado Carrasco; Matilde Coronado; Fernando Prósperi; Marisa Guerra

    2011-01-01

    El desarrollo de productos es el proceso secuencial de encontrar ideas para nuevos bienes y servicios, para convertirlas en productos comercialmente exitosos, seguros, beneficiosos para el consumidor y manufacturados de manera rentable. En el presente trabajo se siguieron todos los pasos de un Desarrollo Exploratorio en la elaboración de un yogurt a partir leche de cabra (Capra hircus), saborizado con una mermelada de tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn.) para incrementar su capacidad...

  14. La depresión postparto en madres adolescentes de Bucaramanga, Colombia Postpartum depression in adolescent women from Bucaramanga, Colombia

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    José Fidel Latorre-Latorre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La depresión, más frecuente en la mujer, es un problema mundial, cuyas probabilidades de padecerla aumentan durante el puerperio. Las cifras de incidencia de depresión en el posparto son variables pero, en algunas comunidades latinoamericanas, se han informado valores superiores al 20%. Se ha reportado incremento de la incidencia durante la adolescencia. En Colombia no se conocen cifras en madres de esta edad. Objetivos: establecer la incidencia de depresión posparto en adolescentes de Bucaramanga y compararla con la presentada en mujeres mayores. Métodos: estudio de cohorte (mayo/2003 - abril/2004 con 286 mujeres puérperas provenientes de once centros asistenciales de Bucaramanga y seguidas seis semanas. Se recogió información sobre aspectos sociodemográficos, variables obstétricas, antecedentes psiquiátricos, datos del recién nacido y lactancia. El diagnóstico de depresión posparto fue establecido por un psiquiatra de acuerdo con criterios de DSM IV. Se midieron tasas de incidencia por grupos de edad, se calcularon razones de tasas y se ajustó el riesgo de padecerla por regresión de Cox. Resultados: la tasa de incidencia de depresión posparto en adolescentes fue de 0,6 casos/1.000 días - persona (IC 95% 0,07-2,2; en mujeres de 21 a 34 años fue de 1,0 caso/1.000 días - persona (IC 95% 0,3-2,0; y de 1,9 casos/1.000 días - persona (IC95% 0,3-5,4 en mujeres mayores. Cuando se hizo ajuste, el hazard ratio fue de 3,0 (IC95% 0,3-29,9 para las mujeres de 21 a 34 años y de 7,4 (IC 95% 0,6-95,6 para las madres mayores de 34 comparándolas con adolescentes. Conclusiones: la depresión posparto constituye un problema de salud frecuente en Bucaramanga. Las madres adolescentes no presentan un riesgo mayor que el de otras mujeres.Background: depression, which occurs very frequently in women, is a worldwide problem and the likelihood of suffering from it increases during puerperium. Postpartum depression rates are highly variable

  15. Utilización del medio Mrs-s en el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas mesofilas en leche de cabra Utilización del medio Mrs-s en el aislamiento de bacterias lacticas mesofilas en leche de cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes F. Celia L. de Luces

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el MRS-S (Sorbato al 0.10% en el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas se cultivaron muestras de leche de cabra cruda en MRS-S y PCA en profundidad y se incubaron en aerobiósis a 320C durante 48 horas. Los cocos gram positivos, catalasa negativos que crecieron en MRS-S se aislaron y sometieron a caracterización preliminar a través del crecimiento en agar MRS-S, MRS-T (tetraciclina 0.20 µg/ml, N-L (bacterias aromáticas, reducción de la leche tornasolada a 40 y 21oC y crecimiento a 45 y 10oC.Las cepas seleccionadas se sometieron a caracterización fisiológica y Bioquímica. El medio MRS-S mostró ser efectivo con un porcentaje de inhibición de la flora indeseable del 86.56%, y adecuado por el aislamiento de Lactococcus. De acuerdo con los perfiles taxonómicos se consiguió aislar de un total de 156 colonias dos Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis y un Lactococcus lactis biovar diacetilactis.With the objective of evaluating the MRS-S (0.10% of sorbate in the isolation of lactic bacteria samples of raw goat milk were cultivated in MRS-S and PCA in deep and incubated in aerobic conditions for 48 hours al 32oC. Gram positive coccus, negative catalase which grew in MRS-S were isolated and preliminarly characterized through the growing process in agar MRS-S, MRS-T (O.20ltg/ml tetracycline, N-L (aromatic bacteria, litmus milk reduction at 40 and 210C and growing at 45 and 10oC. Selected strains were subject to the physiological and biochemical characterization. MRS-S media showed to be effective with an 86.56% of inhibition for indesirable bacteria and adequated for Lactococcus isolation. Related to taxonomic profiles from 156 colonies were isolated two lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and one Lactococcus luctis biovar diacetilactis.

  16. Utilización de inulina en la formulación de yogur descremado de leche de cabra Using inulin in the formulation of non-fat goats´milk yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Enzo Goncalvez de Oliveira; Noelia F Paz; Erica N Budde; Andrea P Cravero; Adriana N Ramón

    2012-01-01

    La inulina es una fibra prebiótica que imparte mayor cremosidad y favorece la textura y firmeza en productos lácteos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue utilizarla para reemplazar la grasa en la formulación de un yogur descremado de leche de cabra, de consistencia batida. Para ello se utilizó: leche de cabra biotipo Saanen; cultivos de bacterias lácticas liofilizadas: Streptococcus thermophilus (ST M6) y Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb-12); inulina en polvo; azúcar, gelatina sin ...

  17. Substituição do feno de coastcross por casca de soja na alimentação de cabras em lactação Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in diets for lactating goats

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Shinkai Gentil; Ivanete Susin; Alexandre Vaz Pires; Clayton Quirino Mendes; Evandro Maia Ferreira; Fumi Shibata Urano; Rafael Cedric Moller Meneghini

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a resposta de cabras em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross. Trinta e seis cabras (38±5 dias em lactação; 2,1±0,4 kg/dia) foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados e confinadas por oito semanas. As dietas foram compostas de 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado e com o mesmo teor de fibra em detergente neutro. A casca de soja substituiu o feno de coastcross e...

  18. Composición nutricional, consumo e índices de palatabilidad relativa de los frutos de tres acacias en la alimentación de ovejas y cabras

    OpenAIRE

    F Quiroz-Cardoso; S. Rojas-Hernández; J Olivares-Pérez; E Hernández-Castro; R. Jiménez-Guillén; A Córdova-Izquierdo; A Villa-Mancera; S Abdel-Fattah

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar la composición nutricional de los frutos de Acacia farnesiana, Acacia macilenta y Acacia cochliacantha y medir en las cabras y las ovejas el consumo de frutos (CF), el índice de palatabilidad relativo (IP) y su correlación con la composición nutricional de los frutos. Se utilizaron 16 hembras: 8 ovejas F1 Dorper X Pelibuey de 18,5 ± 1,5 kg de peso vivo y 8 cabras Criollas de 20,6 ± 1,8 kg de peso vivo. Los animales fueron alojados en corrales individuales (1,0 x 1,2...

  19. Utilización de Atriplex canescens y Opuntia ficus indica en la alimentación de cabras lactantes durante la sequía.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Urrutia-Morales; Héctor Guillermo Gámez-Vázquez; Sergio Beltrán-López; Marta Olivia Díaz-Gómez

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del Atriplex (Atriplex canescens) y nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) en la alimentación de cabras lactantes y la producción de leche durante la sequía. Durante los meses secos, entre mayo y agosto de 2005 y entre mayo y junio de 2006, se realizaron tres experimentos en la región semiárida de San Luis Potosí, México. En el primero, se probaron dos tratamientos: CO) mantenidas en confinamiento y alimentación controlada (n=10) y AT) mantenidas e...

  20. Resíduo úmido de cervejaria na alimentação de cabras Wet brewer grains on goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Basoni Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da substituição do concentrado pelo resíduo úmido de cervejaria sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em cabras. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras mestiças Boer x Saanen e cinco cabras Saanen distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 5 x 5. As dietas foram compostas de 40% de feno de capim-tifton e os 60% restantes foram compostos de 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de resíduo úmido de cervejaria em substituição ao concentrado. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CT, nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN ajustaram-se ao modelo quadrático, de modo que os maiores valores foram observados para as dietas sem resíduo úmido de cervejaria e com 25% desse resíduo. Os níveis de resíduo úmido de cervejaria tiveram efeito linear decrescente na digestibilidade aparente de matéria seca, matéria orgânica e carboidratos totais e efeito quadrática na digestibilidade da proteína bruta. O resíduo úmido de cervejaria pode ser utilizado em níveis de até 25% como substituto ao concentrado em dietas para cabras no final da lactação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of replacing concentrate by wet brewer grain on the intake and digestibility of nutrients in goats. It was used five Boer x Saanen crossbreed goats and five Saanen goats randomly distributed in two 5 x 5 latin squares. The diets were composed of 40% of Tifton hay and the other 60% were composed of 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of wet brewer grain replacing the concentrate. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber (NDF were fitted to the quadratic model so the highest values were observed for diets without wet brewer grain and with 25% of this residue. The levels of wet brewer grain had a decreasing

  1. Seroconversion and seroreactivity patterns of dairy goats naturally exposed to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in Brazil Soroconversão e sororeatividade de cabras leiteiras naturalmente expostas ao virus da artrite-encefalite caprina no Brasil

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    Roberto Soares Castro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A labelled avidin-biotin ELISA (lab-ELISA using repeated serum samples of goats showed a progressive seroconversion with higher seroconversion rate at the period going from the beginning of the breeding up to the last half of lactation (35.0%, compared to that recorded at the beginning of breeding (17.8%(pForam realizados exames sorológicos em cabras leiteiras, utilizando-se ELISA marcado com avidina-biotina (LAB-ELISA. Esses exames mostraram soroconversão progressiva, com uma taxa maior entre os animais a partir do início da reprodução até a última metade da lactação (35% comparada à observada nos animais até o início da reprodução (17,8%(p<0,05. Além disso, o padrão de sororeatividade das amostras colhidas a cada 30-40 dias, durante 12 meses, avaliado pelo LAB-ELISA, foi caracterizado por alta variabilidade individual. Não foi observada sororeversão, e títulos mais altos foram obtidos mais no grupo constituído por animais que entraram em lactação (n=6, média de títulos=913,4 do que no grupo constituído por animais que cruzaram, mas não conceberam (n=4, média de títulos=261,2(p<0,01.

  2. Ecogeografía de la cabra montés (capra pyrenaica): relación con otros ungulados en simpatría en el centro-sur de la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Pelayo

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo general de esta Tesis es identificar y caracterizar el nicho ecológico de la cabra montés, así como las relaciones de nicho existentes entre las monteses y los ungulados presentes en su área de distribución con los que puede competir.

  3. Disposición plasmática de amikacina en cabras, aplicada por vía intramuscular Amikacin plasmatic disposition in goats, after intramuscular single dose

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    C. ERRECALDE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amikacina es un antimicrobiano semisintético perteneciente al grupo de los aminoglucósidos. El principal objetivo del presente estudio fue describir el comportamiento farmacocinético de amikacina en cabras, con el propósito de entregar antecedentes para una correcta dosificación por la vía intramuscular. Para esto, se administró una dosis de 5 mg/kg de amikacina por vía intramuscular. Se determinaron las concentraciones plasmáticas del antibiótico mediante el método microbiológico, utilizando Bacillus subtilis BGA como microorganismo test. Las muestras de sangre fueron extraídas a los 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 min y 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 y 12 h posteriores a la administración del fármaco. Los valores de concentración plasmática obtenidos se ajustaron para su análisis por un modelo abierto de un compartimento. Los parámetros farmaco-cinéticos obtenidos fueron: concentración plasmática máxima promedio (Cp max de 29,7 ± 5,1 mg/ml a los 32,4 min. La vida media de eliminación (t1/2 y el clearance corporal total (Cl t / f fueron de 3,09 ± 0,6 h y 0,66 ± 0,1 ml/min/kg, respectivamente. El volumen de distribución (Vd/ f fue de 0,16 ± 0,03 L/kg, lo que indica su restringida difusión tisular. El fármaco mostró una rápida absorción desde el sitio de aplicación, alcanzando concentraciones efectivas en plasma que durante 10 horas superan la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM90 de los patógenos de interés veterinario.La administración intramuscular de 4-5 mg/kg puede considerarse satisfactoria para el tratamiento de las patologías producidas por estos microorganismosAmikacin is a semi-synthetic antimicrobial agent belonging to the aminoglycoside group. The main objective of the present study was to describe the pharmacokinetic behaviour of amikacin in goats, in order to obtain data for a correct intramuscular dosage thus, a 5 mg/kg intramuscular administration of amikacin was given. Amikacin plasma levels were determined

  4. Experimental intoxication of pregnant goats with Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae Intoxicação experimental por Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae em cabras gestantes

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    M.M. Melo

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Green leaves of Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss were fed to pregnant goats from day 35 of pregnancy. Five goats received 10g/kgBW (group I, five received 20g/kgBW (group II and five were used as control (group III, and received only hay, fresh grass and commercial ration. All animals were clinically examined daily and submitted to ultrasonography every three days. Fetal death and vulvar catarrhal discharge with subsequent abortion were observed at the end of the second month of pregnancy in group II and at the third month of pregnancy in group I. Animals from groups I and II were slaughtered after abortion and necropsied. Goats from the control group were necropsied at the same time. The main lesions in the aborted goats were focal placentitis with early involution (apoptosis and placentary coagulation necrosis, acute focal endometritis and vulvo-vaginal petechiae. All aborted fetuses were underdeveloped when compared to control fetuses, probably due to fetal malnutrition, since no congenital malformations could be noted. The majority of aborted fetuses showed some degree of autolysis, as fetal death occurred five and three days before abortion, in groups I and II, respectively. The most remarkable fetal lesions were focal or diffuse hemorrhages in the skin, meninges and visceral serosae.Com o objetivo de investigar a toxicidade da Tetrapterys multiglandulosa A. Juss. foram utilizadas 15 cabras gestantes, divididas aleatoriamente em três grupos (GI, GII e GIII com cinco animais cada. Após estabelecer o diagnóstico de gestação no tempo médio de 35 dias, eram oferecidas diariamente doses de 10 e 20g/kg PV das folhas (jovens e maduras de Tetrapterys multiglandulosa para os grupos I e II, respectivamente, junto ao capim picado, feno e concentrado. Para o grupo III, usado como controle, foram fornecidos somente capim picado, feno e concentrado. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exames clínicos diários e a ultra-sonografia a cada tr

  5. Nutrient limits in diets for growing dairy goats Límites nutricionales para dietas de cabras lecheras en crecimiento

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    AL Martínez-Marín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter intake and nutrient requirements of young growing dairy goats were reviewed in this paper to derive nutrient limits applicable for diet optimization through minimum cost linear programming. The diets offered to growing goats should be optimized from both nutritional and economic view. To get those objectives, the nutritionist has to estimate accurately forage and total dry matter intake, and the nutrient supply and requirements. The reviewed literature suggests that intake of young growing goats ranges between physical and physiological limits imposed by gut fill and energy requirements. The filling effect of the diet is related to its structural carbohydrate content, whereas the physiological satiety effect is related to diet metabolizable energy content. The minimum intake of forage required to keep rumen health is low, whereas maximum forage intake is probably related to the neutral detergent fibre content of the total diet. The energy and protein supply and requirements calculated according to the two most recent feed evaluation systems are similar, what makes no difference using any of both to optimize diets. Recent proposals to calculate calcium and phosphorus supply and requirements provide greater accuracy than the older ones.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue revisar el consumo de materia seca y las necesidades nutritivas de cabras lecheras de reposición estabuladas para establecer límites nutricionales aplicables a la formulación de dietas por programación lineal a mínimo coste. El diseño de dietas nutricionalmente adecuadas y económicas requiere que el nutricionista estime correctamente el consumo de materia seca y forraje y los aportes y las necesidades de nutrientes. La bibliografía revisada sugiere que el consumo total de materia seca de las cabras oscila entre los límites físico y fisiológico impuestos por la capacidad del tracto digestivo y las necesidades energéticas diarias. El efecto de llenado

  6. PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE DE CABRAS PURAS NO CURIMATAÚ PARAIBANO DURANTE A LACTAÇÃO

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    M.C.C. Ferreira

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar a produção de leite de cabras puras das raças Anglo Nubiana, Parda Alemã e British Alpine, durante 195 dias de lactação, na microrregião do Curimataú paraibano. Foram utilizados 6 animais puros de cada raça, de 2a e 3a ordem de parição. O controle leiteiro teve início 30 dias após a parição, com uma periodicidade de 15 dias, durante 195 dias, nas ordenhas matutina e vespertina, perfazendo um total de 72 coletas. A produção obtida para as raças Anglo Nubiana, Parda Alemã e British Alpine, correspondeu a 873,6, 1.162,0 e 2.069,0g, respectivamente. Foi evidenciada influência significativa (PMilk production of pure Anglo Nubian, Brown and British Alpine goats during lactation (195 days in the microrregion of Curimataú at Paraíba State was determined. Six animals of each herd were selected according the order and parity number. Milking control have begun 30 days after birth, with a periodicity of 15 days, in the morning and afternoon milking times, completing 72 determinations. The milk production obtained for the Anglo Nubian, Brown and British Alpine, were 873.6, 1162.0 and 2069.0 g/day, respectively. It was evidenced influence (P<0.05 of herd, lactation period and milking times upon the production: however for the British Alpine this effect was not observed.

  7. Desarrollo de yogurt con capacidad antioxidante elaborado con leche de cabra (Capra hircus y tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn.

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    Carlos Enrique Alvarado Carrasco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de productos es el proceso secuencial de encontrar ideas para nuevos bienes y servicios, para convertirlas en productos comercialmente exitosos, seguros, beneficiosos para el consumidor y manufacturados de manera rentable. En el presente trabajo se siguieron todos los pasos de un Desarrollo Exploratorio en la elaboración de un yogurt a partir leche de cabra (Capra hircus, saborizado con una mermelada de tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea Sendtn. para incrementar su capacidad antioxidante gracias a su contenido de polifenoles y otros componentes bioactivos. Se partió de un concepto de producto evaluado favorablemente por un grupo de consumidores y de criterios de formulación basados en la norma venezolana para yogurt COVENIN 2393:2001. La fórmula final seleccionada fue sometida a análisis físicos, químicos, microbiológicos y sensoriales para su caracterización. Los resultados corroboraron el cumplimiento de lo establecido en la norma. Se cuantificó su actividad antioxidante, mediante la prueba ‘oxigen radical absorbance capacity’, antes y después de la adición de la mermelada de tomate de árbol, encontrándose que la capacidad antioxidante del yogurt saborizado fue 71 % mayor que la del yogurt natural. Por tanto, la incorporación de la mermelada de tomate de árbol permite incrementar la capacidad antioxidante del yogurt de leche de cabra.

  8. Primera comprobación del alza postparto en el contaje de huevos de nemátodos en materia fecal de ovinos en Nicaragua (First report of post-parturient rise in faecal nematode egg count in sheep from Nicaragua

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    Rimbaud E.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe por primera vez en Nicaragua la presencia del fenómeno parasitológico de “alza postparto”, en el contaje de huevos de nemátodos en materia fecal de ovinos. Haemonchus contortus y Trichostrongylus colubriformis se desarrollaron pronunciadamente en hembras a las siete y ocho semanas postparto (P < 0.2 y P < 0.5. The post-parturient rise in the faecal nematode egg count in sheep from Nicaragua was described. Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis increase quickly at post partum in ewes seven and eight weeks later (P < 0.2 y P < 0.5.

  9. Atención del profesional de la salud al vínculo psico-afectivo madre-padre-hijo

    OpenAIRE

    Villarraga de Ramírez Liliana

    2010-01-01

    El parto durante siglos fue asunto de mujeres, dice This Bernard  "En el campo desde luego el hombre que sabía asistir en sus partos a las cabras, ovejas, vacas y yeguas, intervenía en el momento del nacimiento, recibiendo entre sus manos al niño que su mujer traía al mundo. Pero   en la ciudad artesanos, comerciantes y burgueses, notables, no sabían lo que se debía hacer. Las comadronas nombradas por el cura o designadas por la asamblea de mujeres, se ocupaban de las parturientas y ...

  10. Anaerobic treatment of lactic waste and goat manure Tratamiento anaerobio de desechos lácticos y estiércol de cabra

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    Jiménez-Islas Hugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.

    Se realizó una digestión anaerobia para la obtención de biogás a partir de residuos lácteos de crema, queso y suero de leche en combinación con estiércol de cabra, mediante el desarrollo de tres formulaciones, manteniendo constante la cantidad de los desechos de crema y queso y variando la cantidad de excreta de cabra y suero de leche. Se utilizó un inóculo de bacterias metanogénicas obtenido partir de una predigestión de estiércol de cabra. La temperatura de operación fue de 35 ºC, con un pH de 7,0, determinándose el porcentaje de metano en el biogás por medio de cromatografía de gases. Los resultados mostraron que la mayor concentración de metano fue de 82%, obtenida con la formulación número tres.

  11. Educación prenatal: factor asociado al éxito de la lactancia materna

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    Zully Araya Cubero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo investigar si la educación sobre lactancia materna (LM, durante el periodo prenatal,es un factor que contribuye al éxito de esta, en comparación con la brindada a la puérpera durante su estancia hospitalaria yel postparto. Con el fin de identificar la evidencia científica, se formuló una pregunta clínica en formato PICO. Luego, seutilizaron diversas bases de datos, entre ellas el buscador GOOGLE ACADÉMICO, PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO yCOCHRANE DATABASE para la recuperación de la evidencia. Se obtuvo 207 artículos de los cuales 12 proporcionaron datos que responden, parcialmente, a la interrogante planteada. La información fue sometida a análisis crítico, mediante laplantilla CASPe y AGREE, con el fin de determinar si era posible responder a la pregunta propuesta. Se concluye que existeevidencia que indica que las intervenciones para promover y apoyar la lactancia materna aumentan las tasas de iniciación,duración y exclusividad de esta. La promoción y el apoyo de la lactancia materna se puede lograr a través de intervencionesen el transcurso del embarazo, en el momento del parto, después de este y durante la lactancia; sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios controlados que indiquen si la información que reciben las mujeres sobre lactancia materna en la etapa prenatal, comparada con aquella que se les da solamente en la etapa postparto disminuye el riesgo de abandono de la lactancia materna.

  12. Desempenho de cabras leiteiras recebendo dietas com diferentes relações volumoso: concentrado Performance of dairy goats receiving diets with different forage: concentrate ratios

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    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas com vários níveis de concentrado sobre o comportamento alimentar de cabras leiteiras. Dezoito cabras leiteiras Sem Raça Definida foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e seis repetições Três diferentes dietas em mistura completa foram oferecidas aos animais, com variação na relação volumoso:concentrado (V.C de 62:38; 52:48; e 42:58 na matéria natural. O período experimento foi de 131 dias, com 26 dias de adaptação e 105 dias para o período de colheita de dados. Consumos maiores de PB e menores de FDN, FDA e lignina foram obtidos com o aumento do nível de concentrado da dieta. O mesmo padrão foi observado para o material recusado. Menores perda de peso e produção de leite foram obtidas, respectivamente, com as dietas de maior e menor relação V:C. A qualidade da mistura completa de uma dieta teve efeito direto sobre a habilidade de escolha do alimento, aumentando o desempenho das cabras. A redução do tamanho de partícula do volumoso pode minimizar a seleção do concentrado presente em uma ração completa para cabras leiteiras.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of diets with different concentrate levels on feeding behavior of dairy goats. Eighteen native Brazilian dairy goats were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments and six replicates. Three different diets in a total mixed diet were ad libitum feed to the animals, with variation in forage:concentrate ratio of 62:38, 52:48, to 42:58 as fed. The experiment period was of 131 days, with 26 days for adaptation and 105 days for the data collection period. The higher intake of CP and lower intake of NDF, ADF and lignin were obtained as the percent of concentrate in the diet increased. The same pattern was observed for the ort material. Less weight and milk production was obtained, respectively, with higher and lower F:C ratio diets

  13. Hipofosfatemia y fragilidad osmótica eritrocítica en cabras (Hipofosfatemia and eritrocítica osmótica fragility in gotas)

    OpenAIRE

    Forchetti O; Maffrand C; Vissio C; Boaglio C; Cufré G.

    2006-01-01

    El fósforo es un nutriente esencial y como fosfato está comprometido en muchas actividades metabólicas del organismo. La concentración de fósforo inorgánico sérico parece tener un efecto directo o indirecto en procesos que podrían contribuir a la hemólisis de los eritrocitos cuando los animales están entre otras, bajo situaciones de estrés metabólico con altas demandas energéticas como son el crecimiento, la gestación el parto y la lactancia. En esta trabajo se encontró en una cabra, una asoc...

  14. ANÁLISE SENSORIAL E MICROBIOLÓGICA DE KEFIR ARTESANAL PRODUZIDO A PARTIR DE LEITE DE CABRA E DE LEITE DE VACA

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    Felipe Alves de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O kefir vem sendo considerado como um alimento funcional, produzido através da fermentação lática e alcoólica do leite por bactérias e leveduras, possuindo consistência semelhante à de um iogurte, mas de valor nutricional e terapêutico muito maior. É originário das montanhas dos Cáucaso e da Ásia Central tendo sido consumido por milhares de anos pela população das montanhas que relacionam seu uso diário com a longevidade e saúde. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar um kefir a base de leite de vaca e outro a base de leite de cabra e avaliar suas características microbiológicas e a aceitabilidade de cada um dos produtos.

  15. Calidad nutricional y consumo de morera (Morus alba, ramio (Bohemeria nivea (L Gaud y sorgo negro forrajero (Sorghum almum en cabras

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    Jorge Elizondo Salazar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Calidad y consumo de morera (Morus alba, ramio (Bohemeria nivea (L Gaud y sorgo negro forrajero (Sorghum almum en cabras. El experimento se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se evaluó y comparó el consumo de morera, ramio y sorgo negro forrajero en nueve cabras raza La Mancha, con un peso promedio de 38 (±1 kg, distribuidas en un diseño de cuadrado latino 3 x 3 repetido. Los tratamientos experimentales fueron: a dieta única de morera, b dieta única de ramio y c dieta única de sorgo negro. La morera con una edad de rebrote de 90 días, el ramio con 56 días y el sorgo negro con 70 días. El forraje se suministró en forma fresca picada (tallos y hojas. Se recolectaron muestras del material ofrecido y rechazado para el análisis de materia seca, proteína cruda y fibra neutro detergente. Se observaron diferencias altamente significativas (P≤0,01 para el consumo de forraje fresco, materia seca, proteína cruda y fibra neutro detergente. La ingesta de materia seca para los diferentes tratamientos se encontró dentro del rango reportado en la literatura, siendo de 1,94, 0,97 y 0,90 del peso vivo respectivamente. Con los consumos de proteína cruda obtenidos con la dieta de morera y ramio, los animales cubrieron sus necesidades de mantenimiento y suplieron el nutrimento de forma extra para alcanzar ganancias de peso diarias superiores a los 50 gramos. La dieta que presentó los mayores niveles de consumo de forraje verde, forraje seco, proteína cruda y fibra neutro detergente fue la correspondiente a morera, seguida de la dieta de ramio.

  16. Alterações histopatológicas da glândula mamária e qualidade do leite de cabras naturalmente infectadas com o CAEV

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    R.Q. Bezerra Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do vírus da CAE nas características físico-químicas de amostras de leite de 54 cabras, sem predileção racial, distribuindo-as em dois grupos: cabras positivas e negativas para o teste de imunodifusão em gel de agarose. As amostras de leite foram submetidas à análise ultrassônica para obtenção de parâmetros físico-químicos - gordura, extrato seco, proteínas, lactose e densidade; realização de microbiologia - bactérias mesófilas (UCF/mL. Foram coletadas amostras de tecido mamário para exame histopatológico e imunohistoquímica. Não houve diferença significativa das características avaliadas entre os dois grupos; no microbiológico, não houve relação direta da presença de mesófilas associada à infecção pelo CAEV. Na histopatologia, observaram-se áreas com infiltração celular de monócitos, polimorfonucleares, plasmócitos, fibrose, ausência de morfologia normal do parênquima mamário, denotando processo inflamatório crônico; e foi confirmada a presença do vírus na glândula pela imunohistoquímica. Os resultados não mostraram relação direta da incidência da CAE como fator negativo no desenvolvimento do rebanho.

  17. Producción de RNI en cultivo de células mononucleares de cabras vacunadas con Rev-1 de Brucilla

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    Ortega-Sánchez, José L.(1, Martínez-Romero, Aurora(1, Hernández-Salgado, José R.(1,

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis es una zoonosis antigua que permanece endémica en lamayoría de las ciudades del mundo. La acidificación de los nitritos (NO2 - permite la producción no enzimática de óxido nítrico. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica celular mediante la producción de intermediarios reactivos de nitrógeno por las células mononucleares en cabras vacunadas con la cepa mutante de Brucella melitensis Rev-1. Se seleccionaron 10 cabras raza sannen, de 3-4 meses de edad. Se realizaron cinco muestreos, previo a la inoculación (cero días, 3, 7, 14 y 21 días después de aplicar los tratamientos. Se obtuvieron lascélulas mononucleares por el método Ficoll-histopaque. Los NO2- y nitratos (NO3 - fueron cuantificados por ELISA. La concentración de NO3 - fluctuó entre 29.96 y 39.31 μM/l. Los NO2- se encontraron entre 32.49 y 92.85 μM/l. Se obtuvo mayor respuesta entre el período de 14 a 21 días, observándose un efecto significativo entre el periodo de estudio, tratamientos e interacción entre ambos. Podemos concluir que la vacunarev-1 de B. melitensis estimula la producción de nitritos bajo condiciones de cultivo celular.

  18. Associação de SNPs nos genes para κ-caseína e β-lactoglobulina com curvas de lactação em cabras leiteiras

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Julián Calvo Cardona; Juán David Corrales Álvarez; José Lindenberg Rocha Sarmento; Luis Gabriel González Herrera; Henry Cardona Cadavid

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o modelo com melhor ajuste aos dados de produção de leite, gordura, proteína e sólidos totais para cabras leiteiras, bem como associar polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs) nos genes para κ-caseína (κ-CSN3) e β-lactoglobulina (β-LG) aos parâmetros das curvas de produção e qualidade do leite. Foram avaliados 4.160 registros de produção de leite, gordura, proteína e sólidos totais de cabras das raças Alpina, Saanen e mestiça, no Estado de Antioquia,...

  19. Diferenciación del aparato digestivo de los rumiantes: comparación entre oveja (Ovis aries), rebeco (Rupricapra Pyrenaica) y cabra montés (Capra pyrenaica)

    OpenAIRE

    Mantecón, Ángel R.; Frutos, Pilar; Lavín, Santiago; De Marco, I.; Lavín, Paz

    1993-01-01

    [ES] Se han utilizado los datos correspondientes a 11 ovejas (Ovisaries), l0 cabras monteses (Capra pyrenaica) y 24 rebecos (Rupicapra pyrenaica). El aparato digestivo, una vez separada la grasa omental y mesentérica, ss fraccionó en los siguientes compartimentos: retículo-rumen, omaso, abomaso, intestino delgado, intestino grueso y ciego. El peso total del aparato digestivo vacío y de todos sus compartimentos fue mayor en las ovejas que en los rebecos, ocupando la ...

  20. Petrografía y geoquímica preliminar de los basaltos cretácicos de la sierra de Las Quijadas y cerrillada de Las Cabras, provincia de San Luis, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Amancay N.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary petrography and geochemistry of the Cretacic basalts of the Sierra de Las Quijadasand Cerrillada de Las Cabras, San Luis province, Argentina. We present preliminary results of the petrologyand geochemistry of Cretaceous basalts exposed in the anticlines of the sierra of Las Quijadas and cerrillada ofLas Cabras. In the mountainous western of San Luis crop out at least two depositional sequences which togetherexceed the 1500 m thick and consists mainly of clastic sedimentary sequences typical continental red beds belongingto the Giant Group and Lagarcito Formation. Within this group, recognizes two types of basalt events, representedby lava flows and dykes. The lava flows were described in the northeastern sector of the anticline, in a landscapeof gentle hills. The dykes were found on the western flank of the anticline, northern sector of that mountain.Basalt lava flows have porphyritic texture with phenocrystals show idiomorphic olivine with clinopyroxene,amphibole and plagioclase, while the basaltic dykes show olivine in porphyritic texture embedded in a plagioclasepaste without orientation, amphibole and apatite needles. The basalts of the cerrillada de Las Cabras presented asa volcanic breccia associated with basaltic bombs. They have phenocrystals of olivine and clinopyroxene in pastewith plagioclase oriented. The basalts are classified as alkali basalts and related to intraplate basalts. When analyzingrare earth elements chondrite normalized according to Nakamura’s design are observed with a steep negative slopefor the heavy rare earth elements, a design that is similar to that found in alkaline basalts from the Sierra Chica deCórdoba.

  1. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% (18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. This study was carried out in the Histology and Embriology laboratory at the Medicine Veterinary and Zootecny of the Altiplano National University, with alpacas coming from the EPS Rural Alliance (4140 m.a.s.l., Quimsachata Research Center (4050 m.a.s.l. and the Raya Research Center (4130 m.a.s.l. whose objective was the study the process of the uterine involution after parturition from day 0 to 30. For such purpose 34 multiparous alpacas from 4 to 6 year old were selectec. The results were: Macroscopically the uterusweight lost 71,07% (385,25g, 25,54% (138,55g and 3,42% (18,6g at first

  2. Relationships between cow-calf sensory cues and the postpartum interval in suckler cows - Relaciones entre vínculos sensoriales vaca-ternero y duración del anestro post-parto en vacas nodrizas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Rodríguez, Javier

    2009-11-01

    el período de inactividad cíclica ováricapostparto. Las prácticas de manejo que limitan el amamantamientodeberían asimismo limitar la asociación próxima entre vaca y terneropara reducir la duración del anestro postparto.

  3. Evolución de la calcemia y de los marcadores de remodelamiento óseo durante la gestación, el parto y el postparto normales

    OpenAIRE

    Toro Salas, Antonio de

    2000-01-01

    La consecuencia final de la gestación, el parto y ... Nuestra hipótesis se basa en la posible existencia de un incremento de la tasa de remodelamiento óseo, con movilizaciones de los niveles séricos de los parámetros bioquímicos de formación y reabsorción óseas, así como de los niveles séricos de calcio, PTH y otros elementos relacionados, durante la gestación, todo ello encaminado a aportar al feto el calcio necesario para su formación, y evitar que la madre caiga en una situación de déf...

  4. Utilización de inulina en la formulación de yogur descremado de leche de cabra Using inulin in the formulation of non-fat goats´milk yogurt

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    Enzo Goncalvez de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La inulina es una fibra prebiótica que imparte mayor cremosidad y favorece la textura y firmeza en productos lácteos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue utilizarla para reemplazar la grasa en la formulación de un yogur descremado de leche de cabra, de consistencia batida. Para ello se utilizó: leche de cabra biotipo Saanen; cultivos de bacterias lácticas liofilizadas: Streptococcus thermophilus (ST M6 y Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb-12; inulina en polvo; azúcar, gelatina sin sabor (INS 440 y frutilla entera en conserva. Las bacterias lácticas se trabajaron al 0,04; 0,08; 0,1 y 0,2%, con una relación bacilo/coco de 1:1; 1:2; 1:3 y 1:4. La concentración óptima fue preseleccionada por medio de pruebas tecnológicas: diacetilo, proteólisis, lipólisis; y la selección final por medio de una prueba de preferencia, con un panel piloto de 8 jueces entrenados. Se elaboraron tres yogures con diferentes concentraciones de fruta: al 9, 16 y 23%, que se evaluaron mediante Prueba de Preferencia. Posteriormente, en la preferida, se evaluó aceptabilidad. Para la formulación del yogur, a la leche pasteurizada y descremada, se adicionaron inulina, gelatina, azúcar, bacterias lácticas específicas ST M6 y Lb- 12 al 0,04%, relación bacilo/coco 1:1. La fermentación se llevó a cabo en estufa a 37 ± 1ºC por 2 horas, 30 minutos, hasta pH 4,6. Se refrigeró a 4 ± 2ºC. La concentración de fruta preferida fue de 23%, con una aceptabilidad del 99%. Los consumidores opinaron que el producto final les resultó agradable, dulce, de acidez, color y consistencia adecuados y aroma agradable. La composición química fue: humedad: 75,39; hidratos de carbono: 13,85; inulina: 4,5; proteínas: 5,22; grasas: 0,04; cenizas: 0,99 g/100ml; calcio: 173,77 y fósforo: 72,54 mg/100ml. En la formulación del yogur descremado la incorporación de inulina fue factible, generando un producto fuente de fibra, de bajo valor lipídico y de buena

  5. Llet de cabra verge

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Ahmed A. K. (Ahmed Abdel-Rahman Kamal)

    2007-01-01

    Fa anys que l'enginyeria ramadera indueix la lactació mitjançant injecció directa d'estrogen i progesterona. Un nou avanç podria millorar, en un futur, l'efectivitat d'aquest tractament en cabres lleteres gràcies a la reserpina, un agent inductor de la prolactina.

  6. Enteral fluid therapy through nasogastric tube in rumen cannulated goats Fluidoterapia enteral por via nasogástrica em cabras fistuladas no rúmen

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    Katia Atoji-Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.Este estudo relata os efeitos da fluidoterapia em cabras que receberam, por via nasogástrica, uma solução eletrolítica com concentrações de sódio, potássio e cloreto similares às verificadas no plasma de caprinos (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras da raça Parda Alpina, sendo duas com cânulas ruminais apresentando vazamento evidente, em um delineamento experimental crossover com dois períodos e dois grupos. Em um grupo, as cabras eram submetidas a um protocolo terapêutico para induzir a desidratação antes da fluidoterapia enquanto o outro grupo não passava por este

  7. Indução de estro em cabras da raça Toggenburg com dois diferentes dispositivos intravaginais Estrous induction in Toggenburg goats using intravaginal devices

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    V.V. Maffili

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze cabras nulíparas da raça Toggenburg foram distribuídas em dois tratamentos (T1 e T2 para indução do estro. O T1 (n=6 consistiu na inserção da esponja impregnada com 60mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, associado à aplicação de 50µg do análogo sintético d-cloprostenol (PGF. No quarto dia, foram aplicadas 250UI de gonadotropina coriônica eqüina (eCG e, no quinto, a esponja foi retirada. O T2 (n=6 diferiu somente quanto ao dispositivo empregado, que foi o CIDR-G®. Seis cabras do T1 e seis do T2 entraram em estro depois da retirada dos dispositivos, sendo que 83,3 (5/6 e 33,3% (2/6 ficaram gestantes em T1 e T2, respectivamente. O intervalo da retirada do dispositivo ao início do estro não diferiu entre tratamentos (P>0,05. As características ovulatórias não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos. O intervalo da retirada do dispositivo à ovulação, para ambos os protocolos de indução do estro, não diferiu (P>0,05 entre tratamentos. Ambos os dispositivos foram eficientes em induzir o estro.Twelve Toggenburg breed nuliparous female goats were randomly assigned to two treatments intended to induce estrus. On day zero, animals on T1 (n=6 were treated with an intravaginal sponge impregnated with 60mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate plus 50µg of PGF analogue. The T1 goats received eCG (250IU on day 4, and on day 5 the sponge was removed. The T2 goats (n=6 received CIDR-G® as intravaginal sponge plus 50mg of PGF analogue. All goats expressed behavioral estrus, and the pregnancy rates were 83.3 (5/6 and 33.3% (2/6 for T1 and T2, respectively. The interval from withdrawal of the device to onset of estrus did not differ between treatments (P>0.05. Ovulatory traits also were not affected by treatments. The interval between CIDR-G® removal and ovulation for T1 and T2 goats were similar (P>0.05. Both sponge and CIDR-G were equally efficient in inducing the estrus behavior in goats.

  8. Escalas de rastreamento para depressão pós-parto: uma revisão sistemática Escalas de rastreo para depresión postparto: una revisión sistemática Postpartum depression screening scales: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Machado Schardosim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre as escalas de rastreamento de Depressão Pós-Parto (DPP aplicadas até 16 semanas após o parto em puérperas acima de 15 anos. Buscaram-se artigos em quatro bases de dados. Os artigos deveriam indicar a definição e a validação precisa dos instrumentos utilizados. Dos 424 resumos, 62 foram acessados na íntegra e, de acordo com os critérios estabelecidos, foram incluídos 18 artigos nesta revisão. O período de rastreamento de DPP variou de 2 a 10 dias pós-parto e o reteste entre 8 e 16 semanas pós-parto. A DPP foi diagnosticada entre 8,8 a 40% da amostra dos estudos. A escala mais utilizada foi a Edinburg Depression Postpartum Scale (EDPS. Concluiu-se que as escalas são comumente utilizadas em pesquisas, mas podem ser uma ferramenta facilitadora para identificação de DPP na assistência às gestantes e às puérperas.El estudio objetivó realizar una revisión sistemática sobre las escalas de rastreo de Depresión Postparto (DPP aplicado hasta 16 semanas postparto en puérperas con más de 15 años. Se buscaron artículos en 4 bases de datos. Los artículos deberían indicar la definición y la validación exacta de los instrumentos utilizados. De los 424 resúmenes, se accedió a 62 íntegramente y de acuerdo con los criterios establecidos, se incluyeron 18 artículos en esta revisión. El período de rastreo varió de 2 a 10 días postparto y la nueva prueba entre 8 y 16 semanas postparto. La DPP fue diagnosticada entre 8,8 y 40% de la muestra de los estudios. Edinburgh Depression Postpartum Scale (EDPS fue la escala más utilizada. Se concluyó que las escalas se usan generalmente en investigaciones pero pueden resultar una herramienta facilitadora para identificar la DPP en la atención a las gestantes y puérperas.This study aimed at conducting a systematic review of postpartum depression (PPD screening scales in puerperal applied until 16 weeks after

  9. Aceitação sensorial e caracterização de frozen yogurt de leite de cabra com adição de cultura probiótica e prebiótico Sensorial acceptance and characterization of goat's milk frozen yogurt with addition of probiotic culture and prebiotic

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Lima Alves; Neila Silvia Pereira dos Santos Richards; Larissa Vargas Becker; Diego Fontana de Andrade; Liana Inês Guidolin Milani; Ana Paula de Souza Rezer; Gustavo Callegari Scipioni

    2009-01-01

    O leite de cabra é recomendado para pessoas intolerantes ao leite de vaca e/ou portadoras de desordens gastrintestinais. frozen yogurt elaborado a partir de iogurte de leite de cabra foi acrescido de 1% de prebiótico (inulina), 0,25% de cultura starter (Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus bulgaricus) e 0,25% de cultura probiótica (Bifidobacterium animalis e Lactobacillus acidophilus) para verificar seu potencial probiótico (após sete e 120 dias de armazenamento), sua qualidade físico-q...

  10. Perfil eletroforético e concentração de imunoglobulinas G (IgG) do soro sanguíneo de cabras Saanen com mastite experimental induzida por Staphylococcus aureus suplementadas com vitamina E Electrophoretic profile and concentration of immunoglobulins G (IgG) in blood serum of Saanen goats with experimental mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus suplemented with vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Joandes H. Fonteque; Aguemi Kohayagawa; Mattoso, Cláudio R.S.; Sônia T.A. Lopes; Paulo R.O. Paes; Maria Luiza Cassetari; Hélio Langoni

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas e a concentração sérica de imunoglobulina G (IgG) em cabras da raça Saanen com mastite induzida experimentalmente por Staphylococcus aureus e suplementadas com vitamina E (acetato de dl-α-tocoferol). Utilizaram-se 14 cabras adultas, gestantes, primíparas, com sorologia negativa para Artrite Encefalite Caprina (CAEV), clinicamente sadias, divididas em dois grupos experimentais de sete animais. Grupo não suplementado ...

  11. Utilización de enzimas fibrolíticas en cabras lecheras evaluación de su actividad y características fermentativas in vitro = Use of fibrolytic enzymes in dairy goats and in vitro evaluation of activity and fermentative characteristics /

    OpenAIRE

    González García, Eliel

    2005-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Descripció del recurs: 9 de febrer 2005 En una serie de experiencias in vivo e in vitro, se evaluaron los efectos de la suplementación con enzimas fibrolíticas a la ración de cabras lecheras. En la experiencia de lactación (Exp.1) se estudió, mediante un diseño 'crossover' con 24 cabras Murciano-Granadinas a mediados de lactación y distribuidas en dos tratamientos (Control: sin suplementación, CON, n = 12; y Promote™: suplementadas con enzimas fibrolíticas a 0.47...

  12. Composición físico-química y calidad microbiológica de leche de cabra en rebaño bajo sistema extensivo en Santiago del Estero (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Frau, Silvia Florencia; Font, Graciela; Paz, Raúl; Pece, Nora

    2012-01-01

    La calidad de leche puede definirse como el potencial que ésta posee para ser sometida a un tratamiento tecnológico. Existen requisitos que definen su calidad: composición fisicoquímica, cualidades organolépticas y número de microorganismos presentes. Se determinó la composición y contenido microbiológico promedio en leche de cabra producida en un establecimiento caprino de la provincia de Santiago del Estero, la cual posteriormente es utilizada para la elaboración de quesos. Las muestras ...

  13. Características das papilas o dorso da língua de cabras (Capra hircus): estudo por de microscopia eletrônica de varredura e luz

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Toledo da Fonseca; Cláudia Marinovic de Oliveira; André Luís Rezende Franciolli; Maria Angélica Miglino

    2011-01-01

    A morfologia das papilas linguais da cabra doméstica (Capra hircus) foi estudada por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV) e Microscopia de luz. Papilasfiiliformes, cônicas e lentiformes possuem função mecânica, enquanto que as papilas fungiformes e as valadas possuem função gustativa. As papilasfiiliformes estavam distribuídas por toda a extensão da língua, nas superfícies dorsal e lateral. Possuem um formato cônico com a extremidade pontiaguda direcionada caudalmente. Possuem vários pro...

  14. Estudio histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico del hígado y ganglios linfáticos hepáticos en cabras inmunizadas frente a "Fasciola hepatica"

    OpenAIRE

    Zafra Leva, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio ha sido evaluar la eficacia protectora, así como las lesiones y respuestas inmune local y sistémica inducidas por los antígenos Glutatión-S-Transferasa (GST) de F.hepatica y un péptido sintético (pSm14) derivado del antígeno Sm14 de Schistosoma mansoni. Para este estudio se utilizaron 21 cabras de 4 meses de edad de raza Florida Sevillana, que fueron divididas en tres grupos de 6 animales cada uno: control positivo de infección (grupo 2); grupo inmunizado con ...

  15. 2003-2012: 10 Años de legislación sobre no discriminación de personas con discapacidad en España. Estudios en homenaje a Miguel Ángel Cabra de Luna

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Bueno, Luis Cayo; Álvarez Ramírez, Gloria; et al.

    2012-01-01

    Esta obra colectiva publicada por el CERMI en homenaje a Miguel Ángel Cabra de Luna hace un repaso del impacto que ha tenido la legislación sobre no discriminación de las personas con discapacidad de los últimos diez años, desde la aparición de la Ley 51/2003, de 2 de diciembre, de Igualdad de Oportunidades, no Discriminación y Accesibilidad Universal de las Personas con Discapacidad y tras la reciente adaptación normativa de nuestra legislación a la Convención sobre los derechos humanos de l...

  16. Distribution and ecological relevance of fine sediments in organic-enriched lagoons: The case study of the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, P. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.magni@iamc.cnr.it; De Falco, G. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Como, S. [International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Casu, D. [Dip. di Botanica ed Ecologia vegetale, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Floris, A. [Dip. di Zoologia e Genetica evoluzionistica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Petrov, A.N. [Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, 99011 Sevastopol (Ukraine); Castelli, A. [Dip. di Biologia, Universita di Pisa, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Perilli, A. [CNR-IAMC, National Research Council - Institute for Coastal Marine Environment Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy); International Marine Centre, Localita Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09072 Oristano (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    In organic-enriched sedimentary systems, like many Mediterranean coastal lagoons, a detailed analysis of sediment grain size composition and partitioning within the muds is crucial to investigate sedimentological trends related to both hydrodynamic energy and basin morphology. In these systems, sediment dynamics are particularly important because the partitioning and transport of fine sediments can strongly influence the redistribution and accumulation of large amounts of organic matter, and consequently the distribution of benthic assemblages and the trophic status and functioning of a lagoon. Nevertheless, studies on benthic-sediment relationships have been based mainly on a rather coarse analysis of sediment grain size features. In muddy systems, however, this approach may impede a proper evaluation of the relationships and effects of the distribution of fine sediment and organic matter on the biotic benthic components. Here we show that the distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) in the Cabras lagoon (Sardinia, Italy) can be explained (i.e., predicted) as a function of a nonlinear increase in the amount of the cohesive fraction of sediments ({<=}8 {mu}m grain size particles) and that this fraction strongly influences the structure, composition and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. Even in such a homogeneously muddy system, characterized by 'naturally' occurring impoverished communities, impaired benthic assemblages were found at {<=}8 {mu}m, OM, TOC contents of about 77%, 11% and 3.5%, respectively. A review of studies conducted in Mediterranean coastal lagoons highlighted a lack of direct integrated analysis of sediment features and the biotic components. We suggest that, especially in organic-enriched coastal lagoons, monitoring programs should primarily investigate and consider the cohesive fraction of sediments in order to allow a better assessment of benthic-sediment relationships and ecological

  17. Perfil microbiológico, celular e fatores de risco associados à mastite subclínica em cabras no semiárido da Paraíba Cellular and microbiological profiles and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in goats in the semi-arid region of Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia B. Neves

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo da mastite subclínica em nove rebanhos de cabras leiteiras no semiárido paraibano com o objetivo de determinar a ocorrência da infecção, avaliar o perfil microbiológico e celular do leite, testar a sensibilidade dos microorganismos isolados frente a antimicrobianos além de identificar os fatores de risco. Foram utilizadas 131 cabras leiteiras das quais foram colhidas 261 amostras de leite para exame microbiológico e 131 para contagem de células somáticas (CCS. Na ocasião das colheitas foi realizado o California Mastitis Test (CMT e aplicado um questionário epidemiológico por propriedade. Houve crescimento bacteriano em 30 amostras (11,49% com 25 (83,33% dos isolados identificados como Staphylococcus coagulase negativa e cinco (16,66% Staphylococcus aureus. A média de CCS foi de 1,39x10(6 células/ml. O CMT apresentou baixa sensibilidade (46,7% e baixa especificidade (60,6% quando comparado ao exame microbiológico. A gentamicina e a associação da neomicina, bacitracina e tetraciclina foram os antimicrobianos contra os quais os microrganismos isolados apresentaram 100% de sensibilidade. Penicilina e ampicilina foram os de maiores índices de resistência (66,67% e 63,89%, respectivamente. A caprinocultura não ser a atividade principal da propriedade e o não isolamento de animais doentes, foram identificados como fatores de risco para a mastite subclínica caprina nas propriedades estudadas. Programas de controle e profilaxia da mastite devem ser implementados enfocando as medidas de higiene na ordenha e correção dos fatores de risco identificados nesse estudo.A subclinical mastitis study was conducted in nine dairy goat herds in the semi-arid region of Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, to determine the occurrence of infection, to evaluate microbiological and cellular profiles of the milk, to test the sensitivity of isolated microorganisms to antimicrobials, and to identify risk factors. One hundred

  18. Relationships of systemic IgG antibody response and lesions caused by Oestrus ovis L. larvae (Diptera: Oestridae in infected goats - Interacciones de la respuesta sistémica de anticuerpos IgG y las lesiones causadas por larvas de Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae en cabras infectadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angulo-Valadez, Carlos E

    2009-11-01

    la glándula salival para elserodiagnóstico de la estrosis caprina usando la prueba de ELISA. Secapturaron larvas de tercer estadio (L3, se disectaron para removerla glándula salival y obtener la fuente de antígenos (CGS. Seexaminaron en necropsias 250 cabras. El peso, sexo y edad fueronregistrados. Los senos frontales y cavidades cornuales se examinaronpara la presencia de O. ovis. La intensidad de las lesiones en cabrasinfectadas (n=38 se registraron de acuerdo con una tabla deseveridad. Los sueros (n=125 se analizaron por ELISA para detectarla respuesta humoral de IgG. La prevalencia anual de la estrosiscaprina fue 73.9%. Una asociación baja positiva (r=0.38, P<0.05 seobservó entre la carga larvaria y la severidad de las lesionesencontradas. En general, se observaron alta sensibilidad (90.82% ybaja especificidad (25.93% en la prueba de ELISA. Comoconclusiones, los daños patológicos mayores se asociaron al númeroy presencia de larvas tempranas L2 y L3, probablemente inducidospor la muda larvaria. Los antígenos CGS demostraron ser valiosos enla prueba de ELISA para el diagnóstico de la estrosis caprina.

  19. Dairy goat health management and milk production on organic and conventional system in BrazilEstudo comparativo da produção e manejo sanitário entre cabras leiteiras orgânica e convencional no Brasil

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    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this article is to measure risk factors on health and milk production on organic and conventional dairy goats in Brazil. Two experimental groups (organic and conventional were evaluated simultaneously. The study design was completely randomized. The organic herd consisted of 25 goats and 15 kids. In the conventional production system, a dairy herd comprising 40 goats and 20 kids participated in the study. Data on milk production and health management were available from January 2007 to December 2009. The abortion rate in the conventional system was 5% (2/40 whereas in organic system no abortion was diagnosed (0/25. The mortality rate at weaning in the conventional system was 5% (2/40 and in the organic system was 8% (2/25. Milk production was lower (2.20 kg/day in organic than conventional system (2.66 kg/day. Goats and kids in organic farm had a higher FEC (386±104 and 900±204, respectively (p O objetivo do artigo foi mensurar os fatores de risco referentes ao manejo sanitário e a produção entre cabras leiteiras sob sistema orgânico e convencional. Dois grupos experimentais (orgânico e convencional foram conduzidos simultaneamente. O desenho do estudo foi o inteiramente casualizado. O rebanho orgânico consistiu de 25 cabras e 15 cabritos e o sistema convencional por 40 cabras e 20 cabritos. Os parâmetros produtivos e sanitários foram monitorados entre janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2009. No sistema convencional, houve uma taxa de aborto de 5% (2/40, enquanto que no sistema orgânico nenhum aborto foi diagnosticado (0/25. A taxa de mortalidade ao desmame no sistema convencional foi de 5% (2/40 e no sistema orgânico foi de 8% (2/25. A produção de leite média diária por cabra no rebanho leiteiro orgânico (2,20 kg/dia foi mais baixa do que a do rebanho convencional (2,66 kg/dia. Os resultados indicaram que as cabras e cabritos mantidos em fazenda orgânica (386±104 e 900±204, respectivamente apresentaram maiores

  20. Flutuação das variáveis séricas em cabras e estudo comparativo da absorção de anticorpos em cabritos recém-nascidos utilizando colostro bovino e caprino Fluctuation of serum variables in goats and comparative study of antibody absorption in new-born kids using cattle and goat colostrum

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    Anali Linhares Lima

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a flutuação no nível de anticorpos séricos em cabras nos períodos pré e pós-parto e a eficiência do processo de aquisição de imunidade passiva em cabritos recém-nascidos utilizando colostros bovino e caprino, visando à avaliação de uma alternativa de manejo de colostro. Foram utilizadas 18 cabras e suas respectivas crias, num total de 33 animais. A coleta de sangue das cabras foi iniciada 45 dias antes da data prevista para o parto e foi realizada em intervalos de cinco dias até o 5º dia após o parto. Os cabritos foram distribuídos em dois grupos: um grupo recebeu colostro caprino e o outro colostro bovino. As coletas de sangue foram feitas às 0, 12, 24 e 48 horas e aos 5, 10, 15, 17, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 e 60 dias de vida. Foram analisadas as concentrações séricas de proteína total e imunoglobulinas, além da concentração de imunoglobinas no colostro. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado e as variáveis séricas analisadas como medidas repetidas. A ausência de queda na concentração sérica de proteínas totais e imunoglobinas no período pré-parto indica que a mobilização de anticorpos para glândula mamária ocorre em concentrações que permitem o animal manter essas variáveis sem grandes alterações. No grupo que recebeu colostro bovino, a data de concentração máxima de proteínas totais (7,16 ± 0,28 g/dL foi verificada às 48,68 ± 0,70 horas de vida e a de imunoglobinas, às 48,75 ± 0,73 horas, com média de 37,56 ± 2,38 unidades ZST (turvação por sulfato de zinco. No grupo que recebeu colostro caprino, os valores máximos de proteínas totais e imunoglobinas séricas ocorreram mais tardiamente, aos 20,05 ± 1,36 e 20,11 ± 1,72 dias de vida, com médias de 5,91 ± 0,22 g/dL e 28,17 ± 2,05 unidades ZST, respectivamente. O colostro caprino pode ser substituído pelo colostro bovino, que promove melhor aquisição inicial de imunoglobulinas aos neonatos

  1. CONDIÇÕES HIGIÊNICO-SANITÁRIAS DO QUEIJO DE LEITE DE CABRA "TIPO COALHO", ARTESANAL ELABORADO NO CURIMATAÚ PARAIBANO

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    S.M.F. EUTHIER

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 20 amostras de queijo de leite de cabra" tipo coalho", elaborados de forma artesanal e armazenados durante 28 dias sob refrigeração a 10 ± 2 ºC, em intervalos de 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: contagem de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas (UFC/g número mais provável de coliformes totais e fecais (NMP/g, contagem de bolores e leveduras (UFC/g e contagem de Staphylococcus aureus (UFC/g. As contagens de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas variaram de 2,35 x 103 a 1,5 x 109 UFC/g; enquanto que o número de coliformes totais oscilaram entre 2,4 x 103 a 2,4 x 106 e 2,4 x 109 NMP/g. Por outro lado, a contagem de coliformes fecais a apresentou variações de 2,4 x 103 a 2,4 x 106 NMP/g e bolores e leveduras Twenty samples of hand made curdling goat cheese, stored for 28 days under 10 ± 2 ºC for intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days were analysed. The following analysis were carried out mesofilic aerobics bacterias counting (UFC/g, most probable number of total and fecal coliforms (NMP/g, mold counting (UFC/g and Staphylococcus aureus counting (UFC/g. Aerobic mesofilic bacterias counting ranged from 2,35 x 103 a 1,5 x 109 UFC/g, while total coliforms ranged from 2,4 x 106 to 2,4 x 109 NMP/g, on the other hand fecal coliforms showed variations from 2,40 x 103 to 2,40 x 106 NMP/g and molds < 30 to 5,5 x 108 UFC/g. During storage it was not registred the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. As demonstrated by the results, it was verified the necessity of evaluation of sanitary-hygienic technics used during processing and handling of elaborated cheese.

  2. Efeitos hemogasométricos da xilazina e da romifidina em cabras tratadas por ioimbina Haemogasometric effects of xylazine and romifidine in goats treated with yohimbine

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    J.A.B. Bastos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se as alterações produzidas por doses equipotentes de xilazina e romifidina e os efeitos da administração subseqüente de ioimbina em oito cabras mestiças. Respeitou-se um intervalo de sete dias entre os seguintes tratamentos: A- 250µg/kg/IM de xilazina e 0,1ml/kg/IV de solução fisiológica, B- 250µg/kg/IM de xilazina e 250µg/kg/IV de ioimbina, C- 25µg/kg/IM de romifidina e 0,1ml/kg/IV de solução fisiológica, D- 25µg/kg/IM de romifidina e 250µg/kg/IV de ioimbina. Foram mensurados a freqüência respiratória, o pH, as pressões parciais de oxigênio e dióxido de carbono, a concentração de íon bicarbonato, o excesso de bases e a saturação de oxigênio no sangue arterial. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental crossover, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Duncan (PdWith the purpose to assess some of the clinical and laboratorial features induced by xylazine and romifidine, at equipotent sedative doses, followed by the use of yohimbine, eight crossbred female goats were assigned randomly to four treatments at the following dose rates: A- 250µg/kg/IM xylazine plus 0.1ml/kg/IV saline solution, B- 250µg/kg/IM xylazine plus 250µg/kg/IV de yohimbine, C- 25µg/kg/IM romifidine plus 0.1ml/kg/IV saline, D- 25µg/kg/IM romifidine plus 250µg/kg/IV yohimbine. Breath rate, pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, concentration of hydrogen carbonate, base excess and fraction of oxyhemoglobin of arterial blood were measured. A crossover experimental design was used and the comparisons of treatment means were performed by Duncan test (Pd<0.05. Xylazine and romifidine induced a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen and an increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood. Yohimbine reversed the effects of xylazine and romifidine on arterial oxygen carbon partial pressures.

  3. Carcinoma de células escamosas perineal em cabras no Pará Perineal squamous cell carcinoma in goats in the State of Pará, Brazil

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    José D. Barbosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE bem diferenciado em caprinos de duas propriedades no Estado do Pará. Foram observadas a prevalência, a correlação com a pigmentação da região perineal e as características macro e microscópica das lesões. As lesões consistiram em tumores no períneo, com grau de desenvolvimento, diâmetro e forma variados. Em uma propriedade no município de Viseu, dos 347 caprinos, 20 apresentaram CCE (5,8%. A neoplasia só foi observada em animais com a região perineal despigmentada. Em outra propriedade, no município de Garrafão do Norte, descreve-se a ocorrência de três casos em um rebanho de 400 caprinos (0,75%. A elevada ocorrência deste tumor deve-se, provavelmente, à despigmentação do períneo e à cauda curta e elevada das cabras, que expõe a região perineal à alta incidência de radiação ultravioleta naquela região.Squamous cell carcinoma in goats of two farms in the State of Pará is described. Prevalence, correlation with the pigmentation of the perineal area and macro and microscopic characteristics of the lesions were studied. The tumors on the perineum were of varied development degrees, diameters and forms. On one farm, in the county of Viseu, from a total of 347 goats, 20 presented the neoplasia (5.8%. On the second farm, in the county of Garrafão do Norte, three cases of squamous cell carcinoma in a herd of 400 goats (0.75% were observed. The tumor was only observed in animals in which the perineal area was despigmented. The high incidence of this tumor appears to be due to lack of pigmentation at the períneo and the high and short tail of the goats, that exposes the area to intense ultraviolet radiation in the tropics.

  4. Cheese yield, casein fractions and major components of milk of Saanen and Anglo-Nubian dairy goats Rendimento de produção de queijos, frações de caseína e principais componentes do leite de cabras Saanen e Anglo-Nubiana

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    J.P. Damián

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os componentes, as frações de caseína e o rendimento na produção de queijo do leite de cabras das raças Saanen e Anglo-Nubiana, principais raças criadas no Uruguai. O estudo foi realizado em uma fazenda com sistema de criação semi-intensiva. O leite das cabras Anglo-Nubianas apresentou teores mais elevados de gordura (4,65 vs 3,59%, proteína total (3,48 vs 2,84%, caseína total (2,82 vs 2,23%, e maior rendimento na produção de queijos (22,00 vs 15,03kg/100l que o leite das cabras Saanen. As fraçoes de αs1-caseína (6,99 vs 2,37g/l, β-caseína (13,95 vs 12,75g/l e κ-caseína (4,24 vs 3,64g/l também foram mais elevadas no leite das cabras Anglo-Nubianas, porém no teor de αs2-caseína (3,02 vs 3,60g/l não se observaram diferenças. O rendimento na produção de queijos foi significativamente correlacionado com os teores de gordura, proteína, caseína total e com as frações de caseína. A αs1-caseína representou a fração com maior correlação com os teores de proteína total, caseína, gordura e produção de queijo. Demonstrou-se, neste estudo, que o leite de cabras Anglo-Nubianas é mais indicado para a produção de queijo e o de cabras Saanen para utilização como leite fluido.

  5. Resposta ovariana de cabras submetidas a implantes de progesterona seguidos de aplicações de gonadotrofina coriônica equina Ovarian response of goats submitted to implants of progesterone followed by administration of equine corionic gonadotrophin

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    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos de diferentes doses de gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG na dinâmica folicular e nas concentrações hormonais em cabras alpinas. Durante a estação reprodutiva, as cabras foram submetidas à sincronização do estro e da ovulação com um dispositivo de progesterona por 14 dias. As cabras (n=24 foram divididas aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos de seis e, no dia da remoção do dispositivo, receberam 0 (controle, 200, 300 e 400 UI de eCG. O desenvolvimento folicular foi observado via ultrassonografia um dia antes da administração da eCG até a ovulação seguinte. Determinaram-se diariamente as concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol e progesterona por radioimunoensaio. Todos os animais tratados manifestaram estro. Observaram-se ciclos estrais com três e quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. O tamanho do maior folículo nos animais controle na terceira onda (5,5 ± 0,50 mm foi menor que naqueles tratados com 300 UI de eCG (7,17 ± 0,35 mm. A aplicação de gonadotrofina aumentou o número de folículos pequenos e médios em relação ao grupo controle, uma vez que o número médio de corpos lúteos foi maior nas fêmeas tratadas com 400 UI (4,27 ± 0,23 em comparação àquelas tratadas com 200 UI (1,95 ± 0,19. A concentração plasmática de progesterona e estradiol diferiu entre os grupos experimentais. A combinação de progestágenos e eCG é uma alternativa adequada para a sincronização do estro e suporta o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de técnicas reprodutivas, como a superovulação e a transferência de embriões em cabras.The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of different dosages of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG on the follicular dynamics and hormonal concentrations in Alpine goats. During the breeding season, the goats were submitted to estrous and ovulation synchronization with a device containing progesterone for 14 days. Female goats (n=24 were divided

  6. PEARL MILLET AS SUBSTITUTE OF CORN IN FEEDING TO DAIRY GOATS UTILIZAÇÃO DO MILHETO COMO SUBSTITUTO DO MILHO EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS LEITEIRAS

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    Aldi Fernandes de Souza França

    2007-09-01

    objetivo de avaliar a utilização do milheto, sob a forma de grãos com panícula, como substituto do milho em rações para cabras leiteiras. Dezesseis cabras foram distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino e submetidas a quatro tratamentos que constavam da substituição do milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS pelo milheto em rações, onde foi medida a produção de leite em duas ordenhas diárias. Os níveis de substituição utilizados foram: 0%, 25%, 50% e 75% de MDPS por milheto (tratamentos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em termos de médias de produção de litros de leite por cabra /por dia foram: T1 = 4,47; T2 = 4,62; T3 = 4,91 e T4 = 4,77. Não se observou diferença significativa pelo teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; cabras leiteiras; ração.

  7. Sincronização de estro em cabras da raça Saanen com esponja intravaginal e CIDR-G® Estrus synchonization of Saanen goats with intravaginal sponge and CIDR-G®

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Maffili; C.A.A. Torres; J.F. Fonseca; E.A. Moraes; R.A.M. Pontes

    2005-01-01

    Compararam-se dois protocolos de curta duração, associados à aplicação de cipionato de estradiol (CE) para sincronização de estro, utilizando-se 12 cabras da raça Saanen, oito multíparas (M) e quatro nulíparas (N), distribuídas em dois tratamentos (T). O T1 (n = 4M e 2N) correspondeu à inserção de esponja impregnada com 60mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona e o T2 (n= 4M e 2N), à inserção de CIDR-G®. No dia zero (d=0), dia da inserção dos dispositivos intravaginais, foi aplicado nos animais ...

  8. Comportamento da beta-ciclodextrina adicionada ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer" Beta-ciclodextrin's behavior added goat's milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana C. P. Diniz; Marilde B. Luiz; Luciano V. Gonzaga; Marcia M. Meier; Bruno Szpoganicz; Roseane Fett

    2005-01-01

    Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento do agente encapsulante beta -ciclodextrina ( beta-CD) adicionado ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer", através de análise termogravimétrica e de cromatografia gasosa. Após a desidratação, a amostra adicionada de beta-CD apresentou um rendimento real de 10,59% com taxa de perda de 0,04% (em relação ao valor teórico esperado 10,6% ); enquanto na amostra sem adição do agente encapsulante o rendimento real foi de 9,57%, co...

  9. Estudo do polimorfismo genético da α S1-caseína em cabras, no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil = Study of the genetic polymorphism of the α S1-casein in goats of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Afonso da Silva; Manoel Adrião; George Chaves Jimenez; Madriano Christilis da Rocha Santos; Aurea Wischral; José Augusto Bastos Afonso

    2007-01-01

    O Estado de Pernambuco tem uma vocação pecuária, especialmente, para aexploração de caprinos. Dentre as proteínas, chamadas de caseínas, a αS1-caseína foi a primeira proteína comprovada com base no polimorfismo genético. Objetivando realizar a genotipagem de cabras criadas no sertão, agreste e zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP, estudou-se o polimorfismo do gene da aS1-caseína. Utilizaram-se 60 animais, divididos em três grupos de 20 animais, das raças Moxot...

  10. Associação de SNPs nos genes para κ-caseína e β-lactoglobulina com curvas de lactação em cabras leiteiras

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    Samir Julián Calvo Cardona

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o modelo com melhor ajuste aos dados de produção de leite, gordura, proteína e sólidos totais para cabras leiteiras, bem como associar polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs nos genes para κ-caseína (κ-CSN3 e β-lactoglobulina (β-LG aos parâmetros das curvas de produção e qualidade do leite. Foram avaliados 4.160 registros de produção de leite, gordura, proteína e sólidos totais de cabras das raças Alpina, Saanen e mestiça, no Estado de Antioquia, na Colômbia. Os modelos não lineares com melhor ajuste à estrutura dos dados foram os de Nelder, para produção de leite, e de Cappio-Borlino, para qualidade do leite. As análises de associação mostraram efeito significativo do SNP κ-CSN3 sobre o pico de produção, a produção inicial e a persistência das características qualitativas do leite. Já o SNP β-LG apresentou efeito significativo sobre os picos de produção de leite e gordura, e sobre o tempo necessário para atingir o pico de produção de proteína. A identificação e a estimação da influência dos marcadores SNP avaliados sobre as curvas de lactação e a qualidade do leite podem contribuir para a seleção de caprinos leiteiros.

  11. Produção, qualidade do leite e índices fisiológicos de cabras Alpinas no semiárido no período chuvoso

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    Joaquim R. Malheiros Filho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se verificar o efeito do ambiente sobre os índices fisiológicos, produção e qualidade do leite de cabras Parda Alpina, puras e mestiças, no semiárido paraibano, utilizando-se 27 cabras, nove puras, nove ¾ Parda Alpina e nove ½ Parda Alpina, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As variáveis ambientais foram registradas através de data logger marca Hobo e os índices fisiológicos aferidos foram: temperatura retal, frequência respiratória, frequência cardíaca e temperatura superficial, nos horários das 8, 12 e 16 h. O leite foi avaliado através das características físico-químicas, contagem bacteriana total (CBT e contagem de células somáticas (CCS. Os índices bioclimáticos apresentaram valores mais elevados entre as 12 e 15 h porém dentro da zona de conforto térmico para caprinos. Os índices fisiológicos, os parâmetros físico-químicos a CBT e CCS não apresentaram diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre os grupos genéticos. Houve efeito significativo (p < 0,05 para produção diária de leite com maiores médias para o grupo ¾ Parda Alpina, sugerindo-se essa composição como a mais indicada para a exploração nas condições do trabalho.

  12. Perfil hematológico de cabras Saanen e mestiças (1/2 Saanen e 1/2 Anglo-nubiana criadas em clima tropical do Ceará

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    Priscila T. Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a influência das condições climáticas sobre o perfil hematológico de cabras Saanen e mestiça (1/2 Saanen x 1/2 Anglo-nubiana, bem como determinar valores de referência para esses animais criados no Ceará. Foram utilizadas 30 cabras que tiveram o sangue coletado mensalmente durante a época chuvosa (fevereiro a maio e seca (agosto a novembro para realização do eritrograma e leucograma. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste t-Student e Mann Whitney, quando constatada distribuição paramétrica e não paramétrica dos dados, respectivamente, com significância quando p0,05. As hemácias e neutrófilos segmentados apresentaram uma correlação negativa com a temperatura ambiente, porém positiva com a umidade do ar e a temperatura retal (p<0,05. O hematócrito correlacionou-se positivamente com a temperatura ambiente e frequência respiratória (p<0,05. Os leucócitos e linfócitos mostraram uma correlação negativa com a temperatura retal (p<0,05. Conclui-se, portanto, que fêmeas Saanen sofrem mais influência das variações climáticas e a época chuvosa tem maior impacto negativo sobre os parâmetros hematológicos. Os valores obtidos poderão servir como referência para esses genótipos no Ceará.

  13. Inclusão de fontes de óleo na dieta de cabras em lactação: produção, composição e perfil dos ácidos graxos do leite Feeding vegetable oil to lactating goats: milk production and composition and milk fatty acids profile

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio José Maia; Antonio Ferriani Branco; Gisele Fernanda Mouro; Sabrina Marcantonio Coneglian; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Tathiane Fernanda Minella; Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de fontes de óleo na dieta de cabras em lactação sobre a produção, a composição e o perfil dos ácidos graxos da gordura do leite. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras da raça Saanen (54±1,02 kg PV) aos 80 dias em lactação, canuladas no rúmen. Os tratamentos consistiram de dietas suplementadas com diferentes fontes de óleo (canola, arroz e soja) e de uma dieta controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4...

  14. Parâmetros digestivos, produção e qualidade do leite de cabras Saanen recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho = Digestive parameters, production and quality of milk from Saanen goats fed rations with soybean hulls as a replacement for ground corn

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom; Claudete Regina Alcalde; Juliano Hideo Hashimoto; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo; Gabriella de Oliveira Passianoto; Luciano Soares de Lima

    2007-01-01

    O experimento objetivou avaliar os parâmetros digestivos, produção e qualidade do leite de cabras Saanen, recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja (CGS), em três níveis de substituição ao milho moído (0% CGS, 50% CGS e 100% CGS). Foram utilizadas três cabras Saanen (52,35 kg ± 7,46), primíparas, confinadas, distribuídas em quadrado latino 3 x 3. As rações apresentaram em média 14,70% de PB e 2,23 Mcal de EM kg-1 de MS ingerida. Foi realizado o controle diário da ingestão e produção de leite...

  15. Desempenho e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho para cabras Saanen em lactação e no pré-parto Performance and nutrients digestibility of rations with soybean hulls as a corn ground replacement for Saanen goats, in prepartum and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom; Claudete Regina Alcalde; Karina Toledo da Silva; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo; Carlos Eduardo Crispim de Oliveira Ramos; Gabriella de Oliveira Passianoto

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar o desempenho produtivo, a digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes e a composição do leite de cabras Saanen alimentadas com rações contendo casca do grão de soja (CGS) em substituição ao milho (0, 50 ou 100%CGS) no período da lactação até o pré-parto (30 dias). Foram utilizadas 18 cabras (75,70 ± 10,59 kg) em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As dietas apresentaram em média 14,82% PB e 2,28 Mcal de EM/kg MS ingerida. Os animais foram mant...

  16. Cheese yield, casein fractions and major components of milk of Saanen and Anglo-Nubian dairy goats Rendimento de produção de queijos, frações de caseína e principais componentes do leite de cabras Saanen e Anglo-Nubiana

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Damián; I. Sacchi; S. Reginensi; Lima, D.; Bermúdez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os componentes, as frações de caseína e o rendimento na produção de queijo do leite de cabras das raças Saanen e Anglo-Nubiana, principais raças criadas no Uruguai. O estudo foi realizado em uma fazenda com sistema de criação semi-intensiva. O leite das cabras Anglo-Nubianas apresentou teores mais elevados de gordura (4,65 vs 3,59%), proteína total (3,48 vs 2,84%), caseína total (2,82 vs 2,23%), e maior rendimento na produção de queijos (22,00 vs 15,03kg/100l) que o leite das cab...

  17. Influência do transporte e mudança de local de manejo nas variáveis fisiológicas e produtivas de cabras Alpinas Physiologic and productive responses of Alpine goats submitted to transportation to a new dairy location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Canaes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o efeito do transporte e a mudança de local de manejo sobre a produção e a composição do leite e sobre as variáveis fisiológicas, utilizando-se 12 cabras da raça Alpina em final de lactação. Semanalmente, foram mensuradas a produção e composição do leite e a contagem de células somáticas, além do volume do leite residual após administração de ocitocina. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue para dosagem hormonal (cortisol e enzimática (glicose no plasma no dia do transporte: antes (7h10min e após (8h20min, 8h30min e 10h30min o transporte. Nas três semanas subsequentes ao transporte, também foram colhidas amostras de sangue às 8h20min. Obtiveram-se teores mais elevados (PThe effects of transportation and reallocation on milk production and composition and physiological responses were studied in 12 late-lactation Alpine goats. Weekly, somatic cell count, milk production and composition, and residual milk volume (after administration of oxytocin were monitored. Blood samples were taken for hormonal (cortisol and enzymatic dosages (glucose in plasma on the day of transportation: before (7h10min and after transportation (8h20min, 8h30min, and 10h30min. During the three weeks after transportation, blood samples were also taken at 8h20min. Higher levels (P<0.05 of cortisol and glucose after transportation and reallocation were observed and milk yield was significantly lower (P<0.05 one day after them. Milk fat percentage and somatic cell count (P<0.05 were higher after transportation. Results allow concluding that transportation is a stressor agent that may momentarily influence animal production.

  18. ANÁLISE UNIVARIADA E MULTIVARIADA DE CARACTERÍSTICAS REPRODUTIVAS E PRODUTIVAS DE CABRAS LEITEIRAS UTILIZANDO INFERÊNCIA BAYESIANA

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    Aurino de Araújo Rego Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study environmental and genetic effects on reproductive and productive traits of goats exploited for milk production. (CoVariance components and genetic trait parameters for age at first calving, calving interval, and milk production in univariate and multivariate analysis, using Bayesian statistics under animal model, were estimated. Genetic analyses were performed with chains of 1,000,000 cycles. The burn-in of the 100,000 baseline values was considered and these ones were taken every 300 cycles to obtain a posteriori distribution with 3,000 samples. The averages obtained for age at first calving, calving interval, and milk production were 581.68 ± 79.44; 322.89 ± 132.02 days, and 226.99 ± 89.72 kg of milk respectively. All the effects included in the model were significant, except the type of birth one for calving interval, and milk production. The univariate analyses showed heritability values around 0.14, 0.05, and 0.10 for age at first calving, calving interval, and milk production respectively. In the same order, in multivariate analysis, the heritabilities were 0.16, 0.06, and 0.11. Repeatability estimates for the calving interval, and milk production traits were 0.10 and 0.20 respectively. The traits analyzes showed to be strongly influenced by the environment. The multivariate analysis led to slightly higher estimates of heritability.Esta pesquisa objetivou estudar efeitos ambientais e genéticos sobre características reprodutivas e produtivas de cabras mestiças exploradas para a produção leiteira. Foram estimados componentes de (covariância e parâmetros genéticos das características idade ao primeiro parto, intervalo de partos e produção de leite em análises unicaracterística e multicaracterística, utilizando-se a estatística Bayesiana sob modelo animal. As análises genéticas foram realizadas com cadeias de 1.000.000 de ciclos. Considerou-se o burn-in dos 100.000 valores iniciais sendo tomados

  19. Perfil hematológico de cabras clinicamente sadias criadas no Cariri paraibano Profile hematological of goat clinical healthy servants in Cariri paraibano

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    Leilson Rocha Bezerra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o perfil hematológico de cabras sem raça definida, criadas na região do Cariri paraibano em regime semi-intensivo e mantidas sob as mesmas condições ambientais e de manejo, como também a busca de valores de referência que se adeqüem à nossa região. Foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas de 143 animais clinicamente sadios, com idades entre 1 e 12 anos. A partir de uma única amostra de sangue de cada animal foram realizados o eritrograma (contagem de hemácias, volume globular, hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio, hemoglobina corpuscular média e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e o leucograma (contagem total e diferencial de leucócitos. Os dados obtidos foram avaliados estatisticamente por meio do Teste de Tukey em nível de significância de 5%, comparando os resultados com valores encontrados por outros autores. Os resultados demonstraram que não foram evidenciadas diferenças significativas de resultados encontrados por outros autores para as variáveis avaliadas, porém houve diferenças para alguns parâmetros descritos na literatura para animais de mesma raça e faixas etárias, refletindo a influência de fatores como altitude,clima, nutrição e manejo entre outros. Desta forma, evidencia-se a necessidade de pesquisas para o estabelecimento de valores regionais.On aimed to study the profile hematological of female goats of the sem race defined, raised in the area of Cariri Paraibano at a semi-intensive regime and under the same environmental and management conditions and handling as well as the search for reference values that adequate to our region. Sanguine samples of 143 clinically healthy animals were collected with ages between 1 and 12 years. Starting from just a single sample of blood of each animal the eritrograma was accomplished (Red blood cell count, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular values, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular

  20. ALS Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  1. Producción y Composición de la Leche y Queso Fresco Pasteurizado de Cabras Mestizas Canarias Suplementadas con Grasa Sobrepasante Production and Composition of Milk and Fresh Pasteurized Cheese in Crossbred Canarias Goats, Supplemented with Protected Fat

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    Roxana Zamora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar el efecto de la grasa sobrepasante (GSP con alto contenido de ácidos grasos poli-insaturados sobre la producción y composición de la leche y queso fresco pasteurizado, se utilizaron 22 cabras mestizas (entre 3/4 y 5/8 Canarias de primer parto, de las cuales 11 se asignaron al grupo tratamiento y 11 al grupo control, de la Unidad Experimental de Producción Caprina (UEPC, de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Venezuela. Los análisis químicos se realizaron tanto a leche como a los quesos para determinación de acidez titulable, pH, Wisconsin Mastitis Test, cloruros, grasa, caseína, proteínas totales, sólidos totales, humedad, cenizas (Cen, sólidos no grasos y lactosa. Asimismo, se determinó el contenido de ácidos grasos C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 presentes en los quesos. Los resultados revelan que la incorporación de 3% de GSP en la dieta de los animales aumentó significativamente la producción de leche en 43% (P = 0,0019 y presentó una tendencia (P= 0,0821 a aumentar los días en lactancia. No se afectaron las características, ni la composición de la leche y quesos, pero por el hecho de producir más leche sin afectar sus componentes, resultó en una mayor concentración de todos los componentes (kg/lactancia. Hubo diferencias en la concentración de ácidos grasos C18:1 (P=0,0064, C18:2 (P=0,4632, C18:3 (P=0,0322, precursores de ácidos ω-3 y ω-6 en los quesos elaborados. No se afectó el rendimiento quesero, pero al aumentar la producción de leche, aumentó la producción de queso en 47,09% en el grupo tratamiento. No se alteraron las características físico-químicas y propiedades organolépticas de los quesos frescos. La suplementación con 3% de GSP no afectó las características físico-químicas ni organolépticas de los quesos. De igual manera, tampoco afectó el consumo de alimento y la condición corporal de las cabras.The effect of protected fat (PF with

  2. Substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo bovino para cabritos alpinos Replacement of goat milk for cattle cheese whey in artificial feeding of Alpine kids

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    Roberto Germano Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo bovino no aleitamento de cabritos alpinos. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo (0, 15, 30 e 45% e dois sexos (três machos e quatro fêmeas por tratamento. A inclusão do soro de queijo na dieta não afetou o desenvolvimento ponderal dos cabritos dos 7 aos 42 dias de idade. Os cabritos alimentados com leite de cabra apresentaram maiores pesos finais, em torno de 13,0 kg; consumiram 70,0 litros/animal de leite de cabra, 172,0 g MS/animal/dia de concentrado e tiveram ganho médio de 137,5 g/dia. Nos cabritos alimentados com a dieta com 15, 30 e 45% de soro de queijo, os pesos finais foram de 11,1; 9,88 e 10,27 kg; o consumo de leite foi de 59,5; 49,0 e 38,4 litros/animal; e o de concentrado, 148,0; 117,0 e 135 g MS/animal/dia, com ganhos de 122,2; 99,5 e 100,8 g/dia, respectivamente. A conversão alimentar não diferiu entre as dietas. O efeito do sexo evidenciou-se a partir dos 21 dias de idade, mas não houve interação dieta × sexo. Ao final do estudo, aos 70 dias de idade, o peso dos machos (12,4 kg foi maior que o das fêmeas (10,6 kg. A maior rentabilidade média (168,15% foi obtida com o fornecimento dos níveis mais altos de soro de leite. O aleitamento de cabritos com até 45% de soro de queijo é tecnicamente viável e proporciona melhor retorno econômico. O uso de leite integral de cabra para criação de cabritos em rebanhos leiteiros é economicamente inviável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the replacement of whole goat milk for cattle cheese whey in the artificial nursing of alpine kids. The animals were distributed in a complete randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement made up with four levels of goat milk replacing for cheese whey (0, 15, 30 and 45% and two sexes (three

  3. Análise das metodologias diretas e indiretas para a contagem de células somáticas no leite de cabras hígidas Analysis of direct and indirect methods for somatic cell counts in the milk of healthy goats

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    Karina Medici Madureira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A particularidade da secreção láctea caprina, do tipo apócrina, diferente da secreção merócrina da vaca, leva a erros de interpretação durante a realização de técnicas de avaliação da celularidade do leite de fêmeas desta espécie. Portanto, o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar a contagem de células somáticas pelo método indireto California Mastitis Test (CMT, e por métodos diretos, incluindo a contagem por citometria de fluxo e a contagem microscópica direta, através da coloração de verde de metil e pironina-Y, além de comparar os métodos de contagem celular. Foram analisadas 102 amostras de 51 fêmeas caprinas, das raças Saanen, Parda Alpina e Toggenburg, criadas no Estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram categorizados segundo a fase da lactação, exame físico da glândula mamária e exame do leite. As amostras foram colhidas, após a realização do exame Califórnia Mastitis Test, em duas alíquotas, uma destinada à contagem celular automática e a outra, a contagem microscópica direta, utilizando-se o corante verde de metil e pironina- Y. De acordo com os diferentes escores do CMT, observou- se 74,5% de amostras negativas, 8,8% de amostras com escore traços, 8,8% de amostras ligeiramente positivas (+, 6,8% de amostras fracamente positivas (++ e 0,9% de amostras fortemente positivas (+++. Os valores medianos das contagens de células somáticas presentes no leite de cabras, avaliadas através de contador automático e microscopia direta, e analisadas de acordo com os diferentes escores do CMT, foram, respectivamente, 181.000, 578.000, 628.000, 1.421.500 e 5.542.000 células/mL de leite e 74.991, 271.396, 71.420, 640.995 e 5.049.394 células/ mL de leite, nos escores negativo, traços, +, ++ e +++. Os valores medianos obtidos através da contagem de células somáticas pelo método automático e microscópico direto, de acordo com as fases de lactação foram de 159.500, 508.000 e 277.500 c

  4. Substituição do feno de coastcross por casca de soja na alimentação de cabras em lactação Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Shinkai Gentil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a resposta de cabras em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross. Trinta e seis cabras (38±5 dias em lactação; 2,1±0,4 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados e confinadas por oito semanas. As dietas foram compostas de 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado e com o mesmo teor de fibra em detergente neutro. A casca de soja substituiu o feno de coastcross em 0, 33, 67 ou 100% da matéria seca (MS. O consumo de matéria seca e a eficiência alimentar apresentaram resposta quadrática aos teores de casca de soja na dieta. A produção de leite e a variação do peso corporal não foram alteradas, porém a concentração de gordura e lactose do leite aumentou e os tempos gastos com ruminação e mastigação decresceram com a inclusão da casca de soja na dieta. A casca de soja pode substituir totalmente o feno de coastcross em dietas para cabras em lactação, pois essa substituição não prejudica a produção de leite e aumenta o teor de gordura e lactose do leite. Em comparação ao feno picado de coastcross, a casca de soja apresenta menor efetividade em estimular a ruminação e a mastigação.The objective of this experiment was to verify the response of lactating goats fed diets with different levels (content of soybean hulls replacing coastcross hay (Cynodon sp. on performance. Thirty-six lactating Saanen goats (38±5 days of lactation; 2.1±0.4 kg/day were assigned to a randomized complete blocks design and housed for 8 weeks. Goats were fed diets of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, but with the same amount of neutral detergent fiber. Soybean hulls replaced hay by 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the dry matter (DM. Dry matter and NDF intake and feed efficiency showed a quadratic response to the levels of soybean hulls in the diet. Milk yield and body weight variations did not change; however, milk fat

  5. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

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    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  6. Comportamento da beta-ciclodextrina adicionada ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer" Beta-ciclodextrin's behavior added goat's milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process

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    Adriana C. P. Diniz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento do agente encapsulante beta -ciclodextrina ( beta-CD adicionado ao leite de cabra submetido ao processo de desidratação por "spray-dryer", através de análise termogravimétrica e de cromatografia gasosa. Após a desidratação, a amostra adicionada de beta-CD apresentou um rendimento real de 10,59% com taxa de perda de 0,04% (em relação ao valor teórico esperado 10,6% ; enquanto na amostra sem adição do agente encapsulante o rendimento real foi de 9,57%, com taxa de perda de 4,27% (valor teórico esperado 10% . Através da análise termogravimétrica (TGA, verificou-se que são volatilizados 44% e 21% dos ácidos comerciais C8 e C10 , respectivamente. Os resultados cromatográficos mostraram uma perda de aproximadamente 30% dos ácidos C8 e 20% dos ácidos C10 , nas amostras de leite de cabra sem beta -CD em relação às amostras com beta-CD. Tais porcentagens estão de acordo com os valores estimados para os ácidos comerciais. Com base nos parâmetros estudados, podemos inferir que há menor perda dos ácidos graxos C8 e C10 na amostra de leite de cabra com beta-CD, provavelmente devido ao efeito encapsulante, aumentando a estabilidade térmica dos ácidos.This work evaluated the effect of the encapsulant agent beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD added the goat milk submitted to the "spray-dryer" dehydration process, through thermogravimetric analysis and gas cromatography. After dehydration, the sample added of beta-CD presented a real yield of 10,59%, with a loss rate of 0,04% (in relation to the expected theoretical value 10,6%; while in the sample without addition of the encapsulant agent the real yield was 9,57%, with a loss rate of 4,27% (expected theoretical value 10% . It was verified that the volatilization of 44% and 21% of the commercial acids C8 and C10 , respectively, through the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The cromatographic results showed losses of approximately 30% of the C8 acids and

  7. Eficiencia de la respuesta superovulatoria del ganado Brahman al protocolo P-24

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    Roger Salgado O.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la eficiencia de la respuesta superovulatoria del ganado Brahman al protocolo P-24. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron doce vacas Brahman donadoras con más de 60 días postparto, a las cuales se les realizó un total de 21 tratamientos superovulatorios con base en el protocolo P-24. Se realizó la colecta de los embriones a través del método convencional y los embriones fueron clasificados (IETS. Resultados. Se obtuvo un promedio de 9.1 estructuras, 4.4 embriones transferibles, 3.7 embriones congelables y 3.2 embriones degenerados recuperados por colecta. Los estadíos de desarrollo que predominaron fueron mórula (32.6%, blastocisto temprano (38% y blastocisto (18.5%. Se presentó efecto (p0.05 sobre las demás variables estudiadas. Se presentó efecto (p0.05 de la producción promedio de embriones degenerados y ovocitos sin fecundar entre ambos grupos. No obstante, la proporción de éstos fue mayor en las donadoras con una menor producción de embriones transferibles (50 y 22.4% vs. las donadoras con mayor producción (39.3 y 14% para embriones degenerados y ovocitos sin fecundar respectivamente. Conclusiones. El ganado Brahman tuvo una respuesta superovulatoria eficiente al protocolo P-24 para transferencia de embriones a tiempo fijo.

  8. Evaluación de la calidad higiénico sanitaria y de composición de leche de cabra en un rebaño de la raza Saanen

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    Lucía Dora Grille Peés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay es un país lechero y sus reglamentaciones son referidas principalmente a leche bovina. La leche de cabra es un alimento completo, recomendado para niños y adultos mayores, pero su estudio ha sido escaso en el país. Se estudió la calidad higiénico-sanitaria y de composición de leche caprina en un rebaño de raza Saanen durante un ciclo de lactancia. Se utilizaron 25 animales y se obtuvieron muestras de tanque quincenalmente. Se analizaron recuento de mesófilos aerobios totales (RMAT, coliformes totales (CT y Staphylococcus coagulasa positiva (SCP, recuento de células somáticas (RCS, composición, ácidos grasos, acidez Dörnic, pH y densidad. Los resultados fueron: RMAT de 3,85±0,69 ufc/ml Log10, RCS 6,91±.0,55 cel/ml Log10, CT2,47±0,84 ufc/ml Log10, SCP 1,13±0,29 ufc/ml Log10. Se obtuvieron valores de grasa: 3,58±0,69%, proteína: 2,71±0,07%, lactosa:3,84±0,10%, acidez: 14,19±0,39 ºD, pH: 6,66±0,06 y densidad: 1,026±0,26 g/ml, concordantes con trabajos realizados en animales sanos para la misma raza. Los ácidos grasos de cadena corta (caproico, caprílico, cáprico representan un 12% de los ácidos grasos totales, valores superiores a la leche de vaca (≈ 5%. Los resultados obtenidos son útiles para una futura reglamentación en leche de cabra. Por sus diferencias con la de vaca es importante generar estándares específicos.

  9. Goat milk production and quality on Tanzania-grass pastures, with supplementation=Produção e qualidade do leite de cabras em pasto cultivado de capim-Tanzânia suplementadas com concentrado

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    Ana Clara Rodrigues Cavalcante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the production and quality of milk produced by goats grazing Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania (Guineagrass and receiving four levels of concentrate supplementation. Eight Anglo Nubian goats, aged between two and four years, 43.6 kg in average body weight and between the 2nd and 4th lactation were distributed into two 4 x 4 balanced Latin square design. The supplementation levels were: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of body weight. The concentrate was composed of corn and soybean meal. The intake of dry matter and nutrients, and the daily production of milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose and total solids had increased (p Avaliou-se a produção e qualidade do leite de cabras em pasto cultivado de Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia sob níveis de suplementação com concentrado. Foram utilizadas oito cabras da raça Anglonubiana, com idade entre dois e quatro anos, peso médiode 43,6 kg, entre a 2ª e 4ª ordem de lactação, distribuídas em duplo quadrado latino balanceado 4 x 4. Os níveis de suplementação avaliados foram: 0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% do peso vivo. O concentrado, foi composto por grão de milho e farelo de soja. O consumo de matéria seca e de nutrienteseas produçõesdiárias de leite, de leite corrigido a 4% de gordura, gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais aumentaramcom a suplementação, enquanto que os teores de gordura e sólidos totais reduziram. A suplementação com concentrado em até 1,5% do peso vivo em pasto cultivado de capim-tanzânia promove aumento no consumo de matéria seca e de nutrientes da dieta, do que resulta o aumento linear na produção de leite e de seus constituintes.

  10. Efeito do genótipo sobre a produção e a composição do leite de cabras mestiças Effect of genotype on milk yield and composition of crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Nogueira Barros

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de produção de trinta e cinco cabras mestiças - 12 ½Pardo-alpina + ½Moxotó (½PA-M, 11¾ Pardo-alpina + ¼Moxotó (¾PA-M e 12 Tricross (½Anglo-nubiana + ¼Pardo-alpina + ¼Moxotó - foi avaliado em um experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Caprinos. Os cabritos foram separados das respectivas mães ao nascimento. As cabras foram ordenhadas duas vezes ao dia e o controle leiteiro procedido semanalmente. Os animais foram confinados em baias coletivas e receberam dieta para produção de 2,5 kg de leite/dia, composta de silagem de sorgo ad libitum e concentrado. Os animais foram pesados em intervalos de 14 dias. A produção de leite, como coletada, não foi influenciada pelo genótipo. No entanto, quando foi corrigida para 4% de gordura, o genótipo ½ PA-M foi superior aos ¾ PA-M e Tricross. Não houve diferença significativa entre genótipos para gordura, proteína e extrato seco total do leite.The objective of this trial was to study the production of thirty-five crossbred goats: ½Brown Alpine x 12 ½Moxoto (½BA-M, 11 ¾Brown Alpine x ¼Moxoto (¾BA-M, and 12 Tricross (½Anglo Nubian x ¼Moxoto x ¼Brown Alpine. After birth, the kids were separated from their mothers. Goats were milked twice a day and milk composition determined weekly. Animals were housed in collective pens and received a diet composed of sorghum silage (ad libitum plus concentrate that were formulated to allow 2.5 kg/d of milk yield. Animals were weighted every 14 days. Milk production did not differ among genotypes. However, 4% fat corrected milk was greater for ½BA-M than the remaining groups. No significant differences were observed for milk composition (fat, protein, and total solids across genotypes in the current trial.

  11. Elaboração de um queijo análogo ao pecorino romano produzido com leite de cabra e coalhada congelados Elaboration of a similar cheese to the pecorino romano made with frozen goat milk and frozen curd

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    Roberto Abdallah Curi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A pequena produção por animal e a sazonalidade são fatores limitantes na utilização de leite de cabra, com conseqüente descontinuidade no fornecimento de seus produtos. Isto ocorre mesmo em países que possuem uma caprinocultura leiteira importante, localizados em clima temperado. Em função disso, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho verificar a possibilidade de fabricar um produto similar ao queijo Pecorino Romano, utilizando-se leite de cabra congelado e coalhada congelada caracterizando os queijos resultantes, do ponto de vista organoléptico relacionado com a cura. O delineamento experimental foi estabelecido para verificar o efeito do congelamento lento e rápido do leite de cabra e da coalhada nas características sensoriais do produto, efetuando-se os seguintes tratamentos: Tratamento 1 - queijos elaborados sem congelamento do leite e da coalhada, (S.C.; Tratamento 2 - queijos elaborados com congelamento lento da coalhada obtida, (C.L.C.; Tratamento 3 - queijos elaborados com congelamento rápido da coalhada obtida, utilizando-se nitrogênio líquido, (C. R. C.; Tratamento 4 - queijos elaborados após o congelamento rápido do leite, utilizando-se nitrogênio líquido (C.R.L.; Tratamento 5 - queijos elaborados após o congelamento lento do leite, (C.L.L.. A análise sensorial foi realizada, depois de um período de dois meses de maturação dos queijos, por um painel composto por 10 provadores selecionados e treinados. Para o grupo de atributos analisados foi possível considerar que o tratamento 4 teve o melhor desempenho com médias mais altas para aroma, sabor e escala hedônica e médias mais baixas para gosto ácido, sabor estranho e olhaduras mecânicas e ou gasosas. Esse tratamento mostrou, também, média baixa para sabor picante, textura e consistência. O pior desempenho foi o do tratamento 3, ainda assim, com resultados médios que não o desqualificaram totalmente. Portanto, o produto estudado poderia utilizar leite de

  12. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite

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    Mouro Gisele Fernanda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (P<0,05; r = 0,9288 entre as concentrações de uréia plasmática e a uréia do leite, permitindo estimativas da uréia plasmática a partir da equação UP(mg/dL = 0,7672UL (mg/dL + 7,4894 (R²=0,8628. Conclui-se que a farinha de mandioca de varredura pode substituir totalmente o milho e ser utilizada em rações de cabras em lactação, em nível de até 30% da ingestão de MS, sem prejuízos para parâmetros ruminais e metabolismo do nitrogênio.

  13. Efeitos da administração de vitamina E na infecção mamária e na contagem de células somáticas de cabras primíparas desafiadas experimentalmente com Staphylococcus aureus Effects of administration of vitamin E on mammary health and milk cell counts of first parturition goats experimentally challenged with Staphylococcus aureus

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    P.R.O. Paes; S.T.A Lopes; Lopes, R. S.; A Kohayagawa; R.K. Takahira; H Langoni

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos da administração de vitamina E sobre a contagem de células somáticas e a infecção da glândula mamária de cabras primíparas desafiadas com a inoculação intramamária de Staphylococcus aureus ao 10º dia pós-parto. Vinte e oito animais foram divididos em quatro grupos, cada um composto por sete cabras primíparas da raça Saanen, como segue: grupo-controle, grupo de animais suplementados com vitamina E, grupo de animais desafiados com S.aureus inocula...

  14. Addition of water-soluble soy extract and probiotic culture, viscosity, water retention capacity and syneresis characteristics of goat milk yogurt Adição de extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e cultura probiótica e características de viscosidade, capacidade de retenção de água e de sinerese de iogurte produzido com leite de cabra

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    Danielle Cristina Guimarães da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yogurts from goat milk were elaborated and water-soluble soybean extract (WSSE and Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic culture added during processing. The characteristics of apparent viscosity, water retention capacity and syneresis were analyzed during 29 days of storage and it was verified the influence of WSSE and the probiotic on these rheological properties. The suplementation of WSSE provoked an increase in the viscosity and water retention capacity of the yogurts while reducing the syneresis. The inoculation of the probiotic culture during elaboration of the yogurts did not significantly alter the rheological characteristics of the products. Therefore, the water-soluble soybean extract and the probiotic culture can contribute to the rheological characteristics of yogurts, besides the nutritional and functional improvement advantages already known with the use of these products.Iogurtes a base de leite de cabra foram elaborados e a eles adicionados extrato hidrossolúvel de soja (EHS e de cultura probiótica Bifidobacterium lactis durante o processamento. As características de viscosidade aparente, capacidade de retenção de água e sinerese foram analisadas durante 29 dias de armazenamento e verificadas a influência do EHS e do probiótico nestas propriedades reológicas. A suplementação de EHS provocou aumento na viscosidade e capacidade de retenção de água dos iogurtes e, ao mesmo tempo, a sinerese foi reduzida. A inoculação da cultura probiótica durante elaboração dos iogurtes não alterou de forma significativa as características reológicas dos produtos. Portanto, a adição de extrato hidrossolúvel de soja e a cultura probiótica, pode contribuir para melhora nas características reológicas de iogurtes, além das vantagens na melhoria nutricional e funcional já conhecidas com a utilização destes produtos.

  15. Recuento de células somáticas y composición de leche de cabra, según nivel de producción y etapa de lactancia, en un plantel intensivo de la zona central de Chile Somatic cell count and composition of dairy goat milk according to milk yield and lactation period under intensive management system, in the central region of Chile

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    MP Marín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar algunas características de producción de leche, recuento de células somáticas y composición química de leche de cabra según nivel de producción y etapa de la lactancia en un sistema de producción intensiva. Para ello se trabajó con 25 hembras Saanen de tercera lactancia, bajo similares condiciones de manejo, agrupándolas en 13 cabras de baja producción (A y 12 de alta producción (B (≤ 450 litros y ≥ 550 litros por lactancia, respectivamente. Se realizó control lechero una vez al mes, en ambas ordeñas, y se tomó una muestra proporcional de la leche diaria, durante 10 meses, para la determinación de proteína total, materia grasa, sólidos totales y lactosa a través de equipo Milkoscan 133B. Se determinó recuento de células somáticas (RCS con equipo Fossomatic 90. Los resultados fueron analizados estadísticamente a través de ANDEVA y Tuckey (P ≤ 0,05. Los niveles de producción promedio fueron de 346 ± 65 L de leche para A y 703 ± 209 L para B. Al analizar la producción según etapa de lactancia, se observó en ambos casos una producción promedio similar entre los dos primeros tercios e inferior en el último tercio. Los mayores niveles de producción se logran entre el segundo y cuarto mes de lactancia. En cuanto al recuento de células somáticas, se observa una tendencia a valores más elevados en el grupo B, con una tendencia a aumentar en el último tercio de la lactancia, en ambos grupos. La composición promedio porcentual de materia grasa, proteína total y sólidos totales para ambos grupos fue de 3,76 ± 1,13 y 3,64 ± 1,00, 3,49 ± 0,43 y 3,29 ± 0,47, 12,45 ± 1,54 y 11,96 ± 1,70%, para los grupos A y B, respectivamente, siguiendo una tendencia inversa a la curva de producción de leche. En relación con la lactosa, ésta mantiene una condición de estabilidad a lo largo de la lactancia. A excepción de materia grasa, se observaron diferencias significativas

  16. Quantificação de coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus e mesófilos presentes em diferentes etapas da produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra em laticínios Enumeration of coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese produced in a dairy plant

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    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi acompanhar a produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra, avaliando a qualidade higiênica do processamento pela quantificação de coliformes, S. aureus e mesófilos totais. A produção de três diferentes lotes de queijo foi acompanhada, sendo coletadas amostras de várias etapas do processamento. Além disso, amostras de queijo pertencente ao lote acompanhado foram coletadas na prateleira de um estabelecimento comercial durante seu período de validade. Os suabes coletados foram semeados em ágar sangue ovino; as amostras de água foram submetidas à Colimetria; as demais amostras foram submetidas à contagem de S. aureus, coliformes e mesófilos totais por meio de protocolos de rotina. Verificou-se que, apesar da pasteurização ter diminuído consideravelmente as populações microbianas presentes no leite cru, a falta de sanificação adequada de um equipamento que entrava em contato com o leite cru e que dá acesso ao tanque de coagulação, resultou na recontaminação da matéria-prima. Ao final do processamento, o queijo encontrava-se dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação, contudo a elevada contagem de mesófilos totais sugere que sejam melhoradas as medidas de sanitização durante o processamento, a fim de garantir a qualidade higiênica e uma maior vida de prateleira ao queijo produzido.The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese, using the enumeration of coliforms, S. aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria as indicators. The production of three different lots of cheese was followed, being collected samples throughout the processing steps. Furthermore, samples of cheese belonging to the same sampled lot were collected in the shelf of a commercial establishment throughout the shelf life period. Swabs were streaked onto blood agar plates; water samples were submitted to colimetric assays; all other samples were

  17. Exigências de minerais para cabras durante a gestação: Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn Minerals requirements of goats during the pregnancy: Na, K, Mg, S, F and Zn

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    Roberto Germano Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estimar a retenção e a exigência líquida dos minerais Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn durante a gestação de cabras com um ou dois fetos. A estimativa de retenção foi baseada na diferença entre o total de cada mineral depositado no feto, útero, membranas, fluídos fetais e glândula mamária dos animais nas diferentes etapas da gestação e o total de cada mineral armazenado nas cabras vazias, utilizando-se o modelo de predição ln=A+Bx+Cx2, em que x=tempo de gestação. Os conteúdos de Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn, durante as gestações de um e dois fetos foram de: 13,2 e 21,4 mg; 13,3 e 21,3 g; 2,1 e 3,7 mg; 5,5 e 9,3 mg; 575,5 e 981,0 mg; 112,6 e 164,7 mg nas gestações, resultando em exigências líquidas diárias de 0,13 e 0,11 g; 0,21 e 0,31 g; 0,06 e 0,11g; 0,17 e 0,21 g; 22,94 e 40,51 mg; 2,63 e 2,78 mg, respectivamente.This work was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the retention and the requirement of Ca e P minerals during the pregnancy of goats with one or two foetus. The estimate of retention was based in the difference between the total of each mineral stored in the foetus, uterus, membranes, fetals fluids and mammary gland of animals in the differents phases of pregnancy and the total of each mineral stored in the empty goats, using the model of prediction ln=A+Bx+Cx2, where x=time of pregnancy. The comparison of the estimative with the real values obtained show that the suggested model explained with coherence and precision the biological behavior of minerals retention during all pregnancy. The contend of Na, K, Mg, S, Fe e Zn was: 13.2 and 21.4 mg; 13.3 and 21.3 g; 2.1 and 3.7 mg; 5.5 and 9.3 mg; 575.5 and 981.0 mg; 112.6 and 164.7 mg in the pregnancy of one and two foetus, respectively, that resulted in a diary liquid requirement of 0.13 and 0.11 g; 0.21 and 0.31 g 0.06 and 0.11g; 0.17 and 0.21 g; 22.94 and 40.51 mg; 2.63 and 2.78 mg, respectively.

  18. Alterações físicas e microbiológicas durante a compostagem dos dejetos de cabras Physic and microbiological modifications during composting of goats manure

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    Ana C. A. Orrico

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as reduções de massa seca enleirada, volume ocupado pelas leiras e coliformes durante a compostagem dos dejetos gerados por cabras Saanen e F1 (Saanen x Boer, alimentadas com três dietas (dieta 1 = 80% volumoso (V e 20% concentrado (C; dieta 2 = 60% V e 40% C, e dieta 3 = 40% V e 60% C. As maiores reduções (PThis work aimed at to evaluate the dry mass, volume and coliforms reductions during the composting of the manure generated by Saanen and F1 (Saanen Boer x goats, fed with three diets (diet 1 = 80% forage (F and 20% concentrated (C; diet 2 = 60% F and 40% C, and diet 3 = 40% F and 60% C. The largest reductions (P <0.05 of the amounts of dry mass occurred in piles formed with the manure generated by goats fed with diet 3 (56.2%, in relation to the manure produced when the animals consumed the diets 2 (44.5% and 1 (40.6%. The largest average of the weekly temperature occurred in the first week in piles formed with goat manure that consumed diet 3. The originated piles of goat manure feed with diet 1 maintained the superior temperature for longer time (50.75 ºC, in the third week, in relation to those originated from goats fed by diets 2 and 3 (45.90 and 42.00 ºC, respectively, in the same period. The reductions of total and fecal coliforms were of 99.99% minimum. The volume reductions, in time function, generated quadratic equations in all the conditions.

  19. A homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay for detection of Clostridium perfringenstype D epsilon antitoxin in serum of goats Un ensayo de fluorescencia polarizada homogéneo para detectar anticuerpos contra toxina epsilon de Clostridium perfringenstipo D en suero de cabras

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    F.A. UZAL

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescence polarization assay (FPA was developed to detect Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon antitoxin in serum of goats. Purified epsilon toxin was labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate and used as a tracer in the test. Seven goat sera with different known concentrations of epsilon antitoxin (as measured by a mouse neutralization test-MNT were used as positive controls. Sera from eleven colostrum-deprived kids were used as negative controls. The inter-assay variation of ten measurements of the seven positive sera varied between 1.56% and 4.85%. The correlation between the FPA values and concentration of epsilon antitoxin (as measured by the MNT was 0.90. This test appears to be a good alternative to the MNT without most of the inconveniences of the laterSe desarrolló un test de fluorescencia polarizada (TFP para detectar antitoxina epsilon de Clostridium perfringens tipo D en suero de cabras. Se marcó toxina epsilon purificada con isothiocianato de fluoresceína y se la usó como tracer en el test. Siete sueros caprinos con diferentes concentraciones conocidas de antitoxina epsilon (titulados por una prueba de seroneutralización en ratones-PSR se utilizaron como controles positivos. Sueros de once chivitos deprivados de calostro se utilizaron como controles negativos. La variación entre ensayos de diez mediciones de los siete sueros positivos control varió entre 1.56% y 4.85%. La correlación entre los valores de TFP y la concentración de antitoxina epsilon (medida por PSR fue de 0.90. Este test parece ser una buena alternativa para la PSR sin los inconvenientes de esta última

  20. Condição corporal e desempenho produtivo de cabras Alpinas no início de lactação Body condition and productive performance of Alpine goat in early lactation

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    Larissa Pires Barbosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da condição corporal ao parto sobre os parâmetros produtivos de cabras Alpinas no início da lactação. Sessenta e oito cabras foram distribuídas em três grupos, de acordo com o escore de condição corporal (baixo, entre 1,00 e 2,75; intermediário, entre 2,75 e 3,50; e alto, entre 3,50 e 5,00 e avaliadas do parto até a oitava semana de lactação. Realizaram-se o controle diário do consumo alimentar e da produção leiteira e avaliações semanais de peso corporal, escore da condição corporal e composição do leite. Os animais com escore corporal alto apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro e proteína bruta em comparação àqueles com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. O período médio de recuperação do consumo de matéria seca dos animais das três condições corporais foi de 16 dias (2,3 semanas do pós-parto, com estabilização até o final do experimento. Na sexta semana de lactação, o peso corporal dos animais com escore corporal baixo se igualou ao daqueles com escore corporal intermediário. Não houve efeito da condição corporal ao parto nas variações de ECC e da produção leiteira ao longo do período. O teor de gordura do leite dos animais com escore corporal alto foi menor nas duas primeiras semanas pós-parto em comparação ao dos animais com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. Elevada condição corporal ao parto influencia negativamente o consumo voluntário de cabras leiteiras no início da lactação, mas quando se utiliza dieta de alta qualidade e com altos níveis de energia, a influência da condição corporal ao parto inexiste para variações de peso, de escore da condição corporal e produção leiteira dos animais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition at birth on Alpine goat productive parameters in early lactation. Sixty-eight females were assigned to three groups according to

  1. Desarrollo postnatal del sistema inmunitario asociado al intestino en la cabra / Juan Seva Alcaraz ; Juan Seva Alcaraz ; Antonio Bernabé Salazar, José Antonio Navarro Cámara.

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    Seva Alcaraz, Juan

    1996-01-01

    Tesis-Universidad de Murcia. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. ARCHIVO UNIVERSITARIO. T.M.-1394. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. Fac. Veterinaria. Departamentos. E002B TESIS 66. Consulte la tesis en: BCA. GENERAL. Fac. Veterinaria. Sala de estudio. Tesis-V 85.

  2. AL Amyloidosis

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    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  3. Detecção de Staphylococcus aureus utilizando a técnica de REP-PCR no monitoramento da qualidade do leite de cabra Detection of Staphylococcus aureus using the REP-PCR technique to monitor goat milk quality

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    Cellyneude de Souza Olivindo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de aplicar a técnica de REP-PCR no monitoramento da qualidade do leite de cabra por meio da detecção de Staphylococcus aureus em amostras de mãos de ordenhador, tetos das cabras, leite, ordenhadeira e água para estabelecimento e implantação do sistema de Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC. Verificaram-se vários fingerprints de todos os isolados coletados das diferentes fontes estudadas (mãos de ordenhador, tetos das cabras, leite, ordenhadeira e água. Observaram-se comportamentos muito similares das bandas, o que indica que os isolados podem ser relatados como clones epidemiológicos. As mãos do ordenhador caracterizaram-se como ponto crítico de controle, pois se destacaram como iniciador de contaminação nas amostras Staphylococcus aureus. A técnica demonstrou ser eficiente para a análise da similaridade entre indivíduos da espécie Staphylococcus aureus e, portanto, constitui ferramenta útil para investigação de falhas no manejo e na busca de controle mais eficiente para evitar ou reduzir a disseminação de microrganismos patogênicos causadores de sérias enfermidades em humanos e animais, que muitas vezes podem ser transmitidas por produtos como o leite e seus derivados.The objective of the present study was to apply REP-PCR sequences in the monitoring goat milk quality, by detecting Staphylococcus aureus, in samples of from milker hands, goat teats, milk, milking machine and water, for the future establishment and implantation of the system of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP. Several fingerprints were verified of all the isolates collected from the different sources studied (milker hands, goat teats, milk, milking machine and water. Very similar band behaviors were observed that indicated that the isolates can be reported as epidemic clones. Milker´s hands were was characterized as a critical control point (CCP, because it stands out as an

  4. Características microbiológicas e físico-químicas do leite de cabra submetido à pasteurização lenta pós-envase e ao congelamento Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of goat milk after low temperature time pasteurization and freezing

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    Patricia Vilhena Dias de Andrade

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização lenta (65°C 30min-1 em banho-maria e do congelamento (-18°C, seguido de estocagem por uma semana (-18°C, sobre as características microbiológicas e físico-químicas do leite de cabra pré-embalado. Quinze amostras individuais de leite de cabra foram analisadas antes e após o processamento, realizado no próprio capril. A pasteurização lenta mostrou-se eficaz na redução da contaminação por mesófilos, psicrotróficos e fungos, mas a baixa contagem de coliformes fecais e totais do leite cru não proporcionou a mesma eficácia neste grupo de bactérias. O armazenamento do leite congelado durante uma semana não alterou a sua qualidade microbiológica. Não se observou influência significativa do processamento térmico sobre as concentrações dos principais constituintes do leite ou sobre as propriedades físico-químicas analisadas. Os resultados obtidos nesse experimento mostraram também que um equipamento de leitura infra-vermelha calibrado com leite bovino pode ser usado para a determinação dos teores de gordura e proteína do leite de cabra.The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of water bath low temperature long time pasteurization (65°C 30 min-1 and freezing (-18°C followed by one-week storage (-18°C on the physical-chemical characteristics of goat milk. Fifteen individual milk samples were analyzed before and after being processed by the producer himself. Thermal processing applied was efficient for reducing mesophilic, psychrotrophic, molds and yeasts contamination, even though the low total and fecal coliform counts in raw milk did not allow the same statement considering that bacteria group. Thermal processing had no significant influence on the main constituents' concentrations or on the analyzed physical-chemical properties. The results obtained in this study also showed that infrared equipment calibrated with cow milk could be

  5. Abordagem Bayesiana da curva de lactação de cabras Saanen de primeira e segunda ordem de parto Bayesian approach in the lactation curve of Saanen goats from first and second calving orders

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    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o método Bayesiano no ajuste do modelo de Wood a dados de produção de leite de cabras da raça Saanen. Dois grupos de animais da primeira e segunda lactação foram considerados. Amostras das distribuições marginais a posteriori dos parâmetros do modelo de Wood e das funções de produção derivadas desses parâmetros - pico de produção, tempo do pico de produção, persistência e produção total de leite - foram obtidas pelo algoritmo Gibbs Sampler. As inferências foram feitas em cada população e os resultados mostraram diferenças na taxa de decréscimo da produção após o pico e na persistência, indicando maior produção nos animais de segunda lactação. Realizou-se um estudo de simulação de dados para avaliar o método Bayesiano sob diferentes estruturas de matrizes de covariâncias dos parâmetros. Os resultados desse estudo indicam que o método é eficiente no estudo das curvas de lactação quando a matriz de covariância apresenta alta correlação dos parâmetros.The objective of this work was to use the Bayesian method in the fitting of the Wood´s model for milk production of Saanen goats. Two groups of animals from first and second lactation were considered in the analysis. The posterior marginal distributions for each parameter and production functions, peak milk yield, time of peak yield, persistency and total milk production, were obtained via Gibbs Sampler algorithm. The inference was done for each population. The results showed differences in the slope of the curve after the peak and in persistency, indicating highest production for the second lactation. The data were simulated for evaluating Bayesian method under several covariance matrices structures. The simulation results indicate the efficiency of this method for lactation curves studies when the covariance matrices show high correlation for parameters.

  6. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

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    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento com cabras Saanen, primíparas, pesando em média, 50 kg, alojadas em baias individuais de 3 m², objetivando avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína da farinha de glúten de milho (FGM, na produção e composição do leite, consumo voluntário e níveis de uréia plasmática. O delineamento experimental foi o triplo quadrado latino 4x4, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias para colheita das amostras. As cabras foram alimentadas e ordenhadas pela manhã e tarde. Os níveis de substituição estudados foram 0, 10, 30 e 50% de FGM (base na proteína bruta. A substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho não afetou o consumo (kg/dia e %PV de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente ácido, mas houve efeito quadrático, para o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (kg/dia e % PV. Houve efeito sobre os níveis de uréia plasmática (UP, que foram inferiores para os menores níveis de substituição, sendo os maiores valores de UP observados para o tratamento que possuía somente FS. A produção de leite decresceu linearmente com a inclusão da farinha de glúten de milho. Os níveis de substituição resultaram em decréscimos lineares na produção de gordura (kg/dia, no teor de gordura do leite (% e no teor de sólidos totais. Houve efeito quadrático para produção de lactose (kg/dia, observando-se o menor valor estimado para o nível de substituição de 31,6%. Não foi observado efeito sobre a produção de proteína bruta no leite, cujo valor médio foi de 0,083 kg/dia. Os teores de proteina bruta, lactose e sólidos totais não sofreram efeito dos níveis de substituição, sendo os valores médios percentuais de 2,98; 4,35 e 11,51%, respectivamente.It was carried out an experiment with goats Saanen, on the first lactation, with 50 kg of body weight, housed in individual stalls of 3 m², to evaluate

  7. Óleo de soja e própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats

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    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, verificar os efeitos da adição de óleo de soja e/ou de extrato etanólico de própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade de nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas dezesseis cabras Alpinas (quatro fistuladas no rúmen. Os animais foram alocados em quatro quadrados latinos 4x4, em arranjo fatorial 2x2 dos tratamentos. Foram adicionados ao concentrado 0 ou 120 g de óleo de soja e 0 ou 10 mL de extrato etanólico de própolis/animal/dia (30% p/v de própolis bruta moída em solução alcoólica a 70% em água. As dietas foram isoprotéicas, com 11,5% de PB, e compostas de 67% de silagem de milho e 33% de concentrado à base de fubá de milho e farelo de soja. O óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de matéria seca (%PV e g/kg PV0,75, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos não-fibrosos; diminuiu a digestibilidade da FDN; aumentou a digestibilidade da PB e do EE e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT; reduziu a produção e aumentou os percentuais de gordura, proteína e sólidos totais no leite; aumentou o pH; e reduziu a relação acetato:propionato no líquido ruminal. Houve interação entre óleo de soja e extrato etanólico de própolis, de modo que o óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de MS, MO e FDN (em kg/animal/dia somente na presença de própolis e aumentou o consumo de PB na ausência de própolis. O óleo de soja mostrou-se mais efetivo em alterar as variáveis analisadas que o extrato etanólico de própolis.The objective of this experiment was to verify the effects of soybean oil and/or ethanolic extract of propolis, in the diets of dairy goats, on intake, on digestibility of nutrients, on milk production and composition and some ruminal parameters. Sixteen Alpine female goats were used, in which four animals fistulated in the rumen. The animals were allocated in four 4

  8. Peso à cobrição e ganho de peso durante a gestação de cabras nativas, exóticas e mestiças no semi-árido Mating weight and weight gain during gestation of native, exotic and crossbred goats in the semi-arid

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    Geovergue Rodrigues de Medeiros

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de mês, ano, ordem de parto e tipo de parto sobre o peso à cobrição (PC e o ganho de peso durante a gestação (GP, respectivamente, de 753 e 527 cabras nativas Canindés, 463 e 333 cabras exóticas Anglo-nubianas, 374 e 296 Alpinas, 151 e 87 de mestiças ½ Alpina (A ½ Sem Raça Definida (SRD, 92 e 73 ¾ Alpina (A ¼ SRD, criadas na Estação Experimental de Pendência - EMEPA-PB, Soledade-PB, na microrregião semi-árida da Paraíba, em regime semi-intensivo, no período de 1980 a 1994. O mês foi significativo sobre os pesos à cobrição das matrizes Canindés, Anglo-nubianas, ½ A ½ SRD e ¾ A ¼ SRD. O ano influenciou o PC de todos os grupos genéticos. O efeito do ano sobre o GP foi significativo para as cabras Canindés, Anglo-nubianas, ½ A ½ SRD e Alpinas. O peso à cobrição elevou-se com o aumento da ordem de parto e o GP foi mais evidente entre as cabras de primeiro parto. O tipo de parto foi significativo sobre o GP das matrizes nubianas, ¾ A ¼ SRD e Alpina, que tiveram maiores ganhos quando pariram apenas um cabrito. A raça influenciou o PC e o GP de todas as matrizes. A raça nativa foi a mais leve e com o melhor ganho de peso; as exóticas, as mais pesadas e com GP inferiores aos da raça Canindé e da mestiça ½ A ½ SRD; e a mestiça ¾ A ¼ SRD, a raça com peso corporal (PC e GP semelhantes às exóticas. Concluiu-se que a composição genética dos animais e os fatores ambientais, como mês, ano, ordem e tipo de parto, refletiram sobre o peso à cobrição e o ganho de peso durante a gestação das matrizes estudadas.The effects of month, year, order and type parturition on mating weight (MW, weight gain during gestation (WG, respectively, of 753 and 527 Caninde native goats, 463 and 333 exotic Anglo Nubian and 374 and 296 Alpine goats, 151 and 87 crossbred ½ Alpine ½ SRD, and 92 and 73 ¾Alpine ¼SRD goats, raised in the Experimental Station of the Governmental Research Institute

  9. Determinação da idade fetal por meio da técnica ultra-sonográfica de fetometria e de morfologia fetal em cabras Determination of fetal age in goats by real-time ultrasound fetometry and fetal morphology

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    E. Léga; G.H. Toniollo; J.A. Oliveira; Resende, K. T.; Rodrigues, V.

    2007-01-01

    Utilizaram-se 13 cabras gestantes da raça Saanen, para estudo das características da gestação a partir do 60º dia, segundo as técnicas de fetometria e avaliação morfológica fetal, utilizando-se ultra-sonografia em modo-B. Analisaram-se: diâmetro orbital (DO), diâmetro interorbital (DIO), diâmetro biorbital (DBO), diâmetro biparietal (DBP), comprimento do fêmur (CF), comprimento da tíbia (CT), comprimento do rádio (CR), diâmetro do tórax (DT), diâmetro abdominal transversal (DAT), diâmetro abd...

  10. Indução da ovulação em cabras, fora da estação reprodutiva, com LH e GnRH e com estro induzido por progestágenos Induction of the out-of-season ovulation (with LH and GnRH) and estrus (with progesterone) in goats

    OpenAIRE

    P.A.G. Leite; G.R. Carvalho; Rodrigues, M.T.; J.R.M. Ruas; E.A.M. Amorim; V.V. Maffili

    2006-01-01

    Quarenta e cinco cabras foram sincronizadas com o uso de esponjas intravaginais impregnadas com 60mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP) por nove dias, associadas com 200UI de gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG) e 37,5µg de cloprostenol no sétimo dia. Os animais foram separados em três grupos e receberam, 24 horas após a retirada das esponjas, solução salina ou hormônios, no seguinte esquema: T1 (controle) - 1ml de solução salina; T2 - 5mg de hormônio luteinizante (LH) e T3 - 12,5&...

  11. Efeitos do estresse térmico sobre a produção, composição química do leite e respostas termorreguladoras de cabras da raça alpina Thermal stress effects on milk yield and chemical composition and thermoregulatory responses of lactating alpines goats

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Helena de Albuquerque Brasil; Francisco Stefano Wechesler; Flávio Baccari Júnior; Heraldo Cesar Gonçalves; Ismael Antônio Bonassi

    2000-01-01

    Seis cabras da raça Alpina, com produção média de leite de 2,5 kg/dia, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de três e submetidas à termoneutralidade ou estresse térmico por 56 dias em câmara climática. Usou-se um delineamento estatístico "crossover". A temperatura média do ar diurna, incluindo radiação solar simulada, foi de 33,84ºC. Os animais estressados aumentaram a freqüência respiratória, o volume-minuto respiratório, a termólise-evaporativa respiratória, temperatura retal e ...

  12. Avaliação de variáveis que influenciam a hidrólise enzimática da caseína do leite de cabra Moxotó Evaluation of the variables that influence the enzymatic hydrolysis of Moxotó goat's milk casein

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Barros Ferreira Lira; Vilma Sobral Bezerra; Flávio Oliveira Silva; Giselle Maria Pereira Dias; José Luiz de Lima Filho; Tatiana Souza Porto; Ana Lúcia Figueiredo Porto

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da temperatura, pH, relação enzima:substrato (E:S) e tempo de reação sobre a hidrólise enzimática da caseína do leite de cabra Moxotó, com uso de diferentes enzimas proteolíticas. A hidrólise enzimática da caseína caprina foi realizada com uso de tripsina, pepsina e papaína. Para cada enzima, foram utilizados dois níveis de cada variável, na avaliação de seus efeitos sobre a hidrólise da caseína, em um fatorial completo 2(4). Os produtos da hid...

  13. Efeito dos genótipos para alphaS1-caseína sobre as frações proteicas e lipídicas do leite de cabra Effect of genotypes for αs1-casein on proteic and lipidic fractions in goat milk

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    M.M.C. Silva; Torres, R. A.; M.T. Rodrigues; M.A.M. Soares; A.C.M. Magalhães; S.P. Silva; T.S. Silveira

    2009-01-01

    O alto polimorfismo encontrado no lócus do gene da αS1-caseína em caprinos, classificado em quatro níveis de expressão - alto, médio, baixo e nulo -, está associado à produção de 3,6; 1,6; 0,6 e 0g/L/alelo, respectivamente. O estudo foi realizado para investigar possíveis variações na produção de leite e seus constituintes, no perfil de caseínas e na lipólise da gordura. Quarenta e quatro cabras foram distribuídas em cinco genótipos: dois homozigotos, um para alta (AA) e outro para produ...

  14. Efeito da fase da lactação e do polimorfismo genético da kcaseína na composição da gordura em ácidos gordos no leite de cabra da raça serpentina

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    Pinheiro, C; Bettencourt, CMV; Matos, C; Ramos, M.; Matos, R; Figueiredo, T

    2012-01-01

    A composição do leite de cabra, assim como a quantidade produzida é influenciada por diversos factores entre eles a raça, a fase da lactação, alimentação e selecção dos animais, variando entre limites bastantes extensos em função dos factores em causa. As metodologias clássicas de programas de selecção de espécies produtoras de leite, são estabelecidas com base essencialmente nos registos da quantidade de leite, teor em gordura e proteína. Contudo o desenvolvimento do conhecimento do ADN tem ...

  15. The Response of Bronchial Associated Lymphoid Tissue to Intratracheal Administration of Peste des Petit Ruminants Virus and its Co-Infection with Mannheimia hemolytica in Goats Respuesta del Tejido Linfoide Asociado con Bronquios a la Administración Intratraqueal del Virus Peste de Pequeños Rumiantes y su Coinfección con Mannheimia hemolytica en Cabras

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    B. O Emikpe

    2011-12-01

    exploración para el control de la neumonía viral común, pneumonia bacteriana y su co-infección en el ganado caprino subsahariano. Esta investigación utilizó tejidos archivados pertenecientes a 35 cabras enanas del oeste africano aparentemente sanas, que fueron divididas en grupos PPRV y PPRV+MH con 15 cabras cada uno, mientras que 5 cabras sirvieron como control. Las cabras PPRV fueron infectadas por vía intratraqueal con 1 ml de cultivo puro 106,5 TCID50 PPR virus Peste de Pequeños Rumiantes (PPRV cultivados en líneas celulares renales de hámsters recien nacidos y PPRV+MH con 1 ml de PPRV y una semana después de 1 ml de MH (Mannheimia haemolytica A2. El número de BALT, tipo y la celularidad se determinaron utilizando métodos estándar con el uso de un analizador de imágenes. Se utilizó la prueba t de Student para probar las diferencias significativas. Los resultados mostraron que el número promedio de BALT fue significativamente mayor en la infección PPRV+MH que la infección PPRV, es decir, 6,20±3,63 para PPRV+MH y 4,11±2,92 para PPRV con un BALT principalmente de tipo nodular (8,01±1,83 que de tipo agregado (4,3±1,50, mientras que el número promedio de linfocitos en el BALT nodular y agregado aumentó significativamente con 82,25±15,95 y 56,00±7,28 en PPRV y, 103,33±44,10 y 66,00±7,93 en PPRV+MH respectivamente. No hubo un patrón irregular en el área de superficie y perímetro del BALT después de las infecciones. El aumento en el número promedio de BALT y linfocitos en la infección PPRV+MH comparado con la de infección PPRV mostró que el desarrollo de BALT y el número de linfocitos en BALT podría ser utilizado para evaluar la inmunidad de la mucosa después de la administración intratraqueal de PPRV+MH en cabras. Este es el primer estudio que describe la morfometría del tejido linfoide asociado a bronquios en la infección experimental de PPRV y PPRV+MH en cabras subsaharianas.

  16. Parâmetros digestivos, produção e qualidade do leite de cabras Saanen recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.563 Digestive parameters, production and quality of milk from Saanen goats fed rations with soybean hulls as a replacement for ground corn - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.563

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela de Oliveira Passianoto; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo; Juliano Hideo Hashimoto; Claudete Regina Alcalde; Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom; Luciano Soares de Lima

    2007-01-01

    O experimento objetivou avaliar os parâmetros digestivos, produção e qualidade do leite de cabras Saanen, recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja (CGS), em três níveis de substituição ao milho moído (0% CGS, 50% CGS e 100% CGS). Foram utilizadas três cabras Saanen (52,35 kg ± 7,46), primíparas, confinadas, distribuídas em quadrado latino 3 x 3. As rações apresentaram em média 14,70% de PB e 2,23 Mcal de EM kg-1 de MS ingerida. Foi realizado o controle diário da ingestão e produção de leite...

  17. Qualidade do leite de cabra in natura e do produto pasteurizado armazenados por diferentes períodos Quality of in natura goat milk and pasteurized product stored for different periods

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    Carolina Rodrigues da Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados diferentes períodos (0, 3 e 6 dias e 2 temperaturas (4° e 10 °C no armazenamento do leite de cabra cru e sua influência sobre a qualidade e vida útil do produto pasteurizado. Nos períodos descritos de armazenamento, procedeu-se à pasteurização lenta do leite (65 °C/30 min, sendo o produto processado armazenado a 10 °C por mais 6 dias. As amostras do leite cru foram caracterizadas imediatamente após a ordenha e após o 3° e 6° dias de armazenagem. O leite pasteurizado foi caracterizado imediatamente após a pasteurização e após o 3º e 6º dias de armazenagem a 10 °C. Foram realizadas as seguintes análises: contagens de microrganismos mesófilos, psicrotróficos totais, lipolíticos e proteolíticos, coliformes totais e fecais e físico-químicas: acidez, gordura e ácidos graxos livres (AGL. As populações de microrganismos no leite cru tiveram maior desenvolvimento na temperatura de 10 °C do que a 4 °C. A acidez manteve-se dentro do aceitável na armazenagem a 4 °C por 6 dias, mas não a 10 °C. Foi observado decréscimo significativo (p Different periods (0, 3 and 6 days and 2 temperatures (4 °C and 10 °C of raw goat's milk storage and its impact on pasteurized product quality and shelf life were evaluated. In the described periods, slow pasteurization (65 °C/30 min was carried out and the pasteurized product was stored at 10 °C for 6 days. Raw milk samples were characterized after milk handling and after 3 and 6 days of storage. Pasteurized milk was evaluated immediately after heat treatment and after 3 and 6 days of storage at 10 °C. The counting of mesophiles, total, lipolytic and proteolytic psichotrophic bacteria, total and fecal coliforms, acidity, fat and free fatty acid (FFA contents were determined. The microorganisms' populations had a higher growth at 10 °C than 4 °C. Acidity remained in acceptable levels during storage at 4 °C for 6 days, but not at 10 °C. There was a significant

  18. Estudo do polimorfismo genético da αS1-caseína em cabras, no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.551 Study of the genetic polymorphism of the αS1-casein in goats of Pernambuco State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.551

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    Aurea Wischral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Estado de Pernambuco tem uma vocação pecuária, especialmente, para a exploração de caprinos. Dentre as proteínas, chamadas de caseínas, a αS1-caseína foi a primeira proteína comprovada com base no polimorfismo genético. Objetivando realizar a genotipagem de cabras criadas no sertão, agreste e zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP, estudou-se o polimorfismo do gene da αS1-caseína. Utilizaram-se 60 animais, divididos em três grupos de 20 animais, das raças Moxotó, Alpina Americana e SRD (Sem Raça Definida. A extração do DNA foi realizada com a utilização do protocolo fenol-clorofórmio, e o gene da αS1-caseína foi amplificado por meio da PCR (reação da polimerase em cadeia. Em seguida, foi utilizada a enzima de restrição XmnI para obter a freqüência alélica das raças estudadas. Encontrou-se, nos caprinos, os alelos da αS1-caseína B e D que foram predominantes para a raça nativa Moxotó e animais SRD (100%, e os alelos C e D, para a raça Alpina Americana (100%, concluindo-se que existem variações genéticas para o gene da αS1-caseína do leite das raças caprinas estudadas, embora se evidencie a proximidade genética entre a Moxotó e SRD.The Pernambuco State, has been a livestock area, mainly for the caprine exploration. Among the proteins, called caseins, the αS1-casein was the first proved protein with base in the genetic polymorphism. To genotype goats of the “sertão”, “agreste” and “zona da mata” regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, through the PCR-RFLP technique, we studied the polymorphism of the αS1-casein gene. Sixty animals were used, divided in three groups of twenty animals of the races Moxotó, American Alpine and UB (Undefined Breed. The DNA extraction was done by the phenol-chloroform protocol and the αS1-casein gene was amplified through the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Then, the restriction enzyme XmnI was used to obtain the allele

  19. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Produção e Composição do Leite e Digestibilidade dos Nutrientes Corn Replacement by Cassava by-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Milk Production and Composition and Nutrients Digestibility

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    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre o desempenho, a composição do leite (sólidos totais e proteína bruta, a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (FDN, e amido e a concentração dos nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das dietas. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura. Os tratamentos não influenciaram a ingestão, excreção fecal, digestão total e a digestibilidade total da MS, MO, PB, FDN e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. Houve diminuição linear na excreção fecal e aumento na digestibilidade do amido, com a inclusão da farinha de mandioca de varredura. O NDT não diferiu entre as dietas estudadas, com média de 71,59%. Houve correlação positiva entre a digestibilidade da matéria orgânica (DIGMO e o NDT (r = 0,9472, permitindo estimativas do NDT a partir da equação NDT (% = 0,8897DIGMO (% + 10,9940 (R²=0,8972. A substituição da farinha da mandioca de varredura não alterou a produção, bem como a composição do leite. Recomenda-se a utilização da farinha de mandioca de varredura em dietas de cabras em lactação, em total substituição ao milho, sem prejuízos na digestibilidade dos nutrientes e na produção.The objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on milk production and composition (total solids and crude protein, nutrient apparent digestibility and total digestible nutrients (TDN of diets. Four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula, with 100 days of lactation, were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin

  20. Produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com diferentes níveis de proteína na dieta: consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Production of goats fed diets with increasing levels of protein: intake, milk yield and apparent digestibility

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    Carlos Elysio Moreira da Fonseca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de cabras alimentadas com dietas com 47% de silagem de milho e 53% de concentrado, contendo níveis crescentes de PB (11,5; 13,5; 15,5 e 17,5%PB na MS. Foram utilizadas 12 cabras da raça Alpina em lactação, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, compostos de quatro períodos de 15 dias (sete de adaptação às dietas e oito para coletas de amostras. Amostras de fezes e de leite foram analisadas e os resultados avaliados por meio de análises de variância e regressão. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, PDR e NDT, assim com as digestibilidades da MS, MO, PB e CNF, aumentaram linearmente com os níveis de PB da dieta. A produção de leite aumentou linearmente com o incremento do nível dietético de PB, enquanto a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura e as porcentagens de gordura e PB no leite não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de PB nas dietas. Concluiu-se que os níveis de 13,5% de PB ou 290 g de PB/dia atendem às exigências de proteína e parecem adequados para cabras com produção diária de até 2,7 kg de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura.Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, milk yield and milk composition were all evaluated in goats receiving diets with 47% of corn silage and 53% of concentrate. Dietary crude protein (CP was increased as follows [dry matter (DM basis]:11.5, 13.5, 15.5 and 17.5%. Twelve lactating Alpine goats were randomly assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares with 15 days experimental periods: seven days for diet adaptation and eight days for samples collection. Total collection of feces was done from day 8 to day 12 of each period while milk samples on day 10. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance and regression. Intakes of DM, organic matter (OM, CP, rumen degradable protein (RDP and total digestible nutrients (TDN increased linearly with the increment of dietary CP. Similarly

  1. Efeito da inclusão de fontes lipídicas na dieta de cabras em lactação sobre os parâmetros sanguíneos Effect of fat source inclusion in the diet of lactating goats on blood parameters

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    Guilherme de Lira Sobral Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se o estudo do perfil metabólico, com o objetivo de avaliar o estado nutricional ou possíveis distúrbios metabólicos que podem comprometer a saúde e, consequentemente, o desempenho do rebanho. No presente trabalho foi avaliado o perfil metabólico de cabras em lactação, submetidas a dietas com diferentes fontes de lipídios. Foram utilizadas 16 cabras da raça Saanen com peso vivo médio de 35 Kg e produção média diária de 1,2 kg de leite, distribuídas em quadrado latino com três repetições. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram nas seguintes dietas: sem suplementação lipidica (TC; semente de faveleira (SF; torta de faveleira (TF e caroço de algodão (CA. O experimento foi desenvolvido em quatro períodos experimentais de 14 dias, sendo 10 dias de adaptação à dieta e quatro dias de coleta de dados. No último dia de cada período foram coletadas amostras de sangue. A inclusão de semente de oleaginosa na dieta de cabras em lactação diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca por unidade metabólica (CMSU e consumo de proteína bruta por unidade metabólica (CPBU. Dentre os quatro tratamentos não se observou diferença significativa no que se refere à concentração sérica de uréia, creatinina, GGT (gama glutamiltransferase, cálcio, fósforo, magnésio e glicose. Os níveis séricos de albumina dos animais que receberam TF foram maiores (PThe study of the metabolic profile has as objective to evaluate the nutritional status or possible metabolic disturbances that can damage the health and consequently the herd performance. In this work, the metabolic profile of lactating goats was evaluated, submitted to diets with different fat sources. 12 Saanen goats with BW of 35 kg and daily milk production of 1,2 kg were used, distributed into a Latin square with three repetitions. The diet comprised, without fat supplementation, TC (control and with fat supplementation: SF (favelone seed; TF (favelone cake and CA (cotton

  2. Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq na alimentação de cabras em lactação: consumo e produção de leite Effects of feeding cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L. and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq on milk intake and yield for lactating goats

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    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o consumo e a produção de leite de cabras recebendo dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja da ração concentrada. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, com produção média diária de 2,0 kg de leite e aos 60 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os períodos experimentais tiveram duração de 14 dias, em que os dez primeiros foram destinados à adaptação e os quatro últimos, à coleta de amostras. As rações foram isoprotéicas, com 13,2% de proteína bruta. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 64% de concentrado na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrado à base de milho e soja com 0, 15 e 30% de FC ou TD. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, nutrientes digestíveis totais, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos reduziram com a inclusão de 30% de FC. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo (EE não foram alterados pelas dietas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido diferiu apenas entre os tratamentos com 30% de TD e 30% de FC, sendo 0,94 e 0,59% do peso vivo animal, respectivamente. O tratamento com 30% de FC proporcionou menor produção de leite (1,208 kg/dia, se assemelhando apenas ao tratamento com inclusão de 30% de TD quando a produção foi corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. O FC e a TD apresentam viabilidade de uso como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação em até 9,13 e 18,81% da matéria seca, respectivamente.The effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (CF or palm kernel cake (PKC in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. Five Saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample

  3. Efeitos genéticos e ambientais que afetam a produção de leite e duração da lactação de cabras mestiças no estado da Paraíba Genetic and environmental effects that affect milk production and lactation length of crossbred goats in the state of Paraiba

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    Edgard Cavalcanti Pimenta Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se dados de 689 lactações de 225 cabras Pardo Alpina x Gurguéia filhas de 18 bodes, controladas de 1988 a 1996, criadas na Fazenda Carnaúba, Taperoá-PB, com os objetivos de estudar os efeitos ambientais e estimar parâmetros genéticos para as características produção de leite (PL e duração da lactação (DL. Os efeitos ambientais foram estimados por meio de um modelo estatístico que incluiu o efeito aleatório de bode, os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo, tipo de parto e idade da cabra ao parto e duração da lactação, para PL, como covariáveis. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por intermédio do programa MTDFREML, sob modelo animal, contendo os efeitos fixos e covariáveis utilizados no modelo anterior. As características foram influenciadas pelo efeito fixo de grupo contemporâneo. A idade da cabra influenciou apenas a característica PL. As médias obtidas para PL e DL foram 257,71 ± 54,73 kg e 185,56 ± 46,87 dias, respectivamente, equivalendo à produção média diária de 1,38 kg de leite/dia. As estimativas de herdabilidade e repetibilidade foram, respectivamente, de 0,23 e 0,35 para PL e 0,20 e 0,24 para DL. A correlação genética estimada entre as características foi de 0,96. Em razão de as herdabilidades das características serem de média magnitude e limitadas ao sexo, sugere-se o teste de progênie como método de seleção mais eficaz para os bodes.Records of 689 lactations of 225 Alpine x Gurguéia goats, progenies of 18 buck, controlled from 1988 to 1996, raised at Carnaúba Farm, Taperoá-PB, were analyzed with the objective of study environmental effects and estimate genetics parameters for Milk Production (MP and Length of Lactation (LL. The environmental effects were analyzed by an statistical model that included buck random effects and the fixed effects of contemporary groups, type of kidding and age of dam at kidding and length lactation as covariate. The genetic parameters

  4. Estudo de efeitos ambientais que influem na forma da curva de lactação de cabras mestiças no estado da Paraíba Study of the environmental effects that affect the shape of lactation curves of crossbred goats in Paraíba state

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    Maria Norma Ribeiro

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar a influência de efeitos ambientais sobre a forma da curva de lactação (produção no pico, tempo de pico e persistência de cabras mestiças Alpina x Gurguéia, ajustada pela função gama incompleta. Dados de 6126 controles, referentes a 877 lactações de 366 cabras criadas na Fazenda Carnaúba, localizada no município de Taperoá, Estado da Paraíba, no período de 1988 a 1995, foram usados. A função foi ajustada por regressão linear, após transformação logarítmica, e pelo método iterativo não-linear. Os parâmetros obtidos por regressão linear tiveram coeficiente de determinação ajustado ( de 71% versus de 90% obtido para a regressão não-linear. Produção máxima, tempo de pico e produção no pico foram obtidos por intermédio da função ajustada por regressão não-linear, que apresentou ajuste superior. O estudo dos efeitos ambientais sobre estas características foi realizado pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, usando um modelo contendo os efeitos de tipo de parto, ordem de parto, ano do parto e estação de parto. Os efeitos ambientes influenciaram todas as características estudadas. Maiores picos de produção foram observados para as cabras adultas, o que foi justificado pelo completo desenvolvimento fisiológico dos animais.The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of environmental factors on the shape of lactation curves (peak yield, time of peak and persistency of crossbred Alpine x Gurguéia goats fitted by Incomplete gamma function. Data from 6126 records of 877 lactation of 366 goats raised on Carnaúba Farm, Taperoá city, Paraíba State in the period from 1988 to 1995 were used. The function was fitted by linear regression, after logarithmic transformation and by non-linear iterative method. Adjusted coefficient of determination ( for linear regression was 71% versus a of 90% obtained by non-linear regression. Peak yield, time of peak and persistency

  5. Parâmetros digestivos, produção e qualidade do leite de cabras Saanen recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho = Digestive parameters, production and quality of milk from Saanen goats fed rations with soybean hulls as a replacement for ground corn

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    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento objetivou avaliar os parâmetros digestivos, produção e qualidade do leite de cabras Saanen, recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja (CGS, em três níveis de substituição ao milho moído (0% CGS, 50% CGS e 100% CGS. Foram utilizadas três cabras Saanen (52,35 kg ± 7,46, primíparas, confinadas, distribuídas em quadrado latino 3 x 3. As rações apresentaram em média 14,70% de PB e 2,23 Mcal de EM kg-1 de MS ingerida. Foi realizado o controle diário da ingestão e produção de leite. As fezes foram coletadas para determinação da digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes, e o líquido ruminal para determinação dos parâmetros ruminais. O leite foi coletado para análises físico-químicas e perfil de ácidos graxos. A maior (p 0,05 na digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes, nem na produção e qualidade físico-química do leite. O tratamento 100% CGS proporcionou maior concentração de acetato ruminal, maior razão acetato:propionato e menores concentrações de propionato e butirato ruminal. Os tratamentos não alteraram (p > 0,05 o N-amoniacal e pH ruminal. O perfil de ácidos graxos do leite oscilou em função dos tratamentos. A casca do grão de soja pode substituir o milho moído em rações para cabras Saanen em lactação, sem alterações no processo digestivo, na produção e na qualidade do leite.The objective of this study was to evaluate digestive parameters, production and quality of milk from Saanen goats fed rations with soybean hulls (SBH as a replacement for ground corn. Three Saanen does (52.35 kg ± 7.46, confined and first-kidding, were allocated in a 3 x 3 Latin square. Treatments consisted of replacement levels of ground corn for SBH (0% SBH, 50% SBH and 100% SBH, with 14.70% of CP and 2.23 Mcal of ME kg-1 DMI as mean values. Intake and milk production were recorded daily. Feces were sampled for the determination of dry matter and nutrient digestibility, and ruminal

  6. All About ALS

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    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder In the summer of ... of research dollars—for a fatal disease called ALS. ALS stands for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It’s also ...

  7. Efeitos do estresse térmico nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona (P4 e estradiol 17-b (E2 e temperatura retal em cabras da raça Pardo Alpina Effects of heat stress on progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17b plasma concentrations and rectal temperature of Alpine Brown goats

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    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras lactantes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental em "crossover", em dois grupos: sob condições termoneutras e estresse térmico. Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro períodos de 14 dias cada, quando os animais sob estresse térmico foram expostos à temperatura média de 33,84ºC; THI de 86,20; BGT de 36,18 e BT de 32,11ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona, mas as fêmeas submetidas ao estresse térmico apresentaram diminuição nas concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol, quando comparados ao grupo termoneutro. A temperatura retal dos animais sob estresse térmico foi mais elevada quando foi comparada à do grupo de animais em condições de termoneutralidade. As cabras mantiveram as concentrações plasmáticas da progesterona, com diminuição na secreção de estradiol, quando expostas a um estresse repetido e intermitente, a despeito de ocorrer hipertermia durante o estresse pelo calor.Six lactating goats were randomly assigned to a crossover experimental design in two groups, under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. An adaptation period of 28 days were followed by 4-periods of 14 days each, when the animals under heat stress were exposed to an average temperature of 33.34ºC; THI of 86.20; BGT of 36.18 and BT of 32.11ºC from 8 to 17 hours, including simulated solar radiation from 10 to 15 hours. There was no difference for progesterone plasma concentrations but the animals under heat stress showed a reduction of estradiol plasma concentrations as compared to the thermoneutral group. The rectal temperature of the animals under heat stress was higher when compared to the animals under thermoneutral conditions. The goats maintained progesterone plasma concentrations with reduction of estradiol secretion when exposed to repeat stress and intermittent

  8. SUPLEMENTAÇÃO ALIMENTAR DE CABRAS ANGLO-NUBIANAS NA ÉPOCA CHUVOSA, NA REGIÃO SEMI-ÁRIDA DO NORDESTE BRASILEIRO FOOD SUPPLEMENTATION OF ANGLO-NUBIAN GOATS IN RAINY SEASON IN SEMI-ARID REGION OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

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    NELSON NOGUEIRA BARROS

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para avaliar a influência da suplementação alimentar na produção de leite de cabras da raça Anglo-nubiana, durante a época chuvosa, na região semi-árida do Nordeste brasileiro. Vinte e quatro cabras foram mantidas em pastagem nativa rebaixada, distribuídas ao acaso, por tipo de parto e produção de leite, em três níveis de suplementação: N0 - sem suplementação, N1 -150 g de concentrado/animal/dia e N2 - 300 g de concentrado/animal/dia. Não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05 entre os níveis de suplementação. A produção de leite foi descrita por uma regressão múltipla em função do período de lactação em semana. A interação semana x níveis de suplementação foi significativa (pThis experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of food supplementation on milk production of Anglo-nubian goats, during the rainy season, in semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Twenty four goats were maintained in lowered "caatinga", distributed randomly according to the parturition order and milk production in three supplementation levels: N0 - no supplementation, N1 - 150 g of concentrate/animal/day and N2 - 300 g of concentrate/animal/day. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between supplementation levels. Milk production was described by multiple regression to lactation period, in week. The results showed that the best option to produce milk with Anglo-nubian, during the wet season, is 300 g of concentrate/animal/day.

  9. Produção e composição química do leite de cabras mestiças Moxotó sob suplementação com óleo de licuri ou de mamona Production and chemical composition of the milk from crossbred Moxotó goats supplemented with licuri or castor oil

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    Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de óleos de licuri ou de mamona na dieta sobre a produção, a composição química do leite de cabras leiteiras e a viabilidade econômica dessas dietas. No delineamento experimental foram utilizadas cabras Mestiças Moxotó distribuídas em quadrado latino 5 × 5 com duas repetições, composto de cinco dietas: uma controle, sem lipídio suplementar, e as demais com 3% ou 5% de óleo de licuri ou de mamona. A suplementação com 5% de óleo de licuri reduziu a produção de leite, mas não influenciou a produção de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura. A adição de 3% de óleo de mamona reduziu o teor de gordura e de sólidos totais em comparação ao óleo de licuri, aumentando o teor de lactose. O teor de proteína do leite, no entanto, não foi alterado pela adição de óleo na dieta. Os indicadores econômicos apontaram a dieta controle como a mais rentável, no entanto, a suplementação com 3% de óleo de licuri, em comparação ao de mamona, pode ser interessante quando o leite se destina ao processamento, em virtude do maior teor de gordura.The effect was assessed of including licuri and castor oils in the diet on the production and chemical composition of milk from goats and the economic viability of the diets. Crossbred Moxotó goats in a 5 × 5 Latin square design were used with two replications consisting of five diets: a control treatment without supplementary oil (control, and the others with 3% or 5% licuri or castor oil. Milk production decreased with the inclusion of 5% licuri oil, but it did not influence the production of milk corrected to 4% fat. The addition of 3% castor oil reduced the fat content and total solids production compared to licuri oil, but it increased the lactose content. There was no significant difference in the protein content among treatments. The simple financial analyses showed that the control diet was more profitable, but supplementation with 3% licuri oil when

  10. Efeitos do estresse térmico sobre a produção, composição química do leite e respostas termorreguladoras de cabras da raça alpina Thermal stress effects on milk yield and chemical composition and thermoregulatory responses of lactating alpines goats

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    Lúcia Helena de Albuquerque Brasil

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras da raça Alpina, com produção média de leite de 2,5 kg/dia, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de três e submetidas à termoneutralidade ou estresse térmico por 56 dias em câmara climática. Usou-se um delineamento estatístico "crossover". A temperatura média do ar diurna, incluindo radiação solar simulada, foi de 33,84ºC. Os animais estressados aumentaram a freqüência respiratória, o volume-minuto respiratório, a termólise-evaporativa respiratória, temperatura retal e a taxa de sudorese, enquanto o volume corrente respiratório e o volume globular diminuíram. Houve também perda de peso, redução da ingestão de alimentos e duplicação do consumo de água. A produção de leite e a porcentagem de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais diminuíram. Os teores de cloretos, cálcio e fósforo não sofreram alteração. Concluiu-se que, para manter a homeotermia, as cabras mobilizaram o sistema respiratório e sudoríparo para perder calor. A alta temperatura ambiente efetiva reduziu a produção e os teores de alguns componentes do leite.Six Alpine goats with an average milk yield of 2.5 kg/day were randomly assigned to two groups of three and allotted to thermoneutral or heat stress conditions, for 56 days in climate chamber room. A crossover experimental design was used. The goats under heat stress were exposed to a diurnal average air temperature plus simulated solar radiation of 33. 84ºC. The heat-stressed goats showed elevated respiratory frequency, respiratory minute volume, respiratory evaporation, rectal temperature and sweating rate, while the tidal volume and packed cell volume decreased. Further weight loss, decreased feed intake, and their water consumption doubled. The milk yield, the percentage of fat, protein, lactose and total solid contents decreased. The contents of chloride, calcium and phosphorus did not change. The goats mobilized the respiratory and sweating systems to

  11. Sincronização de estro em cabras da raça Saanen com esponja intravaginal e CIDR-G® Estrus synchonization of Saanen goats with intravaginal sponge and CIDR-G®

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    V.V. Maffili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se dois protocolos de curta duração, associados à aplicação de cipionato de estradiol (CE para sincronização de estro, utilizando-se 12 cabras da raça Saanen, oito multíparas (M e quatro nulíparas (N, distribuídas em dois tratamentos (T. O T1 (n = 4M e 2N correspondeu à inserção de esponja impregnada com 60mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona e o T2 (n= 4M e 2N, à inserção de CIDR-G®. No dia zero (d=0, dia da inserção dos dispositivos intravaginais, foi aplicado nos animais dos dois tratamentos 1mg de CE. Os dispositivos intravaginais permaneceram por cinco dias quando se iniciou a detecção de estro, realizada a cada seis horas. Exames ultra-sonográficos foram feitos diariamente, durante a permanência do dispositivo, e a cada seis horas após a detecção do estro, até 12 horas após a ovulação. Houve regressão folicular com a emergência de uma nova onda no quinto dia da permanência do dispositivo CIDR-G®. As taxas de manifestação de estro e de gestação foram de 5/6 e 1/5 para T1 e de 6/6 e 2/6 para T2, respectivamente. Os intervalos da retirada do dispositivo ao início do estro e da retirada do dispositivo ao fim do estro e a duração do estro foram: 74,0±39,1 e 34,7±15,1 horas (P0,05, para T1 e T2, respectivamente. Em T1 e T2, os intervalos do início do estro à ovulação foram 50,6±22,6 e 47,3±15,3 horas (P>0,05, do final do estro à ovulação, -12,6±9,1 e -8,0±4,5 horas (P>0,05 e da retirada do dispositivo à ovulação, 124,6±34,1 e 82,0±12,4 horas (P0,05, respectivamente, para T1 e T2. A utilização da esponja e do CIDR-G® associada ao CE foi efetiva em induzir o estro. A ausência de luteólise completa no momento da retirada do dispositivo foi responsável pela grande variação nas características estudadas. Recomenda-se que os dispositivos liberadores de progesterona e seus análogos sintéticos sejam deixados por, no mínimo, sete dias, quando associados ao CE.Two short

  12. Consumo de volumosos, produção e composição físico-química do leite de cabras F1 Boer × Saanen Roughage intake, milk yield and physicochemical composition from F1 Boer × Saanen goats

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    Elisa Köhler Osmari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do fornecimento de volumosos suplementares sobre o consumo, a produção e a composição físico-química do leite de cabras F1 (Boer ×Saanen. Utilizaram-se 18 cabras distribuídas em três baias, recebendo como suplemento, à vontade, silagem de sorgo, silagem de milho ou feno de amoreira com controle diário do consumo de matéria seca. A média diária para produção semanal foi calculada reunindo-se dados leiteiros em três períodos pós-parto: 1 (34 a 40 dias/7 dias; 2 [(64 a 70 dias/7 dias + (91 a 97 dias/7 dias]/2; e 3 (125 a 131 dias/7 dias e a média pontual diária do período pelas datas de referência dos períodos da média diária para produção semanal, que foi correlacionada à composição de gordura, proteína, lactose e extrato seco total e à contagem de células somáticas. Os dados semanais de acidez e densidade foram agrupados em 37, 81±13, 128 e 151±10 dias pós-parto. Com modelos mistos, o animal foi computado como aleatório e os efeitos fixos foram três suplementos e três períodos (composição, médias diárias as produções semanal e do período ou quatro (acidez e densidade. O consumo de feno de amoreira (0,657 kg superou o de silagem de milho (0,604 kg, que foi superior ao de silagem de sorgo (0,305 kg. No período 2, a composição em extrato etéreo foi menor, em razão do decréscimo de gordura e lactose. No período 3, a composição em proteína e a acidez aumentaram e a densidade foi maior nos períodos 1 (1,0270 e 3 (1,0277. A mamite aumentou a CCS no período 2. Para proteína, o tipo de suplemento não foi significativo, mas houve efeito da interação período pós-parto ×suplemento. As demais variáveis não foram influenciadas pelo tipo de suplemento, apenas pelo período pós-parto. O feno de amoreira aumenta o consumo suplementar pelas cabras em relação às silagens de milho e sorgo, mas não melhora as médias de produção e composição do leite. Cabras Boer

  13. Ação do soro de cabra anti-soro de coelho imunizado ou não com células linfóides do doador sobre o alotransplante cardíaco em ratos: immunosupression of goat antiserum against rabbit serum immunized or not with donor lymphoid cells Cardiac allograft in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylton Jorge Suaid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A rejeição imunológica é uma das principais causas da perda de órgãos transplantados. A tentativa do controle da reação imunológica é clinicamente feita através da imunossupressão inespecífica e experimentalmente também por bloqueio específico. O alotransplante cardíaco em ratos pela técnica de ONO,K é um bom método para avaliação clínica da rejeição e de estudos voltados para o controle da rejeição. Objetivo : estudar o efeito de um anti-antisoro linfocitário, anti-linfócitos do doador sobre a rejeição do alotransplante cardíaco de ratos Wistar para ratos Holtzman. MÉTODOS: o soro anti-linfocitário (SAL foi obtido através da imunização de coelhos com linfócitos obtidos de gânglios linfáticos da cadeia mesentérica de ratos Wistar, em solução de Tyrode, contendo 3x10(9 células/ ml. A inoculação de 3 coelhos foi feita com 1 ml da suspensão celular e 1 ml de adjuvante completo de Freund. Duas semanas após a primeira inoculação fez-se 4 doses semanais de reforço. Os coelhos foram sangrados na 5ª semana, quando então foram separados os soros. A titulação dos soros foi realizada pelo teste de citotoxicidade, sendo verificado que ambos apresentaram título de 1:1024. A dosagem de proteínas mostrou albumina com 3,1 e 2,7 g% e globulinas com 3,5 e 2,9 g%, sendo o normal 3,7 e 2,2 g% respectivamente. Os dois SAL foram misturados. Duas cabras foram inoculados, com 3 ml da mistura desses SAL, associados a 2 ml de adjuvante de Freund. As doses de reforço com 5 ml do SAL foram iniciadas 2 semanas após. A cabra A recebeu 8 doses (1,4 g de globulinas. A cabra B recebeu 4 doses de reforço (0,7 g de globulinas. Uma semana após a última inoculação retirou-se 125 ml de sangue de cada cabra, fazendo a separação dos anti-soro anti-SAL (ASAL. Uma terceira cabra C foi imunizada com soro normal de coelho. A determinação de precipitinas foi feita pelo método de OUCHTERLONY. O ASAL A teve t

  14. Estudo do polimorfismo genético da αS1-caseína em cabras, no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.551 Study of the genetic polymorphism of the αS1-casein in goats of Pernambuco State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.551

    OpenAIRE

    Aurea Wischral; Madriano Christilis da Rocha Santos; George Chaves Jimenez; Manoel Adrião; Ariosto Afonso da Silva; José Augusto Bastos Afonso

    2007-01-01

    O Estado de Pernambuco tem uma vocação pecuária, especialmente, para a exploração de caprinos. Dentre as proteínas, chamadas de caseínas, a αS1-caseína foi a primeira proteína comprovada com base no polimorfismo genético. Objetivando realizar a genotipagem de cabras criadas no sertão, agreste e zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP, estudou-se o polimorfismo do gene da αS1-caseína. Utilizaram-se 60 animais, divididos em três grupos de 20 animais, das raças Moxo...

  15. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  16. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit of 16 months before onset of severe respiratory failure. Other treatments are designed to relieve symptoms and ... of ALS. Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure, usually within 3 to 5 years from the ...

  17. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  18. Padrão Nictemeral do pH Ruminal e Comportamento Alimentar de Cabras Leiteiras Alimentadas com Dietas Contendo Diferentes Relações Volumoso: Concentrado Nictemeral Pattern of Ruminal pH and Feeding Behavior of Dairy Goats Fed Diets with Different Roughage to Concentrate Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luigi Gonçalves

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram a caracterização do padrão nictemeral do pH ruminal e a avaliação do comportamento alimentar de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas compostas por diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras, com peso médio de 58 kg, não-lactantes, não-gestantes, fistuladas no rúmen, em cinco períodos experimentais. Cada animal foi observado em cada um dos cinco tratamentos, que consistiram das relações volumoso:concentrado de 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 e 20:80, em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5×5. As dietas foram fornecidas a cada 6 horas, buscando amenizar a variação dos níveis de pH ruminal, durante o período de 24 horas, para todos os tratamentos. Após a adaptação dos animais às dietas experimentais, estes foram observados por um período de 48 horas, no qual foi mensurado o pH ruminal a cada hora, bem como em outro período de mesma duração, em que se observou o comportamento a cada 10 minutos. Foi constatado que o nível de concentrado crescente resultou em decréscimo sobre o pH, cujos valores decresceram mais drasticamente em níveis acima de 60%. Observou-se também o efeito de tratamento sobre tempo de alimentação, ruminação e ócio. O tempo de alimentação foi maior para as dietas contendo valores acima de 60% de volumoso. A dieta contendo 100% de volumoso apresentou maior tempo de ruminação e menor ócio, seguida das dietas contendo 80 e 60% de volumoso, enquanto aquelas contendo 40 e 20% apresentaram menor tempo de ruminação e maior ócio.The objectives of the present study were to characterize nictemeral pattern of ruminal pH and feed behavior of dairy goats fed diets presenting different ratios of roughage:concentrate. Five non pregnant non lactating goats, ruminally cannulated, and averaging 58 kg were used during the five experimental periods. A 5x5 Latin square was used to evaluate five treatments consisted of roughage to concentrate

  19. Consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes em cabras Moxotó recebendo dietas com diferentes níveis de feno de maniçoba Intake and digestibility of nutrients in Moxotó dairy goats fed diets with different Maniçoba hay levels

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    Marcos Jácome de Araújo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a utilização do feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. em diferentes níveis (30, 40, 50 e 60% sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, energia bruta (EB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e os consumos de água e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Moxotó, multíparas, com aproximadamente 60 dias de lactação, pesando 44,26 ± 4,23 kg, em delineamento quadrado latino duplo 4 × 4, com quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos e quatro animais. Cada período teve duração de 15 dias (10 de adaptação dos animais às dietas e 5 para coleta de dados. Utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAi como indicador interno para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal. A utilização do feno de maniçoba nos níveis de 30, 40, 50 e 60% nas dietas para cabras em lactação não alterou os consumos de MS, MO, PB, EE, MM e CT. Os consumos de CNF, NDT e água diminuíram linearmente com o aumento no nível de feno de maniçoba nas dietas, enquanto os de FDN e FDA (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 aumentaram linearmente. A digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, PB, EE, CT, CNF, EB e FDA reduziu linearmente, enquanto a da FDN não se alterou com o aumento dos níveis de feno na dieta.This research was conducted with the objective of evaluating the use of different Maniçoba hay (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg levels (30, 40, 50 and 60% on intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, gross energy (GE, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TCHT, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, water intake (WI, besides total digestible nutrients intake (TDNI. Eight multiparous Moxotó dairy goats with initial

  20. Aceitação sensorial e caracterização de frozen yogurt de leite de cabra com adição de cultura probiótica e prebiótico Sensorial acceptance and characterization of goat's milk frozen yogurt with addition of probiotic culture and prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Lima Alves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O leite de cabra é recomendado para pessoas intolerantes ao leite de vaca e/ou portadoras de desordens gastrintestinais. frozen yogurt elaborado a partir de iogurte de leite de cabra foi acrescido de 1% de prebiótico (inulina, 0,25% de cultura starter (Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus bulgaricus e 0,25% de cultura probiótica (Bifidobacterium animalis e Lactobacillus acidophilus para verificar seu potencial probiótico (após sete e 120 dias de armazenamento, sua qualidade físico-química e sua aceitação sensorial. Durante a estocagem, houve redução de células viáveis da flora microbiana, principalmente dos probióticos. Ainda assim, o produto apresenta potencialidade probiótica pela soma de B. animalis e L. acidophilus atingir o mínimo desejável até o fim do armazenamento. Os valores de extrato seco total (26,6±0,2%, proteína (3,0±0,2, gordura (2,6±0,1%, pH (5,5±0,01 e ácido láctico (0,2±0,01% encontram-se semelhantes aos relatados em outros trabalhos para o mesmo produto. A avaliação sensorial foi realizada por 50 provadores não treinados em teste com escala hedônica de sete níveis e intenção de compra. O produto recebeu bons escores para aparência global, cor, aroma e sabor; já textura e sabor residual obtiveram menores índices de aceitação. Na intenção de compra, 61% dos avaliadores declararam que comprariam o produto, contra 39% que não comprariam. Nessas condições, demonstra-se a viabilidade de elaboração de frozen yogurt de leite caprino acrescido de pre- e probióticos.Goat's milk is recommended for people afflicted with cow milk intolerance and gastro-intestinal disorders. frozen yogurt was elaborated with 1% prebiotic (inulin, 0.25% starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 0.25% probiotic culture (Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus to verify probiotic potential (after 7 and 120 days of storage, physical-chemical quality and

  1. Indução da ovulação em cabras, fora da estação reprodutiva, com LH e GnRH e com estro induzido por progestágenos Induction of the out-of-season ovulation (with LH and GnRH and estrus (with progesterone in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.G. Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e cinco cabras foram sincronizadas com o uso de esponjas intravaginais impregnadas com 60mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (MAP por nove dias, associadas com 200UI de gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG e 37,5µg de cloprostenol no sétimo dia. Os animais foram separados em três grupos e receberam, 24 horas após a retirada das esponjas, solução salina ou hormônios, no seguinte esquema: T1 (controle - 1ml de solução salina; T2 - 5mg de hormônio luteinizante (LH e T3 - 12,5µg do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH. Houve diferença (P0,05 quanto ao intervalo da retirada da esponja ao aparecimento do estro, que foi, em média, 34,8, 29,3 e 31,5 horas, respectivamente. O intervalo médio da retirada da esponja à ovulação foi de 46,6, 52,1 e 41,6 horas, respectivamente, com diferença significativa entre T2 e T3 (P0,05. A aplicação de LH e do GnRH para induzir e sincronizar a ovulação em cabras fora da estação reprodutiva não apresentou resultados satisfatórios.In order to achieve estrous synchronization, intravaginal sponges impregnated with 60mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA were implanted in 45 goats for nine days. On day 7, 200IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG and 37.5µg of cloprostenol were administered to each doe. The animals were randomly allocated in three treatments with 15 animals each. Twenty four hours after intravaginal sponge removal, does were administered 1ml saline solution (control T1, 5mg LH (T2 and 2.5µg GnRH (T3 intramuscular injection. Percentages of animals in estrus were 100.0; 73.3 and 66.6 (P<0.05 and average intervals from sponge removal to start of estrus were 34.8, 29.3 and 31.5 hours for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, being those differences not statistically significant. The average intervals from sponge removal to ovulation were 46.6, 52.1 and 41.6 hours for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, with the difference between T2 and T3 being statistically significant (P<0

  2. Volver al desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi, el fracaso del mercado autorregulado trajo de nueva cuenta al debate los problemas del desarrollo, lo que obliga a revisarlo críticamente, tanto como al concepto mismo para mostrar su carácter colonial, si se quiere construir caminos ajenos al neoliberal y superar los problemas que han hecho de Latinoamérica una de las regiones más desiguales del mundo.

  3. Jalta als Heterotopie

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Jalta ist ein Ort, der sich im europäischen Kulturgedächtnis sowohl historisch als auch literarisch als "radikal anderer Ort" - als " Heterotopie" - festgesetzt hat. An der Konferenz von Jalta wurde 1945 eine neue Weltordnung geschaffen in der Hoffnung auf eine bessere Welt. Auch in den Werken von Anton ?echov, vor allem in denjenigen, die in Jalta entstanden sind, wird von einer anderen und besseren Welt geträumt.

  4. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  5. Pornographie als Metapher

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-01-01

    In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article...

  6. Produção e composição do leite, metabólitos sangüíneos e concentração hormonal de cabras lactantes da raça Toggenburg tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and hormonal profile of lactating Toggenburg goats treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Andrade Moraes e Amorim

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da aplicação de somatotropina bovina recombinante sobre a produção e composição do leite, os metabólicos sangüíneos e a concentração hormonal em cabras no terço médio da lactação. Foram utilizadas 24 cabras da raça Toggenburg, divididas em dois tratamentos: T1 (n=12: aplicação de 250 mg de r-bST a cada 14 dias, em um total de quatro aplicações; e T2 (n=12: aplicação de solução salina (controle. O tratamento com r-bST não aumentou a produção de leite e não influenciou os teores de gordura, proteína e extrato seco. A porcentagem de lactose no leite foi maior (4,47 ± 0,2 para T1 versus 4,34 ± 0,2% para T2 e a contagem de células somáticas menor nos animais tratados em relação aos controle (681,1 ± 689,9 para T1 versus 1.001,84 ± 610,9 [x10³ células/mL] para T2. A administração de r-bST aumentou as concentrações séricas de ácidos graxos não-esterificados de T2 (309,67 ± 169,62 x 247,34 ± 126,38 mEq/L, para T1 e T2, respectivamente e reduziu as concentrações de uréia (86,84 ± 33,81 x 121,16 ± 42,57 mg/dL, para T1 e T2 respectivamente. A r-bST reduziu as concentrações de colesterol total e HDL (82,46 ± 19,25 x 89,29 ± 23,66 mg/dL e 155,95 ± 19,67 x 177,67 ± 32,79 mg/dL, para T1 e T2 respectivamente, enquanto as concentrações de albumina, glicose, proteínas totais, beta-hidroxibutirato e tiroxina não foram influenciadas pela r-bST, que também não influenciou o peso e o escore corporal dos animais. A r-bST aumentou os teores de lactose, reduziu a contagem de células somáticas e promoveu alterações nos metabólicos sangüíneos e no leite de cabras lactantes.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites and hormonal profile in lactating goats. Twenty-four Toggenburg goats were assigned to one of two treatments as follows: T1 (n=12 received injection of 250 mg of r

  7. Desempenho e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho para cabras Saanen em lactação e no pré-parto Performance and nutrients digestibility of rations with soybean hulls as a corn ground replacement for Saanen goats, in prepartum and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar o desempenho produtivo, a digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes e a composição do leite de cabras Saanen alimentadas com rações contendo casca do grão de soja (CGS em substituição ao milho (0, 50 ou 100%CGS no período da lactação até o pré-parto (30 dias. Foram utilizadas 18 cabras (75,70 ± 10,59 kg em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As dietas apresentaram em média 14,82% PB e 2,28 Mcal de EM/kg MS ingerida. Os animais foram mantidos confinados em baias individuais com controle diário da ração ingerida e da produção de leite. No 150º dia de lactação, e também no 20º dia anterior à data prevista para o parto, iniciou-se a coleta de fezes para determinação da digestibilidade da ração e dos nutrientes. Mensalmente, foram coletadas amostras de leite para análise dos principais constituintes. Os níveis de CGS não influenciaram o peso corporal (PC, as ingestões de matéria seca (IMS e matéria orgânica (IMO, a digestibilidade de matéria seca (DMS, matéria orgânica (DMO e proteína bruta (DPB para produção de leite, a eficiência de produção de leite e a composição do leite no período de lactação. Também não afetaram o PC e as digestibilidades de MS e MO no período pré-parto. Os níveis de CGC influenciaram as ingestões de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro e a digestibilidade da fibra em detergente neutro nos dois períodos avaliados. No período pré-parto, os maiores resultados para ingestão de MS e MO, digestibilidade da PB e nitrogênio uréico no plasma foram obtidos no nível de 100%CGS. A utilização de casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho moído na alimentação de cabras Saanen em lactação não altera o desempenho produtivo e a composição do leite.This experiment was carried out to evaluate productive performance, dry matter and nutrient digestibility, and milk composition of Saanen goats fed rations

  8. Perfil eletroforético e concentração de imunoglobulinas G (IgG do soro sanguíneo de cabras Saanen com mastite experimental induzida por Staphylococcus aureus suplementadas com vitamina E Electrophoretic profile and concentration of immunoglobulins G (IgG in blood serum of Saanen goats with experimental mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus suplemented with vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joandes H. Fonteque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas e a concentração sérica de imunoglobulina G (IgG em cabras da raça Saanen com mastite induzida experimentalmente por Staphylococcus aureus e suplementadas com vitamina E (acetato de dl-α-tocoferol. Utilizaram-se 14 cabras adultas, gestantes, primíparas, com sorologia negativa para Artrite Encefalite Caprina (CAEV, clinicamente sadias, divididas em dois grupos experimentais de sete animais. Grupo não suplementado (G1 e grupo suplementado com 2.000 U.I. de acetato de dl-α-tocoferol (G2 Vit E via intramuscular no dia do parto e sete dias após o parto. Ao nono dia do pós-parto foram inoculados 300 UFCs da cepa de S. aureus ATCC 225923, na metade esquerda da glândula mamária de cada animal. A mastite foi determinada pela colheita das amostras de leite para a comprovação da infecção, por meio de exames bacteriológicos, contagem de células somáticas (CCS e California Mastitis Test (CMT, a partir deste momento foram efetuadas colheitas às 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas, sendo posteriormente instituído o tratamento intramamário com antimicrobiano e nova avaliação 48 horas após o tratamento. O perfil eletroforético em gel de agarose das proteínas séricas das cabras, apresentaram cinco frações, sendo: albumina e globulinas (α, β1, β2 e γ. Houve aumento na produção de γ-globulina e menor produção da fração β2-globulina 12 horas após a infecção, com os valores reduzindo mais rapidamente no grupo suplementado, evidenciando a influência da vitamina E na diminuição da produção das proteínas de fase aguda. Não houve influência da vitamina E na concentração sérica de imunoglobulina G (IgG nos animais suplementados. A suplementação com vitamina E aumentou a concentração de imunoglobulinas e diminuiu a produção de proteínas de fase aguda, provavelmente pelo efeito antioxidante minimizando a lesão tecidual durante o processo inflamat

  9. Sobre Al-Qarmuniyya

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Bello, María Isabel

    1990-01-01

    [ES] En dos tradiciones escatológicas relativas a al-Andalus y recogidas por 'Abd al-Malik h Haha en su Ta'rg se hace referencia a Carmona. La mención de esta ciudad en dichas tradiciones debe ser puesta en relación con dos episodios de la historia de al-Andalus que tuvieron lugar antes de la muerte de Ibn Habib: la batalla de Carmona en época de 'Abd al-Rahman y la concentración de tropas omeyas en el mismo lugar durante el ataque normando en los años 229-30/844-5.

  10. Al-Anon/Alateen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find an Al-Anon meeting Español | Français 2018 Int'l Convention Home About Group Meetings What If I'm not ready ... a meeting? What can I expect at an Al-Anon meeting? What was my first meeting like? ...

  11. Al - BASED CAST COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Yadav

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The economy is very important feature nowadays in themarket. The researches are playing an important role inengineering field to increase the life of machine parts /components and decrease the cost. The compositematerials have the potential to replace widely used steeland aluminium due to their good characteristics withbetter performance. The Al-based composites have foundextensive applications in automobile industries andaerospace industries due to their increased stiffness,strength, thermal conductivity and wear resistanceproperties. A number of particulate phases have beenemployed in the Al-alloy matrix. The cast aluminiumceramicparticulate composites are finding applications inpistons, connecting rods, cylinder liner, engine cylinderblock, electrical contacts etc.The present investigation isbased on study of the effect of particulate phase on theSEM study, micro-hardness, elastic modulus, tensilestrength and the wear behaviour of Al-5 % SiC-7 % Fe,Al-10 % SiC-6 % Fe and Al-15 % SiC-5 % Fe composites.

  12. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  13. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was

  14. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  15. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.D., C.N.S.D., L.D.N. Nutritionist MDA/ALS Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center ... neurologists, physiatrists, therapists (physical, occupa- tional, speech, respiratory), nutritionists, social work- ers, pulmonologists, gastroenterologists and medical equipment ...

  16. Regionale Herkunft als Bonus

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvil, Dr. Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Der Bio-Sektor durchlebt bewegte Zeiten. Die biologische Landwirtschaft hat sich aus der Nische herausbewegt und dafür an „Besonderheiten“ eingebüßt. Diese müssen als Zusatznutzen wiedergefunden werden.

  17. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina J Peraza Roque; Silvia de la C Pérez Delgado; Zoe de los A Figueroa Barreto

    2001-01-01

    El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de ...

  18. Partizipation als Ausnahmezustand

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, Benedikt

    2009-01-01

    In «Die Erfindung des Politischen» (1993) beschreibt Ulrich Beck Subpolitik als den Ort, an dem die Grenze zwischen Politik und Nichtpolitik verschwindet. Aus der zunehmenden Wirkkraft von Subpolitik erwächst die grundlegende Frage, mit welcher Legitimation diese Art von Subpolitik in die Sphäre der institutionalisierten Politik eindringt. Beck’s Subpolitik soll im Anschluss an theoretische Arbeiten von Chantal Mouffe und Giorgio Agamben als post-politische Aspiration bezeichnet werden, die e...

  19. Der Preis als Kaufbarriere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Die Preispolitik hat eine herausragende Stellung im Marketing. Der Preis eines Produktes ist für Verbraucher ein direkter Kostenfaktor und für Unternehmen die Stellgröße im Mar-ketingmix, die den Umsatz am stärksten beeinflusst (vgl. Nieschlag et al. 2002). Wenn die Akzeptanz und der regelmäßige...... Verzehr gesunder Lebensmittel erhöht werden soll, ist es sowohl für die Verbraucherpolitik als auch für Lebensmittelproduzenten wichtig, den Ein-fluss des Preises auf die Kaufentscheidung zu verstehen. Aus Verbrauchersicht ist der Preis neben dem Geschmack die wichtigste Produkteigen-schaft beim Kauf von...... Lebensmitteln (vgl. Brunsø/Grunert 1998) und stellt eine Kaufbarrie-re für Lebensmittel mit gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften dar. Studien in den USA (vgl. Cassady et al. 2007), Frankreich (vgl. Drewnowski et al. 2004; Andrieu et al. 2005) und Deutschland (vgl. Karg et al. 2008) kommen übereinstimmend zu dem...

  20. Modification of residual stress in Al-[AlBO]w/Al compound plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传海; 吴建生; 王德尊

    2001-01-01

    The application of compound parts of Al-[AlBO]w/Al not only reduces the cost of the parts but also improves its properties. However, there is a large thermal residual stress between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, and it is harmful for practical application. From the theoretical analyses and experimental results, it was found that by the compressive pre-plastic deformation perpendicular to the interface between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, the interlayer residual stress of compound parts can be reduced, while the mechanical properties of compound parts can be improved.

  1. Características físico-químicas e custo do leite de cabras alimentadas com farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê Physical-chemical characteristics and cost of milk of goats fed with cocoa meal or palm kernel cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G.O. Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o efeito de dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao concentrado padrão, à base de milho e farelo de soja, sobre a composição físico-química e o resultado econômico da produção de leite. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen com 41,66kg de peso e 60 dias de lactação, no delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 5×5. Os períodos experimentais foram de 14 dias, com 10 dias para adaptação e quatro para a coleta dos dados. As rações concentradas isoprotéicas (13,2% foram calculadas para uma produção de 2kg de leite/dia. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso e 64% de concentrado. Utilizaram-se silagem de milho e concentrado-padrão (milho e farelo de soja com 0, 15 e 30% de substituição pelo FC ou TD. As dietas não influenciaram (P>0,05 as características físico-químicas do leite. A substituição reduziu o custo das dietas e apenas as com 15% de FC e 15% de TD apresentaram margem bruta superior à da dieta-controle.The effects of cocoa meal (FC or palm kernel cake (TD replacing corn and soybean meal standard concentrate on physical-chemical composition were evaluated and the economical analysis of milk production was performed. Five Saanen goats, with 41.66kg body weight and 60 days of lactation were used in a 5×5 latin square experimental design. The experimental periods of 14 days, had 10 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. The isoprotec diets (13.2%, were formulated to allow a milk production of 2kg/day. The diets were constituted of 36% roughage and 64% concentrate. The standard concentrate was replaced by 0, 15 and 30% of FC or TD. No effects of diets (P>0.05 on milk physical-chemical characteristics were observed. The inclusion of by-products reduced the cost of diets, however, only those with 15% FC and 15% TD showed gross margin higher than the one observed for the control diet.

  2. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  3. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  4. Wikipedia als Referenzorgan

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Wikipedia wird inzwischen von vielen Nutzern regelmäßig als Nachschlagewerk genutzt. Aufgrund des offenen Charakters der Online-Enzyklopädie, bei der sich jeder direkt beteiligen kann, ist jedoch zusätzliche Medienkompetenz notwendig, um die Qualität einzelner Wikipedia-Artikel einschätzen zu können. Im Vortrag sollen Methoden zur Beurteilung von Wikipedia-Artikeln dargestellt und die Frage beleuchtet werden, unter welchen Umständen Wikipedia als Referenzorgan geeignet ist.

  5. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  6. Al Shanker Remembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  7. Degrabilidade Ruminal da Matéria Seca e da Fibra em Detergente Neutro de Alguns Volumosos Utilizados na Alimentação de Cabras Leiteiras, Submetidas a Dietas com Diferentes Relações Volumoso: Concentrado Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Neutral Detergent Fiber of Some Forages Used in Dairy Goat Diets Presenting Different Forage to Concentrate Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luigi Gonçalves

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram a caracterização e a determinação das estimativas dos parâmetros relativos à cinética de degradação ruminal dos carboidratos contidos nas amostras dos volumosos feno de alfafa, capim-elefante, feno de Tifton 85 e silagem de milho em cabras submetidas a diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado, por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Para a determinação da digestibilidade in situ, foram utilizadas cinco cabras Alpinas, não-gestantes, não-lactantes, com peso médio de 58 kg, fistuladas no rúmen. Para o ensaio de digestibilidade in vitro, utilizou-se tampão de McDougall, adaptado por Gonzáles, ajustados para os pHs observados nos animais, conforme a relação volumoso:concentrado (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 e 20:80, com solução de ácido cítrico 1 M. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico em quadrado latino 5´5. A partir dos resultados observados, pode-se sugerir que houve influência significativa da relação volumoso:concentrado sobre a digestibilidade ruminal dos volumosos avaliados, para todas as frações analisadas, uma vez que o efeito associativo desta relação possibilitou aumento da degradação, em certa faixa de pH (6,8 a 6,2, em detrimento de sua redução em pH inferior a 6,0. O período de latência sofreu decréscimo, quando o pH passou de 7,05 para 6,8, mantendo-se estável até 6,5, a partir do qual ocorreu incremento significativo para todos os volumosos, principalmente quando atingiu pH inferior a 6,0. As incubações in situ e in vitro resultaram em curvas de degradação da matéria seca semelhantes em seus formatos para todos os alimentos avaliados, que apresentaram também valores bem próximos para as taxas de degradação. Porém, vale ressaltar que a comparação entre os parâmetros cinéticos observados nos métodos in situ e in vitro é desnecessária, uma vez que os objetivos de cada técnica são diferentes. Dessa forma, ambos os métodos podem ser

  8. USO DA PGF2? NO PUERPÉRIO PARA REDUZIR O ANESTRO PÓS-PARTO DE CABRAS EM ALEITAMENTO CONTÍNUO E CONTROLADO USE OF PGF2? ON THE PUERPERIO TO REDUCE THE POS-PARTUM ANESTROUS OF CONTINUOS OR CONTROLLED SUCKLING GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernandes Lima

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Objetivou-se estudar os efeitos da administração da PGF2α sobre o período de anestro pós-parto de oitenta cabras, em aleitamento contínuo ou controlado, criadas em sistema semi-extensivo com acesso à água e sal mineral ad libitum. As fêmeas, com idade entre dois e seis anos, foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em três grupos experimentais (GI, GII, GIII. As do GI (n = 30 receberam, na musculatura vulvar, 250µg de PGF2α no 6o e 12o dias após o parto. As do GII (n = 30 foram tratadas, pela mesma via e com a mesma dose de PGF2α, no 6o, 7o, 8o, 9o e 10o dias do pós-parto, e as do GIII (n = 20 serviram como controle. Realizou-se a detecção do estro por rufião com auxílio de pessoal habilitado e efetuaram-se as coberturas com reprodutores de fertilidade comprovada. Analisaram-se os dados através da ANOVA e do cálculo do erro-padrão da diferença entre proporções. Não se verificou diferença (P > 0,05 das porcentagens de estro entre os três grupos experimentais; todavia, a duração média do anestro pós-parto foi significativamente reduzida (P < 0,05 nos animais tratados com PGF2α. Houve redução significativa (P < 0,05 do anestro pós-parto das fêmeas em aleitamento controlado. Não se registrou diferença (P > 0,05 nas porcentagens de prenhez entre os diferentes grupos. Os dados obtidos permitem concluir que a administração da PGF2α no início do puerpério é eficiente para reduzir o período de anestro pós-parto, especialmente nas fêmeas em aleitamento controlado; contudo, não exerce influência sobre a fertilidade de cabras SRD com aptidão para produção de carne.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Caprino, estro, prostaglandina, puerpério.

    This work aimed to

  9. Efeito do aleitamento artificial à base de soro de queijo de leite cabra sobre as características da carcaça e da carne de cabritos "mamão" do tipo genético three cross Influence of the replacement of cow milk by goat milk cheese whey on meat composition carcass characteristics of three cross suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Beserra

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da substituição parcial na etapa de alimentação líquida do leite de vaca por soro de queijo de cabra (SLC sobre alguns aspectos qualitativos da carne e quantitativos da carcaça de cabritos "mamão" Three cross (½ Anglonubiana x ¼ Pardo-Alpina x ¼ Moxotó, em quatro níveis: 0% (Tratamento1; 20% (Tratamento2; 40% (Tratamento3 60% (Tratamento 4. Os pesos vivos ao abate (84 dias mostraram-se homogêneos (10,88 a 13,42kg, assim como o rendimento de carcaça (44,62 a 47,86% e a área do Longíssimus dorsi (9,55 a 10,80cm². 0 Tratamento 2 apresentou os maiores teores de tecido muscular (48,37%. A composição centesimal mostrou valores médios entre 76,78 a 77,62% de umidade; 20,39 a 21,43% de proteína; 4,86 a 6,59% de gordura e 1,06 a 1,14% de cinza. Para os minerais estudados, os valores médios variaram de 16,77 a 35,68mg/100g para o cálcio; 110,33 a 153,90mg/100g para o fósforo; 1,29 a 2,17mg/100g para o ferro; 0,72 a 1,30mg/100g para magnésio; 128,86 a 165,94mg/100g para o sódio e 404,88 a 504,73mg/100g para o potássio. Concluiu-se que os níveis de soro de leite de cabra utilizados, de uma maneira geral, não tendo influenciado de forma significativa (PIn this study, the influence of the replacement of cow milk by goat cheese whey on some quality aspects of meat and on some aspects of carcass composition of suckling kids Three cross (½ Anglonubiana x ¼ Pardo-Alpina x ¼ Moxotó was evaluated. The replacements goat cheese whey levels were: 0% (treatment 1; 20% (treatment 2; 40% (treatment 3; 60% (treatment 4. The values of live weight for all were statistically similar (10.88 to 13.42kg; the same happened to the carcass yield which ranged from 44.62 to 47.86% and to the Longissimus dorsi area (9.55 to 10.80cm². The treatment 2 showed the highest contents of muscular tissue (48.37%. Proximal composition of the meat showed mean values ranging from 76.78 to 77.62% for moisture; 20.39 to 21.43% for protein

  10. Consumo, digestibilidade e produção de leite de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de proteína bruta e energia líquida Intake, digestibility and milk production the dairy goats fed diets containing different level of crude protein and net energy ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Florentino Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O consumo, a digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes, a produção e a composição do leite de cabras foram avaliados em um experimento com quatro dietas isoenergéticas contendo 1,53 mcal de energia líquida/kg MS e 11,4; 16,5; 19,5 ou 22,6% PB. Os efeitos dos níveis de energia e PB foram avaliados considerando as razões dos teores de proteína e a concentração de energia líquida das dietas (PB/EL, de 7,3; 10,8; 12,9 e 14,8. Foram utilizadas oito cabras mantidas em baias individuais, distribuídas em dois quadrados latino 4 ´ 4. O período experimental foi de 21 dias, com 14 dias de adaptação e sete para coleta. Maiores consumos de MS foram obtidos com as dietas com razões PB/EL diferentes de 7,3. O fornecimento das dietas com menor razão PB/EL resultou em maior consumo de CNF e de EE e redução no consumo de NDT e EL. A digestibilidade de CNF e FDN não foi alterada. Maior digestibilidade do EE foi observada quando utilizada a menor razão PB/EL. A digestibilidade da PB diminuiu com o fornecimento da dieta com menor razão PB/EL (7,32, provavelmente em virtude da adição de de fontes nitrogenadas de alta degradabilidade ruminal (uréia. A digestibilidade da MS diferiu quando comparados os níveis extremos das razões PB/EL e foi menor na razão PB/EL de 7,3. Maior produção de leite foi observada quando comparada a razão PB/EL de 14,8 com as razões PB/EL de 7,3 e 10,8 e nenhuma alteração ocorreu para os componentes do leite. Maior eficiência de uso da MS consumida foi obtida com a dieta com maior razão PB/EL, no entanto, a eficiência de uso do N no leite em relação ao N consumido foi reduzida de maneira inversa.Intake, digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, milk production and composition were evaluated with four isoenergetic diets containing 1.53 Mcal of net energy/kg DM and 11.4, 16.5, 19.5, and 22.6% CP. The effect of energy and PB levels were evaluated by considering the ratio of protein content and net

  11. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  12. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  13. Acarbose als Carbophor

    OpenAIRE

    Merettig, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Das Pseudotetrasaccharid Acarbose ist seit 1990 als kompetitiver Inhibitor intestinaler α-Glucosidasen (GlucobayTM/PrecoseTM) in der medizinischen Anwendung bei der Therapie von Diabetes mellitus Typ-2. Charakteristisch für die Struktur der Acarbose ist die Acarviosyleinheit, bei der Valinamin und Desoxyglucose N-glycosidisch verknüpft sind; des Weiteren ist an die Acarviosyleinheit ein Maltosylrest gebunden. Der Inhibitoreffekt beruht auf der irreversiblen Bindung zwischen ...

  14. Augmented Reality als Bildungsenhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Damberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Die Realität, die sich mithilfe von Datenbrillen und Smartphone Applikationen in die virtuelle Welt hinein ausdehnt, erfährt eine Form des Enhancements. Ein solches Enhancement kann unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen als Bildungsenhancement verstanden werden. Der Text befasst sich mit Formen der erweiterten Realität, ferner mit dem, um was es wesentlich bei der Bildung geht und zuletzt mit den Bedingungen, die erforderlich sind, um diesem Wesentlichen mit Hilfe von augmented reality besser zum ...

  15. Carta al editor

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Pachajoa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Valencia et al., published a very interesting article called «Lipid profile in a group of patients with Turner’s syndrome at Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in the city of Medellín between 2000 and 2009". An article which evaluated lipid levels in patients withTurner syndrome in a Colombian clinic, the study associated results of lipid profile with karyotype and other risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  16. Spontaneous poisoning by Leucaena leucocephalai in a goat from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Intoxicação espontânea por Leucaena leucocephalai em uma cabra, no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning of a goat by Leucaena leucocephalai (Leg. Mimosoideae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. Fresh leaves of the plant were ingested as the animal's main meal for at least 4 months before it developed total alopecia. At necropsy the thyroid was moderately enlarged. Histological examination revealed a decrease in the number of hair follicles (empty or in telogenic phase, vacuolation of keratinocytes of the epidermis and hair follicles, and superficial and follicular hyperkeratosis. Myxedema was found between skeletal and cardiac muscles fibers, in the kidneys, and in the submucosa/muscular layer of the digestive tract. The thyroid follicles were enlarged and filled with copious amounts of colloid (colloidal goiter. Although L. leucocephala is common in several tropical regions, natural poisoning by this plant in goats seems to be rare. It is the first report about spontaneous poisoning in goats by L. leucocephala in Brazil.Este trabalho descreve a intoxicação natural por Leucaena leucocephalai em um caprino, no município de Maricá, RJ. No ano de 1997, o animal ingeriu voluntariamente as folhas da planta fresca como alimentação quase exclusiva, por pelo menos 4 meses, e, aos poucos, foi perdendo os pêlos até tornar-se totalmente alopécico. À necropsia, a tireóide estava moderadamente aumentada. O exame microscópico revelou decréscimo do número de folículos, além de folículos sem pêlos ou em fase telogênica, vacuolização de queratinócitos da epiderme e de folículos e acentuada hiperqueratose superficial e folicular. Havia mixedema entre fibras musculares esqueléticas e cardíacas, no rim e na submucosa, e muscular do trato digestório. Os folículos tireoideanos estavam dilatados e preenchidos por grande quantidade de colóide ("bócio coloidal". Embora essa planta seja freqüente em várias regiões tropicais, a ocorrência natural dessa intoxicação parece bastante rara e ainda não havia sido

  17. Gimnasia abdominal hipopresiva y su aplicación en el postparto

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Álvarez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Introducción. La elevada prevalencia de disfunciones del suelo pélvico en las mujeres después del parto, promueve la necesidad de utilizar terapias como la Gimnasia Abdominal Hipopresiva. Se trata de un método creado por el Dr. Marcel Caufriez, utilizado actualmente en fisioterapia uroginecológica, para el tratamiento de las disfunciones del suelo pélvico. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad de la Gimnasia Abdominal Hipopresiva mediante publicaciones con evidencia científica y analizar qué ef...

  18. Reactivación ovárica postparto en bovinos. Revisión.

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Restrepo Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Durante las últimas semanas de la gestación, la placenta bovina aumenta la síntesis de estradiol a un nivel que supera centenas de veces la cantidad que produce durante el estro. Ese alto nivel de estradiol produce una retroalimentación negativa prolongada sobre el hipotálamo, que inhibe la síntesis y liberación de hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH) y por lo tanto en la sangre no circulan las hormonas hipofisiarias que estimulan el crecimiento folicular. Bajo esta condición hormonal,...

  19. SUPLEMENTACIÓN PARENTERAL DE COBRE EN VACAS GESTANTES: EFECTO SOBRE POSTPARTO Y TERNEROS

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    Juan García D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del cobre en vacas gestantes sobre el comportamiento reproductivo posparto y la salud del ternero. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 80 vacas divididas en dos grupos de 40 animales cada uno. El grupo A fue tratado con 2 ml de CuSO4 (2.5% subcutáneamente. El tratamiento se inició a los 8 meses de gestación, y se repitió a los 30 y 90 días post parto. El grupo B, se uso como control. A las vacas se les analizó el perfil hematoquímico, intervalo parto primer servicio (IPPS, intervalo parto concepción (IPC, intervalo parto-parto (IPP, índice de natalidad (IN, índice de inseminación (II y la eficiencia en la detección de la hembra en estro (EDHE y a los terneros los parámetros hematoquímicos. Los datos se procesaron mediante Statgraphics Plus 5.0, para las diferencias entre medias de los datos hemoquímicos y reproductivos se aplicó (ANOVA y comparaciones de proporciones IN y EDHE. Se empleó la correlación y regresión simple para demostrar la relación del cobre con las demás parámetros estudiados. Resultados. La administración subcutánea de cobre incrementó los niveles de dicho elemento en sangre, hierro y hemoglobina (p< 0.001; así como la disminución del IPPS, IPC, IPP, IN, EDHE, e II (p< 0.05. En los terneros se aumentó la cupremia (p< 0.001, la hemoglobina (p< 0.01 y las proteínas totales (p< 0.05. Conclusiones. El tratamiento aplicado incrementó los indicadores hematoquímicos y reproductivos en los animales tratados

  20. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot...

  1. Parâmetros reprodutivos de cabras Toggenburg inseminadas com sêmen resfriado, após diluição em meio à base de gema de ovo Reproductive parameters of Toggenburg goats inseminated with cooled semen diluted in egg yolk extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a taxa de concepção, a resposta à prostaglandina, a duração do estro, a categoria reprodutiva e o tipo de muco de cabras inseminadas com sêmen diluído em meio à base de gema de ovo e resfriado a 5ºC, por 12 ou 24 horas. Foram utilizados dois reprodutores e 62 fêmeas da raça Toggenburg, que receberam duas doses de 22,5µg de PGF2α, em intervalos de 10 dias, para a sincronização do estro. A partir da primeira aplicação de PGF2α, o estro foi monitorado três vezes ao dia. Realizou-se uma única inseminação, 12 horas após o início do estro. As porcentagens de fêmeas em estro, após a primeira e segunda aplicações de PGF2α, foram de 85,5% e 88,7%, respectivamente. O intervalo de aplicação da primeira e segunda doses de PGF2α ao início do estro foi de 41,04±20,32 e 45,67±9,28 horas, e a duração do estro de 40,02±15,96 e 32,24±12,09 horas, respectivamente. A taxa de concepção total foi de 49,1%. O período de armazenamento do sêmen e a categoria reprodutiva não influenciaram (P>0,05 a taxa de concepção. O tipo de muco observado no momento da inseminação influenciou (PThe conception rate, the prostaglandin response, the estrus duration, the reproductive class, and the mucous of goats inseminated with semen diluted in egg yolk extender and cooled at 5ºC, for 12 or 24 hours were evaluated. Sixty-two female goats and two sexually mature Toggenburg bucks were used. The females received two doses of 22.5µg of prostaglandine F2α, at 10-day intervals. After the first injection, the estrus was monitored three times a day (6:00, 12:00, and 18:00h, with a buck teaser. Only one insemination was used. The percentages of animals that showed estrus after the first and the second injection of PGF2α were 85.5% and 88.7%, respectively. The average intervals from first and second PGF2α injection to estrus were 41.04±20.32 and 45.67±9.28h, and the estrus durations for both injections were 40.02±15.96 and 32

  2. Identificação e modelagem da autocorrelação residual no ajuste do modelo de Wood às curvas de lactação de cabras Identification and modeling of residual autocorrelation in the adjustments of Wood’s model to lactation curves of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Puerro de Melo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho apresentar uma metodologia de identificação e modelagem da autocorrelação residual considerando ajustes individuais do modelo de Wood às lactações de cabras leiteiras e também avaliar a influência de tal modelagem na qualidade do ajuste. O modelo de Wood foi ajustado individualmente às lactações, considerando três estruturas residuais. Na primeira, assumiu-se independência dos erros (EI para todas as lactações, na segunda, assumiu-se a estrutura de erros autoregressivos de primeira ordem (AR1 para todas as lactações e, na terceira, nomeada por EI-AR1, foi utilizada a estrutura de erros AR1 somente para as lactações que apresentaram autocorrelação residual, segundo o teste de Durbin-Watson, e de EI para as demais. As três situações de ajuste foram comparadas pelos percentuais de convergência e pelas médias dos quadrados médios dos erros (QME e dos coeficientes de determinação ajustados (R²aj. As médias dos QME e dos R²aj apresentaram valores semelhantes nas três situações de estrutura residual. No entanto, o modelo com estrutura EI-AR1 apresentou maior convergência, o que consiste em uma vantagem, já que permite que um maior número de animais seja avaliado quanto à sua curva de lactação. Portanto, em função da maior convergência obtida, o ajuste do modelo de Wood com a estrutura EI-AR1 consiste na opção mais indicada para grandes conjuntos de dados.The objective of this research was to present a methodology for identification and modeling of residual autocorrelation considering individual adjustments of the Wood's model to lactation dairy goats and evaluate the influence of such modeling in the quality of adjustment. The Wood's model was adjusted individually for lactations in three different ways, the first have assumed independence of errors (IE for all lactations, the second have assumed autoregressives first order errors (AR1 for all lactations and the third, named

  3. Influência do manejo do rebanho, das condições higiênicas da ordenha e da fase de lactação na composição química do leite de cabras Saanen Effects of flock management, milking sanitary conditions and lactation stage on milk composition of Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto Queiroga

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência dos períodos de lactação nas características químicas e físicas do leite de cabras Saanen no Brejo Paraibano, Brasil, e verificar o efeito do manejo do rebanho, da higiene da ordenha e dos períodos da lactação no perfil lipídico do leite. Vinte animais foram selecionados, constituindo-se quatro grupos de 5 (com e sem a presença do macho e ordenha com e sem procedimentos de higiene para análises de amostras de leite coletadas com 35, 85 e 135 dias de lactação. Os resultados comprovaram produtividade leiteira satisfatória em 135 dias de lactação, evidenciando produção máxima aos 35 dias e comportamento linear decrescente com o avanço da lactação. Os teores de lipídios e acidez variaram no decorrer da lactação. A higiene da ordenha e o manejo do rebanho não tiveram efeito sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos, no entanto, os valores médios de ácidos graxos saturados foram influenciados pela fase de lactação, observando-se os maiores percentuais de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta aos 85 dias da lactação. Os teores médios de ácidos graxos insaturados também foram modificados por este fator e apresentaram os maiores valores aos 35 dias de lactação.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of lactation stage in the chemical and physical characteristics of milk from Saanen goats as well as to investigate the effects of flock management, milking sanitary conditions, and lactation phase in the milk fatty acid profile. Twenty goats were randomly assigned to four groups of five animals each. Flock management differed by the presence or absence of males in the groups while milking sanitary conditions differed either by a poor or by a good milking hygiene. Milk samples were collected at 35, 85 and 135 days of lactation. Results showed that milk yield was as expected at 135 days of lactation; peak milk production was observed at 35 days of lactation and decreased linearly as

  4. Avaliação de variáveis que influenciam a hidrólise enzimática da caseína do leite de cabra Moxotó Evaluation of the variables that influence the enzymatic hydrolysis of Moxotó goat's milk casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Barros Ferreira Lira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da temperatura, pH, relação enzima:substrato (E:S e tempo de reação sobre a hidrólise enzimática da caseína do leite de cabra Moxotó, com uso de diferentes enzimas proteolíticas. A hidrólise enzimática da caseína caprina foi realizada com uso de tripsina, pepsina e papaína. Para cada enzima, foram utilizados dois níveis de cada variável, na avaliação de seus efeitos sobre a hidrólise da caseína, em um fatorial completo 2(4. Os produtos da hidrólise foram visualizados em eletroforese SDS-PAGE. O melhor valor do grau de hidrólise com a enzima papaína foi obtido em pH 6,5, E:S de 1:150 e 5 horas de hidrólise a 50ºC (28,17%; com a tripsina, em pH 8,5, E:S de 1:150 e 5 horas a 40ºC (29,55%; e com a pepsina, em pH 3,0, E:S de 1:100 e 5 horas a 40ºC (38,27%. A hidrólise da caseína caprina é influenciada positivamente pelo pH e tempo de hidrólise, com o uso da pepsina. Foram observadas interações significativas antagônicas entre pH e relação E:S, com o uso da tripsina; e entre pH, temperatura e tempo de hidrólise, com o uso da papaína. A pepsina apresenta elevada eficiência na hidrólise de αs1, β e κ-caseína, evidenciada por hidrolisados com massa molar abaixo de 14,4 kDa.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme:substrate ratio (E:S, and reaction time on the enzymatic hydrolysis of Moxotó breed goat's milk casein, using different proteolytic enzymes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the capric casein was performed using trypsin, pepsin and papain. For each enzyme, two levels of the variables were used to assess their effects on the hydrolysis of casein, using a full factorial design (2(4. The hydrolysis products were visualized on SDS-PAGE. The best hydrolysis degree using papain were at pH 6.5, E:S of 1:150 and 5 hours of hydrolysis at 50°C (28.17%; for trypsin, at pH 8.5, E:S of 1:150 and 5 hours at 40°C (29.55%; and for pepsin, at

  5. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  6. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  7. Efeitos da administração de vitamina E na infecção mamária e na contagem de células somáticas de cabras primíparas desafiadas experimentalmente com Staphylococcus aureus Effects of administration of vitamin E on mammary health and milk cell counts of first parturition goats experimentally challenged with Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.O. Paes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos da administração de vitamina E sobre a contagem de células somáticas e a infecção da glândula mamária de cabras primíparas desafiadas com a inoculação intramamária de Staphylococcus aureus ao 10º dia pós-parto. Vinte e oito animais foram divididos em quatro grupos, cada um composto por sete cabras primíparas da raça Saanen, como segue: grupo-controle, grupo de animais suplementados com vitamina E, grupo de animais desafiados com S.aureus inoculados na glândula mamária e grupo de animais suplementados com vitamina E e desafiados com S.aureus na glândula mamária. Na segunda e terceira semanas de lactação, a inoculação de S.aureus na glândula mamária permitiu a recuperação do microrganismo no leite e elevou a contagem de células somáticas (CCS. A liberação de S.aureus no leite ocorreu de maneira intermitente. Em animais suplementados com vitamina E, o desafio com S.aureus resultou em CCS mais baixa e menor número de microrganismos no leite. Sugere-se que a CCS possa ser utilizada para a detecção da mastite caprina, devendo-se utilizar contagens superiores a 1,0x10(6células/ml de leite como critério para a realização de exames microbiológicos.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of administration of vitamin E on mammary health and milk cell counts of first parturition Saanen goats, experimentally challenged with intramammary inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus on the 10th day postpartum. Twenty-eight animals were distributed into four groups: control group, a group supplemented with vitamin E, a group inoculated with S.aureus and a group supplemented with vitamin E and inoculated with S.aureus. The results demonstrated that, after inoculation of S.aureus into the mammary gland, the microorganism was recovered from the milk, and the somatic cell count was increased. The recovery of S.aureus from milk was intermittent. The increase in

  8. Use of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn on intake, apparent digestibility, production and composition of milk of dairy goats Utilização da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho em substituição ao milho seco no consumo, digestibilidade aparente, produção e composição do leite de cabras leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.l.L. Canizares

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty primiparous and multiparous Alpine breed goats at approximately 80 days of lactation were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually in metal cages and distributed according to milk production in five 4 × 4 Latin squares. The experimental diets used in the experiment presented concentrate:forage ratio of 65:35. The treatments were characterized by increasing levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% of high moisture corn silage (HMCS replacing corn dry grain (CDG. Average intake of DM (1.62 kg/day, 3.90 % BW, CP (0.22 kg/day, NFC (0.76 kg/day and TDN (1.29 kg/day were not influenced by levels of HMCS. However, intake of NDF (0.53 kg/day was significant for the different level of HMCS. Daily milk production and production of milk correct at 3.5% of fat, feed efficiency (MP/DMI, fat percentage, protein, lactose, total solids and milk urea nitrogen, with means of 1.86; 1.69; 1.11; 2.96; 2.85; 4.36; 10.96 and 17.1, respectively, were not influenced by the levels of HMCS. Percentage of non fat solids (8.00% was affected by replacing levels of HMCS. The use of high moisture corn silage in the diet does not change milk production and it can be applied in total or partial substitution to dry corn grain in the feeding of milk goats.Foram utilizadas 20 cabras da raça Alpina, primíparas e multíparas, com aproximadamente 80 dias em lactação, alojadas individualmente em gaiolas metálicas e distribuídas, de acordo com a produção de leite, em cinco quadrados latinos 4 × 4. As dietas experimentais utilizadas apresentaram relação concentrado:volumoso 65:35. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por níveis crescentes 0, 33, 67 e 100% de silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM em substituição ao grão seco de milho (GSM. As médias de consumo de MS (1,62 kg/dia, 3,90 %PV, proteína bruta (0,22 kg/dia, carboidratos não fibrosos (0,76 kg/dia e nutrientes digestíveis totais (1,29 kg/dia não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de SGUM

  9. Epitaxial growth of Al/Al2O3 multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain Al-Al2O3 quantum effect devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111). In this paper, we have deposit Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111), and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS. (author)

  10. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere als Mineralisationstemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparova, Pavla

    2002-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von doppelthydrophilen Blockcopolymeren und ihrer Anwendung in einem biomimetischen Mineralisationsprozeß von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere bestehen aus einem hydrophilen Block, der nicht mit Mineralien wechselwirkt und einem zweiten Polyelektrolyt-Block, der stark mit Mineraloberflächen wechselwirkt. Diese Blockcopolymere wurden durch ringöffnende Polymerisation von N-carboxyanhydriden (NCA's) und a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 als Initiator hergestellt. Die hergestellten Blockcopolymere wurden als effektive Wachstumsmodifikatoren für die Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat Mineralien eingesetzt. Die so erhaltenen Mineralpartikel (Kugeln, Hantel, eiförmige Partikel) wurden durch Lichtmikroskopie in Lösung, SEM und TEM charakterisiert. Röntgenweitwinkelstreuung (WAXS) wurde verwendet, um die Modifikation von Calciumcarbonat zu ermitteln und die Größe der Calciumcarbonat- und Bariumsulfat-Nanopartikel zu ermitteln. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of double hydrophilic block copolymers and their use in a biomimetic mineralization process of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate. Double hydrophilic block copolymers consist of a hydrophilic block that does not interact with minerals and another hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block that strongly interacts with mineral surfaces. These polymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), and the first hydrophilic block a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 was used as an initiator. The prepared block copolymers were used as effective crystal growth modifiers to control the crystallization of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate minerals. The resulting mineral particles (spheres, dumbbells, egg-like particles) were characterised by light microscopy in solution, by SEM, and by TEM. X-Ray scattering

  11. Fretting wear performances of multilayered PVD TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl on AISI 4140 steel

    OpenAIRE

    Tlili, Brahim; NASRI, Mustapha; F. Ayari; Nouveau, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, most surface treatments are realized through vapor deposition techniques as thin hard coatings to guarantee; high surface hardness, low friction coefficient and improve wear resistance. Several experimental investigations have let to the development of a (TiAlCN/TiAlN/TiAl) and (TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl) coatings in preference to the traditional TiN coating. In the current paper research conducted on fretting wear of a (TiAlCN/TiAlN/TiAl) and a (TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl) multilayer coatings de...

  12. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  13. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El t

  14. Santa Sabina House, Navan Road, Cabra, Dublin 7.

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Jim

    2016-01-01

    This inspection report sets out the findings of a monitoring inspection, the purpose of which was to monitor ongoing regulatory compliance. This monitoring inspection was un-announced and took place over 1 day(s). The inspection took place over the following dates and times From: To: 28 January 2016 10:00 28 January 2016 15:10

  15. Listeria spp., y L. monocytogenes EN LECHE CRUDA DE CABRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Albarracín C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To test non-pasteurized goat’s milk from the village of ‘la Garita’, Northern Santander, for Listeria monocytogenes. Material and methods. 90 samples of non-pasteurized goat’s milk were obtained over a 4 month period; pH and temperature of each sample were measured. The INVIMA technique was used to isolate L. monocytogenes; the species was confirmed by PCR. Results. The study showed that eight goat milk providers of the zone neither had refrigeration nor pasteurized the milk. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 3%; 15% of the samples had other species of Listeria. The milk obtained from this zone contained the pathogen that may cause listeriosis in children less than 5 years of age, pregnant women, adults and immunologically compromised patients. Conclusions. This study shows the occurrence of this pathogen in goat’s milk and identified areas of risk for those people who drink goat’s milk.

  16. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  17. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  18. Housing conditions as a social determinant of low birthweight and preterm low birthweight Condiciones de vivienda como determinante social de bajo peso al nacer y de prematuro de bajo peso al nacer Condições de moradia como determinante social de baixo peso ao nascer e prematuro de baixo peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vianna Vettore

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between housing conditions and low birthweight and preterm low birthweight among low-income women. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with post-partum women living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in 2003-2005. Two groups of cases, low birthweight (n=96 and preterm low birthweight infants (n=68, were compared against normal weight term controls (n=393. Housing conditions were categorized into three levels: adequate, inadequate, and highly inadequate. Covariates included sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, risk behaviors, violence, anxiety, satisfaction during pregnancy, obstetric history and prenatal care. RESULTS: Poor housing conditions was independently associated with low birthweight (inadequate - OR 2.3 [1.1;4.6]; highly inadequate - OR 7.6 [2.1;27.6] and preterm low birthweight (inadequate - OR 2.2 [1.1;4.3]; highly inadequate - OR 7.6 [2.4;23.9] and factors associated with outcomes were inadequate prenatal care and previous preterm birth. Low income and low maternal body mass index remained associated with low birthweight. CONCLUSIONS: Poor housing conditions were associated with low birthweight and preterm low birthweight.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre condiciones de vivienda y bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad asociada al bajo peso al nacer en los hijos de mujeres de baja renta. MÉTODOS: Se realizó estudio caso-control con mujeres en el postparto residentes en el municipio de Rio de Janeiro, Sureste de Brasil, en 2003-2005. Dos grupos de casos fueron comparados con controles a término y con peso normal (n=393: bajo peso al nacer (n=96 y prematuridad asociada al bajo peso al nacer (n=68. Las condiciones de vivienda fueron consideradas en los niveles: adecuadas, inadecuadas y muy inadecuadas. Las covariables investigadas fueron características sociodemográficas, antropométricas, hábitos de riesgo, violencia, ansiedad, satisfacción con el embarazo

  19. Epistemologi Sufi : Perspektif Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainul Abidin Shah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This article deals with some epistemological terms and theoretical postulates in the thought of a well known sufi  from the 9th century AD., Abu `Abdu’lLah Muhammad b. `Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, in order to describe the path (sulūk of a sufi towards the Ultimate Reality. In his own style thought about the sufis, placing an emphasis upon the strong relations between the walāyah (sufi  sainthood and the ma`rifa (sufi knowledge in the one side, and between the two a philosophy of Sufi Ethics. So, it is nothing out of the ordinary to fi nd his ethical inclinations as a dominant feature in every aspect of his epistemological thoughts. In addition, sufi epistemology in the perspective of philosophers focuses on enforcing the inner positive potents of the Self more so than to eliminate “the satanic influences” to the heart, because – in al-Tirmidzi’s argument is that the former would greatly improve the immunity of the self, and encourage it to tread consistently on the right path as well.Keywords :  Dhawq, eros, heart, exoteric, esoteric, al-Haqq, al-`Adl, al-Shidq Abstrak : Artikel ini membahas istilah-istilah epistemologi dan beberapa postulat dari seorang sufi terkenal abad ke-9, Abu `Abdu’lLahMuh ammad b.`Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, dalam upaya menggambarkan perjalanan suluk seorang sufi menuju Realitas Mutlak. Dalam gaya pemikirannya tentang sufi, kita menemukan bahwa figur ini cenderung  menekankan hubungan-hubungan yang kuat antara wal āyah (kewalian sufi dan ma‘rifa (pengetahuan sufi di satu sisi, dan antara keduanya dengan filsafat moral sufi.  Jadi, tidak aneh jika kita menemukan kecenderungan - kecenderungan etis yang dominan dalam setiap aspek  pemikiran epistemologinya. Dan epistemologi sufi dalam perspektif para filsuf lebih menekankan potensi inner Diri yang positif daripada menghapuskan “cara-cara syaitan” dalam hati, karena - menurut pendapat al-Tirmidzi – ia akan meningkatkan

  20. Contagem de células somáticas e produção leiteira em cabras Saanen estressadas via aplicação de ACTH Somatic cell count and milk production of Saanen goats stressed via application of ACTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Rodrigues Gaiato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste estudo o efeito do estresse, via administração de ACTH (hormônio adrenocorticotrófico, sobre a quantidade e qualidade do leite produzido e a indicação de estresse pela alteração no nível de cortisol. Assim, 12 cabras lactantes foram distribuídas em dois grupos: seis animais receberam aplicação de 0,06 UI de ACTH/kg de PV (desafiadas e seis receberam solução placebo (controle, todas via intravenosa. O desafio ocorreu ao longo da lactação, com aplicação do protocolo aos 30, 60, 120 e 180 dias do início da lactação, avaliando-se em cada data os níveis de cortisol 30 minutos antes, no ato da aplicação, 60, 120 e 300 minutos depois. A produção leiteira foi mensurada diariamente durante 270 dias e, a cada 20 dias, o leite foi colhido para contagem de células somáticas (CCS pelo método direto. Os teores de cortisol mensurados em -30 e 0 minuto antes da aplicação de ACTH foram baixos e semelhantes entre os grupos. Entretanto, a partir de 60 minutos, constatou-se efeito da aplicação de ACTH, com teor de cortisol de 61,37±6,65 versus 5,47±1,21 ng/mL e de 51,17±10,21 versus 4,67±1,21 ng/mL aos 120 minutos. Aos 300 minutos, o cortisol retornou ao nível basal. Não houve diferença na produção de leite, no teor de proteína e de gordura do leite, cujos valores nos grupos ACTH e Placebo foram 1,37±0,59 e 1,38±0,63 kg de leite, respectivamente. A contagem de células somáticas não foi influenciada pelo estresse e apresentou valores situados na faixa indicada para animais sadios. Constatou-se estresse pontual em decorrência da aplicação de ACTH, porém sem alterações de natureza quantitativa e qualitativa do leite produzido, e isso indica que atividades de manejo que estressam os animais pontualmente não trazem prejuízos ao sistema produtivo.The objective of this study was to analyze the stress effect, via administration of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone, on quantity and quality of milk

  1. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de

  2. El pensamiento frente al arte

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Es un hecho histórico de gran importancia el que el hombre haya creado arte antes de haberse dedicado a la filosofía. Al mencionar esto no pienso en las pinturas pre-históricas que se encuentran en las cuevas de España y en el Sur de Francia, sino ante todo, en el arte egipcio y mesopotámico.  En Egipto y Mesopotamia --y Mesopotamia parece ser la región más importante -no nació sino que se creó al hombre humano, al hombre como ser arquitectónico.

  3. Consoer et al PFOS dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus...

  4. DESAFÍOS AL ORDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina De los Rios

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fradkin, Raúl y Gelman, Jorge (Compiladores, Desafíos al Orden. Política y sociedades rurales durante la Revolución de Independencia, Prohistoria ediciones, Rosario, 2008, 157 pp.

  5. Seltzer_et_al_2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset supports the modeling study of Seltzer et al. (2016) published in Atmospheric Environment. In this study, techniques typically used for future air...

  6. Note intorno al Teatro Vagante

    OpenAIRE

    Scabia, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    In questo testo-intervista Scabia traccia, alternando racconto e riflessione, un percorso che abbracciatutta l'attività del suo Teatro Vagante: dalle azioni nelle scuole degli inizi degli anni '70 - agli alboridell'Animazione Teatrale, che anche da qui prese le mosse - al lavoro all'Università di Bologna,organica continuazione di quei primi esperimenti. Dalla poesia alle azioni teatrali in strada;dall'architettura della pagina al respiro della parola detta in presenza ; dalle aule ...

  7. Information als Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Der Informationsbegriff als zentraler Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz wird in der bibliothekarischen Diskussion in der Regel nicht explizit thematisiert, sondern lässt sich aus Fachliteratur und Bibliothekspraxis nur implizit erschließen. Eine theoretische Beschäftigung mit dem Informationsbegriff ist jedoch unabdingbar, soll das Konzept "Informationskompetenz" auch außerhalb des bibliothekarischen Kontextes verständlich und nutzbar gemacht werden. Im vorliegenden Text, der sich als Beit...

  8. Response to Brosch et al.

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Lerin, Carles; Kaminska, Dorota; Venesmaa, Sari; Itkonen, Paula; Boes, Tanner; Floss, Thomas; Schroeder, Joshua; Dearie, Farrell; Crunkhorn, Sarah; Burak, Furkan; Jimenez-Chillaron, Josep C.; Kuulasmaa, Tiina; Miettinen, Pekka; Park, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    We would like to respond to Brosch et al. regarding our manuscript “Expression of the Splicing Factor Gene SFRS10 Is Reduced in Human Obesity and Contributes to Enhanced Lipogenesis” (Pihlajamäki et al., 2011b). Brosch performed RT-PCR in liver samples from 13 lean and 34 obese individuals, finding no differences in SFRS10 or LPIN1 expression. We wish to address points raised by Brosch, including experimental strategy and analysis of human SFRS10 expression.

  9. D’al-Ẓāhir Baybars à ʿAlī al-Zaybaq

    OpenAIRE

    Dorlian, Georges

    2014-01-01

    « Toi par le courage, moi par la filouterie » aimait répéter Baṭṭāl à la princesse Ḏāt al-Himma, comme pour délimiter les espaces d’action revenant à chacun. Et d’ajouter, pour mieux dépeindre son rôle : « Mon métier n’est pas celui de la guerre, des armes et des exploits, mais celui de la ruse et de la fourberie dans un château fort ou une forteresse. » Baṭṭāl était un ʿayyār adjoint à la princesse Ḏāt al-Himma et à ʿAbd al-Wahhāb pour servir leur cause sublime et leur idéal chevaleresque. E...

  10. Strain sensing with sub-micron sized Al-AlOx-Al tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Koppinen, P. J.; Lievonen, J. T.; Ahlskog, M.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a local strain sensing method for nanostructures based on metallic Al tunnel junctions with AlOx barriers. The junctions were fabricated on top of a thin silicon nitride membrane, which was actuated with an AFM tip attached to a stiff cantilever. A large relative change in the tunneling resistance in response to the applied strain (gauge factor) was observed, up to a value 37. This facilitates local static strain variation measurements down to ~10^{-7}.

  11. Efectividad de la gimnasia abdominal hipopresiva frente al entrenamiento perineal clásico en el fortalecimiento del suelo pélvico de la mujer: revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Águila, María Estrella

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: La Gimnasia Abdominal Hipopresiva es un método creado en la década de los 80 por el Dr. Marcel Caufriez en el ámbito de la reeducación postparto. En Fisioterapia Uroginecológica se emplea como terapia para el tratamiento de las disfunciones del suelo pélvico y desde el año 2007 se utiliza también como forma de entrenamiento abdominal. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es revisar la evidencia publicada sobre la efectividad de la Gimnasia Abdominal Hipopresiva en el fortale...

  12. Epistemologi Sufi : Perspektif Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidzi

    OpenAIRE

    Ainul Abidin Shah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : This article deals with some epistemological terms and theoretical postulates in the thought of a well known sufi  from the 9th century AD., Abu `Abdu’lLah Muhammad b. `Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, in order to describe the path (sulūk) of a sufi towards the Ultimate Reality. In his own style thought about the sufis, placing an emphasis upon the strong relations between the walāyah (sufi  sainthood) and the ma`rifa (sufi knowledge) in the one side, and between the two a philosophy of Sufi Et...

  13. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  14. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because flake-like TiAl3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of α-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

  15. Modeling of the ALS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible

  16. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  17. ALS:A SAIRASTAVAN TOIMINTATERAPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorinen, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrofinen lateraali skleroosi on harvinainen, etenevä sairaus. Sairaus surkastuttaa edetessään potilaan tahdonalaisen lihaksiston. Sairauden oireet näkyvät yleensä ensin raajoissa, mutta myös nielun lihaksista alkava bulbaarinen taudinmuoto on mahdollinen. ALS voi myös aiheuttaa frontotemporaalista dementiaa. Sairaus etenee yksilöllisesti, mutta sen kesto on yleensä noin 3-5 vuotta. Keski-Suomen keskussairaalassa ALS:n sairastuneen kuntoutukseen osallistuu moniammatillinen työryhmä, j...

  18. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al13Fe4 particles in Al-Fe-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and FexP phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and FexP phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al13Fe4 clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al13Fe4 nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated

  19. Dispositivo para la Hemorragia puerperal (balón hemostático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarroel Paredes Lady Ibeth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La hemorragia postparto es un importante contribuyente a la morbilidad materna y sigue siendo la principal causa de mortalidad materna a nivel mundial; en la mayoría de los casos aparece en forma espontanea inmediata a la ocurrencia del parto, y el porcentaje mayor se refiere a la hipotonía uterina, que es rebelde a la aplicación de medidas convencionales como el masaje uterino, oxitócicos, prostaglandinas etc.Las pautas para el manejo de la hemorragia postparto implican medidas graduales desde enfoques farmacológicos hasta los quirúrgicos. El método de taponamiento uterino utilizando “balones hemostáticos” se ha añadido recientemente al arsenal de tratamiento de la hemorragia postparto. Hay varios balones disponibles, incluyendo el Balón de Bakri, Foley,Sengstaken-Blakemore, Rusch, entre otros. Este artículo estudia estas tecnologías de taponamiento uterino en el tratamientode la hemorragia postparto y especialmente el método del Balón intrauterino aplicado en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi como una alternativa más ante esta complicación.

  20. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  1. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 tunnel emission electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence

  2. Derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: derechos estrechamente vinculados al derecho a la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Aller, Maria Celia; Luis Romero, Elena de; Guzmán Acha, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están íntimamente relacionados con otros derechos esenciales para la vida, como la alimentación o la salud. Su reconocimiento como derechos humanos en 2010 marca un hito importante en el respeto, protección y realización de estos derechos, que se encuentran seriamente vulnerados para una mayoría de población más vulnerable y empobrecida, sobre todo en el ámbito rural. Mucho camino queda aún para conseguir no sólo la disponibilidad de agua y saneam...

  3. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  4. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... of America, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No. CV-10-4496. On October...

  5. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 13, 2010 (75 FR 62858); and (3) published summaries of the... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Public Comments and Response... Final Judgment in United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No....

  6. Al/Au/n-Si/Al surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged-particle detectors are required to be operated sometimes in ambient light for applications like alpha counting and range finding. Detectors like Al/p-Si surface barrier with aluminium on the front side are found quite suitable. Gold/n-Si surface barrier detectors are not usable because of their excessive background photo current. These detectors, we fabricate for use in nuclear experiments, were given an aluminium coating on their gold side for use in room light. The Au/n-Si/Al surface barrier diodes were characterized for their electrical properties and performance as alpha detectors. Detectors showing good energy resolution (∼ 50 KeV) were selected and provided with another thin reflecting coat of aluminium on their front sides

  7. Electrowinning Al from Al2S3 in Molten Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Y; Van der Plas, D.W.; Bohte, J.; Lans, S.C.; Van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate an alternative process for the production of primary aluminum via a sulfide intermediate, the electrochemical behavior of Al2S3 in molten salt has been studied on a laboratory scale. The effects of electrolyte composition, temperature, and cell design on the cell performance have been investigated. Temperature and cryolite addition have positive effects on the current density. Increasing the anode-to-cathode surface area (closer to unity) and shortening the interelectr...

  8. Thermal conductance of a pressed Al-Al contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal conductance of a screw-fastened joint between two blocks of Al-alloys has been measured. An AlMg4.5Mn-block, the end of which is cooled by liquid helium, constitutes the upper part of the sample and the contact is formed at the face surface of a cylindrical extension of that block onto which a cylinder, made of AlMgSi1, is pressed by means of a copper-nickel screw. Pressing of the contact was carried out at room temperature by applying a defined torque, M, to the fastening screw. Three samples of the same shape but with differently treated surfaces of contact (machined flat, electro-chemically polished, with gold plated contacts) were studied. The results showed that the machined flat surfaces yield the best contact and that the contact conductance (measured in the range 4.2 K to 1.8 K) of all samples increased with increasing torque. In addition to thermal measurements, a study of the electrical conductance would be very interesting to determine the different contributions of phonon and electron heat conduction by means of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The work is useful for the GIRL (German Infra-Red Laboratory) space experiment.

  9. Variação do custo e da receita de produção de leite de cabras Saanen, recebendo rações com diferentes relações de volumoso:concentrado - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1187 The cost and revenue variation of Saanen goats’ milk production, fed with different roughage ration:concentrate - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i4.1187

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Farid Pereira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a variação do custo e da receita de produção de leite, foram utilizadas 20 cabras da raça Saanen (59,59 kg ± 6,97 kg de PV, em 152 dias de lactação. Os animais permaneceram confinados em baias individuais, com controle diário da ração fornecida e da produção de leite. Sendo os tratamentos constituídos das rações com as relações de volumoso: concentrado de 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30 e 80:20. Foi observado que as médias das receitas brutas, obtidas com a venda do leite produzido foram de 2,98, 2,73, 2,15, 2,28 e 1,65 R$/animal/dia, respectivamente. As despesas médias com o consumo de ração foram de 1,20; 1,00, 0,97, 0,91 e 0,68 R$/animal/dia, respectivamente. Os retornos médios com a margem sobre o custo da ração (MCR foram de 1,78; 1,73; 1,18; 1,37 e 0,97 R$/animal/dia, respectivamente. Portanto, a relação de 40:60 de volumoso:concentrado na ração proporcionou maior MCR, ao longo do período de lactaçãoAiming to evaluate of the cost variation and revenue of milk production, twenty Saanen goats (59.59 kg ±6.97 kg de PV were used in 152 days of lactation. The animals were confined in individual stalls, with daily control of feeding and milk production. The treatments consisted of the roughage ration: concentrate of 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20. It was observed that the average revenue achieved with the sale of produced milk were: 2.98, 2.73, 2.15, 2.28 and 1.65 R$/animal/day, respectively. Average expenses with consumption of rations were: 1.20, 1.00, 0.97, 0.91 and 0.68 R$/animal/day, respectively; and the average return with the margin on the cost of the ration (MCR were: 1.78, 1.73, 1.17, 1.37 and 0.97 R$/animal/day, respectively. Treatment of 40:60 roughage: concentrate provided higher MCR during the lactation period

  10. Type idéal

    OpenAIRE

    Paugam, Serge

    2014-01-01

    L’usage de types idéaux constitue pour Max Weber une démarche sociologique fondamentale. Le type idéal est pour lui un moyen de comprendre le sens que les individus donnent à leurs expériences vécues, ce qui conduit à mettre ces dernières en relation avec l’organisation de la société à un moment historique de son évolution. Définir un type idéal ne signifie pas repérer sa forme majoritaire d’un point de vue statistique, mais discerner à partir des formes historiques des sociétés contemporaine...

  11. Al-Hadith Text Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH hadiths (sayings using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocalized sayings, after their terms (keywords have been transformed to the corresponding canonical form (i.e., roots, to one of eight Books (classes, according to Al-Bukhari classification. A term would have a higher weight if it were a good descriptor for a particular book, i.e., it appears frequently in the book but is infrequent in the entire corpus.

  12. The effect of Si in Al-alloy on electromigration performance in Al filled vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makiko; Hashimoto, Keiichi; Onoda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Electromigration performance of vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloys on Ti glue layers was investigated in comparison with W-stud vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, voids were formed at only a few locations in the test structure, while voids were formed at every via in W-stud via chains. It is supposed that Al moves through the Al-Si-Cu via during electromigration in spite of the existence of a glue layer at the via bottom. This phenomenon was observed only in the vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloy. Al movement was prohibited in Al-Cu filled vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, an Al-Ti-Si alloy was formed at the via bottom while Al3Ti was formed at Al-Cu filled vias. Al is speculated to move through this Al-Ti-Si alloy during electromigration.

  13. Lernhabitus als Grundlage lebenslanger Lernprozesse

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Heidrun

    2005-01-01

    'In diesem Artikel wird die These vertreten, dass das Habitus-Konzept von Bourdieu, wenn es bei der Analyse von lebenslangen (biographischen) Lern- und Bildungsprozessen angewandt wird, einer biographietheoretischen Reformulierung bedarf. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das eigene Konzept des biographischen Lernhabitus vorgestellt. Als Ergebnis einer Zwei-Generationen-Studie im Rostocker Werftarbeitermilieu können zwei deutlich voneinander zu entscheidende Lernhabitusmuster präsentiert werden. In...

  14. Utilitarismus als Methode der Ethik

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Malte Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In diesem Buch schlage ich eine radikal neuartige Sicht auf den Utilitarismus vor. Meine Hauptthese ist, dass der Utilitarismus selbst keine vollständige normative Theorie ist, aus der sich per se Handlungsbewertungen ableiten ließen, sondern normativ untersättigt und neutral ist. Sein normativer Gehalt ist vollständig abhängig von angenommenen Nutzenfunktionen. Jede konsistente Menge von moralischen Regeln (Moralsystem) kann, wie ich im Anhang beweise, als ein Spezialfall des Utilitarismus i...

  15. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  16. Microstructure of interaction interface between Al-Si, Zn-Al alloys and Al2O3p/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志武; 闫久春; 吕世雄; 杨士勤

    2004-01-01

    Interaction behaviors between Al-Si, Zn-AI alloys and Al2O3p/6061AI composite at different heating temperatures were investigated. It is found that Al2O3p/6061Al composite can be wetted well by AlSi-1, AlSi-4 and Zn-Al alloys and an interaction layer forms between the alloy and composite during interaction. Little Al-Si alloys remain on the surface when they fully wet the composite and Si element in Al-Si alloy diffuses into composite entirely and assembles in the composite near the interface of Al-Si alloy/composite to form a Si-rich zone. The microstructure in interaction layer with Si penetration is still dense. Much more residual Zn-Al alloy exists on the surface of composite when it wets the composite, and porosities appear at the interface of Zn-Al alloy/composite. The penetration of elements Zn, Cu of Zn-Al alloy into composite leads to the generation of shrinkage cavities in the interaction layer and makes the microstructure of Al2 O3p/6061A1 composite loose.

  17. The Structure and Main Issues of “al-Tasdid” of Husam al-Din al-Syghnaqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyar B. Shalkarov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the theological maturidia in the Central Asia was developed by the majority of outstanding scientists in the Turkic area and was known from generation to generation with manuscripts. One of these famous scientists was Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi. In Central Asia, in the branch of the Islamic kalam theology there were the works “Tabsira al-Adilla”, “Bahr al-Kalam”, “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed”, which considered the issues of maturidia theological study. In the XIV century the great scientist from Syghanaq Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi made a detailed research of the work “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed” of Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi and wrote the work “al-Tasdeed fi sharh al-Tamheed” by giving a full explanation of all questions relating to the issue. This article considers the content and the kept versions in the World libraries and the importance of this work for today. There is a different information about the original version of the manuscript. The first, the manuscript is by Amca Zade Huseyn 309 number, written by Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi personally and kept in the turkic library. This information is written in the work “Syghanaq Sanlagi/ The star of the Syghanaq” of Shamshaddin Kerim, the second manuscript is kept in the Egypt Arabic Republic, in the library “Dar al-Kutub Misrya”. It is written in this manuscript, that the manuscript was published in 1125 according hizhra calendar. Therefore the article gives an explanation of the main maturidia kalam principles, which cover five chapters of the work. 

  18. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  19. De los derechos humanos al derecho al aborto

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Fajuri, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Ninguna otra persona, en ninguna situación, es obligada a realizar el acto supererogatorio que se exige a la mujer embarazada. Aun cuando una adecuada aplicación de la teoría general de los derechos humanos permite reconocer el derecho al aborto durante los dos primeros trimestres del embarazo sobre la base de que los derechos sólo pueden restringirse por mor de los propios derechos. En esa línea, se intenta responder a quienes sostienen que el problema del aborto no puede resolverse pues no ...

  20. Friction Stir Welding of Al 5052 with Al 6061 Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbhar, N. T.; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining technique, is being extensively used in similar as well as dissimilar joining of Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, and their alloys. In the present study, friction stir welding of two aluminium alloys—AA6061 and AA5052—was carried out at various combinations of tool rotation speeds and tool traverse speeds. The transverse cross-section of the weld was used for optical as well as electron microscopy observations. The microstructural studies were used to get an ...

  1. Memahami Tasawuf Ibnuu Arabi dan Ibnuu al Farid: Konsep al Hubb Illahi, Wahdat al Wujud, Wahdah al Syuhud dan Wahdat al Adyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Robith Fuadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaum sufi menapaki jalan yang berbeda untuk menuju hakikat, mereka tidak menggunakan akal dan rasio untuk sampai pada hakikat. Akan tetapi, akal bukan satu-satunya jalan untuk menuju hakikat. Karena kita sering melihat sesuatu yang di luar jangkauan akal dalam hidup ini. Jalan yang ditempuh kaum sufi untuk menuju hakikat seperti kasyf, dzauq, 'iyan, musyahadah dan sebagainya dinilai sebagai sesuatu yang samar, tidak mempunyai batasan dan kaidah pasti, bahkan sering kali bercampur dengan igauan, mimpi, khayalan dan angan-angan. Tapi yang perlu kita ingat adalah bahwa media-media tersebut telah mampu menuntun manusia untuk memecahkan sesuatu yang tidak bisa dipecahkan oleh akal dan hukum-hukum fisika. Tulisan ini akan mengkaji gagasan-gagasan dua tokoh tasawuf besar yaitu Ibnu Arabi dan Ibnu al-Farid yang hidup  pada abad keenam dan ketujuh Hijriah. Tulisan ini secara spesifik akan mengkaji tiga gagasan penting ke dua tokoh tersebut. Yaitu al hubb al Ilahi, wahdat al Wujud dan wahdat al adyan.

  2. The Eminent Turkish Logician al-Abhari and "al-Risalah fî al-Kavâid al-Mantıqiyyah"

    OpenAIRE

    el-EBHERÎ, Esîrüddîn Mufaddal b. Ömer es-Semerkandî

    2014-01-01

    Athar al-Din al-Abhari is an important figure whose works had been textbooks in the Ottoman schools for centuries al-Abhari who wrote so many books in such areas as philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and logic is especially known for his books Hidayat al-Hikmat and İsaghuji He took logic into account in all of his works of philosophy. He also wrote some books and treatises specially concerning logical problems. Here, we are going to present the Turkish translation of his al-Risâlah fi al-Kava...

  3. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  4. The Al-Al3Ni Eutectic Reaction: Crystallography and Mechanism of Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yangyang; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic structure are examined with emphasis on its morphology and crystallography. Based on these examinations, the mechanism of formation of this technologically important eutectic is postulated. It is found that a thin shell of α-Al forms coherently around each Al3Ni fiber. The excellent thermal stability of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic may be attributed to the presence of this coherent layer.

  5. Reply to Pachai et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited by the spacing between objects. When asked to report a target's identity, observers make erroneous reports that sometimes match the identity of a nearby distractor and sometimes match a combination of target and distractor features. The classification of these errors has previously been used to support competing 'substitution' [1] or 'averaging' [2] models of the phenomenon known as 'visual crowding'. We recently proposed a single model in which both classes of error occur because observers make their reports by sampling from a biologically-plausible population of weighted responses within a region of space around the target [3]. It is critical to note that there is no probabilistic substitution or averaging process in our model; instead, we argue that neither substitution nor averaging occur, but that these are misclassifications of the distribution of reports that emerge when a population response distribution is sampled. This is a fundamentally different way of thinking about crowding, and on this basis we claim to have provided a mechanism unifying categorically distinct perceptual errors. Our goal was not to model all crowding phenomena, such as the release from crowding when target and flanks differ in color or depth [4]. Pachai et al.[5] have suggested that our model is not unifying because it inaccurately predicts perceptual performance for a particular stimulus. Although we agree that our model does not predict their data, this specific demonstration overlooks the critical aspect of the model: perceptual reports are drawn from a weighted population code. We show that Pachai et al.'s [5] own data actually provide evidence for the population code we have described [3], and we suggest a biologically-plausible analysis of their stimuli that provides a computational basis for their 'grouping' account of crowding. PMID:27166690

  6. Al-Hadith Text Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi; Ghassan Kanaan; Riyad Al-Shalabi; Saja I. Al- Sinjilawi; Ronza S. Al- Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocali...

  7. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  8. The ALS project: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monckton, Simon; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared; Broten, Greg; MacKay, David; Erickson, David; Verret, Sean; Digney, Bruce

    2006-05-01

    In support of Canadian Forces transformation, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has established an ongoing program to develop machine intelligence for semi-autonomous vehicles and systems. Focussing on mine clearance and remote scouting for over a decade, DRDC Suffield has developed numerous UGVs controlled remotely over point-to-point radio links. Though this strategy removes personnel from potential danger, DRDC recognized that human factors and communications bandwidth limit teleoperation and that only networked, autonomous unmanned systems can conserve these valuable resources. This paper describes the outcome of the first autonomy project, Autonomous Land Systems (ALS), designed to demonstrate basic autonomous multivehicle land capabilities.

  9. Grainreifnementlimit of commercialpureAl inoculatedbyAl-Ti-C(B)masteralloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhao Wang; Xiang-fa Liu

    2015-01-01

    The grain reifnement limits of commercial pure Al inoculated by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys were studied, and the inlfuence of melting temperature on the grain reifning performance of these three master al oys was investigated using a high scope video microscope (HSVM), a ifeld-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X–ray diffraction (XRD) method. Results show that there is a grain reifnement limit of commercial pure Al reifned by these three master al oys; with the same addition level of 1.5% under the present experimental conditions, the grain reifnement limits (smal est average grain size) of commercial pure Al reifned by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys are 50 µm, 80 µm and 80 µm, respectively. In addition, with an increase in the melting temperature of the pure Al, the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-1B and Al-5Ti-0.25C master al oys decreases, but the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B changes little.

  10. Analisis Salasilah Tarekat Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatra’i

    OpenAIRE

    ROHAIMI RASTAM; MOHD SYUKRI YEOH ABDULLAH; YUSRI MOHAMAD RAMLI

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spiritual chain (silsilah tariqah) of Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatra’i (alt. al-Sumatrani), Qadi al-Malik al-‘Adil (Prime Minister and Mufti) of Aceh during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 1607 to 1627. The study is primarily based on his manuscript of Mir’at al-Muhaqqiqin as well as Shaykh Abdul Haqq Muhaddith Dahlawi’s Zad al-Muttaqin. By mapping the lineage of all data available, this study features al-Sumatra’is spiritual chain that consist of Qadiriyyah, Sh...

  11. Formaline of alternatieven als ontsmettingsmiddel voor broedeieren

    OpenAIRE

    Meijerhof, R.; Dijk, D. van

    1997-01-01

    Formaline wordt algemeen gezien als een goed middel om broedeieren te ontsmetten. Toch geeft ontsmetting met middelen als ozon en waterstofperoxyde vaak een iets beter broedresultaat. Een eventuele verklaring hiervoor is momenteel nog niet te geven.

  12. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  13. AlON-SiAlON复合材料的制备及特性%Preparation and properties of AlON-SiAlON composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山下敬; 山口明良

    2003-01-01

    为提高AlON陶瓷材料的抗氧化性能,制备了AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料.在1750℃、0.5 MPa的N2气氛中,保温2 h烧成不同Al2O3/AlN/Si3N4配比的原料得到不同AlON/SiAl7O2N7比的复相材料.因为在烧结SiAl7O2N7的过程中,蒸发-凝聚的同时伴随着SiO气体的挥发,因此很难得到致密的AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料.研究了AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料在1300℃、空气中的抗氧化性能,同时作为比较,研究了相同条件下单相的AlON材料的抗氧化性能.结果表明,AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料显示了较之单相的AlON陶瓷材料更好的抗氧化性能,这是因为氧化过程中所形成的含玻璃相的表面氧化层抑制了氧的向内扩散所致.

  14. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Berzina, B.

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...

  16. Electroplating Zn-Al Alloy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The method of controlling separating anode and separating power source was used to perform orthogonal optimization for the parameters in electroplating Zn-Al alloy.The electroplating Zn-Al alloy technology was decided, in which the content of Al is about 12%-15%.

  17. The fabrication of 26Al targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets with up to 1.4x101626Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the 26Al nuclei via the reaction 26Mg(p, n)26Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described. (orig.)

  18. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  19. Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letmaier M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

  20. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  1. Polythermal cutting of Al-Si-YAl2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the out come of the research of the Al-Si-YAl2 system with studies of polythermal cutting. It was found out that the most cutting of Al-YSi2Al2, Al-YSiAl2, Al-Y5SiAl14, YSiAl2-YSi2Al2, Y5SiAl14-YSiAl2 and Y5SiAl14-YAl2, Si-YSiAl2 has the nature of quasibinary eutectics

  2. Progresses in analyzing 26Al with SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai Mini-Cyclotron based Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SMCAMS) was especially designed for analyzing 14C. In order to accelerate and analyze 26Al the accelerated orbit and beam optics in injection system were calculated and harmonic number and acceleration turns was optimized. Preliminary experiment was carried out. In which a beam current of 1.15 x 10-9A for 27Al- and 0.038 CPS background for 26Al were measured. The limited sensitivity of 26Al/27Al is 5.25 x 10-12. (authors)

  3. AlON粉体的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小军; 茹红强; 张宁; 孙有政

    2009-01-01

    以α-Al2O3和AlN为原料,利用高温固相反应在氮气气氛下常压合成了AlON粉体。研究了成分配比、合成温度、保温时间对合成AlON粉体含量的影响,并通过热分析测试了合成过程热流和质量的变化。结果表明,当原料Al2O3和AlN的质量比为81:18、合成工艺为1750℃,2h时,得到AlON相的含量达到95%以上。

  4. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  5. Orientation of Al3Ti platelets in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material manufactured by centrifugal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) were manufactured by the centrifugal method with a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was melted at a liquid/solid coexisting temperature, at which Al3Ti remains as a solid, and then it was cast into a thick-walled ring. It was found that the Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material can be successfully fabricated by the centrifugal method. It was also found that the volume fraction of the Al3Ti can be increased by repetition of the centrifugal method. Since the shape of Al3Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot is that of a platelet, the Al3Ti particles are arranged with their platelet planes nearly perpendicular to the radial direction. The orientation effects become stronger when the G number becomes larger. Although the final centrifugal casting was conducted under a very large centrifugal force for the specimen cast three times, the orientation effects were weaker than those in the specimen cast one time. From these observations, it is concluded that the origin of orientation of Al3Ti platelets can be attributed to the angular velocity gradient of the melt along the radial direction produced by the difference in the viscosity. (orig.)

  6. TEM characterization of Al-C-Cu-Al2O3 composites produced by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel Al-based composites (Al-C-Cu-Al2O3) obtained by mechanical milling (MM), were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Analyses of composites were carried out in both, the as-milled and the as-sintered conditions. C nanoparticles were found in the as-milled condition and Al2O3 nanofibers were found in as-sintered products, as determined by EELS. C and Cu react with Al to crystallize in Al3C4 and Al2Cu structures, respectively

  7. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION AND THERMAL STABILITY IN Cu-Al-Co AND Cu-Al-Zr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Q. Ma; C.B. Jiang; H.B. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys were explored with Co or Zr additions in Cu-Al alloys for high temperature shape memory alloys. Samples were quenched after homogenized at 850℃ for 48h. It was found that both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr show AlCu3 martensitic phase at room temperature and exhibit martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 200℃, showing the potentials for developing as high temperature shape memory alloys. Thermal cycles were performed by DSC instrument on both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys. The results show that Cu-Al-Co loses its martensitic transformation after five thermal cycles, and Cu-Al-Zr exhibits no martensitic transformation in the second thermal cycle.

  8. Influences of Al particles on the microstructure and property of electrodeposited Ni-Al composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Jiang, Chuanhai

    2014-02-01

    Ni-Al composite coatings with different contents of Al microparticles were prepared from a conventional Watt bath. The influences of Al particle loadings in the bath on the surface morphology, composition, texture, grain size, microstrain, residual stress and anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al composite coating were investigated. The friction coefficients of the coatings at 200 °C were also evaluated by a pin-on-disctribometer. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from pyramid + colonied structure to colonied structure with increasing Al particle loadings. The (2 0 0) preferred orientation for pure Ni coating evolved to random orientation with increasing Al particle loadings. The grain size obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm at Al particle loading of 100 g/L and the microstrain of the coating increased with increasing the Al particle loadings. The incorporation of Al particles decreased the residual stress of the electro-deposited coating and all the coatings deposited at different Al particle loadings possessed low residual stress. As the Al particle loading increased, the anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al coatings increased owing to the combined effect of increasing Al content in the coatings and the texture evolution from (2 0 0) plane to (1 1 1) plane. The wear result suggested that the increasing Al particle content did not improve the wear performance of the Ni-Al composite coatings.

  9. Efficiency droop in high-Al-content AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevicius, J.; Kazlauskas, K.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Applied Research and Department of Semiconductor Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Shur, M.S. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Yang, J.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology Inc., 1195 Atlas Road, Columbia, SC 29209 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Excitation power density dependence of photoluminescence (PL) efficiency is studied in the temperature range from 8 to 300 K for AlGaN multiple quantum well structures containing quantum wells of different width. PL efficiency droop is observed and dependence of the droop effect on the well width and lattice temperature is discussed. Photoluminescence band shape reveals strong carrier heating. It is shown that the heating effect has a substantial influence on the photoluminescence efficiency droop, especially at low lattice temperatures. Fitting of the temperature dependence of the PL band width with that obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation of carrier (exciton) hopping via localized states shows that (i) the potential fluctuations can be fairly accurately described using a double-scaled potential profile model, (ii) the localization becomes stronger in narrower quantum wells. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  11. Fabrication of TiAl3 coating on TiAl-based alloy by Al electrodeposition from dimethylsulfone bath and subsequent annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Masao; Tajikara, Seiya; Hirato, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    TiAl3 coating was formed on TiAl alloy by Al electrodeposition from a dimethylsulfone (DMSO2) bath and subsequent annealing. Before the Al electrodeposition, anodic dissolution of TiAl substrate in the DMSO2 bath was conducted to remove the surface oxide layer of the TiAl substrate. By performing the Al electrodeposition immediately after the anodic dissolution, uniform Al films adherent to the TiAl substrate could be obtained. Annealing at 650–1000 °C yielded a single TiAl3 layer or two laye...

  12. Orientation relationship of eutectoid FeAl and FeAl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Scherer, T.; Li, X.; Stein, F.; Heilmaier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Fe–Al alloys in the aluminium range of 55–65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered FeAl and triclinic FeAl2, which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe5Al8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of FeAl and FeAl2 has previously been studied by Bastin et al. [J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43, 745] and Hirata et al. [Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88, 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding FeAl2, the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the FeAl2 phase provided by Chumak et al. [Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C66, i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of FeAl or by applying the inversion symmetry of the FeAl2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉FeAl || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between FeAl and FeAl2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by (01)FeAl || (114) and [111]FeAl || [10]. There is no evidence for twinning within FeAl lamellae or alternating orientations of FeAl lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe5Al8, FeAl and FeAl2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be accommodated at the interface of FeAl and FeAl2. PMID:27047304

  13. Electron channelling enhanced microanalysis on Ni-Al-Mn and Al-Mn-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom location by channelling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) was performed for Ni-Al-Mn compounds and Al-Mn-Si quasicrystals. For Ni75Al25-xMnx (x=5,9) with the L12-type structure, an occupation fraction of Mn atoms at the Ni site was quantitatively determined using planar channelling conditions. The occupation fraction increases with the Mn concentration or by quenching the compound from high temperature. In quasicrystals of Al74Mn20Si6 and Al68Mn20Ru8Si4, axial channelling conditions were used to locate Si and Ru, respectively. It was shown that Si atoms occupy the Al site in Al74Mn20Si6 whereas Ru atoms occupy the site different from that of Al in Al68Mn20Ru8Si4. (author)

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti2AlC-reinforced TiAl composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully in-situ synthesized by reaction hot pressing using Ti, Al, TiC and CNTs as starting materials. The results indicate that the as-sintered composites mainly consist of Ti2AlC and TiAl phases. The mechanical properties of the 23 wt.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite exhibit the highest values, with a flexural strength and fracture toughness of 652.5 ± 76.8 MPa and 6.6 ± 0.5 MPa m1/2, respectively. The complex structure coupled with dispersed Ti2AlC micro-particulates is responsible for the enhancement in the strength. Toughening of the composite is mainly attributed to crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and pull-out of the Ti2AlC particles, as well as transgranular cracking.

  15. High pressure studies of UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5 actinide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary inter-metallic compounds, UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5, crystallize in a tetragonal ThMn12 type structure. In the as-cast samples a residual phase of FeAl (∼2%wt) was identified in the grain boundaries. The amount of the residual cubic phase of FeAl was determined by Rietveld analysis and reduced by the annealing process. UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5 maintain the tetragonal symmetry as a function of pressure, while FeAl keeps the cubic structure as was determined by the Rietveld analysis. The volume-pressure curve calculated from the X-ray analysis gives V/V0=0.87 for UFe5Al7 at 26.0 GPa and 0.89 at 24.6 GPa for UFe7Al5. (author)

  16. Chemical mixing at "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süle, P.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Horváth, Z. E.; Nakanishi, A.; Balogh, J.

    2015-10-01

    The chemical mixing at the "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp "Al on Fe" interfaces were found when Al grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The Al/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the "Fe on Al" interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—Al/57Fe/Al and Al/57Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.

  17. Cinética de Degradação de Alguns Volumosos Usados na Alimentação de Cabras Leiteiras por Intermédio da Técnica de Produção de Gases sob Diferentes Níveis de pH Degradation Kinetics of Forages Fed to Dairy Goats by Using the Gas Production Approach under Different pH levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luigi Gonçalves

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram a caracterização e a determinação das estimativas dos parâmetros relativos à cinética de degradação ruminal dos carboidratos contidos nas amostras dos volumosos feno de alfafa, capim-elefante, feno de Tifton 85 e silagem de milho em cabras submetidas a diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado. Os parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal da matéria seca e da fibra em detergente neutro destes volumosos, submetidos a diferentes níveis de pH, foram estimados por meio de incubações anaeróbicas, usando as técnicas da produção cumulativa de gases e de subtração de curvas e contrastado com os resultados obtidos por intermédio das técnicas in sito e in vitro, para os parâmetros de degradabilidade específica (DE e taxa de digestão da fração insolúvel potencialmente digerível (c. A interpretação cinética foi feita pelo modelo logístico V(t = Vf /(1+exp(2+4c(L-T. No ensaio de digestibilidade, utilizou-se o tampão de McDougall, adaptado por Gonzáles, ajustado com solução de ácido cítrico 1 M, para os pHs observados nos animais, conforme a relação volumoso:concentrado (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 e 20:80. Observou-se comportamento similar nas curvas da degradabilidade específica, bem como para a taxa de digestão da fração insolúvel potencialmente digerível, o que confirma a interferência do nível do pH sobre os parâmetros relativos à cinética de degradação ruminal dos carboidratos. As leituras de produção de gás resultaram em menores coeficientes de variação para a cinética de degradação da MS, mas apresentaram valores inferiores aos obtidos pelas técnicas in situ e in vitro. Já para a FDN, mostraram valores e comportamento bem próximos dos obtidos pelas outras técnicas. Conclui-se que as estimativas das taxas de degradação ruminal da FDN podem ser realizadas precisamente pela técnica da produção de gás.The objectives of the present study were

  18. Fabrication of /sup 26/Al targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, L.; Baumeister, H.; Rolfs, C.

    1984-06-01

    Targets with up to 1.4x10/sup 16/ /sup 26/Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the /sup 26/Al nuclei via the reaction /sup 26/Mg(p, n)/sup 26/Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described.

  19. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now,...

  20. A New Phase in ALS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, P Andrew; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2016-09-01

    In this issue of Structure, Conicella et al. (2016) present evidence that the low complexity C-terminal region of TDP-43 undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation. ALS-associated mutations alter this phase separation process, providing a possible mechanism for the pathology caused by these TDP-43 mutations. The work is strongly supportive of toxic loss of RNA processing function in ALS. PMID:27602988

  1. Growth of CdTe: Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  2. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  3. 关于w-al-CL空间%On w-al-CL Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽琼; 张云南

    2011-01-01

    给出w-al-CL空间的定义,比较几种CL性的关系,讨论w-al-CL空间的c0和与l1和的稳定性,并讨论C(K,X)空间的w-al-CL性.%Gives the definition of w-al-CL spaces, compare the relationship of some properties of CL, discusses the stability of c0 -sums and l1 -sums of w-al-CL spaces, and discusses the property of w-al-CL of C(K,X) spaces.

  4. Interfacial strength of Al/Al and Al/Zr/Du-10wt%Mo subject to different loading modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact tension (CT) experiments were conducted with fixtures that allowed mode-I (tensile opening mode), mode-Il (shearing mode), and mixed-mode loading to measure the interfacial strength between HIP-clad Al and Al, and Al and Zr/DU-10wt%Mo. Specimens were made with the same HIP process used for making thin composite foils, but instead used 25 mm thick Al-6061 cladding that allowed specimens to be gripped without adhesives. Three configurations of specimens were tested: (1) Al/Al specimens with a pre-crack along the seam; (2) specimens containing both a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer and an Al/Al seam along part of the interface; and (3) specimens containing only a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer at the interface, but with a pre notch along part of the interface. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure full-field deformations during the test. The results show that mode-I loaded interfaces exhibit the weakest strength and the widest scatter. The strength increases when more shearing component is introduced

  5. Untersuchung der Nitridierung V/Al-intermetallischer Phasen

    OpenAIRE

    Lewalter, Hartmut Berthold

    2004-01-01

    Schichten V/Al-Intermetallischer Phasen und Schichten aus V(Al) (Schichtdicken 150- 300 nm) wurden durch Interdiffusion von V/Al- und V5Al8/V-Mehrfachschichten bei 400-800°C im Vakuum bei 3 x 10-8 mbar hergestellt. Des Weiteren wurden V5Al8-Schichten durch Sputtern einer V5Al8-Legierung erzeugt. Die Gesamtstöchiometrie der Schichten lag zwischen Al0,86V0,14 und Al0,19V0,81. Als Substrat dienten einkristalline (012) Saphirwafer. Die V/Al-Intermetallischen Phasen und V(Al) wurden im RTP-System ...

  6. Response to Signorovitch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flot, Jean-François; Debortoli, Nicolas; Hallet, Bernard; Van Doninck, Karine

    2016-08-22

    Signorovitch et al.[1] comment that an Oenothera-like meiosis [2] could produce a pattern similar to what we observed in our study of natural isolates of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga, which we attributed to horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) [3]. Indeed, our HGT hypothesis appears at first sight difficult to conciliate with their observation of a congruent pattern of allele sharing at four large loci possibly located on different chromosomes [4]. However, one might imagine conditions under which massive horizontal gene transfer between bdelloid individuals could produce such a pattern, notably if the individuals involved had previously lost most of their heterozygosity because of their exposure to frequent desiccation (which produces DNA double-strand breaks [5]). In the published A. vaga genome the loss of heterozygosity due to large-scale gene conversion events or break-induced replication covers only about 10% of the genome [6], but this percentage may be much higher in environmental isolates that often experience dessication. Besides, if an Oenothera-like mode of meiosis occurs in bdelloids frequently enough to be detected in a single sampling of 29 individuals (as in [4]), one would expect males and meiosis to be observed at least occasionally, and instances of congruent allele sharing across loci should turn up frequently in genetic surveys. This was not the case in [3]: among the 82 A. vaga individuals sequenced for four nuclear markers, no trio of individuals presented congruent patterns of shared sequences at different loci. For these reasons, and in the absence of any direct evidence for an Oenothera-like meiosis in bdelloids, we still consider inter-bdelloid HGTs a more parsimonious explanation for our results. PMID:27554651

  7. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  8. Band edge modulation and interband optical transition in AlN:MgAl-ON nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlN nanotubes (NTs) have many novel characteristics and great potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. However, little is known about the influence of MgAl-ON co-doping effects on their optical properties. Here, we focus on investigating the electronic structures, clarify the interband optical transition mechanism and give a clear atomic picture for the important electron/hole localization centre in AlN:MgAl-ON NTs using the GGA-1/2 method. We find that the MgAl doping efficiency can be improved effectively due to ON doping in AlN NTs. The MgAl and ON form MgAl-ON defect complex easily along the AlN NT axis (C-axis). The MgAl-ON defect complex can result in a remarkable charge transfer around it and modify the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum significantly. Meanwhile, the MgAl-ON defect complex also forms the important exciton localization centre and effectively enhances the interband radiative recombination rate. Moreover, the light emission/absorption sensitively depends on its polarization. The parallel polarized light (E∥C) is much stronger than the perpendicular one (E⊥C). The MgAl-ON co-doping thus paves a new way for improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices based on AlN NTs. (papers)

  9. The theory of the moon in the al-Zij al-Kamil fi-l-taalim of Ibn al-Ha'im

    OpenAIRE

    Puig i Tàrrech, Roser

    2000-01-01

    Al the beginning of Ihe thirteenth cenrury (60tH I 1204-1205) Abli Muhammad Abd al-Haqq al-Ghafiqi al-lshbiIi known as Ibn al-Ha'im composed his work entitled al-Zi] al-Kamil fi-l-Taalim in honour of the Caliph Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Nasir (who reigned from 1199- 1213). All we know of lbn al-Ha'im's live is that he came from Seville and that he appears to have worked in North Africa.

  10. Effect of Al coating conditions on laser weldability of Al coated steel sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Han LEE; Jong-Do KIM; Jin-Seok OH; Seo-Jeong PARK

    2009-01-01

    Al coated steel sheets with excellent heat resistance, thermal reflection, and corrosion resistance are widely used in various applications. The laser weldability of the Al coated steel sheet for full penetration welding was reported. The phenomenon caused by intermixed aluminum and behavior of aluminum in the weld were investigated. Al coated steel sheets that have various thickness and coating mass were prepared for laser welding. The effects of parameters such as welding conditions and Al coating conditions were investigated. Al content mixed in the weld after laser welding was evaluated, and then a correlation between the mixed Al and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the Al-rich zones which have Fe-Al intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. The intermetallic compounds cause the decreased strength of the weld.

  11. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  12. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  13. Kus on al-Zarqawi? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia nädalalehe Sunday Times andmetel on Iraagi tagaotsituim mässaja, terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda liitlane Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi pärast USA raketirünnakus haavatasaamist riigist põgenenud

  14. Als je vrienden hebt dan win je

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R. (Robin); Huibers, T. (Theo); Krosse, de L. (Luc)

    2010-01-01

    Als je wint, heb je vrienden’ is een Nederlandse klassieker van Herman Brood en Henny Vrienten. Hiermee werd de gevoelige snaar bloot gelegd dat pas als je hebt gewonnen je vrienden hebt. Rijen dik, echte vrienden. In de politiek werkt het andersom; je moet vrienden (stemmen) hebben, ve

  15. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which want...

  16. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, D; Heilmaier, M; Saage, H [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, PO Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Aguilar, J; Schmitz, G J; Drevermann, A [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Palm, M; Stein, F; Engberding, N [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kelm, K; Irsen, S, E-mail: daniel.sturm@ovgu.d [Stiftung caesar, Electron Microscopy, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich {gamma}-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} and Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al{sub 5}Ti{sub 3} and h-Al{sub 2}Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar {gamma}-TiAl + r-Al{sub 2}Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40}, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in {gamma}-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  17. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  18. Assessment of the al corner of the ternary Al-Fe-Si system

    OpenAIRE

    Eleno, Luiz; Vezelý, Josef; Sundman, Bo; Cieslar, Miroslav; Lacaze, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The present work provides a review of the information available on the Al-rich corner of the Al-Fe-Si system as well as a CALPHAD type assessment making use of the COST 507 database as a starting point. The description of the intermetallic compounds has been modified to account for substitution of Al and Si in the ternary Al-Fe-Si system and to take new experimental information into account.

  19. The annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al metal and Al-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present experiment, we have investigated how defects and elements as additive play a role as trap site by observing the annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al and Al-Si alloy. It was found that hydrogen is trapped as molecules in grain boundaries of Si in Al. (author)

  20. Shadow evaporation of epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al tunnel junctions on sapphire utilizing an inorganic bilayer mask

    OpenAIRE

    Welander, Paul B.; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Weir, Terence J.; Gouker, Mark A.; Oliver, William D.

    2012-01-01

    This letter describes a new inorganic shadow mask that has been employed for the evaporation of all-epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al superconducting tunnel junctions. Organic resists that are commonly used for shadow masks and other lift-off processes are not compatible with ultra-high vacuum deposition systems, and they can break down at even moderately elevated temperatures. The inorganic mask described herein does not suffer these same shortcomings. It was fabricated from a Ge/Nb bilayer, comprising ...

  1. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. PMID:27423564

  2. DISTINGSI DAN DIASPORA TASAWUF ABÛ AL-HASAN AL-SHÂDHILÎ

    OpenAIRE

    Saifulah Saifulah

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Shâdhilîyah, one of the most recognized sufi orders, which possesses quite distinct aspects in the conception of its mystical teachings. This sufi order was founded by Abû al-H}asan al-Shâdhilî, a sufi who has moderate and open view of the worldly life. Al-Shâdhilî explained about how a sufi should behave towards and deal with worldly matters. Although al-Shâdhilî asserted that a person who practice tasawwuf should not pay more adoration on the worldly matters (hubb al-...

  3. The influence of Al content on the Zener relaxation of Fe-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al content on the Zener relaxation peak of annealed Fe-Al alloys has been investigated using a computer-controlled automatic inverted torsion pendulum through the method of free decay and forced vibration. It has been shown that alloys with medium Al contents show strong relaxation while lower or higher Al contents lead to relatively weak Zener relaxation peaks. The Zener relaxation in Fe-Al alloys originates from the next-nearest-neighbour atom pairs and their interaction rather than the nearest-neighbour atom pairs. The latter may not produce Zener relaxation because of the ordered structure, which suppresses Zener relaxation

  4. Magnetism in bcc Fe-Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M.E. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). Dept. of Phys.; Yousif, A.A. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). Dept. of Phys.

    1994-11-01

    The magnetic moment {mu}, hyperfine field B{sub hf} and isomer shift IS at the Fe site in bcc Fe-Al alloys were calculated from first principle. Contrary to the belief that Al atoms reside in the iron lattice as magnetic holes, it was found that the local magnetic moment of Fe is decreased when Al is at a nearest neighbour site (NN), while it increases if Al is at a next-nearest neighbour site (NNN). Consequently, the average {mu} per Fe atom was found to be, initially, independent of Al content. Assuming a linear dependence of {mu}{sub Fe} on the number of Al atoms at NN and NNN sites, we calculated the average {mu}, which was found to agree with experimental results of cold worked alloys for disordered Fe-Al alloy. On the other hand, antiferromagnetic coupling appears in the CsCl ordered structures. The average B{sub hf} was also calculated and compared to experimental data and the trends in the IS are considered. (orig.)

  5. Comparative study on interface and bulk charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructures with Al2O3, AlN, and Al2O3/AlN laminated dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Wei-Wei; Hou, Bin; Xie, Yong; Hao, Yue

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the interface and bulk charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) heterostructures with AlN, Al2O3, and Al2O3/AlN laminated dielectrics were studied. In situ plasma pretreatment resulted negligible interface trap states and voltage hysteresis. The fixed charge density at Al2O3/AlN (or Al2O3/barrier) interface was estimated to be 1.66 × 1013 cm-2 by using flat-band voltage shift, and the oxide bulk charge concentration was 2.86 × 1017 cm-3. The interface charge density at other interfaces were at the order of 1011 cm-2. Simulation results using the above charge density/concentration indicated that Al2O3/AlN interface fixed charges dominated the dielectric-related voltage shift in AlGaN/GaN MIS heterostructures, which caused a large voltage shift of -3 V with 10 nm Al2O3 thickness, while the flat-band voltage variety resulting from other types of charges was within 0.1 V.

  6. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  7. Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, Martin; Buh, Jože; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Kirste, Ronny; Bobea, Milena; Mita, Seiji; Gerhold, Michael D.; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Zgonik, Marko

    2015-04-01

    Dispersion of the extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides is measured by multiple angle-of-incidence and spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques. The polarity-controlled AlN layers are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001)-sapphire substrates. Taking into consideration the different surface morphologies of the Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides, we propose two optical models to describe the measured ellipsometry data. The results indicate that there is no difference between the refractive indices of the AlN grown in opposite directions, which confirms the potential of the AlN lateral polar structures for use in nonlinear optical applications based on quasi phase matching.

  8. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  9. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system. PMID:27417442

  10. Magnetic properties and crystal structure of HoNiAl and UNiAl hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hydrogenation on the magnetic properties and crystal structure of 4f and 5f intermetallics was studied on HoNiAlH2.0, UNiAlH2.3 and UNiAlD2.1. The incorporation of hydrogen into HoNiAl leads to a decrease of the magnetic ordering temperature from 13 to 6 K, while it increases from 19 K to values in the range 90-100 K in the UNiAl-H system. The crystal lattices of all compounds are anisotropically expanded. Moreover, the crystal symmetry is lowered to orthorhombic in HoNiAlH2.0, but remains hexagonal for UNiAlH(D)x. Three different deuterium positions were found for both compounds. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. AlON粉体的合成%Synthesis of AlON Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小军; 茹红强; 张宁; 孙有政

    2009-01-01

    以α-Al_2O_3和AlN为原料,利用高温固相反应在氮气气氛下常压合成了AlON粉体.研究了成分配比、合成温度、保温时间对合成AlON粉体含量的影响,并通过热分析测试了合成过程热流和质量的变化.结果表明,当原料Al_2O_3和AlN的质量比为81:18、合成工艺为1750 ℃, 2 h时,得到AlON相的含量达到95%以上.

  12. Adherencia al tratamiento en la esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Manrique, Olatz

    2015-01-01

    [Es]La adherencia al tratamiento es un problema real en los pacientes esquizofrénicos, que dificulta su inserción en la sociedad y puede ocasionarles graves repercusiones médicas. Por ello, el objetivo de esta revisión es valorar la eficacia de las intervenciones psicoeducacionales con la ayuda del personal sanitario y/o familiares, en la adherencia al tratamiento de los pacientes esquizofrénicos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática para dar respuesta al objetivo planteado, analizando las res...

  13. Amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi (ALS) ja potilaan ohjaus

    OpenAIRE

    Korkeaniemi, Lotta; Kaakinen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Saimme opinnäytetyömme toimeksiantona Hyvinkään sairaalan sisätautien vuodeosastolta. Tavoitteena oli luoda ALS potilaille potilasopas trakeostomiasta ja sen kanssa elämisestä. Oppaan tarkoituksena on auttaa ALS potilaita päättämään, kuinka pitkälle he haluavat viedä heidän hengitystukihoitonsa. Samalla hoitajat saavat tuki materiaalia, jonka avulla he voivat käydä läpi hengitystukihoitoja ja erityisesti trakeostomiaan liittyviä asioita. ALS eli amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi on tahdona...

  14. Suspected variables among Al Sufi stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffleit, D.

    In the tenth century Al Sufi compiled a catalogue of some 1100 stars. J.E. Gore, around 1900, wrote extensively on the magnitudes of these stars. On intercomparing them with a few other catalogues, Gore surmised that some 38 stars appeared to show secular variations. Here all the Al Sufi magnitudes have been compared with numerous additional sources, but smooth secular variations are not substantiated although some stars seem to have undergone comparatively sudden changes after about 1600. About 70 Al Sufi stars are now named or suscpected variable stars, but nearly all with amplitudes under 0.3 V.

  15. TAFSIR SEMANTIK TERHADAP SURAT AL-KAFIRUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems about the reading of al-Qur’an is always interesting to be discussed, in which the use of Arabic includes sound or ‘nash’ is acrucial factor to understand the implicit meaning of the Arabic-written texts. Al-Qur’an discusses problem based on the society’s culture. Al-Kafirun discusses not only about the normative theology but more about sociological contexts in which it tends to show transparency, fight against fanaticism and regionalism. And all of the will bring to the first process of the making of the text meaning to the situational context that creates them.

  16. Linija za transport Al-polizdelkov

    OpenAIRE

    Capl, Žiga

    2012-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena linija za transport Al-polizdelkov, ki je sestavljena iz dveh verižnih transporterjev in dveh manipulatorjev. Omenjeni transporterji morajo transportirati Al-polizdelke od sprejemnega mesta do poti v stiskalnico. V okviru diplomskega dela smo opravili analizo obstoječega ogrodja z naklonom, linije za transport Al-polizdelkov in podali možne rešitve za novo učinkovitejšo izvedbo. Na podlagi tehnično-tehnoloških zahtev smo izbrali najprimernejšo rešitev i...

  17. Characterization of AlInN/AlN/GaN Heterostructures with Different AlN Buffer Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çörekçi, S.; Dugan, S.; Öztürk, M. K.; Çetin, S. Ş.; Çakmak, M.; Özçelik, S.; Özbay, E.

    2016-07-01

    Two AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures with 280-nm- and 400-nm-thick AlN buffer grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL) and Hall-effect measurements. The symmetric (0002) plane with respect to the asymmetric (10bar{1}2) plane in the 280-nm-thick AlN buffer has a higher crystal quality, as opposed to the 400-nm-thick buffer. The thinner buffer improves the crystallinity of both (0002) and (10bar{1}2) planes in the GaN layers, it also provides a sizeable reduction in dislocation density of GaN. Furthermore, the lower buffer thickness leads to a good quality surface with an rms roughness of 0.30 nm and a dark spot density of 4.0 × 108 cm-2. The optical and transport properties of the AlInN/AlN/GaN structure with the relatively thin buffer are compatible with the enhancement in its structural quality, as verified by XRD and AFM results.

  18. Evolution of ConAl clusters and chemisorption of hydrogen on ConAl clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth behavior of ConAl (n = 1–15) and the chemisorptions of hydrogen on the ground state geometries have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The growth pattern for ConAl is Al-substituted Con+1 clusters, and it keeps the similar frameworks of the most stable Con+1 clusters except for n = 2, 3, and 6. The Al atom substitutes the surface atom of the Con+1 clusters for n ≤ 13. Starting from n = 14, the Al atom completely falls into the center of the Co-frame. The dissociation energy, the second-order energy differences, and the HOMO–LUMO gaps indicate that the magic numbers of the calculated ConAl clusters are 7, 9, and 13, corresponding to the high symmetrical structures. To my knowledge, this is the first time that a systematic study of chemisorption of hydrogen on cobalt aluminum clusters. The twofold bridge site is identified to be the most favorable chemisorptions site for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–6, 8, 10), and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–7), while threefold hollow site is preferred for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 7, 9, 11–15) and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 8–10, 12–15) clusters. The ground state structure of two hydrogen adsorption on Co11Al is exceptional. In general, the binding energy of both H and 2H of ConAl (n = 1–12) is found to increase with the cluster size. And the result shows that large binding energies of the hydrogen atoms and large fragmentation energies for Co11AlH and Co12AlH make these species behaving like magic clusters.

  19. Wali Allah menurut al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi dan Ibnu Taimiyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mursito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about wali presented in the early time on the hand of al-Hakim al Tirmidzi, which reaps number of responses from Muslim scholar because of his misleading. One of them is Ibn Taimiyyah. Al-Hakim and Ibn Taymiyyah have their own view about wali with several distinctions. In the definition of wali, al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi used more general language than Ibn Taimiyyah, as well as characteristics, how to be wali, the classification, concept of karamah, and the concept of khatm al-awliya’. According to writer, al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi’s view about wali able to deepen our understanding about Sufism, meanwhile Ibn Taimiyyah’s view will led us to comprehend Sufism from modernist point of view. This paper conclude that: both of figures seen that wali of Allah are the servants submissive and obedient in running His command; according to al-Hakim al Tirmidzi, degree of wali can be reached purely from Allah’s bounty and the effort of servants themselves, while Ibn Taimiyyah seen that the degree could be reached in the way of faith and piety of the servant; al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi seen that karamah is the most urgent for wali, while Ibn Taimiyyah did not; al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi utilized the quality of deeds to measure the best people and purity of heart to measure the best wali, while Ibn Taymiyyah utilized the quality of deeds as the assessment standard to measure best people and wali.

  20. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-Al

  1. PEMBARUAN MASLA╩AH DALAM MAQĀ╤ID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of ma╣la╪ah contained in the maqā╣īd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of ma╣la╪ah in ╪if╬ al-dīn is technically defined as al-╪urriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ╪if╬ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ╪if╬ al-nasl as ╪if╬ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ╪if╬ al-māl as al-ta╨ammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ╪if╬ al-‘aql as al-╪uqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep ma╣la╪ah yang terkandung dalam maqā╣īd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep ma╣la╪ah dalam ╪if╬u al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ╪urriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ╪if╬u al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ╪if╬u al-nasl sebagai ╪if╬u al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ╪if╬u al-māl sebagai al-ta╨ammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ╪if╬u al-‘aql sebagai al-╪uqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  2. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  3. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  4. Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159627.html Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients But further research needed to see if injections into spine would provide any benefit, researchers say To use the sharing features on ...

  5. ALS: Recent Developments from Genetics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Martine; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2016-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease. High-throughput DNA sequencing and related genomic capture tools are methodological advances which have rapidly contributed to an acceleration in the discovery of genetic risk factors for both familial and sporadic ALS. It is interesting to note that as the number of ALS genes grows, many of the proteins they encode are in shared intracellular processes. This review will summarize some of the recent advances and gene discovery made in ALS. PMID:27113253

  6. Het Nederlandse bos als vorm van bodemgebruik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Boven, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Behandeling van de oppervlakte en verdeling van het bos en de veranderingen die hierin zijn opgetreden, met de bedrijfsgrootte-struktuur als belangrijke invalshoek daarbij; de rol van de overheid: doeleinden, instrumenten en effekten van het beleid

  7. Effect of Arbucula Myrrhizal Fungi on an Ecological Crop of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. Efecto de los Hongos Micorrícicos Arbusculares en un Cultivo Ecológico de Ají (Capsicum annuum L. Cacho de Cabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castillo R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapuche farmers in southern Chile have been cultivating local ecotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L., called locally “Cacho de cabra” for many decades. It is used to make “merkén”, a condiment that is consumed locally and exported. This vegetable requires a nursery stage and can obtain nutritional benefits from symbiotic associations such as mycorrhizal fungi, achieving a better adaptation to transplanting. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are obligate biotrophes appearing in abundance in agroecosystems with conservation management. The aim of this study was to compare effectiveness of two AMF, a commercial mycorrhizal inoculant (IC, Glomus intraradices and another native (IN, Glomus claroideum with a control without inoculation (-I on the production and quality of “Cacho de cabra”. At 45 days after sowing (DAS transplanting was carried out and at 90 and 216 DAS fruit quality, fungal and edaphic parameters were evaluated. The harvest was at four stages. With IN inoculation plants and with greater foliar area were obtained. Also, precocity of fruit production was observed. The harvest started 49 days earlier and fresh weight was 177% higher than that of the control. Root colonization was low, showing significant differences between IN and IC, while a large number of spores was produced in the substrate. It was concluded that inoculation with native fungi decreased transplanting stress thus accelerating the maturation stage of plants and resulting in higher and better yield quality.En el sur de Chile, agricultores mapuches han cultivado durante décadas ecotipos locales de ají (Capsicum annuum L.“Cacho de cabra” para elaborar “merkén”, producto con reconocidas ventajas en el mercado internacional. Esta hortaliza requiere etapa de almácigo, pudiendo beneficiarse nutricionalmente con la asociación simbiótica del tipo micorrizas,logrando una mejor adaptación al trasplante. Los hongos micorrícicos arbusculares son bi

  8. In situ (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composite with novel reinforcement distributions fabricated by reaction hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •(Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al MMC with a novel network distribution was tailored. •Al3Zr and Al2O3np were in situ synthesized at 740 °C using the 2024Al–ZrO2 system. •The effect of sintering parameters on Al3Zr morphology was investigated. •Influence of Al3Zr morphology on tensile properties of the composite was studied. -- Abstract: In situ hybrid (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composites with unique controlled reinforcement distributions were fabricated using low energy ball milling and reactive hot pressing. The reaction system between 2024Al and ZrO2 was studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA). In situ formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and zirconium tri-aluminide (Al3Zr) with varying morphology and sizes were produced under different fabricating conditions. Al3Zr with varying morphologies such as particle, plate and flakes were observed. With a total 10 vol.% of reinforcements, the composite containing a three-dimensional network of closely spaced in situ synthesized Al3Zr and Al2O3 particles had a YS of 175 MPa and a UTS of 261 MPa, effectively strengthening the 2024Al matrix. The effect of different sintering conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties of the composite was systematically investigated

  9. Hans Freudenthal als docent en collega

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, Ferdinand; Verhoef, Nellie

    2010-01-01

    Hans Freudenthal heeft een belangrijke invloed gehad op de ontwikkeling van het basiswiskundeonderwijs. Niet minder belangrijk was zijn activiteit als docent en onderzoeker gedurende tientallen jaren op het Mathematisch Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. Hoe waren toen zijn ideeën over onderwijs, hoe was hij als collega en hoe waren zijn colleges? Nellie Verhoef en Ferdinand Verhulst interviewden voormalige collega’s en studenten van Freudenthal.

  10. Effects of Al substitution on goethite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Premoli, Alessandra Maria; Melis, Pietro; Gessa, Carlo Emanuele; Deiana, Salvatore Andrea

    1984-01-01

    Goethites containing up to 32.7 mole % Al were synthesized and characterized through diffractometry, spectrometry, DSC and chemical techniques. Results indicate that crystal growth was favoured or hindered depending on the percentage of aluminum incorporated into the structure. Goethites to which 5-10 mole % Al were initially added crystallized best, as shown by the highest crystallite dimensions calculated from X-ray and Mössbauer analyses, and by the lowest surface areas values. Over suc...

  11. Anerkennung als Voraussetzung gesellschaftlicher und unternehmerischer Teilhabe

    OpenAIRE

    Eurich, Johannes; Brink, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Angesichts des neuen Phänomens der sozialen Exklusion wird soziale Gerechtigkeit nicht mehr nur über die Verteilung von Gütern hergestellt, vielmehr spielt auch die Ebene der Partizipation eine Rolle. Anerkennung ist eine Grundvoraussetzung für Partizipation. Die Verfasser diskutieren Fragen der Unternehmensethik auf der Dimension der Anerkennung. Sie votieren für ein normatives Stakeholder-Management als freiwillige Verpflichtung, das auch strategischen Anforderungen gerecht werden kann. Als...

  12. Information als Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz. Eine Begriffsanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Der Informationsbegriff als zentraler Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz wird in der bibliothekarischen Diskussion in der Regel nicht explizit thematisiert, sondern lässt sich aus Fachliteratur und Bibliothekspraxis nur implizit erschließen. Eine theoretische Beschäftigung mit dem Informationsbegriff ist jedoch unabdingbar, soll das Konzept "Informationskompetenz" auch außerhalb des bibliothekarischen Kontextes verständlich und nutzbar gemacht werden. Im vorliegenden Text, der sich als B...

  13. Plasma nitriding of Al 99.5

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H. -Y; Stock, H.-R.; Mayr, P.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a very interesting ceramic because of its combination of properties such as high thermal stability, high hardness and an unusual combination of high thermal and low electrical conductivity. But it is very difficulty to obtain an AlN layer on the aluminium substrates by thermochemical nitriding process. Since a thin film of aluminium oxide existing on the surface of every aluminium substrate prevents the nitrogen atoms from diffusing into the aluminium lattice. Howev...

  14. Communication Support for People with ALS

    OpenAIRE

    David Beukelman; Susan Fager; Amy Nordness

    2011-01-01

    Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 9 5 % of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention; therefore, app...

  15. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  16. Del latín al rumano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Giraldo José Joaquín

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Marius Sala, Del latín al rumano. Versión española de Valeria Neagu, París, Unión Latina - Bucarest, Univers enciclopedic, 2002. El texto se dirige al lector corriente, no especialista, y por eso el aparato técnico-bibliográfico no se presenta en el curso de la exposición.

  17. Next-generation sequencing of 28 ALS-related genes in a Japanese ALS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Sone, Jun; Atsuta, Naoki; Tohnai, Genki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Yokoi, Daichi; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Li, Yuanzhe; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Kano, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Abe, Koji; Aiba, Ikuko; Okamoto, Koichi; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Aoki, Masashi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakashima, Kenji; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the frequency and contribution of variants of the 28 known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes in Japanese ALS patients. We designed a multiplex, polymerase chain reaction-based primer panel to amplify the coding regions of the 28 ALS-related genes and sequenced DNA samples from 257 Japanese ALS patients using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. We also performed exome sequencing and identified variants of the 28 genes in an additional 251 ALS patients using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We identified the known ALS pathogenic variants and predicted the functional properties of novel nonsynonymous variants in silico. These variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Known pathogenic variants were identified in 19 (48.7%) of the 39 familial ALS patients and 14 (3.0%) of the 469 sporadic ALS patients. Thirty-two sporadic ALS patients (6.8%) harbored 1 or 2 novel nonsynonymous variants of ALS-related genes that might be deleterious. This study reports the first extensive genetic screening of Japanese ALS patients. These findings are useful for developing genetic screening and counseling strategies for such patients. PMID:26742954

  18. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  19. Al4C3 Hydration Thermochemical Analysis for Burned Carbon-containing Refractories with Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YU Zhiming; FAN Liuwu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, X-ray diffractogram analysis and SEM observation of Al4 C3 formed at high temperature from carbon-containing refractories with Al have been carried out.Aluminum added to carbon-containing refractories reacts with C(s)to form Al4 C3(s) gradually during heating from 600 ℃ to 1200℃.It is considered that the interlocked structure of Al4 C3 plate crystals promotes the outstanding increase of hot modulus of rupture of carbon-containing refractories with Al. The HMOR of carbon-containing refractories added with Al additive from 0 to 5wt% increases by 2.8 times being from 6.5MPa to 18.2MPa.After a thermochemical calculation for hydration reaction processes of Al4 C3 and H2O(g), the equilibrium partial pressure chart of H2O(g)in H2O-Al4C3-Al(OH)3 system vs various temperatures has been attained . The H2O (g) partial pressure in the air needed for the Al4 C3 hydration reaction is no more than 10~18 atm at the temperature below 120℃.It is considered that the burned carbon-containing refractories with Al is extremely easy to hydrate and the cracking of burned carbon-containing refractories is generated because that the hydration expansion is 2.11 times during transforming from Al4 C3 to Al(OH)3.The fundamental measure against hydration of the refractories is to insulate the refractories from H2O(g)by various means such as pitch impregnation or other sealing materials.

  20. DISTINGSI DAN DIASPORA TASAWUF ABÛ AL-HASAN AL-SHÂDHILÎ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifulah Saifulah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Shâdhilîyah, one of the most recognized sufi orders, which possesses quite distinct aspects in the conception of its mystical teachings. This sufi order was founded by Abû al-H}asan al-Shâdhilî, a sufi who has moderate and open view of the worldly life. Al-Shâdhilî explained about how a sufi should behave towards and deal with worldly matters. Although al-Shâdhilî asserted that a person who practice tasawwuf should not pay more adoration on the worldly matters (hubb al-dunyâ, the person does not have to abhor and leave such lively aspects as wealth and position behind. The most important thing to a sufi, according to al-Shadhili, is how he obeys the requirements of shar‘ by avoiding away from immoral deeds and at the same time recognizing God in his heart (ma‘rifat Allâh. Al-Shâdhilî initiated tasawuf ‘amalî which is affiliated to the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamâ‘ah school, an Islamic mystical thought that adheres to the principles of sharî‘ah based on the foundation of al-Qur’ân dan H}adîth. The concept of al-Shâdhilî’s tasawuf has been subsequently revealed into the great sufi order spectrum, namely al-Shâdhilîyah, where during its historical development this sufi order has led to the emergence of many branches with different names.Keywords: Shâdhilîyah, open view, hubb al-dunyâ, ma‘rifat Allâh.

  1. Clinical trials for neuroprotection in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L

    2010-07-01

    Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for ALS based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in ALS for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of ALS, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in ALS and developing more effective therapies. PMID:20406180

  2. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al10O3N8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al10O3N8) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P63/mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm3. The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were Rwp=6.97%, S (=Rwp/Re)=1.68, Rp=5.45%, RB=5.13% and RF=4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N)6] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N)4] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(nO+nT) with nO/(nO+nT). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The nO and nT are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds

  3. Prinsip Pendidikan Karakter dalam Islam: Studi Komparasi Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Burhanuddin Al-Zarnuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impelemtantion of character education that is done by the Indonesian government recently has been provoked by al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji long ago. It was proven by some written thoughts of al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They were very famous scientists in their era and widely welknown as educational experts who produced some phenomenal thoughts many people use today. Al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji lived in the era of Bani Abbasiyah monarchy, but Both of them lived in different era. Al-Ghazali was born first, then Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They had different mazhab, al-Ghazali went to the traditional principle of mazhab Syafi’I and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji went to the modern principle of mazhab Hanafi. The differences, of course, would create a different thought. Still, they might have a similar principle of Islamic character education. The thoughts of character education of al-Ghazali have been poured in the “Ayyuha Walad” focusing to the students’ character building characterized by religiously obedient, skillfull of general and religious knowledge, socially helpful, affectionate, generous, good citizen, and coloring the society. Some applicable thoughts of character education of Ayyuha al-Walad of al-Gazhali to the contemporary education are: the balance of the happiness purposes of the recent life and the life after death, qana’ah and tawakal, affectionate, caring other, patience, honesty, philanthrophy, social works, generousity, democratic, peace makers, and patriotic. Those characters are also directed in the islamic character education nowdays. So that, the thoughts of al-Ghazali positively and responsively are absorbed by the Indonesian government to build the national character widely implementing in the national curriculum based on the local wisdom and the Islamic values. In the end, the students are able to live happily based on the Islamic rules by implementing the good behavior. Similar to the al

  4. Morphology of phase separation in AlN-Al2OC and SiC-AlN ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid solutions in the AIN-Al2OC and SiC-AlN systems were fabricated by hot-pressing powder mixtures in graphite dies. X-ray diffraction showed the samples to be single phases of 2H structure. The samples were annealed between 1600 degrees and 1900 degrees C for up to 1000 h. In the SiC-AlN system, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction failed to reveal microstructural or phase changes. However, electron microscopy showed that samples had decomposed. Streaking of diffraction spots occurred along directions orthogonal to [012] planes (∼43 degrees off the c axis), which is approximately the direction along which the elastic energy function is a minimum. The orientation-dependent Young's modulus was also a minimum along this direction. In AlN-Al2OC, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated the occurrence of decomposition. The precipitates were disk-shaped with [001] orthogonal to the disks. The occurrence of decomposition along the [001] direction suggests that it is the elastically soft direction

  5. Nanocrack-induced leakage current in AlInN/AlN/GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we report on the study of nano-crack formation in Al1−xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, on its association with composition fluctuation and on its local electrical properties. It is shown here that indium segregation at nano-cracks and threading dislocations originating from the non-pseudomorphic AlN interlayer could be the cause of the high reverse-bias gate leakage current of Ni/Au Schottky contacts on Al1−xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures and significantly affects the contact rectifying behavior. Segregation of indium around crack tips in Al1−xInxN acting as conductive paths was assessed with conductive atomic force microscopy.

  6. Scattering induced by Al segregation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiwen; Lu, Yanwu, E-mail: ywlu@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Ji, Dong [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of Al segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing Al segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by Al segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/Vs to 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions.

  7. Scattering induced by Al segregation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing Al segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by Al segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 103 cm2/Vs to 106 cm2/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions

  8. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  9. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Ping; LUO Yin-Hong; WANG Wei; ZHANG Ke-Ying; GUO Hong-Xia; GUO Xiao-Qiang; WANG Yuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established.The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically,and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out.The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated,and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained.

  10. Al-based precipitate evolution during high temperature annealing of Al implanted in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-based precipitate evolution for 80 keV Al ions implanted in Si has been investigated. Precipitates are formed during high temperature annealings of 1 x 1015/cm2 implanted samples. They are located at two depths where Al concentration peaks are detected. Al atoms are gettered into the extended defects present in the crystal and/or precipitate when their concentration is higher than the solid solubility value at the annealing temperature. Increasing annealing time, precipitates dissolve out and only a small fraction of atoms diffuses into the sample, meanwhile the greater part evaporates from the sample. At 1 x 1013/cm2 dose Al concentration is below the solid solubility limit. The secondary defects are not detected and the dopant profile does not display anomalous peaks. Moreover, all the implanted Al is electrically active and remains in the sample during the first instant of annealing. At higher annealing times it diffuses out of the sample reducing the residual dose

  11. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  12. Observation of Electronic Shells and Characteristic Products from Mass Abundance Spectra of Al Cluster and Al-C Cluster Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing-Chen; ZHAI Hua-Jin; ZHOU Ru-Fang; NI Guo-Quan; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    Using a laser vaporization/pulsed molecular beam cluster source, Al cluster anions and Al-C mixed cluster anions are produced and recorded by a time of flight mass spectrometer. Mass abundance spectra of the Al cluster anions in the size range from Al2 to Al42 show that Al-13, Al23, Al35, and slightly, Al37 are local maxima, as predicted by the electronic jellium model. Mixed clusters Aln C- and Aln C2 are also shown, among which the most abundant species are Al3 C2 , Al6 C2 , Al7 C- and Al7 C2 in the small size range. The formation mechanism of these products is discussed.

  13. Grain refinement of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared with ELTA by Al-4B master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-xing; MENG Xiang-yong; LIU Zhi-yong; LIU Zhong-xia; WENG Yong-gang; SONG Tian-fu; YANG Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic low-titanium aluminum (ELTA) was produced by adding TiO2 powder to an industrial aluminum electrolyzer.The grain refining effect of Al-4B master alloy in the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared by using ELTA was investigated, and compared with those of Al-5Ti, Al-5Ti-1B and Al-4B master alloys in the similar alloy prepared by using pure Al. The results indicate that when Al-4B is added to the melt of the alloy prepared by using ELTA in terms of the Ti/B mass ratio of 5:1, the grain refining effect is better than those of Al-5Ti, Al-5Ti-1B and Al-4B master alloys. Thus, using Al-4B to refine the grain of Al-Si alloys prepared by using ELTA will possibly become a feasible way of obtaining Al-Si alloy with homogeneous and fine microstructure.

  14. In-Situ Synthesis of AlN Powders and Composite AlN Powders with Yttrium Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新和; 王群; 林志浪; 李春国; 周美玲

    2002-01-01

    Using Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Y alloys as raw materials and nitrogen as gas reactants, AlN powders and composite AlN powders by in-situ synthesis method were prepared. AlN lumps prepared by the nitriding of Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Y alloys have porous microstructure, which is favorable for pulverization. They have high purity, containing 1.23%(mass fraction) oxygen impurity, and consisted of AlN single phase. The average particle size of AlN powders is 6.78 μm. Composite AlN powders consist of AlN phases and rare earth oxide Y2O3 phase. The distribution of particle size of AlN powders shows two peaks. In view of packing factor, AlN powders with such size distribution can easily be sintered to high density.

  15. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Huan; Gao, Tong; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Wu, Yuying; Qian, Zhao; Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated.

  16. TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Guillotel, E; Langlois, C.; Ghiglieno, F.; Leo, G.; Ricolleau, C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The internal interfaces of multilayer Al x Ga 1-x As/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides are investigated by high-angle annular-dark-field and energy-filtered scanning transmission electron microscopy, before and after partial wet oxidation of AlAs layers. Via a simple phenomenological model, the corresponding roughness parameters allow predicting the scattering-induced waveguide optical losses, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 cm -1. We also find...

  17. Modified Mechanism of Eutectic Silicon in Al2O3/Al-Si Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Al2O3/Al-Si alloy composite was manufactured by squeeze casting. The morphology of the eutectic silicon in the composite was observed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and the modified mechanism of eutectic silicon in the composite was approached. The alumina fiber in the composite can trigger twin during the growth of Al-Si eutectic and lead to the modification of eutectic silicon near the fiber.

  18. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  19. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

  20. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  1. Melt Processing and Characterization of Al-SiC Nanocomposite, Al, and Mg Foam Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M. Nabawy; Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman M.; Sherif, El-Sayed M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, metallic foams of Al, Mg and an Al-SiC nanocomposite (MMNC) have been fabricated using a new manufacturing technique by employing melt infiltration assisted with an electromagnetic force. The aim of this investigation was to study and to develop a reliable manufacturing technique consisting of different types of metallic foams. In this technique, an electromagnetic force was used to assist the infiltration of Al-SiC slurry and of pure liquid metal into a leachable pattern...

  2. Fabrication, phase transformation studies, and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al2OC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal focus was on phase transformation, microstructure development, and elevated temperature creep, with some effort on room- temperature mechanical properties of selected materials. Fabrication was largely hot pressing, although many of the compositions can be densified by pressureless sintering; hot pressing was to ensure full attainment of density with fine microstructure. Most of the work was on SiC-AlN and AlN-Al2OC pseudobinaries

  3. Synthesis of core–shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  4. Strain Rates and Grain Growth in Al 5754 and Al 6061 Friction Stir Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, A.; Yamamoto, M.; North, T. H.

    2007-06-01

    The stir zone temperature and microstructures are compared in friction stir spot welds produced in Al 5754 and Al 6061 alloys. Electron backscattered diffraction was used to determine the relationship between tool rotation speed during welding and final stir zone grain size. Comparison of the grain sizes in rapidly quenched welds with those in air-cooled joints confirmed that grain growth occurred only in Al 6061 spot welds. There was no evidence of abnormal grain growth in the stir zones of Al 6061 welds; the final grain size could be represented using an Arrhenius equation. The strain rates during welding were determined by incorporating the stir zone temperature and average subgrain sizes in quenched spot welds in the Zener-Hollomon relation. When the tool rotation speed increased from 750 to 3000 RPM, the strain rate values ranged from 180 to 497 s-1 in Al 5754 spot welds and from 55 to 395 s-1 in Al 6061 spot welds. It is suggested that a no-slip boundary condition may be appropriate during numerical modeling of Al 5754 and 6061 friction stir spot welding. This is not the case during Al 7075, Al 2024, and Mg-alloy AZ91 spot welding because spontaneous melting facilitates slippage at the tool contact interface.

  5. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  6. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshi, L. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zenou, V. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ezersky, V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Munitz, A. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Talianker, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: mital@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

    2005-10-27

    A new ternary aluminide U{sub 2}FeAl{sub 20} with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m.

  7. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ternary aluminide U2FeAl20 with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m

  8. AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire SAW Heterostructure for High-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrani, Ouarda; Aubert, Thierry; Elmazria, Omar; Bartasyte, Ausrine; Nicolay, Pascal; Talbi, Abdelkrim; Boulet, Pascal; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Mangin, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have evidenced that Pt/AlN/Sapphire surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are promising for high-temperature high-frequency applications. However, they cannot be used above 700°C in air atmosphere as the Pt interdigital transducers (IDTs) agglomerate and the AlN layer oxidizes in such conditions. In this paper, we explore the possibility to use an AlN protective overlayer to concurrently hinder these phenomena. To do so, AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire heterostructures undergo successive annealing steps from 800°C to 1000°C in air atmosphere. The impact of each step on the morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of AlN and Pt films is evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Finally, acoustical performance at room temperature of both protected and unprotected SAW devices are compared, as well as the effects of annealing on these performance. These investigations show that the use of an overlayer is one possible solution to strongly hinder the Pt IDTs agglomeration up to 1000°C. Moreover, AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire SAW heterostructures show promising performances in terms of stability up to 800°C. At higher temperatures, the oxidation of AlN is more intense and makes it inappropriate to be used as a protective layer. PMID:27076407

  9. Sintering Behavior of CNT Reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ball milling and spark plasma sintering were successfully used to produce carbon nanotube reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 nanocomposites which have potential applications in the fields of aerospace, automotive, electronics, and high precision instrumentation. Al2124 and Al6061 nanocomposite powders containing 0.5 to 2 wt.% CNTs prepared through sonication and wet ball milling were spark plasma sintered at 400, 450, and 500°C for 20 minutes under a pressure of 35 MPa. CNTs were better dispersed, ...

  10. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al2O3/TiAl composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Tao-tao; WANG Fen; ZHU Jian-feng

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3/TiAl composites were fabricated by PAXD (pressure-assisted exothermic dispersion) method. The effects of Nb2O5 content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results show that the ultimate phases of the composite consist of TiAl, Ti3Al, Al2O3 and a small amount of NbAl3. SEM reveals that a submicron γ+(α2/γ) dual phases structure can be presented after sintered at 1 200 ℃. Furthermore, with the increase of Nb2O5 content, the ratio of TiAl to Ti3Al phase decreases correspondingly, the grains of the composites are remarkably refined, and the produced Al2O3 particles are uniformly dispersed. When 6% Nb2O5 is added, the composite has the best comprehensive properties. It exhibits a Vickers hardness of 4.77 GPa and a bending strength of 642 MPa. Grain-refinement and dispersion-strengthening are the main strengthening mechanisms.

  11. Production of AlN-Si-Al Ceramic-Metal Composites via Pressurless Infiltration Method

    OpenAIRE

    KALEMTAŞ, Ayşe; ARSLAN, Gürsoy; KARA, Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the production of light (∼2,9 g/cm3) and dense (> 99 %) AlN based ceramic metal composites was conducted by the pressureless melt infiltration method. These composites contain a high ceramic volume fraction (> 50 vol %) which is the result of the reaction between Si3N4 and Al in the Si3N4-Al system. The production of the ceramic-metal composites was achieved via infiltrating 2024 Al alloys at different temperatures and holding times into the porous pellets which were prepared us...

  12. Coating of a layer of Au on Al13 : The findings of icosahedral Al@Al12Au20- and Al12Au202- fullerenes using ab initio pseudopotential calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay

    2009-02-01

    We report results of ab initio pseudopotential calculations on the nanocoating of gold on an icosahedral Al13 cluster and the findings of icosahedrally symmetric endohedral Al@Al12Au20- and empty cage Al12Au202- compound fullerenes formed of metal atoms. Twelve Al atoms cap the pentagonal faces of a dodecahedral Au20 cage in which each Au atom has three Al atoms and three Au atoms as nearest neighbors. Mixing of Al13 and Au20 magic clusters leads to a large heat of formation of 0.55 eV/atom and high stability of the Al@Al12Au20 compound fullerene. The binding energies of Al12Au20 and Al@Al12Au20 are 3.017 and 3.007 eV/atom, respectively, which are much larger than 2.457 eV/atom for Au32 fullerene, leading to the possibility of their high abundance.

  13. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  14. Melting Transition of Small Aluminium Clusters Al11-20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Feng-Shou; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Heat capacities of small aluminium clusters Al11-20 are investigated using MD simulation with empirical manybody Gupta potential. The heat capacities of some clusters Al11, Al12, Al13 and Al19 show well-defined peaks while the heat capacities of Al15-18 indicate a gradual melting transition. The spectra of isomers obtained by quenches along the MD trajectory give good interpretation for those results.

  15. Kerja Perspektif Al-Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Munir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The moslem ethics of life is based on movement as ex­pressed in certain terms like al-sharī’ah, al-tarīqah, al-sirāt, al-sabīl and al-manhaj, that make sense of way and teachings to achieve good life. Islam obliges and gives appreciation of the achievements of Mus­lims. The Qur’an uses several terms to refer to such work; ‘charity, kasb, juhd, ibtighâ’, sa ’yu and su ’âl. From this concept, the Qur’an considers work as nob­le, while begging is despicable. Work means thankful to God for the potential He bestows. The Qur’an promotes work not only because it is the way to achieve the wealth, but also because it possesses the its sacred value for the benefit of fulfilling livelihood. Therefore the work should also be done based on ethical values .

  16. 26Al in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different lines of physical reasoning have converged on the importance of the radioactive nucleus 26Al. The sciences of meteoritics, nucleosynthesis, gamma-ray astronomy, galactic chemical evolution, solar system formation, and interstellar chemistry all place this nucleus in a central position with possible profound implications. Perhaps more importantly the study of this radioactivity can unite these diverse fields in a complicated framework which will benefit all of them. This review traces the evolution of ideas concerning 26Al in the context of these disciplines. 26Al was first discussed for the possibility that its decay energy could melt meteorite parent bodies, and its daughter, 26Mg, was later found in meteorites with enhanced abundance. It was also among the first radioactivities expected to be synthesized in interestingly large quantities in nulceosynthetic events. The first definitive detection of gamma-rays from an interstellar radioactivity is that of 1.809 MeV gamma-rays from 26Al. This discovery has many implications, some of which are outlined here. The whole problem of isotopic anomalies in meteorites is greatly influenced by the specific issues surrounding excess 26Mg, whether it represents in situ decay of 26Al or memory of conditions of the ISM. The relationships among these ideas and their implications are examined. (orig.)

  17. Cd ion implantation in AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cd ion implanted in AlN thin films. ► XRD shows damage produced during implantation. ► Annealing recovers damage in low fluence sample. ► RBS/C measurements show that Cd occupies substitutional sites. ► Cd can be a good candidate for p-type doping. - Abstract: AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 × 1013 and 8 × 1014 at/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

  18. Survey and alignment at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET'' and STAR*NET'' software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS''). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S ampersand A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper

  19. Direct laser cooling Al+ ions optical clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Luo, J; Lu, Z H

    2016-01-01

    Al$^+$ ions optical clock is a very promising optical frequency standard candidate due to its extremely small blackbody radiation shift. It has been successfully demonstrated with indirect cooled, quantum-logic-based spectroscopy technique. Its accuracy is limited by second-order Doppler shift, and its stability is limited by the number of ions that can be probed in quantum logic processing. We propose a direct laser cooling scheme of Al$^+$ ions optical clocks where both the stability and accuracy of the clocks are greatly improved. In the proposed scheme, two Al$^+$ ions traps are utilized. The first trap is used to trap a large number of Al$^+$ ions to improve the stability of the clock laser, while the second trap is used to trap a single Al$^+$ ions to provide the ultimate accuracy. Both traps are cooled with a continuous wave 167 nm laser. The expected clock laser stability can reach $9.0\\times10^{-17}/\\sqrt{\\tau}$. For the second trap, in addition to 167 nm laser Doppler cooling, a second stage pulsed ...

  20. Epistemologi Penafsiran Ilmiah al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiat Zubaidi Saleh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in interpretating al-Qur’an is to explain the will of God and the operationalization of the will in the field of faith, laws, or ethics. At the phase of Islamic civilization, when the linguistic and philosophy science codified, raises the various method (manhaj, and interpretation streams (ittijahat, exegesis school (madzhab of al-Qur’an. In addition, also found in various shades of interpretation such as: fiqhi, kalami, balaghi, and isyari/ sufi, even philosophical. It was also discovered methods of tafsir ‘ilmi oriented to the utilization of the discovering science in order to prove the truth of scientific fact. The last pattern was ignited pro and contra among scholars and mufassir. As we know that alQur’an was not descended in the condition of cultural vacuum but it is a form of dialectics and the response to the condition and social situation, politic, and religion. This is relevant to the characteristics of al-Qur’an which can be applied throughout the periods. As we understood that interpretation is one of reflections of thought and civilization products. It always developed and influenced by the dynamics of human civilization, so in its development, science and al-Qur’an can be brought together in dialogue, although with some prerequisites specified interpretation.

  1. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung

  2. Instability of TiC and TiAl3 compounds in Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys by addition of Al-Ti-C master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The performance of Al-Ti-C master alloy in refining Al-10Mg and A1-5Cu alloys was studied by using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis.The results indicate that there are obvious fading phenomena in both Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys with the addition of Al-5Ti-0.4C refiner which contains TiC and TiAl3 compounds.Mg element has no influence on the stability of TiC and TiAl3, while TiC particles in Al-10Mg alloy react with Al to form Al4C3 particles, resulting in the refinement fading.However, TiC particles are relatively stable in Al-5Cu alloy, while TiAl3 phase reacts with Al2Cu to produce a new phase Ti(Al, Cu)2, which is responsible for the refinement fading in Al-5Cu alloy.These indicate that the refinement fading will not occur only when both the TiC particles and TiAl3 compound of Al-Ti-C refiner are stable in Al alloys.

  3. Study of corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate using scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate was studied. • SVET and SIET were used to study the distribution of current densities and pH. • The corrosion inhibition mechanisms were analyzed. - Abstract: The galvanic corrosion of the coupled Al2Cu and Al as well as Al3Fe and Al in 0.005 M NaCl in and without the presence of cerium cinnamate was studied. Scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique were used to measure the distribution of current densities and pH. The results indicate that cerium cinnamate played inhibiting effect on the coupling corrosion of Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al. For Al2Cu–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the production of cerium oxide/hydroxide on Al2Cu surface. However, for Al3Fe–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the adsorbed cerium cinnamate on the Al3Fe surface

  4. MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical framework and phase separation of -Al2O3 at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2011-07-01

    Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. → alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).

  5. Al- Khwarizmi and axiomatic foundation of algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intends to investigate the axiomatic foundations of algebra, as they were presented in the book of algebra of al-Khwarizmi (9 th century), and as they were developed in many subsequent Arabic works. The paper gives also a description of algebra evolution towards a discipline independent ofgeometry and arithmetic: the two disciplines whosemarriage had led to its birth.By an in depth reading of some details in the text of al Khwarizmi , we concluded that this mathematician intended to lay down the axiomatic foundations of that new discipline. His resort to arithmetical and geometrical means was a way of making his theory more accessible. He used them to justify the axioms: those that were not explicitly introduced per se, and those that were remained implicit. The paper also relies on some unedited writingsof al-Khwarizmi's successors, which could shedlight on the ways they used to consolidate the foundations of algebra and improve its methods. (author)

  6. Moessbauer studies on Al-Co ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy studies have been performed on the spinel CoAlxFe2-xO4 (.2≤x≤1.7) in the temperature range 77-750 K using either a liquid nitrogen bath cryostat or a furnace. The samples are magnetic at 77 K giving spectra that have magnetic sextets coexisting with a central line which increases in population with the Al-content indicating relaxation effects. The data shows that Al possesses no preference to either tetrahedral or octahedral sites of the ferrite over the whole range of concentration. The Moessbauer hyperfine interaction parameters and magnetic transition temperatures were determined. As expected the hyperfine field and Curie temperature decrease when the Al-content increases. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic Properties of NdAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, P.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...... the crystal-field parameters derived from the magnetic exciton spectrum measured by Houmann et al. by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The combined lambda -Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity is explained. No additional parameters are introduced.......The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...

  8. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  9. Thermal Properties of Al-50%Si Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Nishimoto; Katsuya Akamatsu; Kazuyoshi Nakao; Kazuo Ichii

    2004-01-01

    In order to prepare a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), Al-50was produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) and ingot metallurgy (I/M). P/M specimen was prepared by mechanical alloying(MA) and pulsed electric-current sintering (PECS). The microstructures of specimens were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Vickers microhardness and CTE measurements were performed. The grains in the P/M specimen were refined with increasing MA time. Primary Si and eutectic Si in the I/M specimen were remarkably refined by adding minute amounts of Sr. The CTE of P/M and I/M specimens were estimated as 7.8×10-6 and 10.7×10-6, respectively. These values were as same as a CTE of Al2O3 ceramics.

  10. Kritik Terhadap Pemikiran Tasawuf Al-Raniri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifan Nur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Al-Raniri is often positioned by some scholars as “superior” figure, which is contrasted to Hamzah Fansuri and Syamsuddin Sumaterani, and that is why they predicate him as one of pioneer of Islamic reformer in Malay- Indonesian archipelago. Anti-wujūdiyyah Sufism campaign by al-Raniri quite successful to some extent to amputate the rate of development of philosophical Sufism was brought by Fansuri and Sumaterani in the one hand, and strike off the nature of moral Sufism in the other, redeemed by bloodshed. This article discussed the “superiority” of al-Raniri’s thought of Sufism, viewed from a broader spectrum, either in relation to problems of faith or theology and politics surrounding the circumstance of his time.Keywords : Philosophical tasawuf, neo-sufism, panteism, tajalli, God’s attributeAbstrak : Al-Raniri oleh banyak kalangan seringkali diposisikan sebagai tokoh “superior” yang diperlawankan dengan Hamzah Fansuri dan Syamsuddin Sumaterani, dan itu sebabnya para ahli memberinya predikat sebagai seorang pelopor pembaru (mujaddid Islam di Nusantara. Anti tasawuf wujūdiyyah yang dikampanyekan oleh al-Raniri cukup berhasil mengamputasi laju perkembangan tasawuf falsafi yang dibawa oleh Fansuri dan Sumaterani di satu sisi, dan melancarkan laju corak tasawuf akhlaki di sisi lain, yang ditebus dengan cara pertumpahan darah. Tulisan ini mendiskusikan “superioritas” pemikiran tasawuf al-Raniri tersebut, dilihat dari spektrum yang lebih luas, baik menyangkut persoalan keyakinan atau teologi maupun politik yang mengitari situasi zamannya.Kata kunci : Tasawuf falsafi , neo-sufisme, panteisme, tajalli, sifat Tuhan

  11. Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti/Ti3Al Functionally Graded Materials under a Centrifugal Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Watanabe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of the centrifugal method (CM. Using the conventional CM techniques such as the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in-situ method, FGMs rings with gradually distributed properties could be achieved. As a more practical choice, the centrifugal mixed-powder method (CMPM was recently proposed to obtain FGMs containing nano-particles selectively dispersed in the outer surface of the fabricated parts. However, if a control of the particles morphology, compound formulas or sizes, is desired, another CM technique is favored. As a development of CMPM, our novel reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM has been presented. Using RCMPM, Al‑Al3Ti/Ti3Al FGMs with good surface properties and temperature controlled compositional gradient could be achieved. In this short review, this novel method will be discussed in detail and the effect of RCMPM processing temperature on the reinforcement particles morphology, size and distribution through the fabricated samples, will be reviewed.

  12. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani

    2005-01-01

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term 2 is 6.77% to 11.85% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.

  13. Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic γ-TiAl phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Góral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was conducted.Findings: The obtained coating consisting of 3 or 4 zones (depending on chemical composition of the slurry was obtained during the annealing process (950°C/4h.Research limitations/implications: The research results revealed the possibility of obtaining coatings with complex phase and chemical composition.Practical implications: Many problems connected with sedimentation of heavier MeCrAlY powder were observed.Originality/value: The copletele new technologies was described in article

  14. Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

  15. Adhesion of metal carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. M.; Wang, S. Q.; Ye, H. Q.

    2003-12-01

    We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results.

  16. Adhesion of metal-carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results

  17. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...

  18. Introducción al derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Luis, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Manual de la asignatura introducción al derecho. Nivel educativo: Grado El origen de este texto –materiales docentes- que lleva por título “Introducción al Derecho” ha sido escrito respondiendo a una estricta necesidad docente y por tanto necesariamente pedagógica. En efecto, era totalmente necesario que los alumnos, del Grado de Administración y Dirección de Empresas y otras titulaciones no jurídicas, contasen con un texto para facilitar el estudio de las principales categorías conceptual...

  19. Quadrupole scattering in PrAl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablik, M. J.; Pureur, P.; Creuzet, G.; Fert, A.; Levy, P. M.

    1983-10-01

    We derive the spontaneous anisotropy of the resistivity of the ferromagnetic compound PrAl2 from magnetoresistance measurements on a single crystal of PrAl2. We ascribe this spontaneous anisotropy of the resistivity to scattering of the conduction electrons by the thermal quadrupole disorder and we account for our experimental results by using the theoretical model previously developed by us. We find that quadrupole scattering gives a very important contribution to the total magnetic disorder (spin and quadrupole) resistivity but that only a small part of this quadrupole contribution is anisotropic.

  20. Amyotrofisen lateraaliskleroosin (ALS) fysioterapia : Systemaattinen kirjallisuuskatsaus

    OpenAIRE

    Finne, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi eli ALS on harvinainen motoneuronisairaus, jonka ominaispiirteenä on selkäytimen, aivorungon ja aivokuoren motoneuroneiden etenevä degeneraatio ja tuhoutuminen. Tähän parantumattomaan sairauteen sairastuu Suomessa vuosittain noin 120–150 henkilöä. Keskimääräinen sairastumisikä on noin 60 vuotta ja elinikä diagnoosin saamisen jälkeen on noin 3 - 5 vuotta. Fysioterapia on tärkeä osa ALS-potilaan hoitoa ja kuntoutusta. Fysioterapian vaikutut-tavuutta on tästä ...

  1. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  2. Recent research highlights from the ALS OML

    OpenAIRE

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The main mission of the Optical Metrology Laboratory (OML) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is to ensure state-of-the-art performance of beamline optics. New beamlines and instruments laid out in the ALS strategic plan as well as the plan for New Generation Light Source (NGLS) facility all involve increasingly complex optical systems that need ultra-high precision optics to achieve the specifications and goals of their state-of-the art research programs. In order to manufacture, measure, tu...

  3. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...... disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of...

  4. The ALS Storage Ring RF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed

  5. Al-Yawahir Al-Saniyya Fi Sarh-Al-Yarrumiyya, de Al-Ta c Alibi (s.VII-XIV)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellachehab, Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Edición critica, realizada sobre varios manuscritos, de una interesante fuente gramatical magrebi, del siglo VIII de la hégira XIV de nuestra era. Estudio sobre el autor, at-ta alibi, típico gramático tardío del norte de África, y estudio sobre su producción escrita, en general y en concreto sobre este al-yawahir al-saniyya que es un interesante comentario de la celebre yarrumiyya, comentario hasta hoy inédito que representa un hito en la tradición de estudios gramaticales del occidente islám...

  6. Metamagnetism in Ce(Ga,Al)2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Suresh; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2002-05-01

    Effect of Al substitution on the magnetic properties of Ce(Ga1-Al)2 ( = 0, 0.1 and 0.5) system has been studied. The magnetic state of CeGa2 is found to be FM with a C of 8 K, whereas the compounds with =0.1 and 0.5 are AFM and possess N of about 9 K. These two compounds undergo metamagnetic transition and the critical fields are about 1.2 T and 0.5 T, respectively at 2 K. These variations are explained on the basis of helical spin structure in these compounds.

  7. Periodistas: el acceso al mercado laboral

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza la situación profesional de los Licenciados en Periodismo en España. Para ello esta investigación sigue la lógica del proceso de acceso al mercado laboral, es decir, se estudia, en primer lugar, la oferta de egresados y las demandas del sector; a continuación, se analiza la forma en la que un titulado en la Licenciatura de Periodismo accede al mercado laboral y el tiempo que tarda en hacerlo; y por último, se examinan los medios de comunicación en lo...

  8. Surface phonon polariton characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S S; Lee, S C; Bakhori, S K Mohd; Hassan, Z; Abu Hassan, H; Yakovlev, V A; Novikova, N N; Vinogradov, E A

    2010-05-10

    Surface phonon polariton (SPP) characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure are investigated by means of p-polarized infrared (IR) attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Two absorption dips corresponding to In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N SPP modes are observed. In addition, two prominent dips and one relatively weak and broad dip corresponding to the Al(2)O(3) SPP mode, In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/Al(2)O(3) interface mode, and Al(2)O(3) bulk polariton mode, respectively, are clearly seen. No surface mode feature originating from the AlN layer is observed because it is too thin. Overall, the observations are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. PMID:20588890

  9. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, AlMo and MoAl, as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair AlMo+MoAl, in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al5Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author)

  10. Liquidus temperatures of Na3AlF6-AlF3-CaF2-KF-LiF-Al2O3 melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures for the primary crystallization of Na3AlF6-AlF3-CaF2-KF-LiF-Al2O3 system adopted in aluminum electrolysis process were determined by thermal analysis. An empirical equation was derived to describe the liquidus temperatures for the primary crystallization of this multicomponent electrolyte system: t/℃=1011 + 0.7w(AlF3 - 0.232w(AlF32 - 7.65w(Al2O3 + 0.523w(Al2O32 - 8.96w(LiF + 0.043w(LiF2 - 3.32w(KF - 0.12w(KF2 - 3.28w(CaF2 +0.037w(CaF22 + 0.091w(AlF3w(LiF + 0.074w(AlF3w(KF + 0.084w(AlF3w(CaF2 - 0.27w(Al2O3w(LiF, where w(AlF3 denotes the mass fraction of excess aluminum fluoride with respect to cryolite. While w(Al2O3 ranges from 2% to 4%, w(LiF, w(KF and w(CaF2 from 0 to 7%, and the molar ratio of NaF/AlF3 from 2.2 to 3.

  11. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, J; Katkevics, J; Viksna, A [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Kr. Valdemara Str. 48, Riga, LV-1013 (Latvia); Erts, D, E-mail: arturs.viksna@lu.lv [Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda blvd. 4, Riga, LV-1586 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH{sub 3}COONa, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  12. FABRICATION OF Al/Al2O3 FGM ROTATING DISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sanuddin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method of fabricating a disc made of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded materials (FGM, using a powder metallurgy manufacturing process. The aim is to develop a processing method for a rotating disc made of FGM, by stacking the slurry, layer by layer in a radial direction. A three-layer functionally graded material of Al/Al2O3 is fabricated with compositions of 10, 20, 30 vol.% Al2O3. The ceramic composition increases from the discs inner (centre to the outer. The combination of these materials can offer the ability to withstand high temperature conditions whilst maintaining strength in extreme environments.

  13. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2010-09-01

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

  14. Serious Flaws in Korf et al.'s Analysis on Time Complexity of A*

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Hang

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the effect of a heuristic on the time complexity of the well-known A* search algorithm has been a subject of a large research body in AI. Among those researches is Korf et al.'s analysis (Korf & Reid, 1998; Korf et al., 2001; Korf, 2000a; Korf, 2000b), which concluded that the effect of a heuristic is to reduce the effective depth rather than effective branching factor. Since this conclusion conflicts with both previous analysis and recent analysis by other authors, we try to investigate the causes of such contradictions and finally find out that Korf et al.'s analysis has many serious flaws from which their main conclusion was drawn.

  15. Tensile deformation behavior of a sub-micrometer Al2O3/6061Al composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.3 μm Al2O3/6061Al composite with 33% volume fraction of Al2O3 was fabricated by the patented squeeze-casting technology. The tensile properties were studied, and the dynamic tensile deformation behavior was investigated by an in situ TEM tensile technique. The as-cast composite exhibits excellent tensile properties with a fracture strength of 504 MPa, and the strength increases to 579 MPa after a T6 treatment. The high strength is mainly attributed to the dispersion strengthening effect of the finer sub-micrometer Al2O3 particles. Dynamic transmission electron microscopy indicates that micro-cracks initiate and propagate mainly in the matrix. The Al2O3 particles can hinder the growth and deflect the cracks, but the resistance of the particles to crack propagation is small. The propagation stage is accordingly short, leading to the fracture of the composite

  16. Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al3Ce and Al11Ce3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the I.L.L. high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al3Ce compound down to 20 mK. This confirms the non magnetic ground state of Al3Ce. For Al11Ce3, two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0,0,1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds

  17. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...... III sublattice. From a fit to the transition energies, an empirical band gap relation for InAlGaAs is found, in the composition range relevant for growth on GaAs. The PL lines at low temperature (T = 10 K) are broadened due to random alloy fluctuations and an interface roughness of 1.1 monolayers....... Finally, the use of InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells for making strained T-shaped quantum wires is demonstrated. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Effect of stress on the Al composition evolution in AlGaN grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Two series of AlGaN samples with different stresses were designed to investigate the effect of stress on the Al composition. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping (XRD RSM) demonstrated that the AlGaN epilayers with different stresses have large Al composition differences despite the same growth conditions. The largest Al composition difference reached up to 21.3%, which was also confirmed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). This result is attributed to a large stress discrepancy in the AlGaN epilayers. Finally, the dependences of the solid-phase Al composition on the gas-phase Al composition under different stresses were systematically analyzed.

  19. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (αAl, βSi, Al3Sm, Al2Si2Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → αAl + βSi + Al2Si2Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al3Sm → αAl + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → αAl + Al2Si2Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  20. Microscopic phase field study of the antisite defect of Ni3 Al in binary Ni-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temporal evolution feature of a microscopic phase field model is utilized to study the antisite defects of L1 2-Ni 3 Al;this is quite different from other physicist’ interests.There are mainly two points in brief.Firstly,antisite defects Ni Al and Al Ni ,which are caused by the deviation from the stoichiometric Ni 3 Al,coexist in the Ni 3 Al phase.The surplus Ni atom in the Ni-rich side is prone to substitute Al thus producing the antisite defect Ni Al that maintains the stability of the L1 2 structure.In other case,the surplus Al atom in the Al-rich side is accommodated by a Ni sublattice consequently giving rise to antisite defect Al Ni .The calculated equilibrium occupancy probability of Ni Al is much higher than that of Al Ni .This point is generally in line with other theoretical and experimental works.Additionally,both Ni Al and Al Ni have a strong negative correlation to time step during the disorder-order transformation.Since the initial value of Ni Al and Al Ni on each site of the matrix is right at the concentration that we set,we can observe the decrease process of Ni Al and Al Ni from the initial disordered high anti-structure state to their respective equilibrium state,i.e.to the result of the ordering process further coarsening.

  1. The modulation structure induced changes in mechanical properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers which had different separate layer thickness of TiAlN or Al2O3 were synthesized by sputtering Ti3Al and Al2O3 targets with N2 and Ar gases. The influence of modulation periods and modulation ratios on structure and properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, surface profiler, and nanoindenter. Compared to TiAlN layer with only (2 0 0) preferred orientation, TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers were crystallized with orientations in the TiAlN (1 1 1), TiAlN (2 2 2) and AlN (1 0 0). Besides, weak Al2O3 (0 2 2) orientation is observed, when modulation period is 8.9 nm. The maximum hardness about 36.6 GPa was obtained at modulation period of 10.4 nm and modulation ratio of 10:1. The hardness and the toughness of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers increase as individual TiAlN layer thickness increases

  2. Wear characteristics of Al-AlN composites produced in-situ by nitrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Jena, S. K.; Patnaik, S. C.; Swain, P. K.; Majhi, J.

    2015-02-01

    In the present scenario most of the parts used in automobile and aerospace industries are made of composites. Aluminium metal has a very high strength to weight ratio. Al-AlN metal matrix composites have excellent mechanical properties like good wear resistance, high hardness and high strength to weight ratio which are obtained from low density of aluminium and high hardness and wear resistance of AlN. Therefore, use of Al-AlN MMC leads to advantages in automobile industries as it reduces fuel consumption and gives better structural strength. The composites can be produced ex-situ by introducing AlN as reinforcement into the metal matrix and in- situ by nitrogenation process. In the present process Al-AlN composites were fabricated by treating molten aluminium with a mixture of CaO and NH4Cl and held at temperature range at 750-930°C and then cast into a metal mould. Addition of CaO to NH4Cl is found to have a more pronounced effect as a nitrogenation agent in comparison with NH4Cl in the molten aluminium in the temperature range of 700- 1000°C. Castings of aluminium and Al-AlN composites were prepared by mixing different ratios of aluminium and NH4Cl, at different casting temperatures and holding time. Wear resistance and hardness of the samples were determined, and microstructure studies were carried out. The composite formed using higher amount of NH4Cl had higher hardness and wear resistance.

  3. AlON的合成工艺%Synthesis technology of AlON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王习东; 李文超

    2001-01-01

    分析了合成AlON的各种方法。 用模式识别结 合神经网络对碳热还原氮化合成AlON工艺 进行了优化, 利用模式逆映射得到了理想的合成工艺参数。 对AlON体系进行了热力学初步 分析, 计算了温度为2  073  K时合成AlON的热力学参数状态图。 根据热力学参数状态图所确定的条件, 热压合成了AlON陶瓷。 对所合成的AlON试样进行了 X 射线衍射标定及部分物理性能的测定。 其密度为3.63  g/cm3, 约为其理论 密度的97.8%。%The synthesis technolog y of AlON ceramics was investigated. The program o f pattern recognition was used to optimize the parameters of AlON synthesi s process, and the proper parameters were obtained by inverse projection. The th ermodynamic properties of AlON were preliminary analyzed and estimate d, phase stability diagrams at 2  073  K were calculated. A lON ceramics was synthesized by hot-press sintering under the conditions given by phase stability diagram. The density of AlON is 3.63  g/cm3, about 97.8% of its th eoretic d ensity.

  4. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-xiao; Wang, Gui-xian; Liu, Jing-shun; Zhang, Lun-yong; Wang, Wei; Li, Ze; Wang, Qi-xiang; Sun, Jian-fei

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50 μm. The morphology of the Ni-Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni-Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 particles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni-Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 precipitates and a Ni-Al-O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  5. Study of the 27Al(n,2,)26Al reaction via accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation function for the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction is expected to show a strongly non-linear behavior in the neutron-energy region around 14 MeV, the neutron energy in D-T plasmas; thus the production rate of 26Al (t1/2=7.2*105 a) in D-T fusion environments can in principle be used to measure the temperature of such plasmas. Existing measurements, however, are strongly discordant. Therefore, a new accurate measurement of the 27Al(n,2n)26Al cross sections in the near threshold region (En=13.5-14.8 MeV) was performed with the goal to achieve relative cross sections with the highest accuracy possible. In addition, the measurements were also designed to provide good absolute cross-section values, as absolute cross sections are important for radioactive waste predictions. Samples of Al metal were irradiated with neutrons in the energy range near threshold (Eth=13.55 MeV) at the Radiuminstitutes of both Vienna and St. Petersburg, and in Tokai-mura, Japan. In Tuebingen irradiations with neutrons of higher energies (17 and 19 MeV) were performed. The amount of 26Al produced during the irradiations was measured via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). This work represents the first 26Al measurements for this new facility. With this system, a background as low as 3*10-15 for 26Al/27Al isotope ratios was obtained, corresponding to a (n,2n) cross section of 0.04 mb. Utilizing AMS, cross sections with much higher precision and considerably closer to the threshold than in previous investigations could be measured. The prerequisite for its application as a temperature monitor, namely a very well known shape of the excitation function was met. A quantitative prediction of the sensitivity of this method for monitoring the temperature in a D-T fusion plasma was therefore possible. For thermal plasmas temperature changes in the order of 5 to 15 % should be detectable. An even higher sensitivity was found for non

  6. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  7. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  8. 75 FR 1420 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  9. 76 FR 29810 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  10. 75 FR 26813 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  11. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated...

  12. 76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Incapital LLC, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of...

  13. 78 FR 22361 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  14. 78 FR 26100 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  15. 75 FR 3895 - Yale University, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... notice at 74 FR 67851, December 21, 2009. Docket Number: 09-065. Applicant: U.S. Department of Homeland..., Quanta 200 FEG. Manufacturer: FEI Company, Czech Republic. Intended Use: See notice at 74 FR 67851... International Trade Administration Yale University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications...

  16. 77 FR 7227 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  17. 75 FR 474 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  18. 76 FR 27141 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  19. 77 FR 60003 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  20. 75 FR 26814 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...