WorldWideScience

Sample records for cable systems

  1. VT Cable Systems 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable System dataset (CABLE2005) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable system as of 12/31/2005. Numerous cable companies...

  2. VT Cable Systems 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable System dataset (CABLE2007) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable system as of 12/31/2007. Numerous cable companies...

  3. VT Cable Systems 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable dataset (CABLE2013) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 6/30/2013 in addition to...

  4. VT Cable Modem Systems 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable Modem dataset (CABLEMOD2013) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 6/30/2013. This data...

  5. VT Cable Modem Systems 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable Modem dataset (CABLEMOD2007) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 12/31/2007. This...

  6. VT Cable Modem Systems 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Cable Modem dataset (CABLEMOD2005) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 12/31/2005. This...

  7. Thermal analysis of underground power cable system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerak, Monika; Ocłoń, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the application of Finite Element Method in thermal analysis of underground power cable system. The computations were performed for power cables buried in-line in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The developed mathematical model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil and cable backfill thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Also, the effect of cable diameter on the temperature of cable core was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  8. Integrated Cable System Aging Management Guidance: Low-Voltage Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denny, W M

    2003-01-02

    The document provides insights into common aging issues and symptoms and includes pictures and descriptions of deterioration that is observable. The report provides a rapid review of the important information necessary to assess the aging of the low-voltage cable system used in nuclear power plants.

  9. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  10. Two-way cable television system characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Paul T.

    1995-11-01

    This presentation is a report of the testing activities of the CableLabs Network Integrity Working Group. The working group consisted of several CableLabs member companies which conducted rf analog and digital bit-error testing at five CATV networks in the U.S. and Canada. The purpose of the working group was to measure the reliability and availability of the contemporary CATV network as specified by traditional switched access telephony performance parameters. Transmission data was collected for both forward and reverse (sub- split) paths of the rf broadband network, in both traditional and hybrid fiber/coax architectures, and for baseline and controlled variation events. The basic premise of this testing was to ascertain which cable television network elements adversely affected transmission of a 'generic' digital communications system and how they can be managed or controlled. The digital transmission utilized in the test was a QPSK modulated, T-1 rate (1.544 Mbit/second), modem without error correction. The intent was not to derive the necessary modulation technique and error correction scheme to properly operate in every cable television system, but rather to determine the principal sources of impairments existing in these networks and deduce corrective measures. The full report of the Network Integrity Working Group is published by CableLabs, Inc., and is titled, 'Two-Way Cable Television System Characterization -- Final Report', April 1995.

  11. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Choi, Jun Sung; Park, Seung Hee [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Chan [Korea Maintance Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  12. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  13. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonay Toledo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement.

  14. 14 CFR 25.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 25.689 Section 25.689 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... smaller than 1/8 inch in diameter may be used in the aileron, elevator, or rudder systems; and (2) Each...

  15. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, Rick [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hampton, Nigel [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Perkel, Josh [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hernandez, JC [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Elledge, Stacy [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); del Valle, Yamille [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Grimaldo, Jose [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Deku, Kodzo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  16. Detonator cable initiation system safety investigation: Consequences of energizing the detonator and actuator cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osher, J.; Chau, H.; Von Holle, W.

    1994-03-01

    This study was performed to explore and assess the worst-case response of a W89-type weapons system, damaged so as to expose detonator and/or detonator safing strong link (DSSL) cables to the most extreme, credible lightning-discharge, environment. The test program used extremely high-current-level, fast-rise-time (1- to 2-{mu}s) discharges to simulate lightning strikes to either the exposed detonator or DSSL cables. Discharges with peak currents above 700 kA were required to explode test sections of detonator cable and launch a flyer fast enough potentially to detonate weapon high explosive (HE). Detonator-safing-strong-link (DSSL) cables were exploded in direct contact with hot LX-17 and Ultrafine TATB (UFTATB). At maximum charging voltage, the discharge system associated with the HE firing chamber exploded the cables at more than 600-kA peak current; however, neither LX-17 nor UFTATB detonated at 250{degree}C. Tests showed that intense surface arc discharges of more than 700 kA/cm in width across the surface of hot UFTATB [generally the more sensitive of the two insensitive high explosives (IHE)] could not initiate this hot IHE. As an extension to this study, we applied the same technique to test sections of the much-narrower but thicker-cover-layer W87 detonator cable. These tests were performed at the same initial stored electrical energy as that used for the W89 study. Because of the narrower cable conductor in the W87 cables, discharges greater than 550-kA peak current were sufficient to explode the cable and launch a fast flyer. In summary, we found that lightning strikes to exposed DSSL cables cannot directly detonate LX-17 or UFTATB even at high temperatures, and they pose no HE safety threat.

  17. Automated wireless monitoring system for cable tension using smart sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sung-Han; Li, Jian; Jo, Hongki; Park, Jongwoong; Cho, Soojin; Spencer, Billie F.; Yun, Chung-Bang

    2013-04-01

    Cables are critical load carrying members of cable-stayed bridges; monitoring tension forces of the cables provides valuable information for SHM of the cable-stayed bridges. Monitoring systems for the cable tension can be efficiently realized using wireless smart sensors in conjunction with vibration-based cable tension estimation approaches. This study develops an automated cable tension monitoring system using MEMSIC's Imote2 smart sensors. An embedded data processing strategy is implemented on the Imote2-based wireless sensor network to calculate cable tensions using a vibration-based method, significantly reducing the wireless data transmission and associated power consumption. The autonomous operation of the monitoring system is achieved by AutoMonitor, a high-level coordinator application provided by the Illinois SHM Project Services Toolsuite. The monitoring system also features power harvesting enabled by solar panels attached to each sensor node and AutoMonitor for charging control. The proposed wireless system has been deployed on the Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge located in South Korea. Tension forces are autonomously monitored for 12 cables in the east, land side of the bridge, proving the validity and potential of the presented tension monitoring system for real-world applications.

  18. Insulation systems for superconducting transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes shortly the status of superconducting transmission lines and assesses what impact the recently discovered BSCCO superconductors may have on the design of the cables.Two basically different insulation systems are discussed:1) The room temperature dielectric design, where...... the electrical insulation is placed outside both the superconducting tube and the cryostat. The superconducting tube is cooled by liquid nitrogen which is pumped through the hollow part of the tube.2) The cryogenic dielectric design, where the electrical insulation is placed inside the cryostat and thus is kept...

  19. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  20. Thermoplastic high performance cable insulation systems for flexible system operation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, A.S.; Green, C.D.; Hosier, I.L.; Stevens, G.C.; Pye, A.; Thomas, J.L.; Sutton, S.J.; Guessens, T.

    2015-01-01

    Crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) has been the cable insulation material of choice in many different transmission and distribution applications for many years and, while this material has many desirable characteristics, its thermo-mechanical properties have consequences for both continuous and emergency cable ratings which, in turn, have implications for system operational flexibility. In this paper, we describe the principles and two embodiments through which new thermoplastic insulation syste...

  1. Distance Protection of Cross-Bonded Transmission Cable-Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Claus Leth; F. Jensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the problems of protecting a cross-bonded cable system using distance protection are analysed. The combination of the desire to expand the high voltage transmission grid and the public's opinion towards new installations of overhead lines (OHL), more and more transmission cable systems are being laid around the world. Differential protection is often used for the main protection of cables. As a backup protection, distance protection is very often the preferred choice. Therefore,...

  2. Development of an underwater ROV system for submarine cable maintenance. Kaitei cable maintenance yo suichu robot no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyama, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Kaya, F.; Shigemitsu, T. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-01

    For the purpose of repairing, burying, and inspecting submarine telecommunication cables more speedily and at greater depth than conventional processes, an underwater remotely operated robot system for submarine cable maintenance has been developed. The system is composed of an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV), tether cables, a tether management system, umbilical cables, a launch and recovery system, control units, and electric power units. The ROV is loaded with thrusters for propulsion, a television camera, a cable location system, manipulators, a cable gripper/cutter unit, a cable burier/digger unit, a variable ballast unit, various sensors, et al. Since its entrance into service in October, 1989, the system has been successfully operated in various sea areas around Japan with a crew of three or four for operation and maintenance. This paper describes the outline of the system configuration and their specifications. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Distance Protection of Cross-Bonded Transmission Cable-Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; F. Jensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the problems of protecting a cross-bonded cable system using distance protection are analysed. The combination of the desire to expand the high voltage transmission grid and the public's opinion towards new installations of overhead lines (OHL), more and more transmission cable syst...

  4. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  5. A PSO Driven Intelligent Model Updating and Parameter Identification Scheme for Cable-Damper System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhui Dan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise measurement of the cable force is very important for monitoring and evaluating the operation status of cable structures such as cable-stayed bridges. The cable system should be installed with lateral dampers to reduce the vibration, which affects the precise measurement of the cable force and other cable parameters. This paper suggests a cable model updating calculation scheme driven by the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. By establishing a finite element model considering the static geometric nonlinearity and stress-stiffening effect firstly, an automatically finite element method model updating powered by PSO algorithm is proposed, with the aims to identify the cable force and relevant parameters of cable-damper system precisely. Both numerical case studies and full-scale cable tests indicated that, after two rounds of updating process, the algorithm can accurately identify the cable force, moment of inertia, and damping coefficient of the cable-damper system.

  6. Hybrid modeling for dynamic analysis of cable-pulley systems with time-varying length cable and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qi, Zhaohui; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    The dynamic analysis of cable-pulley systems is investigated in this paper, where the time-varying length characteristic of the cable as well as the coupling motion between the cable and the pulleys are considered. The dynamic model for cable-pulley systems are presented based on the principle of virtual power. Firstly, the cubic spline interpolation is adopted for modeling the flexible cable elements and the virtual 1powers of tensile strain, inertia and gravity forces on the cable are formulated. Then, the coupled motions between the cable and the movable or fixed pulley are described by the input and output contact points, based on the no-slip assumption and the spatial description. The virtual powers of inertia, gravity and applied forces on the contact segment of the cable, the movable and fixed pulleys are formulated. In particular, the internal node degrees of freedom of spline cable elements are reduced, which results in that only the independent description parameters of the nodes connected to the pulleys are included in the final governing dynamic equations. At last, two cable-pulley lifting mechanisms are considered as demonstrative application examples where the vibration of the lifting process is investigated. The comparison with ADAMS models is given to prove the validity of the proposed method.

  7. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for identification of cable systems... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A cable...

  8. Application of Superconducting Power Cables to DC Electric Railway Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Lv, Zhen; Sekino, Masaki; Tomita, Masaru

    For novel design and efficient operation of next-generation DC electric railway systems, especially for their substantial energy saving, we have studied the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to them. In this paper it is assumed that a superconducting power cable is applied to connect substations supplying electric power to trains. An analysis model line was described by an electric circuit, which was analyzed with MATLAB-Simulink. From the calculated voltages and currents of the circuit, the regenerative brake and the energy losses were estimated. In addition, assuming the heat loads of superconducting power cables and the cryogenic efficiency, the energy saving of the total system was evaluated. The results show that the introduction of superconducting power cables could achieve the improved use of regenerative brake, the loss reduction, the decreased number of substations, the reduced maintenance, etc.

  9. Emerging Subsea Networks: SMART Cable Systems for Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Butler, R.; Joint Task Force, U.

    2016-02-01

    The subsea telecommunications cable industry is approaching a prospective new era: deploying SMART subsea cable systems (SMART = Science Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunication). The current global, commercial cable infrastructure consists of 1 Gm of cable, being refreshed now and expanding in the future. The SMART concept is to add a small external sensor package along the cable system at its optical repeaters to transmit important real-time environmental data via a dedicated wavelength or overhead channel in the transmission system, avoiding any impact on the commercial traffic. These small, reliable, existing sensors would precisely measure temperature, pressure and three-axis acceleration across the world's ocean floor over an extended period of time, being deployed using standard cable-laying procedures on new or refurbished cables, but not requiring maintenance through the 2-3 decade life of the cable systems. The game-changing factor is the urgent international need for ocean environmental data related to mitigating climate and sea-level change and improving tsunami and slope failure hazard warnings. Societal costs incurred by these are reaching billions of dollars and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Pressures for new and urgent public policies are evident from the 5th IPCC Assessment, USA-China agreement on limiting greenhouse gas emissions, clear evidence for rapid global warming, 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (December 2015, Paris), and the scale of the costs of inaction. To support revised public policies and actions, decision-makers, industry leaders, and the public are seeking key scientific data, which will necessitate new sources of funding. Hence, the emergence of new SMART cable systems offered by the subsea telecommunications industry will provide new market opportunities, engage additional non-traditional users, and make profound societal contributions. The Joint Task Force (JTF) on SMART Subsea Cable Systems

  10. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model

  11. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/task-force-sc). A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  12. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  13. Design of anti-theft/cable cut real time alert system for copper cable using microcontroller and GSM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E. K.; Norizan, M. N.; Mohamad, I. S.; Yasin, M. N. M.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Baharum, N. A.; Jamalullail, N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the design of anti-theft/cable cut real time alert system using microcontroller and GSM technology. The detection part is using the electrical circuit wire connection in detecting the voltage drop of the cable inside the microcontroller digital input port. The GSM wireless modem is used to send the location of cable cut directly to the authority mobile phone. Microcontroller SK40C with Microchip PIC16F887 is used as a controller to control the wireless modem and also the detection device. The device is able to detect and display the location of the cable cut on the LCD display besides of and sending out the location of the cable break to the authority mobile phone wirelessly via SMS.

  14. Integrated cable vibration control system using wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seunghoo; Cho, Soojin; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-04-01

    As the number of long-span bridges is increasing worldwide, maintaining their structural integrity and safety become an important issue. Because the stay cable is a critical member in most long-span bridges and vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations, vibration mitigation has been of interest both in academia and practice. While active and semi-active control schemes are known to be quite effective in vibration reduction compared to the passive control, requirements for equipment including data acquisition, control devices, and power supply prevent a widespread adoption in real-world applications. This study develops an integrated system for vibration control of stay-cables using wireless sensors implementing a semi-active control. Arduino, a low-cost single board system, is employed with a MEMS digital accelerometer and a Zigbee wireless communication module to build the wireless sensor. The magneto-rheological (MR) damper is selected as a damping device, controlled by an optimal control algorithm implemented on the Arduino sensing system. The developed integrated system is tested in a laboratory environment using a cable to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system on vibration reduction. The proposed system is shown to reduce the vibration of stay-cables with low operating power effectively.

  15. A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  16. Wire in the Cable-Driven System of Surgical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Lv, N.; Mu, H. Z.; Xue, L. J.

    2017-07-01

    During the evolution of the surgical robot, cable plays an important role. It translates motion and force precisely from surgeon’s hand to the tool’s tips. In the paper, the vertical wires, the composition of cable, are mathematically modeled from a geometric point of view. The cable structure and tension are analyzed according to the characteristics of wire screw twist. The structural equations of the wires in different positions are derived for both non-bent cable and bent cable, respectively. The bending moment formula of bent cable is also obtained. This will help researchers find suitable cable and design more matched pulley.

  17. SC Power leads and cables - Nominal Current Test Performance of 2 kA-Class High-Tc Superconducting Cable Conductors and Its Implications for Cooling Systems for Utility Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willen, D. W. A; Daumling, M.; Rasmussen, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    configurations. The conductors are characterised under dc and ac conditions. The current and voltage is recorded during the tests in order to determine the impedances and the losses of the cable models. Using a phase-sensitive measurement with two lock-in amplifiers, small losses can be accurately measured...... individual layers in the cables saturate. The loss-contributions from other components of the cable system are discussed,and the implications for the cooling apparatus for superconducting utility cables are determined....

  18. Field Test and Simulation of a 400 kV Cross-Bonded Cable System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Gustavsen, Bjørn; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses cable modeling for long high voltage AC underground cables. In investigating the possibility of using long cables instead of overhead lines, the simulation results must be trustworthy. Therefore, model validation is of great importance. This paper gives a benchmark case...... for measurements on a 400 kV cable system with cross bonded sheaths. The paper describes in detail the modeling procedure for the cable system and compares simulation results with the transient field test results. It is shown that although the main characteristics of the waveforms are well reproduced...

  19. Study of an YBCO HTS transmission cable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukoyama, S. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Ecology and Energy Laboratory, 6, Yawata-Kaigandori, Ichihara, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: mukoyama@ch.furukawa.co.jp; Yagi, M.; Hirano, N. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Ecology and Energy Laboratory, 6, Yawata-Kaigandori, Ichihara, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan); Amemiya, N. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Company, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    HTS transmission cables offer an innovative transmission line that differs from conventional technologies because HTS cables can send bulk power with extremely low loss. The HTS cable will contribute to energy saving and the prevention of global warming technologically. Reduction of cable loss is the most important development in economical cables for power networks. Today, second generation (2G) wires, such as an YBCO tape, are considered to have the potential to reduce AC loss. We developed YBCO power cables and succeeded in reducing AC loss to one-sixth the loss of BSCCO cable. According to our estimations, the total loss of an YBCO cable will be half the conventional (normal conducting) cable but yield the same power capacity.

  20. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  1. Insulation coordination for HV AC underground cable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Increasing environmental and aesthetic concerns regarding the utilisation of overhead electrical power transmission lines are resulting in a growing need to progress the use of underground alternatives. This increases the importance of looking for opportunities to further reduce the cost ratio between overhead and underground distribution and transmission. One approach is to address the inherent costs associated with the cable system by reducing the required withstand capability in line with the actual service requirements rather than traditional levels in particular the transient overvoltage performance. (author)

  2. Fiber optical cable and connector system (FOCCoS) for PFS/ Subaru

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Lígia Souza; de Arruda, Marcio V.; Souza Marrara, Lucas; dos Santos, Leandro H.; Ferreira, Décio; dos Santos, Jesulino B.; Rosa, Josimar A.; Junior, Orlando V.; Pereira, Jeferson M.; Castilho, Bruno; Gneiding, Clemens; Junior, Laerte S.; de Oliveira, Claudia M.; Gunn, James; Ueda, Akitoshi; Takato, Naruhisa; Shimono, Atsushi; Sugai, Hajime; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kimura, Masahiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Murray, Graham; Le Mignant, David; Madec, Fabrice; Jaquet, Marc; Vives, Sebastien; Fisher, Charlie; Braun, David; Schwochert, Mark; Reiley, Daniel J.

    2014-07-01

    FOCCoS, "Fiber Optical Cable and Connector System" has the main function of capturing the direct light from the focal plane of Subaru Telescope using optical fibers, each one with a microlens in its tip, and conducting this light through a route containing connectors to a set of four spectrographs. The optical fiber cable is divided in 3 different segments called Cable A, Cable B and Cable C. Multi-fibers connectors assure precise connection among all optical fibers of the segments, providing flexibility for instrument changes. To assure strong and accurate connection, these sets are arranged inside two types of assemblies: the Tower Connector, for connection between Cable C and Cable B; and the Gang Connector, for connection between Cable B and Cable A. Throughput tests were made to evaluate the efficiency of the connections. A lifetime test connection is in progress. Cable C is installed inside the PFI, Prime Focus Instrument, where each fiber tip with a microlens is bonded to the end of the shaft of a 2-stage piezo-electric rotatory motor positioner; this assembly allows each fiber to be placed anywhere within its patrol region, which is 9.5mm diameter.. Each positioner uses a fiber arm to support the ferrule, the microlens, and the optical fiber. 2400 of these assemblies are arranged on a motor bench plate in a hexagonal-closed-packed disposition. All optical fibers from Cable C, protected by tubes, pass through the motors' bench plate, three modular plates and a strain relief box, terminating at the Tower Connector. Cable B is permanently installed at Subaru Telescope structure, as a link between Cable C and Cable A. This cable B starts at the Tower Connector device, placed on a lateral structure of the telescope, and terminates at the Gang Connector device. Cable B will be routed to minimize the compression, torsion and bending caused by the cable weight and telescope motion. In the spectrograph room, Cable A starts at the Gang Connector, crosses a

  3. Analysis of FCL effect caused by superconducting DC cables for railway systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Taichi; Hoshino, Tsutomu; Tomita, Masaru

    2017-02-01

    DC superconducting cable that is expected for railway system has been developed in the world, since the introduction effects were expected to energy saving. However, behaviour under unsteady states such as a short circuit accident are not entirely clear, and appropriate method of protection has not been established. Therefore, simulation model of the superconducting cable under direct current system was built and analyzed. Analysis result suggests the superconducting cable has the effect of Fault Current Limited (FCL) and critical current rise was effective method for temperature-rise suppression under unsteady states. Trade-off between cable temperature rise and overcurrent was confirmed.

  4. 47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cable Network Interface Standard” (incorporated by reference, see § 76.602), provided however that with... reference, see § 76.602), when available from the content provider. With respect to in-band transport: (A... the transport stream. This twelve-hour period corresponds to delivery of the following event...

  5. Online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems using screen currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Nanayakkara, O.M.K.K; Rajapakse, Athula

    . At 31.4 km, all cables were accessible which made it possible to apply a fault using an arc free breaker and measure the travelling waves at each end of the cable. On a crossbonded cable system, the sheath is short circuited and grounded at both ends. This makes possible the use of low voltage Rogowski...... and simulations are compared for testing the reliability of using simulations for studying fault location methods....

  6. Online Fault Location on AC Cables in Underground Transmission Systems using Sheath Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Nanayakkarab, Kasun; Rajapakse, Athula

    2014-01-01

    . At 31.4 km, all cables were accessible which made it possible to apply a fault using an arc free breaker and measure the travelling waves at each end of the cable. On a crossbonded cable system, the sheaths are short circuited and grounded at both ends. This makes possible the use of low voltage...... measurements and simulations are compared for testing the reliability of using simulations for studying fault location methods....

  7. State of the art analysis of online fault location on AC cables in underground transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    In this article the state of the art research for online fault location on cross-bonded transmission level cables is presented. The article is focused on the difficulties in using the algorithms developed for OHL-systems and distribution cables directly on cross-bonded transmission cables....... Impedance based methods, methods based on solving the line differential equations, methods based on traveling wave methods and methods based on artificial intelligence networks are presented and discussed....

  8. 47 CFR 15.115 - TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV interface devices, including cable system... FREQUENCY DEVICES Unintentional Radiators § 15.115 TV interface devices, including cable system terminal devices. (a) Measurements of the radiated emissions of a TV interface device shall be conducted with the...

  9. EHV/HV Underground Cable Systems for Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    are to be found. One very good example of this is offshore wind power plants. The current transmission system is laid out in a traditional manner, which is based on the idea of not transporting power over longer distances as the power plants have been located near centres of consumption. It has merely played...... of the transmission system must be re‐thought in order to accommodate the transmission needs for the future. New lines have to be constructed. Transmission lines are usually laid out as overhead lines, which are large structures, i.e. a 400 kV power pylon is 50 meters high. According to public opinion, such power...... lines are undesirable. Therefore, we must come up with an alternative, acceptable to the public. Underground cables fulfil the above mentioned need to be more publically acceptable, but, for long transmission lines, they are in many ways unproven. Guidelines for their design are needed. This thesis...

  10. Design of Power Cable UAV Intelligent Patrol System Based on Adaptive Kalman Filter Fuzzy PID Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Siyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patrol UAV has poor aerial posture stability and is largely affected by anthropic factors, which lead to some shortages such as low power cable tracking precision, captured image loss and inconvenient temperature measurement, etc. In order to solve these disadvantages, this article puts forward a power cable intelligent patrol system. The core innovation of the system is a 360° platform. This collects the position information of power cables by using far infrared sensors and carries out real-time all-direction adjustment of UAV lifting platform through the adaptive Kalman filter fuzzy PID control algorithm, so that the precise tracking of power cables is achieved. An intelligent patrol system is established to detect the faults more accurately, so that a high intelligence degree of power cable patrol system is realized.

  11. Field Test of 3 phase, 22.9kV, 100m HTS Cable System in KEPCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S H [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H S [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H R [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, O B [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S W [Department of superconductivity, University of Tokyo (Japan); Masuda, T [HTS R and D Department, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd (Japan); Yatsuka, K [HTS R and D Department, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd (Japan); Watanabe, M [HTS R and D Department, Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd (Japan); Ryoo, H S [Underground System Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yang, H S [High Magnetic Field R and D Team, Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D L [High Magnetic Field R and D Team, Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S D [Superconductivity and Application Group, Korea Electric Power Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-01

    Starting from investigation of feasibility and basic studies, KEPCO/KEPRI has carried an enterprising project for HTS cable system since 2002. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate HTS cable system and evaluate the feasibility in electricity utility's view. The installation of 100m/3phase/22.9kV/50MVA HTS cable system is undergoing in KEPCO's test yard, located in Gochang, Korea. The HTS cable system consists of 100m long cable, two terminations and a cooling system. To simulate the actual cable installation, the 55m section of the 100m long cable was installed into an underground tunnel. Commissioning test is scheduled at the end of September, 2005 and followed by long term operation test. In this paper, the installation of HTS cable system and initial results of system operation will be summarized.

  12. Method and system for controlling chemical reactions between superconductors and metals in superconducting cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Tengming

    2018-01-02

    A method, system, and apparatus for fabricating a high-strength Superconducting cable comprises pre-oxidizing at least one high-strength alloy wire, coating at least one Superconducting wire with a protective layer, and winding the high-strength alloy wire and the Superconducting wire to form a high-strength Superconducting cable.

  13. The insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS cable system in Icheon substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: Hansang80@korea.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Dong-Hee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Ryul [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Naeson-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-080 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Byeong-Mo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Munji-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong 5-ga, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► It is necessary to study lightning response of the HTS cable. ► The analytic model has been developed for the HTS cable in the Icheon substation. ► Well-designed surge arrester has been verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an insulation coordination and surge arrester design for HTS (High-Temperature Superconducting) cable system in Icheon substation in Korea. In the aspect of the economic analysis, since the HTS cable is very expensive, the insulation coordination to prevent the dielectric breakdown caused by the lightning surge should be considered carefully. Also, in the aspect of the power system reliability, since the HTS cable has much more capacity compared than conventional power cables and the ripple effect from the HTS cable failure may lead to the wide area blackout, an intensive study for insulation coordination from lightning surge is one of the most important considerations. In this paper, the insulation coordination for lightning surge is verified using HTS cable and power equipment models and the design of the proper surge arrester is proposed.

  14. 37 CFR 201.17 - Statements of Account covering compulsory licenses for secondary transmissions by cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... charges for security, alarm or facsimile services, charges for late payments, or charges for pay cable or... apartment house) which is charged by the cable system for the basic service of providing secondary...

  15. Structural integrity and damage assessment of high performance arresting cable systems using an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan; Prohaska, John; Bentley, Doug; Glasgow, Andy; Campbell, Richard

    2010-04-01

    Redondo Optics in collaboration with the Cortland Cable Company, TMT Laboratories, and Applied Fiber under a US Navy SBIR project is developing an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOSTM) system for the real-time, structural health monitoring, damage assessment, and lifetime prediction of next generation synthetic material arresting gear cables. The EDIFOSTM system represents a new, highly robust and reliable, technology that can be use for the structural damage assessment of critical cable infrastructures. The Navy is currently investigating the use of new, all-synthetic- material arresting cables. The arresting cable is one of the most stressed components in the entire arresting gear landing system. Synthetic rope materials offer higher performance in terms of the strength-to-weight characteristics, which improves the arresting gear engine's performance resulting in reduced wind-over-deck requirements, higher aircraft bring-back-weight capability, simplified operation, maintenance, supportability, and reduced life cycle costs. While employing synthetic cables offers many advantages for the Navy's future needs, the unknown failure modes of these cables remains a high technical risk. For these reasons, Redondo Optics is investigating the use of embedded fiber optic sensors within the synthetic arresting cables to provide real-time structural assessment of the cable state, and to inform the operator when a particular cable has suffered impact damage, is near failure, or is approaching the limit of its service lifetime. To date, ROI and its collaborators have developed a technique for embedding multiple sensor fibers within the strands of high performance synthetic material cables and use the embedded fiber sensors to monitor the structural integrity of the cable structures during tensile and compressive loads exceeding over 175,000-lbsf without any damage to the cable structure or the embedded fiber sensors.

  16. Research on the video detection device in the invisible part of stay cable anchorage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Deng, Nianchun; Xiao, Zexin

    2012-11-01

    The cables in anchorage zone of cable-stayed bridge are hidden within the embedded pipe, which leads to the difficulty for detecting the damage of the cables with visual inspection. We have built a detection device based on high-resolution video capture, realized the distance observing of invisible segment of stay cable and damage detection of outer surface of cable in the small volume. The system mainly consists of optical stents and precision mechanical support device, optical imaging system, lighting source, drived motor control and IP camera video capture system. The principal innovations of the device are ⑴A set of telescope objectives with three different focal lengths are designed and used in different distances of the monitors by means of converter. ⑵Lens system is far separated with lighting system, so that the imaging optical path could effectively avoid the harsh environment which would be in the invisible part of cables. The practice shows that the device not only can collect the clear surveillance video images of outer surface of cable effectively, but also has a broad application prospect in security warning of prestressed structures.

  17. Design and Installation of Nearshore Ocean Cable Protection Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if nec.) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Design. Cable installation retrieval & repair...Cable protection 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary & identify by block number) The U.S. Navy currentlyhas a requirment to install and...2-26 Data Requirements .. ....... ....... .. 2-26 Reporting .. .. ........ ....... .... 2-26 2.4.2 Logistcs

  18. Development of cable fed flash X-ray (FXR) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rakhee; Mitra, S.; Patel, A. S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, G.; Senthil, K.; Kumar, Ranjeet; Kolge, T. S.; Roy, Amitava; Acharya, S.; Biswas, D.; Sharma, Archana

    2017-08-01

    Flash X-ray sources driven by pulsed power find applications in industrial radiography, and a portable X-ray source is ideal where the radiography needs to be taken at the test site. A compact and portable flash X-ray (FXR) system based on a Marx generator has been developed with the high voltage fed to the FXR tube via a cable feed-through arrangement. Hard bremsstrahlung X-rays of few tens of nanosecond duration are generated by impinging intense electron beams on an anode target of high Z material. An industrial X-ray source is developed with source size as low as 1 mm. The system can be operated from 150 kV to 450 kV peak voltages and a dose of 10 mR has been measured at 1 m distance from the source window. The modeling of the FXR source has been carried out using particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations for the electron beam dynamics and X-ray generation, respectively. The angular dose profile of X-ray has been measured and compared with the simulation.

  19. Investigation of Tension Forces in A Stay Cable System of A Road Bridge Using Vibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawryszków Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author presents method of investigation of tension forces in stay cable systems using dynamical methods. Research was carried out during stay cable system installation on WN-24 viaduct near Poznań, that is way it was possible to compare tension forces indicated directly by devices using for tensioning of cable-stayed bridges with results achieved indirectly by means of dynamical methods. Discussion of results was presented. Advantages of dynamical methods and possible fields of application was described. This method, which has been rarely used before, may occur interesting alternative in diagnostics of bridges in comparison to traditional methods.

  20. Field test and theoretical analysis of electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on crossbonded cable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic pulse propagation velocity on a three-phase cable system, consisting of three single core (SC) cables in flat formation with an earth continuity conductor is under study. The propagation velocity is an important parameter for most travelling wave off- and online...... fault location methods and needs to be exactly known for optimal performance of these algorithm types. Field measurements are carried out on a 6.9 km and a 31.4 km 245 kV crossbonded cable system, and the results are analysed using the modal decomposition theory. Several ways for determining...

  1. A Cable-Passive Damper System for Sway and Skew Motion Control of a Crane Spreader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Duc Viet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the crane control problem is often approached by applying a certain active control command to some parts of the crane, this paper proposes a cable-passive damper system to reduce the vibration of a four-cable suspended crane spreader. The residual sway and skew motions of a crane spreader always produce the angle deflections between the crane cables and the crane spreader. The idea in this paper is to convert those deflections into energy dissipated by the viscous dampers, which connect the cables and the spreader. The proposed damper system is effective in reducing spreader sway and skew motions. Moreover, the optimal damping coefficient can be found analytically by minimizing the time integral of system energy. The numerical simulations show that the proposed passive system can assist the input shaping control of the trolley motion in reducing both sway and skew responses.

  2. Operation experiences with a 30 kV/100 MVA high temperature superconducting cable system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Däumling, Manfred; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2004-01-01

    of this demonstration project is to gain experience with HTS cables under realistic conditions in a live distribution network. Approximately 50 000 utility customers have their electric power supplied through the HTS cable. The cable system has delivered 226 GW h of energy and reached a maximum operating current......A superconducting cable based on Bi-2223 tape technology has been developed, installed and operated in the public network of Copenhagen Energy in a two-year period between May 2001 and May 2003. This paper gives a brief overview of the system and analyses some of the operation experiences. The aim...... of 1157 A. The operation experiences include over-currents of 6 kA due to faults on peripheral lines, commissioning, servicing and failure responses on the cooling system, continuous 24 h, 7 day per week monitoring and performance of the alarm system. The implications of these experiences for the future...

  3. Development of Real-time Seismic Cable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Asakawa, E.; Kawai, Y.; Ogasawara, Y.; Saeki, T.

    2007-12-01

    RSCS (Real-time seismic Cable System) is a new real-time seafloor reflection seismic observation system. It is a series of 3-component geophones and telemetry opto-electronics equipped into a high pressure resistant housing, which enables real-time seismic data acquisition at ultra deep sea. The first reflection seismic survey was carried out in March 2006. The geophone data show the high quality with the advantage such as precise timing with GPS link on board and superior sensor directivity. It is worthwhile for P- S converted wave processing as well as for P-P processing. The data processing is different from the conventional reflection seismic such as CDP method in the viewpoint of its geometry and P-S conversion. Precise velocity analysis and prestack migration solve the problem of its elevation difference between shot (sea surface) and receiver (sea bottom) point. The second seismic survey has been carried out in December 2006, equipped with accelerometer and hydrophone. These data was also very high quality as same as the geophone data. The accelerometer implies that the geophone will be replaceable with accelerometer. It means that there is a possibility to reduce the sensor size without gimbals mechanism. The hydrophone data is similar to the geophone data except the polarity change. This characteristic enables us to separate upgoing reflection from downgoing wave which includes only direct water waves and multiple reflections. The total data quality so far is very good compared to the conventional OBS systems. The RSCS has a great potential as a seabed observation system at deep sea.

  4. Development of a Self-Powered Magnetorheological Damper System for Cable Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihao Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new self-powered magnetorheological (MR damper control system was developed to mitigate cable vibration. The power source of the MR damper is directly harvested from vibration energy through a rotary permanent magnet direct current (DC generator. The generator itself can also serve as an electromagnetic damper. The proposed smart passive system also incorporates a roller chain and sprocket, transforming the linear motion of the cable into the rotational motion of the DC generator. The vibration mitigation performance of the presented self-powered MR damper system was evaluated by model tests with a 21.6 m long cable. A series of free vibration tests of the cable with a passively operated MR damper with constant voltage, an electromagnetic damper alone, and a self-powered MR damper system were performed. Finally, the vibration control mechanisms of the self-powered MR damper system were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the supplemental modal damping ratios of the cable in the first four modes can be significantly enhanced by the self-powered MR damper system, demonstrating the feasibility and effectiveness of the new smart passive system. The results also show that both the self-powered MR damper and the generator are quite similar to a combination of a traditional linear viscous damper and a negative stiffness device, and the negative stiffness can enhance the mitigation efficiency against cable vibration.

  5. Power System Technical Performance Issues Related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    The aim of this TB is to serve as a practical guide for preparing models and performing studies necessary during the assessment of the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with a large share of (long) AC cables. The brochure follows all phases of planning and analysis of a typical underground...... transmission project. For each phase and type of study proper cable models are recommended. Cable models are analyzed from various perspectives including sensitivity to variation of input parameters. Accuracy of parameters provided in data sheets by manufacturers is analyzed. Results of comprehensive...

  6. Online Location of Faults on AC Cables in Underground Transmission Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær

    difficulties for the fault locator systems currently in use and such can therefore not be applied directly. In this thesis, the analysis and development of a fault locator system capable of locating faults with high accuracy on crossbonded cables and hybrid lines is presented. The thesis is divided into five...... dependent on parameters describing the cable itself. The use of an impedance-based method for fault location on hybrid lines is examined. The very different fault impedances of the overhead lines and cable systems make a practical implementation of the fault locator difficult. Small deviations...... under fault conditions well, but the accuracy of the calculated impedance is low for fault location purposes. The neural networks can therefore not be trained and no impedance-based fault location method can be used for crossbonded cables or hybrid lines. The use of travelling wave-based methods...

  7. Design of power cable grounding wire anti-theft monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xisheng; Lu, Peng; Wei, Niansheng; Hong, Gang

    2018-01-01

    In order to prevent the serious consequences of the power grid failure caused by the power cable grounding wire theft, this paper presents a GPRS based power cable grounding wire anti-theft monitoring device system, which includes a camera module, a sensor module, a micro processing system module, and a data monitoring center module, a mobile terminal module. Our design utilize two kinds of methods for detecting and reporting comprehensive image, it can effectively solve the problem of power and cable grounding wire box theft problem, timely follow-up grounded cable theft events, prevent the occurrence of electric field of high voltage transmission line fault, improve the reliability of the safe operation of power grid.

  8. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a first of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last 6 years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students research...

  9. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a second of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last six years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students resea...

  10. High speed data transmission coaxial-cable in the space communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haohang; Huang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    An effective method is proved based on the scattering parameter of high speed 8-core coaxial-cable measured by vector network analyzer, and the semi-physical simulation is made to receive the eye diagram at different data transmission rate. The result can be apply to analysis decay and distortion of the signal through the coaxial-cable at high frequency, and can extensively design for electromagnetic compatibility of high-speed data transmission system.

  11. Equilibrium configurations of a cable drogue system towed in a helical motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Y.; Manor, H.

    The dynamical equilibrium configuration of a system consisting of a drogue attached to a towed flexible cable is examined for the particular case depicted by a helical vertical descent. The motion equations, together with boundary conditions, were solved numerically after nondimensional treatment, and a region was found where results are of multivalued nature. Different cable configurations in dynamic equilibrium conditions were presented; the influence of constrained factors such as angular velocity, radius of towpoint and vertical rate of descent are discussed.

  12. Influence of Thermal Treatment on Magnetic Properties of Steel Sheet Material Utilised in Cable Routing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemir Usak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of relax annealing aimed at removal of the residual stresses (so-called stress-relief annealing on various magnetic parameters, such as the relative magnetic amplitude permeability, coercivity, remanent flux density, etc. is discussed. Samples of steel cable tray material which is a part of commercially available cable routing system were investigated in order to find information about the properties important from the point of view of EMC requirements in extremely demanding industrial environment.

  13. Test-based approach to cable tray support system analysis and design: Behavior and test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigles, Damon G., E-mail: dreigles@engnovex.com [engNoveX, Inc., 19C Trolley Square, Wilmington, DE 19806 (United States); Brachmann, Ingo; Johnson, William H. [Bechtel Nuclear, Security & Environmental, 12011 Sunset Hills Rd, Suite 110, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Gürbüz, Orhan [Tobolski Watkins Engineering, Inc., 4125 Sorrento Valley Blvd, Suite B, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Describes dynamic response behavior of unistrut type cable tray supports. • Summarizes observations from past full-scale shake table test programs. • Outlines testing methodologies necessary to identify key system parameters. - Abstract: Nuclear power plant safety-related cable tray support systems subjected to seismic loadings were originally understood and designed to behave as linear elastic systems. This behavioral paradigm persisted until the early 1980s when, due to evolution of regulatory criteria, some as-installed systems needed to be qualified to higher seismic motions than originally designed for. This requirement prompted a more in-depth consideration of the true seismic response behavior of support systems. Several utilities initiated extensive test programs, which demonstrated that trapeze strut-type cable tray support systems exhibited inelastic and nonlinear response behaviors with plastic hinging at the connections together with high damping due to bouncing of cables in the trays. These observations were used to demonstrate and justify the seismic adequacy of the aforementioned as-installed systems. However, no formalized design methodology or criteria were ever established to facilitate use of these test data for future evaluations. This paper assimilates and reviews the various test data and conclusions for the purpose of developing a design methodology for the seismic qualification of safety-related cable tray support systems.

  14. High-stability 48-core bendable and movable optical cable for FAST telescope optical transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Pan, Gaofeng; Lin, Zhong; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Wenbai; Nan, Rendong; Li, Chunsheng; Gao, Guanjun; Luo, Wenyong; Jin, Chengjin; Song, Jinyou

    2017-11-01

    The construction of FAST telescope was completed in Guizhou province of China in September 2016, and a kind of novel high-stability 48-core bendable and movable optical cable was developed and applied in analog data optical transmission system of FAST. Novel structure and selective material of this optical cable ensure high stability of optical power in the process of cables round-trip motion when telescope is tracking a radio source. The 105 times bend and stretch accelerated experiment for this optical cable was implemented, and real-time optical and RF signal power fluctuation were measured. The physical structure of optical cables after 105 times round-trip motion is in good condition; the real-time optical power attenuation fluctuation is smaller than 0.044 dB; the real-time RF power fluctuation is smaller than 0.12 dB. The optical cable developed in this letter meets the requirement of FAST and has been applied in FAST telescope.

  15. An evaluation of high voltage cable-coupler performance for underground mine power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bise, C.; Morley, L.A.

    1982-07-01

    High voltage cable couplers are convenient and widely used accessories in modern coal-mine power distribution systems for aiding in the extension and retraction of power-feeder cables throughout a mine. Coupler design has tried to keep pace with the industry's desire to move to higher distribution levels, but the increase in recorded failures of 15 kV-class couplers, which serve the distribution levels of 12.47 kV and above, have inhibited this transition. The problems associated with high-voltage cable couplers are analyzed. Manufacturing, testing, and mounting practices are reviewed. A discussion of a coupler's operating environment is also included. On the basis of the aforementioned conditions, a testing standard is developed and various coupler designs are subjected to its requirements. An analysis of the test results is provided. Although new couplers can satisfy the performance requirements of the cables to which they are mounted, partial discharge appears to be the failure mechanism of concern. The effects of partial discharge are magnified where voids, either in the insulation, cable termination, or potting compound, occur. In this regard, it is shown that the quality of installation of a coupler onto cable is quite critical. By slightly altering the mounting procedure satisfactory partial-discharge readings are produced on a test coupler.

  16. Connected Lighting Systems Efficiency Study$-$ PoE Cable Energy Losses, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Karsten [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-11-30

    First report in a study of the efficiency of connected lighting systems. The report summarizes the results of an exploratory study investigating power losses in Ethernet cables used between PoE switches and luminaires in PoE connected lighting systems. Testing was conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Connected Lighting Test Bed in September 2017. The results were analyzed to explore the impact of cable selection on PoE lighting system energy efficiency, as well as the effectiveness of guidelines recently introduced by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C137 Lighting Systems Committee.

  17. Transport characteristics of the 100 m KEPCO HTS cable system for balanced three-phase currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. Y.; Ma, Y. H.; Choi, B. J.; Ryu, K.; Sohn, S. H.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    Since a 100 m, 22.9 kV/50 MVA high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable system was installed at the Gochang test yard of Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO) in 2005, a long-term test has been performed. In this paper, the transport characteristics of the KEPCO HTS cable system were examined by the electrical and calorimetric methods. To analyze the shield current in this system, an equivalent circuit model for the KEPCO HTS cable was suggested, and the calculated shield current compared with the measured one. The results show that the electrically measured total loss, which includes the AC and ohmic losses, corresponds well with the loss measured from the calorimetric method. The measured AC loss of the HTS cable is proportional to the 2.5th power of transport current, and four times larger than the conductor loss calculated from the monoblock model. This is because the conductor's geometry in the HTS cable is not identical to a cylindrical superconductor in the monoblock model, its temperature rises due to a thick insulator, and the shield loss is included in the measured AC loss. In addition, the measured AC resistance of the current-lead is constant regardless of transport current, particularly in the low current region. Finally, the shield current calculated from our equivalent circuit model is in good agreement with the measured one.

  18. Development of Integrated Assessment System for Underground Power Cable Performance: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina; Soliha Sahimi, Nur; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-08-01

    The basic operation of any electrical machines that is catered to serve needs of civilization involves electrical power which is the main source to trigger the internal mechanism in the machines then transfer the power to other form of energy such as mechanical, light, sound and etc. The supplies of electrical does not happen just by providing the source itself, it has load carrying agent which in many cases, user would refer to it as cable. Specifically, it is the power cable which its ampacity depends significantly on the operation temperature and load stress on it. Apart from having to focus on providing improvement on improving efficiency on the source itself, power cable plays and important role because without it, current ranging from low to high could not be transmitted and hence a failure of the power system generally. Studies have conducted to discuss whether which factor contributes relatively more to the causes of power cable failure or breakdown. Such factors can be narrowed down to the three major causes which are over temperature, over voltage and stress caused by over current. Over current is one of the factor which is depends on the usage of the power system itself. The higher the usage of the power system, higher the chances of over current to take place. This will then produce load stress on the cable which eventually destroy the insulator of the cable and slowly reach the core of the cable. It is believed that an assessment method should be implemented in order to predict the performance and failure rate of the power cable and use this prediction as reference rather than just letting power failure to happen anytime unpredictable which cause huge inconvenience to users and industries. Not only do a method should be implemented, it should be as easy to be used and understood by large range of users and integrated by a graphical user interface to be used. Therefore, this research will further narrow down on the approaches to do so and the location

  19. HTS Transmission Cable System for installation in the Long Island Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Frank [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Durand, Fabien [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States); Maguire, James [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Department of Energy (DOE) Award DE-FC26-07NT43240 was issued on October 1, 2007. Referred to as LIPA2, the principal objectives of the project were to develop key components required to deploy and demonstrate second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) cables in a 600 meter (2000 feet) underground segment of a 138kV three-phase transmission circuit of the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) power grid. A previous effort under DOE Award DE-FC36-03GO13032 (referred to as LIPA1) resulted in installation (and subsequent successful operation) of first-generation (1G) HTS cables at the LIPA site. As with LIPA1, American Superconductor (AMSC) led the effort for LIPA2 and was responsible for overall management of the project and producing sufficient 2G wire to fabricate the required cable. Nexans' tasks included design/manufacture/installation of the cable, joint (splice), cable terminations and field repairable cryostat; while work by Air Liquide involved engineering and installation support for the refrigeration system modifications.

  20. Installation of seafloor cabled seismic and tsunami observation system developed by using ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Yamada, Tomoaki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shiobara, Hajime; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    A seafloor cabled system is useful for study of earth science and disaster mitigation, because real-time and long-term observation can be performed. Therefore seafloor cabled systems with seismometers and tsunami-meters have been used over the past 25 years around Japan. Because increase of a number of sensors is needed, a new system with low costs for production, deployment and operation is expected. In addition, the new system should have sufficient for flexibility of measurements after installation. To achieve these demands, we started development of a new system using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for data transmission and system control. The new system can be made compact since software processes various measurements. Reliability of the system is kept by using redundant system which is easily constructed using the ICT. The first system based on this concept was developed as Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system and deployed in Japan Sea. Development of the second system started from 2012. The Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer and Tsunami-meter (OBCST) system has both seismometers and tsunami-meters. Each observation node has a CPU and FPGAs. The OBCST system uses standard TCP/IP protocol with a speed of 1 Gbps for data transmission, system control and monitoring. IEEE-1588 (PTP) is implemented to synchronize a real-time clock, and accuracy is less than 300 ns. We developed two types of observation node. One equips a pressure gauge as tsunami sensor, and another has an external port for additional observation sensor using PoE. Deployment of the OBCST system was carried out in September 2015 by using a commercial telecommunication cable ship. The noise levels at the OBCST system are comparable to those at the existing cabled system off Sanriku. It is found that the noise levels at the OBCST system are low at frequencies greater than 2 Hz and smaller than 0.1 Hz. This level of ambient seismic noise is close to a typical system noise. From

  1. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  2. Integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for a cable-stayed bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xu; Sun, Dezhang; Xie, Xu

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province). The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  3. Integrated System of Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Management for a Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to construct structural health monitoring systems for large important bridges. Zhijiang Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge that was built recently over the Hangzhou Qiantang River (the largest river in Zhejiang Province. The length of Zhijiang Bridge is 478 m, which comprises an arched twin-tower space and a twin-cable plane structure. As an example, the present study describes the integrated system of structural health monitoring and intelligent management for Zhijiang Bridge, which comprises an information acquisition system, data management system, evaluation and decision-making system, and application service system. The monitoring components include the working environment of the bridge and various factors that affect bridge safety, such as the stress and strain of the main bridge structure, vibration, cable force, temperature, and wind speed. In addition, the integrated system includes a forecasting and decision-making module for real-time online evaluation, which provides warnings and makes decisions based on the monitoring information. From this, the monitoring information, evaluation results, maintenance decisions, and warning information can be input simultaneously into the bridge monitoring center and traffic emergency center to share the monitoring data, thereby facilitating evaluations and decision making using the system.

  4. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  5. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  6. Holbrook Substation Superconductor Cable System, Long Island, New York Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, James; McNamara, Joseph

    2010-06-25

    The LIPA Superconductor project broke ground on July 4, 2006, was first energized on April 22, 2008 (Earth Day) and was commissioned on June 25, 2008. Since commissioning, up until early March, 2009, there were numerous refrigeration events that impacted steady state operations. This led to the review of the alarms that were being generated and a rewrite of the program logic in order to decrease the hypersensitivity surrounding these alarms. The high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable was energized on March 5, 2009 and ran uninterrupted until a human error during a refrigeration system switchover knocked the cable out of the grid in early February 2010. The HTS cable was in the grid uninterrupted from March 5, 2009 to February 4, 2010. Although there have been refrigeration events (propagated mainly by voltage sags/surges) during this period, the system was able to automatically switch over from the primary to the backup refrigeration system without issue as required during this period. On February 4, 2010, when switching from the backup over to the primary refrigeration system, two rather than one liquid nitrogen pumps were started inadvertently by a human error (communication) causing an overpressure in the cable cooling line. This in turn activated the pressure relief valve located in the grounding substation. The cable was automatically taken out of the grid without any damage to the components or system as a result of signals sent from the AMSC control cabinet to the LIPA substation. The cable was switched back into the grid again on March 16, 2010 without incident and has been operational since that time. Since switching from the backup to the primary is not an automatic process, a recent improvement was added to the refrigeration operating system to allow remote commands to return the system from backup to primary cooling. This improvement makes the switching procedure quicker since travel to the site to perform this operation is no longer necessary and

  7. Smart monitoring system based on adaptive current control for superconducting cable test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Ballarino, Amalia; Daponte, Vincenzo; Montenero, Giuseppe; Svelto, Cesare

    2014-12-01

    A smart monitoring system for superconducting cable test is proposed with an adaptive current control of a superconducting transformer secondary. The design, based on Fuzzy Gain Scheduling, allows the controller parameters to adapt continuously, and finely, to the working variations arising from transformer nonlinear dynamics. The control system is integrated in a fully digital control loop, with all the related benefits, i.e., high noise rejection, ease of implementation/modification, and so on. In particular, an accurate model of the system, controlled by a Fuzzy Gain Scheduler of the superconducting transformer, was achieved by an experimental campaign through the working domain at several current ramp rates. The model performance was characterized by simulation, under all the main operating conditions, in order to guide the controller design. Finally, the proposed monitoring system was experimentally validated at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in comparison to the state-of-the-art control system [P. Arpaia, L. Bottura, G. Montenero, and S. Le Naour, "Performance improvement of a measurement station for superconducting cable test," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 095111 (2012)] of the Facility for the Research on Superconducting Cables, achieving a significant performance improvement: a reduction in the system overshoot by 50%, with a related attenuation of the corresponding dynamic residual error (both absolute and RMS) up to 52%.

  8. New compact ocean bottom cabled seismometer system deployed in the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Yamada, Tomoaki; Machida, Yuya; Shinbo, Takashi; Sakai, Shin'ichi

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese islands are positioned near the subduction zones, and large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in marine areas around Japan. However, the number of permanent earthquake observatories in the oceans is quite limited. It is important for understanding generation of large earthquakes to observe seismic activities on the seafloor just above these seismogenic zones. An ocean bottom cabled seismometer (OBCS) is the best solution because data can be collected in real-time. We have developed a new compact OBCS system. A developed system is controlled by a microprocessor, and signals from accelerometers are 24-bit digitized. Clock is delivered from the global positioning system receiver on a landing station using a simple dedicated line. Data collected at each cabled seismometer (CS) are transmitted using standard Internet Protocol to landing stations. The network configuration of the system adopts two dual methods. We installed the first practical OBCS system in the Japan Sea, where large earthquakes occurred in past. The first OBCS system has a total length of 25 km and 4 stations with 5 km interval. Installation was carried out in August 2010. The CSs and single armored optical submarine cable were buried 1 m below the seafloor to avoid a conflict with fishing activity. The data are stored on a landing station and sent to Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo by using the Internet. After the installation, data are being collected continuously. According to burial of the CSs, seismic ambient noises are smaller than those observed on seafloor.

  9. Characteristic Analysis of DC Electric Railway Systems with Superconducting Power Cables Connecting Power Substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, H.; Matsushita, N.; Koseki, T.; Tomita, M.

    2014-05-01

    The application of superconducting power cables to DC electric railway systems has been studied. It could leads to an effective use of regenerative brake, improved energy efficiency, effective load sharing among the substations, etc. In this study, an electric circuit model of a DC feeding system is built and numerical simulation is carried out using MATLAB-Simulink software. A modified electric circuit model with an AC power grid connection taken into account is also created to simulate the influence of the grid connection. The analyses have proved that a certain amount of energy can be conserved by introducing superconducting cables, and that electric load distribution and concentration among the substations depend on the substation output voltage distribution.

  10. Seismic performance of cable-sliding friction bearing system for isolated bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wancheng; Wang, Binbin; Cheung, Pakchiu; Cao, Xinjian; Rong, Zhaojun

    2012-03-01

    During past strong earthquakes, highway bridges have sustained severe damage or even collapse due to excessive displacements and/or very large lateral forces. For commonly used isolation bearings with a pure friction sliding surface, seismic forces may be reduced but displacements are often unconstrained. In this paper, an alternative seismic bearing system, called the cable-sliding friction bearing system, is developed by integrating seismic isolation devices with displacement restrainers consisting of cables attached to the upper and lower plates of the bearing. Restoring forces are provided to limit the displacements of the sliding component. Design parameters including the length and stiffness of the cables, friction coefficient, strength of the shear bolt in a fixed-type bearing, and movements under earthquake excitations are discussed. Laboratory testing of a prototype bearing subjected to vertical loads and quasi-static cyclic lateral loads, and corresponding numerical finite element simulation analysis, were carried out. It is shown that the numerical simulation shows good agreement with the experimental force-displacement hysteretic response, indicating the viability of the new bearing system. In addition, practical application of this bearing system to a multi-span bridge in China and its design advantages are discussed.

  11. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  12. Power frequency magnetic fields of HV cable systems; Netzfrequente magnetische Felder von Hochspannungskabelanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, W. [Pirelli Kabel und Systeme GmbH und Co. KG, Kraftwerk Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-14

    The effects of power frequency magnetic fields caused among others by HV cable systems become more and more a subject of discussion between experts and in the public. For deliverers of HV cable systems it is therefore necessary to develop suitable solutions for the reduction of magnetic fields and to realize them in a technical and economic optimum way. In order to quantify magnetic fields parameters are necessary which consider the specific characteristic of multiphase magnetic fields. Basing on this a summary of measures to reduce the magnetic fields of HV cable systems is given and illustrated using suitable examples. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Auswirkungen netzfrequenter magnetischer Felder, die auch von Hochspannungskabelanlagen ausgehen, werden in Fachkreisen und in der Oeffentlichkeit zunehmend zu einem Gegenstand der Diskussion. Fuer Lieferanten solcher Kabelanlagen erwaechst daraus die Notwendigkeit, geeignete Loesungen zur Reduzierung der magnetischen Felder zu erarbeiten und bei Bedarf in technisch und wirtschaftlich sinnvoller Weise zu realisieren. Zur Quantifizierung muessen charakteristische Groessen herangezogen werden, die die Besonderheiten mehrphasiger magnetischer Felder beruecksichtigen. (orig.)

  13. Forced cooling of underground electric power transmission lines. Part II. Heat conduction in the cable insulation of force-cooled underground electrical power transmission systems. Yearly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.V.; Glicksman, L.R.; Rohsenow, W.M.

    1974-05-01

    Forced-cooled systems for oil-filled pipe-type cable circuits have recently been considered. In such systems the conduction resistance through the paper insulation of the cables is the limiting thermal resistance. Assuming bilateral symmetry, steady-state conditions, and two-dimensional heat transfer, a FORTRAN IV computer program was written to solve the heat conduction problem in the cable insulation for abritrary configurations of a three-cable system. For a steel pipe, a cable system is most susceptible to overheating in the equilateral configuration with the three cables touching. Proximity effects are very significant in forced cooling, especially when cables are not provided with a copper tape under the insulation moisture seal assembly, accounting for as much as 21 percent of the total oil temperature rise between refrigeration stations. This figure, however, is reduced to 8 percent when 0.005 in.-thick copper tape is present.

  14. XLPE cable systems for 500 kV; VPE-Kabelanlagen fuer 500 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.; Poehler, S.; Schroth, R.G. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-10-05

    After intensive development tests including type tests in accordance with IEC 840, Siemens eventually completed the prequalification test recommended by Cigre for their XLPE cable systems up to 400 kV. Based on this excellent technological state, one of the world`s first orders for the installation of a 400 kV XLPE cable system was given to Siemens in 1996. After successful conquest of the 400 kV level, further improvements have been achieved to match the even higher demands in cables and accessories operated at 500 kV service voltage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nach intensiven Entwicklungspruefungen einschliesslich Typpruefungen in Anlehnung an IEC 840 hat Siemens auch den Praequalifikationstest nach Cigre-Empfehlung fuer VPE-Kabelsysteme bis 400 kV durchgefuehrt und bestanden. Basierend auf diesem hervorragenden technischen Stand wurde weltweit einer der ersten Auftraege fuer den Bau einer 400-kV-VPE-Kabelanlage an Siemens vergeben. Nach der erfolgreichen Einfuehrung der VPE-Kabeltechnik in der Spannungsebene 400 kV wurden weitere Verbesserungen realisiert, um die nochmals erhoehten Anforderungen bei 500 kV zu erfuellen. (orig.)

  15. PPM-based System for Guided Waves Communication Through Corrosion Resistant Multi-wire Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trane, G.; Mijarez, R.; Guevara, R.; Pascacio, D.

    Novel wireless communication channels are a necessity in applications surrounded by harsh environments, for instance down-hole oil reservoirs. Traditional radio frequency (RF) communication schemes are not capable of transmitting signals through metal enclosures surrounded by corrosive gases and liquids. As an alternative to RF, a pulse position modulation (PPM) guided waves communication system has been developed and evaluated using a corrosion resistant 4H18 multi-wire cable, commonly used to descend electronic gauges in down-hole oil applications, as the communication medium. The system consists of a transmitter and a receiver that utilizes a PZT crystal, for electrical/mechanical coupling, attached to each extreme of the multi-wire cable. The modulator is based on a microcontroller, which transmits60 kHz guided wave pulses, and the demodulator is based on a commercial digital signal processor (DSP) module that performs real time DSP algorithms. Experimental results are presented, which were obtained using a 1m corrosion resistant 4H18multi-wire cable, commonly used with downhole electronic gauges in the oil sector. Although there was significant dispersion and multiple mode excitations of the transmitted guided wave energy pulses, the results show that data rates on the order of 500 bits per second are readily available employing PPM and simple communications techniques.

  16. Identification of problems when using long high voltage AC cable in transmission system II: Resonance & Harmonic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saeed; Wiechowski, W.; Randrup, M.

    2008-01-01

    cable in transmission system. The objective of this paper and the companion paper is to address the most important problems expected in transmission system with relatively larger share of long HV underground cables. The end goal will be a guideline to special solutions and precautions to avoid dangerous...... over voltage problems and also resonance problems in a transmission network with future increased share of cables. Two major categories of problems are switching transient and resonance problems. In each category of the possible problems, first some theoretical background is provided......Within European countries, Denmark was been at the forefront of replacing the transmission lines with cables. The project was supplying the power to the greater Copenhagen area in early 1990s. Recently, the Danish TSO Energinet.dk has initiated a research project for analyzing the HV underground...

  17. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  18. Optical Cable Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, I. D.

    1984-08-01

    Optical cable applications can be divided into four major market segments. These are telecommunication, data, video and military communication. For the majority of the telecommunication, data, and video applications, a loose tube or loose ribbon design can be manufactured without incurring a microbending loss penalty. Fibre performance in the loose tube cables can be maximized by optimizing the lay length, tube dimension and pitch diameter. At present, high quality cables using both single and multimode fibre are being manufactured in volume with no additional microbending loss. For example, single and multimode cables with loss of 0.5 dB/km 1300 nm and very high bandwidths or low dispersion have been successfully installed in many cities. An example of this cable is shown in Figure 1. These cables have been used for direct buried, duct system, aerial or underwater installations.

  19. 'Green' Submarine Cable Systems for Ocean/Climate Monitoring and Disaster Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. R.; Butler, R.; Howe, B. M.; Bueti, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    A recent joint initiative between three UN agencies is proposing to develop trans-ocean mini-observatories to measure changing seafloor ocean observables. A Joint Task Force (JTF), established in 2012 by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, is examining novel uses for submarine telecommunication cables. With ITU secretariat support, the JTF is developing a strategy and roadmap that could lead to enabling the availability of modified 'green' submarine cable systems equipped with scientific sensors (such as temperature, pressure and acceleration) for climate monitoring and disaster risk reduction (particularly tsunamis). If successful and needing support from industry and regulatory bodies, a wide network of mini-observatories could be established at many places across the world's ocean floors to measure these important parameters accurately over several decades. The initiative addresses two main issues: a) the need for sustained climate-quality data from the sparsely observed deep oceans and continental slopes but extending into coastal waters; and b) the desire to increase the reliability and integrity of the global tsunami warning networks. Presently, plans are being developed to launch a pilot project with the active involvement of cable industry players and existing ocean observatory researchers.

  20. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  1. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  2. Line Differential Protection Scheme Modelling for Underground 420 kV Cable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal; Bak, Claus Leth; Dollerup, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a specific relay model and an HVAC (High Voltage Alternating Current) cable system, a detailed approach to EMTDC/PSCAD modelling of protective relays is presented. Such approach allows to create complex and accurate relay models derived from the original algorithms. Relay...... models can be applied with various systems, allowing to obtain the most optimal configuration of the protective relaying. The present paper describes modelling methodology on the basis of Siemens SIPROTEC 4 7SD522/610. Relay model was verified experimentally with its real equivalent by both EMTP......-simulated and real world generated current signals connected to the relay....

  3. Line Differential Protection Scheme Modelling for Underground 420 kV Cable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a specific relay model and an HVAC (High Voltage Alternating Current) cable system, a new approach to EMTDC/PSCAD modelling of protective relays is presented. Such approach allows to create complex and accurate relay models derived from the original algorithms. Relay models...... can be applied with various systems, allowing to obtain the most optimal configuration of the protective relaying. The present paper describes modelling methodology on the basis of Siemens SIPROTEC 4 7SD522/610. Relay model was verified experimentally with its real equivalent by both EMTP......-simulated and real world generated current signals connected to the relay....

  4. Computational analysis of nonlinearities within dynamics of cable-based driving systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, G. D.; Nastac, S.

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with computational nonlinear dynamics of mechanical systems containing some flexural parts within the actuating scheme, and, especially, the situations of the cable-based driving systems were treated. It was supposed both functional nonlinearities and the real characteristic of the power supply, in order to obtain a realistically computer simulation model being able to provide very feasible results regarding the system dynamics. It was taken into account the transitory and stable regimes during a regular exploitation cycle. The authors present a particular case of a lift system, supposed to be representatively for the objective of this study. The simulations were made based on the values of the essential parameters acquired from the experimental tests and/or the regular practice in the field. The results analysis and the final discussions reveal the correlated dynamic aspects within the mechanical parts, the driving system, and the power supply, whole of these supplying potential sources of particular resonances, within some transitory phases of the working cycle, and which can affect structural and functional dynamics. In addition, it was underlines the influences of computational hypotheses on the both quantitative and qualitative behaviour of the system. Obviously, the most significant consequence of this theoretical and computational research consist by developing an unitary and feasible model, useful to dignify the nonlinear dynamic effects into the systems with cable-based driving scheme, and hereby to help an optimization of the exploitation regime including a dynamics control measures.

  5. Superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank; Marzahn, Erik

    2010-05-04

    A superconductor cable is described, having a superconductive flexible cable core (1) , which is laid in a cryostat (2, 3, 4), in which the cable core (1) runs in the cryostat (2, 3, 4) in the form of a wave or helix at room temperature.

  6. Modelling, Simulation and Testing of a Reconfigurable Cable-Based Parallel Manipulator as Motion Aiding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Castelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the modelling, simulation and experimental tests of a cable-based parallel manipulator to be used as an aiding or guiding system for people with motion disabilities. There is a high level of motivation for people with a motion disability or the elderly to perform basic daily-living activities independently. Therefore, it is of great interest to design and implement safe and reliable motion assisting and guiding devices that are able to help end-users. In general, a robot for a medical application should be able to interact with a patient in safety conditions, i.e. it must not damage people or surroundings; it must be designed to guarantee high accuracy and low acceleration during the operation. Furthermore, it should not be too bulky and it should exert limited wrenches after close interaction with people. It can be advisable to have a portable system which can be easily brought into and assembled in a hospital or a domestic environment. Cable-based robotic structures can fulfil those requirements because of their main characteristics that make them light and intrinsically safe. In this paper, a reconfigurable four-cable-based parallel manipulator has been proposed as a motion assisting and guiding device to help people to accomplish a number of tasks, such as an aiding or guiding system to move the upper and lower limbs or the whole body. Modelling and simulation are presented in the ADAMS environment. Moreover, experimental tests are reported as based on an available laboratory prototype.

  7. Surgical treatment of transverse patella fractures by the cable pin system with a minimally invasive technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ningfang; Ni, Haijian; Ding, Wenbin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Bai, Yushu; Wang, Chuanfeng; Zhao, Yingchuan; Shi, Zhicai; Li, Ming; Zhang, Qiulin

    2012-04-01

    Transverse patella fractures are the most common type of patella fractures. Minimally invasive surgical technique for treatment of transverse patella fractures with the Cable Pin System has not been previously reported. Thirty-four patients with displaced transverse fractures of the patella were included in this prospective study and were operatively treated by the Cable Pin System with a minimally invasive technique. Postoperative evaluation was based on radiographs, Visual Analog Scale of pain, range of motion, and Bostman grading scale. A total of 31 patients were finally included, with an average follow-up period of 21 months. The average operation time was 48 minutes. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was used for 2 to 4 times (average: 2.4 times). Radiographic evidence of solid fracture union was observed in all cases in a mean period of 7.2 weeks. The Visual Analog Scale score for pain was 3.3 ± 1.4 and 1.5 ± 1.3 at 4 weeks after surgery and when radiographic fracture healing was achieved, respectively. Twenty-nine patients achieved full knee range of motion, while two patients had 10° loss of full flexion at the final follow-up visit. The average Bostman score was 29.1/30 (range, 27-30) at 1 year after surgery, and an evaluation of "excellent" was observed in 30 patients at the final follow-up visit. Surgical treatment of transverse patella fractures by the Cable Pin System with a minimally invasive technique was shown to provide satisfactory clinical results and excellent knee functions, with less pain and low incidence of complications. It could be a new option for treatment of transverse patella fractures.

  8. Real-time seismic observation using new compact ocean bottom cabled system in Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Yamada, T.; Sakai, S.; Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Machida, Y.; Shinbo, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Utada, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    2010-12-01

    Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometers (OBCS), where the sensors are equipped in a hermetically-sealed case and these cases are connected with cables, is the best solution for seismic observation in marine area. A few OBCSs, consisting of a few cabled seismometers, were developed based on a submarine telecommunication cable technology, and have been used over the past 25 years in Japan. Although the existing OBCSs have realized a significant contribution to the study of seismic activity, the number of seismometers is insufficient for high resolution observations of a marine area. Therefore we developed a new OBCS system to make a high density observation in the marine areas. In Japan, GPS observations with a dense station distribution revealed that the central coastal area of the Japan Sea has large strain rate, which is named the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ). The formation of the NKTZ is believed to be related to the plate subduction. In the NKTZ, there were several large earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7. For example, Niigata earthquake occurred in 1963, and gave large damage. Because the source region of the Niigata earthquake was located in the Japan Sea off Niigata, central Japan and the number of seismic stations of the regional seismic network was limited at the occurrence, characteristics of the earthquake have not been revealed well. There is a possibility to clarify the nature of the Niigata earthquake by detailed research of the seismic activity at the present. Therefore we decided to install the first practical OBCS system in the source area of the Niigata earthquake. The developed OBCS uses small three accelerometers as a seismic sensor. The CS is controlled by Linux system. Data collected with a time stamp at each CS are transmitted using standard IP data transmission to landing station. The network of the OBCS has redundant configuration. The electronics unit, three seismometers, power unit including zener diodes, and six SPFs are mounted into

  9. Research on Far-Field Wavelet's Extraction and Application of Vertical Cable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangchun; Xiao, Qingsong; Xia, Changliang; Wu, Zhongliang; Xie, Chengliang

    2017-04-01

    In marine seismic exploration, ghost wave and bubble effect reduce the vertical resolution and interpretation accuracy seriously. Here firstly the far-field wavelet including source wavelet, ghost wave and bubble effect recorded by the vertical cable system (VCS) is extracted. Then, filters are designed using the extracted far-field wavelet to eliminate ghost wave, bubble effect and source wavelet. At last, the designed filters are applied to the seismic data of VCS. The results show that this method can eliminate ghost wave, bubble effect and source wavelet effectively and the vertical resolution of the seismic data is improved obviously.

  10. Final Report: MaRSPlus Sensor System Electrical Cable Management and Distributed Motor Control Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin

    2011-01-01

    The success of JPL's Next Generation Imaging Spectrometer (NGIS) in Earth remote sensing has inspired a follow-on instrument project, the MaRSPlus Sensor System (MSS). One of JPL's responsibilities in the MSS project involves updating the documentation from the previous JPL airborne imagers to provide all the information necessary for an outside customer to operate the instrument independently. As part of this documentation update, I created detailed electrical cabling diagrams to provide JPL technicians with clear and concise build instructions and a database to track the status of cables from order to build to delivery. Simultaneously, a distributed motor control system is being developed for potential use on the proposed 2018 Mars rover mission. This system would significantly reduce the mass necessary for rover motor control, making more mass space available to other important spacecraft systems. The current stage of the project consists of a desktop computer talking to a single "cold box" unit containing the electronics to drive a motor. In order to test the electronics, I developed a graphical user interface (GUI) using MATLAB to allow a user to send simple commands to the cold box and display the responses received in a user-friendly format.

  11. Power System Technical Performance Issues related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, W.; der Sluis, L.V.; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...... for assessing the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with large share of AC cable lines. This paper besides providing a background for formulation of WG C4.502 and its overall aim, describes the tasks that were accomplished before the interim report was submitted to Study Committee C4 System Technical...... Performance in August 2010. The work in the WG is ongoing and final report will be ready according to the time schedule in 2012. The focus of this paper is in particular to show all issues related to system technical performance with assigned weights in terms of their importance and/or uniqueness for cable...

  12. Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, on behalf of Cigre WG C4.502, W.; Sluis, L. V. der; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...... for assessing the technical performance of HV/EHV systems with large share of AC cable lines. This paper besides providing a background for formulation of WG C4.502 and its overall aim, describes the tasks that were accomplished before the interim report was submitted to Study Committee C4 System Technical...... Performance in August 2010. The work in the WG is ongoing and final report will be ready according to the time schedule in 2012. The focus of this paper is in particular to show all issues related to system technical performance with assigned weights in terms of their importance and/or uniqueness for cable...

  13. Multi-channel Data Acquisition System for a 500 m DC HTS Power Cable in Ishikari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yury V.; Chikumoto, Noriko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Takano, Hirohisa; Inoue, Noriyuki; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    Reduction of heat penetrating into the cryogenic region is the important method of optimization of superconducting devices. In the cases of short-range power transmission lines and compact HTS devices like magnets, the heat leakage through current leads is relatively large. In order to decrease this contribution, current leads equipped with Peltier elements can be used. The mentioned technology is being actively developed in the Chubu University. Commercial samples of Peltier current leads are installed at the terminals of 500-meter DC HTS cable in Ishikari (Hokkaido). This cable is designed for 5 kA. The inner conducting layer consists of 37 DI-BSCCO HTS tapes from Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. with a critical current of 180 A; and the outer one consists of 35 tapes of the same type. Each end of the cable's tape is connected to the individual Peltier current lead. Accordingly, each of the two terminals is equipped with 72 Peltier current leads, 144 pieces in total. In order to examine behavior of the current leads in detail, each piece is supplied with two thermocouples; there are also voltage taps on feedthrough and on HTS tape end. In addition, current through Peltier current lead can be measured by means of individual current transformer. The hardware part of the data acquisition system includes four Keithley 3706A multimeters equipped with 60-channel model 3724 FET multiplexer cards. Therefore, 144 data blocks are formed. Furthermore, there are 72 measurements of a voltage drop across HTS tape. Sampling period is set to be 3 s. The program part of the data acquisition system was written using LabVIEW software solution (National Instruments Corp.).

  14. Feasibility Study on Tension Estimation Technique for Hanger Cables Using the FE Model-Based System Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-Sik Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanger cables in suspension bridges are partly constrained by horizontal clamps. So, existing tension estimation methods based on a single cable model are prone to higher errors as the cable gets shorter, making it more sensitive to flexural rigidity. Therefore, inverse analysis and system identification methods based on finite element models are suggested recently. In this paper, the applicability of system identification methods is investigated using the hanger cables of Gwang-An bridge. The test results show that the inverse analysis and systemic identification methods based on finite element models are more reliable than the existing string theory and linear regression method for calculating the tension in terms of natural frequency errors. However, the estimation error of tension can be varied according to the accuracy of finite element model in model based methods. In particular, the boundary conditions affect the results more profoundly when the cable gets shorter. Therefore, it is important to identify the boundary conditions through experiment if it is possible. The FE model-based tension estimation method using system identification method can take various boundary conditions into account. Also, since it is not sensitive to the number of natural frequency inputs, the availability of this system is high.

  15. Development and Improvement of an Intelligent Cable Monitoring System for Underground Distribution Networks Using Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintae Cho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With power systems switching to smart grids, real-time and on-line monitoring technologies for underground distribution power cables have become a priority. Most distribution components have been developed with self-diagnostic sensors to realize self-healing, one of the smart grid functions in a distribution network. Nonetheless, implementing a real-time and on-line monitoring system for underground distribution cables has been difficult because of high cost and low sensitivity. Nowadays, optical fiber composite power cables (OFCPCs are being considered for communication and power delivery to cope with the increasing communication load in a distribution network. Therefore, the application of distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology on OFCPCs used as underground distribution lines is studied for the real-time and on-line monitoring of the underground distribution power cables. Faults can be reduced and operating ampacity of the underground distribution system can be increased. This paper presents the development and improvement of an intelligent cable monitoring system for the underground distribution power system, using DTS technology and OFCPCs as the underground distribution lines in the field.

  16. An overview of the ITER cabling network and cable database management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonara, Jashwant, E-mail: jashwant.Sonara@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046-13067, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Beltran, David; Pintea, Bogdan; Hourtoule, Joel; Benfatto, Ivone [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046-13067, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Kun Ho; Jung, Sun Kyung; Lee, Cheoung-Joon [KEPCO E& C, Yonggudaero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • More than 80,000 cables have been registered into ITER centralized cable database. • This cabling represents 28 ITER plant systems and 21,000 equipments including 61,000 non-safety cables and 7300 safety cables. • Development of unique cable engineering management system for diversified cabling requirement. • Use of 2D and 3D softwares and integration of both softwares into bespoke software which can handle 2D and 3D features of the tray network. - Abstract: ITER is a nuclear fusion facility, where many systems with varying functional and physical characteristics coexist. This makes the cabling requirements diverse too. The design of the ITER demands extensive integration of many systems interfaces. This process starts by collating cable requirement data to form a giant cable database with scope for approximately 120,000 cables in total. Ultimately the cabling installation will be approximately twice the size of one required for a 3rd generation nuclear fission power plant, with cables spanning more than 12,000 km to be installed within approximately 200 km of cable trays. Considering the differing cabling requirements, the raceway network and cables shall be routed in a prescribed manner to comply with French Nuclear Safety standards. This paper describes an overview of the ITER cabling network, the cable engineering design workflow, development and management of the cable database and integration between the software tools.

  17. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  18. Position-Controlled Data Acquisition Embedded System for Magnetic NDE of Bridge Stay Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouven Christen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a custom-tailored sensing and data acquisition embedded system, designed to be integrated in a new magnetic NDE inspection device under development at Empa, a device intended for routine testing of large diameter bridge stay cables. The data acquisition (DAQ system fulfills the speed and resolution requirements of the application and is able to continuously capture and store up to 2 GB of data at a sampling rate of 27 kS/s, with 12-bit resolution. This paper describes the DAQ system in detail, including both hardware and software implementation, as well as the key design challenges nd the techniques employed to meet the specifications. Experimental results showing the performance of the system are also presented.

  19. A cable-driven soft robot surgical system for cardiothoracic endoscopic surgery: preclinical tests in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hesheng; Zhang, Runxi; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Xiaozhou; Pfeifer, Rolf

    2017-08-01

    Minimally invasive surgery attracts more and more attention because of the advantages of minimal trauma, less bleeding and pain and low complication rate. However, minimally invasive surgery for beating hearts is still a challenge. Our goal is to develop a soft robot surgical system for single-port minimally invasive surgery on a beating heart. The soft robot described in this paper is inspired by the octopus arm. Although the octopus arm is soft and has more degrees of freedom (DOFs), it can be controlled flexibly. The soft robot is driven by cables that are embedded into the soft robot manipulator and can control the direction of the end and middle of the soft robot manipulator. The forward, backward and rotation movement of the soft robot is driven by a propulsion plant. The soft robot can move freely by properly controlling the cables and the propulsion plant. The soft surgical robot system can perform different thoracic operations by changing surgical instruments. To evaluate the flexibility, controllability and reachability of the designed soft robot surgical system, some testing experiments have been conducted in vivo on a swine. Through the subxiphoid, the soft robot manipulator could enter into the thoracic cavity and pericardial cavity smoothly and perform some operations such as biopsy, ligation and ablation. The operations were performed successfully and did not cause any damage to the surrounding soft tissues. From the experiments, the flexibility, controllability and reachability of the soft robot surgical system have been verified. Also, it has been shown that this system can be used in the thoracic and pericardial cavity for different operations. Compared with other endoscopy robots, the soft robot surgical system is safer, has more DOFs and is more flexible for control. When performing operations in a beating heart, this system maybe more suitable than traditional endoscopy robots.

  20. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Acoustic Emission Detection in a High Voltage Cable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongzhi Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed and demonstrated a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor for detecting acoustic emission generated from the partial discharge (PD of the accessories of a high-voltage cable system. The developed sensor head is integrated with a compact and relatively high sensitivity cylindrical elastomer. Such a sensor has a broadband frequency response and a relatively high sensitivity in a harsh environment under a high-voltage electric field. The design and fabrication of the sensor head integrated with the cylindrical elastomer is described, and a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivity of our developed sensor for acoustic detection of partial discharges is 1.7 rad / ( m ⋅ Pa . A high frequency response up to 150 kHz is achieved. Moreover, the relatively high sensitivity for the detection of PD is verified in both the laboratory environment and gas insulated switchgear. The obtained results show the great potential application of a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor integrated with a cylindrical elastomer for in-situ monitoring high-voltage cable accessories for safety work.

  1. Material selection and evaluation of new encapsulation compounds for electric cables for launch support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Asit K.

    1992-01-01

    Eight urethane compounds were evaluated as possible replacement for the existing encapsulating compoounds for electrical cables for the Launch Support System at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The existing encapsulating compound, PR-1535, contains the curative MOCA 4-4'-Methylene-BIS (2-chloroaniline), which is a suspect carcinogen and hence may be the subject of further restrictions of its use by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The samples made in the configuration of cable joints and in the form of disks were evaluated for flammability and hypergolic compatibility. These also underwent accelerated weatherability tests that measured the residual hardness of the exposed samples. Three candidates and the existing compound passed the hardness test. Of these, only one candidate and the existing compound passed the flammability test. The thermal and hydrolytic stability (weatherability) of these samples was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (DSC) techniques. The TMA and DSC data correlated with the residual hardness data; whereas, the TGA data showed no correlation. A hypergolic compatibility test will be conducted on the compound V-356-HE80, which passed both the flammability and accelerated weatherability tests.

  2. A Fiber-Optic Sensor for Acoustic Emission Detection in a High Voltage Cable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongzhi; Pang, Fufei; Liu, Huanhuan; Cheng, Jiajing; Lv, Longbao; Zhang, Xiaobei; Chen, Na; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor for detecting acoustic emission generated from the partial discharge (PD) of the accessories of a high-voltage cable system. The developed sensor head is integrated with a compact and relatively high sensitivity cylindrical elastomer. Such a sensor has a broadband frequency response and a relatively high sensitivity in a harsh environment under a high-voltage electric field. The design and fabrication of the sensor head integrated with the cylindrical elastomer is described, and a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the sensitivity of our developed sensor for acoustic detection of partial discharges is 1.7 rad/(m⋅Pa). A high frequency response up to 150 kHz is achieved. Moreover, the relatively high sensitivity for the detection of PD is verified in both the laboratory environment and gas insulated switchgear. The obtained results show the great potential application of a Michelson interferometer-based fiber sensor integrated with a cylindrical elastomer for in-situ monitoring high-voltage cable accessories for safety work. PMID:27916900

  3. Economical Aspects of Superconducting Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Masayoshi

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to resolve technical problems with power grids because they put large-capacity, low-loss power transmission into a compact package. One problem is replacing old 275-kV oil filled (OF) cables with cross-linked polyethylene insulated vinyl sheath cables (XLPE cables). This is difficult because XLPE cable has a lower transmission capacity than OF cable. In addition, the high concentration of public infrastructure underground makes it extremely difficult to build new ones. However, if 66-kV HTS cables can be installed inside existing underground conduits and can achieve a power capacity equivalent to conventional 275-kV cables, construction costs could be significantly reduced. Moreover, if XLPE cables are used for a 1,000 MVA-class transmission line, then three circuits of nine 275-kV single-core cables would be required, which would incur a transmission loss of 90 W/m/cct. Three circuits of three 66-kV Three-in-One HTS cables, however, with an AC loss of 1 W/m/ph@3 kA, heat invasion of 2 W/m, and cooling system efficiency of 0.1, would reduce transmission loss to less than three-fifths that of XLPE cables.

  4. Hybrid networking sensing system for structural health monitoring of a concrete cable-stayed bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbol, Marco; Kim, Sehwan; Chien, Ting-Chou; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is the remote structural health monitoring to identify the torsional natural frequencies and mode shapes of a concrete cable-stayed bridge using a hybrid networking sensing system. The system consists of one data aggregation unit, which is daisy-chained to one or more sensing nodes. A wireless interface is used between the data aggregation units, whereas a wired interface is used between a data aggregation unit and the sensing nodes. Each sensing node is equipped with high-precision MEMS accelerometers with adjustable sampling frequency from 0.2 Hz to 1.2 kHz. The entire system was installed inside the reinforced concrete box-girder deck of Hwamyung Bridge, which is a cable stayed bridge in Busan, South Korea, to protect the system from the harsh environmental conditions. This deployment makes wireless communication a challenge due to the signal losses and the high levels of attenuation. To address these issues, the concept of hybrid networking system is introduced with the efficient local power distribution technique. The theoretical communication range of Wi-Fi is 100m. However, inside the concrete girder, the peer to peer wireless communication cannot exceed about 20m. The distance is further reduced by the line of sight between the antennas. However, the wired daisy-chained connection between sensing nodes is useful because the data aggregation unit can be placed in the optimal location for transmission. To overcome the limitation of the wireless communication range, we adopt a high-gain antenna that extends the wireless communication distance to 50m. Additional help is given by the multi-hopping data communication protocol. The 4G modem, which allows remote access to the system, is the only component exposed to the external environment.

  5. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would overheat...

  6. Cable compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, J.; Eklund, W.; Burkhardt, R.; Rossoni, P.

    1992-06-01

    The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the handicapped and the elderly. These included work stations, walkers, prosthetic knee joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. More than half of these objects were met, and models were made and studies completed on most of the others. It was concluded that the many different and versatile solutions obtained only opened the door to many future challenges.

  7. Full-scale measurements and system identification on Sutong cable-stayed bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Tao, Tianyou; Guo, Tong; Li, Jian; Li, Aiqun

    2014-01-01

    The structural health monitoring system (SHMS) provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB) in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) combined with the random decrement technique (RDT). The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  8. Full-Scale Measurements and System Identification on Sutong Cable-Stayed Bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural health monitoring system (SHMS provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT combined with the random decrement technique (RDT. The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  9. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System for Hydrothermal Deposit Survey (2) - Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Mikada, H.; Takekawa, J.; Shimura, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. . (1) VCS is an effective high-resolution 3D seismic survey within limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (air gun, water gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. (5) Autonomous recording system. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN. in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. The result gives clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Uncertainty of the source/receiver poisons in water causes the serious problem of the imaging. We used several transducer/transponder to estimate these positions. The VCS seismic records themselves can also provide sensor position using the first break of each trace and we calibrate the positions. We are currently developing the autonomous recording VCS system and planning the trial experiment in actual ocean to establish the way of deployment/recovery and the examine the position through the current flow in November, 2010. The second VCS survey will planned over the actual hydrothermal deposit with deep-towed source in February, 2011.

  10. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. AC Cable: Yokohama Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takato

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables can transmit large amounts of electricity in a compact size with minimal losses. Therefore, they are expected to save the construction cost of underground lines in urban areas and decrease transmission losses. Several HTS cables have recently been demonstrated in networks around the world, and full-scale commercialization is expected in the near future. In Japan, the development of compact HTS cables suitable for urban deployment has been underway since the early 1990s. In 2007, a national project was started to verify their operational performance and long-term reliability in the grid. An HTS cable 240 m long was installed at the Asahi substation of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Yokohama; then a joint, terminations and cooling system was constructed in 2011. After successful performance tests, the cable was connected to the grid for the first time in Japan, and started to deliver electricity to 70,000 households in October 2012. This trouble-free in-grid service continued for over a year. We can conclude that the HTS cable system performs well and has the stability required for long-term in-grid operations.

  12. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges Using CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Kuihua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic modulus and deadweight of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP cables are different from those of steel cables. Thus, the static and dynamic behaviors of cable-stayed bridges using CFRP cables are different from those of cable-stayed bridges using steel cables. The static and dynamic performances of the two kinds of bridges with a span of 1000 m were studied using the numerical method. The effects of geometric nonlinear factors on static performance of the two kinds of cable-stayed bridges were analyzed. The live load effects and temperature effects of the two cable-stayed bridges were also analyzed. The influences of design parameters, including different structural systems, the numbers of auxiliary piers, and the space arrangement types of cable, on the dynamic performance of the cable-stayed bridge using CFRP cables were also studied. Results demonstrate that sag effect of the CFRP cable is much smaller than that of steel cable. The temperature effects of CFRP cable-stayed bridge are less than those of steel cable-stayed bridge. The vertical bending natural vibration frequency of the CFRP cable-stayed bridge is generally lower than that of steel cable-stayed bridge, whereas the torsional natural vibration frequency of the former is higher than that of the latter.

  13. Submarine fiber cable network systems cost planning considerations with achieved high transmission capacity and signal quality enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper has presented theoretically the comparison between three types of fibers which are investigated extensively: plastic clad silica (PCS), polystyrene (PS) and perfluorinated graded index polymer optical fibers (PF GI-POF) for high speed undersea cable systems. Based on experimental data, both the deep ocean water temperature and pressure are tailored as functions of the water depth. It is taken into account the estimation of the total cost of the submarine fiber cable system for transmission techniques under study. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature), and the chemical structure}. The results show that PCS has the optimum performance in compared with other fibers. Therefore PCS fiber is the most appropriate candidate among all types of fibers for high speed local submarine communication systems.

  14. Cable networks, services, and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Cable Networks, Services, and Management is the first book to cover cable networks, services, and their management, in-depth, for network operators, engineers, researchers, and students. Thirteen experts in various fields have contributed their knowledge of network architectures and services, Operations, Administration, Maintenance, Provisioning, Troubleshooting (OAMPT) for residential and business services, cloud, Software Defined Networks (SDN), as well as virtualization concepts and their applications as part of the future directions of cable networks. The book begins by introducing architecture and services for Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0/ 3.1, Converged Cable Access Platform (CCAP), Content Distribution Networks (CDN, IP TV, and Packet Cable and Wi-Fi for Residential Services. Topics that are discussed in proceeding chapters include: operational systems and management architectures, service orders, provisioning, fault manageme t, performance management, billing systems a...

  15. A project plan for construction and cabling of picture archiving and communication system network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min; Wang, Xiaolin; Luo, Song; Lei, Wenyong; Wang, Xuejian; Wen, Hongyu; Wu, Hongxing

    2003-05-01

    To determine a network solution to meet the network requirements of the heavy data flow, load balance, and potential network storms from expansion of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) application. Intel Netstructure 480T Giga Switch was used as the main switch and connected to each building by fiber channel at 1 Giga speed to archive 100 MB/s to each port. At the same time, the in-dependence of the original network construction was physically kept. The layer 3 and 4 switchers were used as load balance to reduce the heavy load of the network, and all the cabling for PACS used the super CAT5 along with the Intel NetStructure 1520 to prepare for potential network storms. An advanced intranet was set up to fully meet the high standard requirement of the PACS. The foundation for upgrading the whole network system to 1 Giga application was built to achieve sharing and transmission of images, information, and patient data within the hospital. The base was established for the standardized management of the hospital. Good planning is the first step in setting up PACS, and the equipment forms the necessary platform to run PACS and all kinds of hospital information system (HIS). The networking construction is the foundation of e-hospital.

  16. 76 FR 66666 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... Electronics Equipment AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this... consumer electronics equipment for most subscribers. At the same time, however, we recognize that some... Act), Congress recognized that compatibility problems between cable service and consumer electronics...

  17. Modelling of long High Voltage AC Cables in the Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    : conductor-insulation (with or without SC layers)-conductor-insulation(-conductor-insulation), whereas a transmission line single core XLPE cable will normally have the configuration: conductor-SC layerinsulation-SC layer-conductor-SC layer-conductor-insulation. Furthermore the existing cable models use...... years. Even 400 kV transmission lines will be undergrounded gradually as more experience is gathered. Precise modelling of long and many (meshed) underground cable lines is therefore essential and it is important that differences between simulations and measurements are identified, studied...... and eliminated. A study of the cable model accuracy for transmission line modelling is the topic of the research documented in this thesis. The main part of the work is split in two. Firstly planning, performing and analysing high frequency field measurements for model validation. Secondly improvements...

  18. Lightweight Metal Rubber Wire and Cable for Space Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to produce ultra-lightweight electrical wire and cable harnesses to reduce the liftoff weight of future space flight...

  19. The power supply system model of the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope

    OpenAIRE

    Rulevskiy, V. M.; Bukreev, Viktor Grigorievich; Kuleshova, Elena Olegovna; Shandarova, Elena Borisovna; Shandarov, S.M.; Vasilyeva, Yu. Z.

    2017-01-01

    A practical problem of power supply system modeling for the process submersible device with AC power transmission over the cable-rope was considered. The problem is highly relevant in developing and operation of submersible centrifugal pumps and submersibles. The results of modeling a symmetrical three-phase power supply system and their compliance with the real data are given at the paper. The obtained results in the mathematical and simulation models were similar.

  20. Compact ocean bottom cabled system for dense seismic and tsunami observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, T.; Shinohara, M.; Sakai, S.; Sano, O.; Utada, H.; Shiobara, H.; Morita, Y.; Yamada, T.; Yamazaki, K.

    2009-12-01

    Japanese islands are located near the subduction zone, where the Pacific plate subducts below Japanese islands. Because large earthquakes have been occurred repeatedly in the subduction zone, it is essential to observe seismic activities on the sea floor just above these seismogenic zones. Installation of seismometers and tsunami-meters on sea floor is necessary for monitoring seismic activities of a seismogenic zone. An ocean bottom cabled system (OBCS) is the best instrument to observe seismic activities on the sea floor because data are obtained in real-time. Therefore some systems have been installed over the past 25 years around Japan. Although the existing OBCS systems are useful for the study of seismic activities, a number of stations is limited due to their costs. It is difficult to obtain precise seismic activities using a seismic network with a small number of stations. Therefore there is a need to increase a number of stations, in other words, spatial density of stations must be increased for understanding more precise seismic activities. In addition, recent sophisticated analyses need high quality data gathered using a advanced technology. Because tsunami-meter measures pressure, there is a possibility to detect vertical displacement of sea floor using a dense tsunami-meter network. A compact OBCS system leads to low cost in both development and installation. We have been developing a new OBCS system. The concepts of the development are a compact observation node and a low cost of the system. The new OBCS system can be made compact since a software processes various measurements, while complex and a large amount of hardware are used in the existing OBCS. Utilization of the up-to-date ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) is essential to reduce a size of the observation node and a cost. Reliability of the system is kept by using redundant system which is easily constructed using the ITC. The developed core system which consists of the CPU, IT

  1. Dynamic testing of cable structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of dynamic testing in the study of cable structures. In this context, the identification of cable force based on vibration measurements is discussed. Vibration and damping assessment are then introduced as the focus of dynamic monitoring systems, and particular aspects of the structural behaviour under environmental loads are analysed. Diverse application results are presented to support the discussion centred on cable-stayed bridges, roof structures, a guyed mast and a transmission line.

  2. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muna, Alice Baca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  3. High-voltage cable systems - trends and facts; Hochspannungskabelanlagen - Trends und Fakten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehler, S. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Starkstromkabel und -leitungen

    1998-11-01

    This year`s technical fairs and exhibitions showed now spectacular innovations in the field of HV cables. The products presented all used X-PE as cable insulation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf den diesjaehrigen Messen und Ausstellungen waren erwartungsgemaess keine spektakulaeren Innovationen im Bereich der HS-Kabelanlagen zu finden. Die vorgestellten Produktkonzepte stuetzten sich auf das bewaehrte vernetzte Polyethylen als Kabelisolierung. Die hohen elektrischen und dielektrischen Anforderungen im HS-Bereich und die bekannten Vorzuege von VPE als Isolierstoff sind der Grund dafuer. So finden sich auf den Praesentationen der Aussteller in erster Linie Produktanpassungen und -weiterentwicklungen von VPE-Kabeln und deren Garnituren. (orig.)

  4. Long-term monitoring of a cable stayed bridge using a SCADA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbol, Marco; Kim, Sehwan; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2012-04-01

    DuraMote is a MEMS-based remote sensing system, which is developed for the NIST TIP project, Next Generation SCADA for Prevention and Mitigation of Water System Infrastructure Disaster. It is designed for supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) of pipe ruptures in water distribution systems. In this project, a method is developed to detect the pipe ruptures by analyzing the acceleration data gathered by DuraMote which consists of two primary components; the first, "Gopher" contains the accelerometers and are attached to the water pipe surface noninvasively, and the second, "Roocas" is placed above ground supplying the power to, and retrieving the data from the multiple Gophers, and then transmit the data through Wi-Fi to a base station. The relays support the Wi-Fi network to facilitate the transmission. A large scale bridge provides an ideal test-bet to validate the performance of such a complex monitoring system as DuraMote for its accuracy, reliability, robustness, and user friendliness. This is because a large bridge is most of the time subjected to susceptible level of ambient vibration due to passing loads, wind, etc. DuraMote can record the acceleration time history arising from the vibration making it possible to estimate the frequency values of various bridge vibration modes. These estimated frequency values are then compared with the values computed from analytical model of the bridge for the verification of the accuracy of DuraMote. It is noted that such a verification method cannot be used practically by deploying DuraMote on a water distribution network since the dynamic behavior of a pipe network, either above or underground, is too complex to model analytically for this purpose, and in addition, the network generally lacks conveniently recordable ambient vibration. In this experiment, the performance of DuraMote system was tested being installed on the Hwamyung Bridge, a 500 m long RC cable stayed bridge in Korea for long term monitoring. In

  5. Using Cable Television for Library Data Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Douglas A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses information gained from a test of cable data circuits on a Geac bibliographic control system at the Wayne Oakland Library Federation (WOLF) (Michigan). Highlights include an introduction to cable, hardware profile, the WOLF experience, and key questions that will affect the future use of cable for data transmission. (EJS)

  6. Comparison of the cable pin system with conventional open surgery for transverse patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ningfang; Liu, Deding; Ni, Haijian; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Qiulin

    2013-07-01

    The cable pin system is an effective device for fixation of transverse patella fractures. However, whether this device provides superior results using a minimally invasive technique instead of conventional open surgery using the K wire tension band method is unclear. We asked whether a minimally invasive technique would be associated with (1) increased operative time; (2) reduced postoperative pain; (3) faster recovery of ROM; (4) higher knee scores; and (5) reduced complications. Forty patients with displaced transverse fractures of the patella participated in this prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Twenty of these patients underwent a minimally invasive technique and the others had conventional open surgery using K wires. Some data for six of the 20 patients who underwent the minimally invasive technique were published in an earlier prospective, observational trial. At postoperative intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, pain was measured by VAS scores, active flexion and extension of the knee were measured in degrees by goniometry, and knee function was evaluated using the Böstman clinical grading scale. Operative time was longer in the minimally invasive surgery group (54.3 ± 9.8 minutes versus 48.5 ± 6.1 minutes). Pain scores were better (lower) in the minimally invasive surgery group at 1 and 3 months but not at 6 months. Early flexion, ultimate flexion, and knee scores from 3 to 24 months, likewise, were better in the minimally invasive surgery group. Complications mostly related to symptomatic hardware were less common in the minimally invasive surgery group. The minimally invasive technique is superior to conventional open surgery using K wires in terms of less early postoperative pain, better mobility angles of the injured knee, higher functional score of the injured knee, and decreased incidence of complications. Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Line Differential Protection Scheme Modelling for Underground 420 kV Cable Systems, EMTDC/PSCAD Relays Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Sztykiel, Michal; Dollerup, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a specific relay model and an HVAC (High Voltage Alternating Current) cable system, a new approach to EMTDC/PSCAD modelling of protective relays is presented. Such approach allows creating complex and accurate relay models derived from the original algorithms. Relay models...... can be applied with various systems, allowing obtaining the most optimal configuration of the protective relaying. The present paper describes modelling methodology on the basis of Siemens SIPROTEC 4 7SD522/610. Relay model was verified experimentally with its real equivalent by both EMTP......-simulated and real world generated current signals connected to the relay....

  8. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: part 2. Three-dimensional tracking and passage outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z Daniel; Weiland, Mark A; Fu, Tao; Seim, Tom A; LaMarche, Brian L; Choi, Eric Y; Carlson, Thomas J; Eppard, M Brad

    2011-01-01

    In Part 1 of this paper, we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Oregon, USA) to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m upstream from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.07 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the 2008 case study at John Day Dam, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more "fish-friendly" hydroelectric facilities.

  9. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brad Eppard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Part 1 of this paper, we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS cabled system, a nonproprietary sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Oregon, USA to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m upstream from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.07 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the 2008 case study at John Day Dam, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities.

  10. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Fu, Tao; Seim, Thomas A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-05-26

    In Part 1 of this paper [1], we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the 31 dams in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.05 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the case study at John Day Dam during 2008, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities.

  11. What Is Data Cabling and Why It's Necessary for Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    IT Support

    2017-01-01

    What is Data Cabling? A structured cabling system is a type of network construction that is open and is used by different systems like data, access management, telephony, building automation, along with many other similar capabilities. It is an extremely flexible and economical set up. Usually, a cabling system such as this can be broken into six components: work space, horizontal cabling, backbone cabling, gear space, telecommunication closet (room) and entrance ways. Common Network ...

  12. Superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Darrell F.; Lake, Bill L.; Ballinger, Ronald G.

    1988-01-01

    A superconducting cable comprising an in-situ-formed type II superconductor, e.g. Nb.sub.3 Sn, in association with a stabilizing conductor both in heat transfer relationship with at least one passage adapted to carry liquified gaseous refrigerant. The conductor and said at least one passage are enclosed by a sheath comprising an alloy consisting essentially of about 49% nickel, about 4% chromium, about 3% niobium, about 1.4% titanium, about 1% aluminum, balance essentially iron.

  13. Basic EMC technology advancement for C3 systems. Volume 4F: Prediction of crosstalk in flatpack coaxial cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, W. E.; Paul, C. R.

    1984-12-01

    The electromagnetic crosstalk present in a class of cables known as flatpack, coaxial cables is investigated. The multiconductor transmission line equations are used to derive a model of a general flatpack, coaxial cable consisting of n cables. This model is then implemented as a digital computer program to allow simulation of the crosstalk levels present in the cable. This simulation is compared to experimental results to prove that the model is valid and can accurately predict the crosstalk levels. Also, the effect of common impedance coupling, the presence of drain wires to allow for connection to the shields of the cable, and the presence of pigtail sections (exposed sections of wire) is examined to determine their effect on the overall electromagnetic crosstalk present in the cable.

  14. Cables and transmission lines for high-voltage current. Fundamentals and product know-how for projecting of cable systems; 5. rev. enl. ed.; Kabel und Leitungen fuer Starkstrom. Grundlagen und Produkt-Know-how fuer das Projektieren von Kabelanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinhold, L.; Stubbe, R. [eds.

    1999-08-01

    The new edition of this standard reference manual presents application-oriented fundamentals and product know-how for projecting of reliable and economically efficient cable systems. The book contains a comprehensive survey of modern cables, fittings and insulated wirings as well as a detailed description of modules, materials, and ageing mechanisms. It offers tables and diagrams to facilitate projecting, introduces methods of calculation, and presents examples to show their practical application. The user is also given valuable hints on cable laying, installation and testing as well as on the relevant standards and legal regulations. The structure of the book has been modified in order to facilitate access to information and to enable the reader to select construction lines and types for every possible application. [Deutsch] Die wesentlich ueberarbeitete Auflage dieses Standardwerks bietet anwendungstechnische Grundlagen und Produkt-Know-how fuer das Projektieren zuverlaessiger und wirtschaftlicher Kabelanlagen. Das Buch gibt einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber heute verwendete Kabel, Garnituren und isolierte Leitungen und beschreibt ausfuehrlich Aufbauelemente, Werkstoffe und deren Alterungsmechanismen. Es enthaelt zahlreiche einfach anzuwendende Projektierungstabellen und -diagramme, fuehrt in notwendige Rechenverfahren ein und demonstriert diese anhand praxisbezogener Beispiele. Der Anwender erhaelt darueber hinaus wertvolle Hinweise zum Legen, Montieren und Pruefen und wird bei allen Themen auf fachbezogene Normen und Vorschriften verwiesen. Die neue Buchstruktur laesst den Anwender schnell und einfach je nach Anwendungsfall alle erforderlichen Informationen finden und damit Bauarten und Typen fuer den jeweiligen Verwendungsbereich und Einsatzort sicher auswaehlen. (orig.)

  15. Submerged Medium Voltage Cable Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. A Review of Research Efforts Relevant to Aging Mechanisms and Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernstein, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, II, Gregory Von [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glover, Steven F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pena, Gary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williamson, Kenneth Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zutavern, Fred J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gelbard, Fred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and industrial literature was performed to identify : 1) findings regarding the degradation mechanisms of submerged cabling and 2) condition monitoring methods that may prove useful in predict ing the remaining lifetime of submerged medium voltage p ower cables . The re search was conducted by a multi - disciplinary team , and s ources includ ed official NRC reports, n ational l aboratory reports , IEEE standards, conference and journal proceedings , magazine articles , PhD dissertations , and discussions with experts . The purpose of this work was to establish the current state - of - the - art in material degradation modeling and cable condition monitoring techniques and to identify research gaps . Subsequently, future areas of focus are recommended to address these research gaps and thus strengthen the efficacy of the NRC's developing cable condition monitoring program . Results of this literature review and details of the test ing recommendations are presented in this report . FOREWORD To ensure the safe, re liable, and cost - effective long - term operation of nuclear power plants, many systems, structures, and components must be continuously evaluated. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified that cables in submerged environments are of concern, particularly as plants are seeking license renewal. To date, there is a lack of consensus on aging and degradation mechanisms even though the area of submerged cables has been extensively studied. Consequently, the ability to make lifetime predictions for submerged cable does not yet exist. The NRC has engaged Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to lead a coordinated effort to help elucidate the aging and degradation of cables in submerged environments by collaborating with cable manufacturers, utilities, universities, and other government agencies. A team of SNL experts was assembled from the laboratories including electrical condition monitoring, mat erial science, polymer degradation, plasma physics

  16. Comparison of Cable Method and Miniaci Method Using Picture Archiving and Communication System in Preoperative Planning for Open Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Dae; Zhang, GuoFeng; Kim, Hee-June; Lee, Byoung-Joo; Kyung, Hee-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare the accuracy of Miniaci method using picture archiving and communication system (PACS) with a cable method in high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Materials and Methods This study analyzed 47 patients (52 knees) with varus deformity and medial osteoarthritis. From 2007 to 2013, patients underwent HTO using either a cable method (20 knees) or Miniaci method based on a PACS image (32 knees). In the cable method, the 62.5% point of the mediolateral tibial plateau width was located using an electrocautery cord under fluoroscopy (cable group). The Miniaci method used preoperative radiographs to shift the weight bearing axis (PACS group). Full-length lower limb radiographs obtained preoperatively and at the sixth postoperative week were used to compare the percentage of crossing point of the weight bearing line on the tibial plateau with respect to the medial border. Results The weight bearing line on the tibial plateau was corrected from a preoperative 11.0±7.0% to a postoperative 47.2±7.4% in the cable group and from 12.7±4.9% to 59.5±5.3% in the PACS group. The mechanical femorotibial angle was corrected from varus 8.9±3.7° to valgus 0.3±4.0° in the cable group and from varus 9.0±3.3° to valgus 2.9±2.6° in the PACS group. Conclusions In HTO, correction based on the Miniaci method using a PACS was more accurate than correction using the cable method. PMID:27894175

  17. VdS technical meeting: fire protection as applied to cable systems; VdS-Fachtagung: Brandschutz in Kabelanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendl, H. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    Vds regulations and specifications are based on experience in real cases of damage. Fire protection systems offer reliable protection against destruction of cable systems and failure of electric systems. The economic aspects of fire protection were discussed at the meeting. [German] Die Schadenerfahrungen und Erkenntnisse aus der Gefahrenabwehr finden ihren Niederschlag in VdS-Richtlinien und -Merkblaettern. Das VdS-Regelwerk schliesst Luecken in anderen technischen Regelwerken oder ist auf neu erkannte Gefahren abgestellt, die in Normen oder anderen technischen Regelwerken noch nicht behandelt worden sind. Brandschutz in Kabelanlagen gewaehrleistet bei ordnungsgemaesser Ausfuehrung und Einhaltung der bautechnischen Anforderungen zuverlaessigen Schutz gegen Zerstoerung der Kabelanlagen und Ausfall der elektrischen Energie. Die Moeglichkeiten, Brandschutz auch unter wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten zu realisieren, wurden in dieser Fachtagung mit aktuellen Themen und anhand ausgewwahlter Beispiele dargelegt. (orig.)

  18. Site tests of XLPE-insulated high-voltage cable systems with AC voltage; Inbetriebnahmepruefungen von VPE-isolierten Hochspannungskabelanlagen mit Wechselspannung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenberg, W. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsgebiet Starkstromkabel und -leitungen; Goehlich, L. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsgebiet Starkstromkabel und -leitungen; Scharschmid, J. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftsgebiet Starkstromkabel und -leitungen

    1997-04-21

    The experience with DC voltage tests on XLPE-insulated cables at sites requires the development of new solutions. A mobile resonance testing system now permits a test with AC voltage, representing a breakthrough for after laying tests adequate for plastic-insulated cables. It was also necessary to satisfy differing requirements of customers with connections to cable systems via outdoor and indoor switching plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Erfahrungen mit Gleichspannungspruefungen an VPE-isolierten Kabeln nach der Legung und Montage erforderten neue Loesungswege. Ein mobiles Resonanzpruefsystem mit variabler Frequenz ermoeglicht nun eine Pruefung mit Wechselspannung und damit den Durchbruch fuer eine kunststoffkabelgerechte Inbetriebnahmepruefung. Dabei waren unterschiedliche Anforderungen der Kunden mit Anschluessen an die Kabelanlagen ueber Freiluft- und Schaltanlagen zu beruecksichtigen. (orig.)

  19. CABLES MUSCULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez

    Full Text Available Los cables musculares o fibras de nitinol presentan una excelente alternativa a los actuadores convencionales, con una fuerza de actuación muy alta, equivalente a la de los actuadores hidráulicos, proporcionalmente a su peso, además de su acción silenciosa. Este material, inventado en 1963, aún no es muy conocido y de ahí que se haya realizado una recopilación de sus propiedades. Entre ellas, la temperatura de transición es la más importante, por ser la que activa la aleación. Muchos sistemas se han creado para alcanzar adecuadamente la temperatura de transición, y también se continúa en la investigación de métodos que ayuden a lograr un control preciso del movimiento de la aleación con memoria de forma (SMA.

  20. Comparison of diagnostic systems for service-aged PE/XPLE-insulated medium voltage cables; Vergleich von Diagnosesystemen zur Beurteilung des Alterungszustandes PE/VPE-isolierter Mittelspannungskabel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plath, R. [IPH, Berlin (Germany); Kalkner, W. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Krage, I. [VEW Eurotest, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-09-22

    Preventive maintenance of medium voltage cable systems requires test methods to evaluate the ageing state of PE/XPLE-insulated medium voltage cables. A number of diagnostic systems based on different measuring principles have been developed as a consequence. Comparative investigations using these diagnostic systems on service-aged medium voltage cables, including laboratory measurements as well as on-site testing have been carried out on a large scale to evaluate the effectiveness and practical usability of the systems. Summarising it can be stated that the diagnostic systems tested can give a rough evaluation of the ageing state of the cables. The evaluation is, however, often differing between the different systems and, additionally, sometimes leads to a misjudgement. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die zustandsorientierte Instandhaltung von Mittelspannungskabelanlagen erfordert aussagefaehige Diagnoseverfahren zur Beurteilung der Betriebsuzverlaessigkeit der Kabelanlagen. Seitens der Prueftechnikhersteller wurden dazu nach verschiedenen Wirkprinzipien arbeitende Diagnosesysteme entwickelt. In umfangreichen Vergleichsuntersuchungen an betriebsgealterten Kabeln im Labor und vor Ort wurden die Aussagefaehigkeit und die Praxistauglichkeit der verschiedenen Geraete ueberprueft. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass mit den derzeit verfuegbaren Diagnosesystemen eine grobe, jedoch oft nicht einheitliche und nicht in allen Faellen zuverlaessige Beurteilung des Alterungszustandes moeglich ist. (orig.)

  1. 47 CFR 1.1155 - Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations for cable television services. 1.1155 Section 1.1155 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services. Fee amount Address 1. Cable Television Relay Service $315 FCC, Cable, P.O. Box 979084, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000 2. Cable TV System (per...

  2. New Passive Filter Design Method for Overvoltage Suppression and Bearing Currents Mitigation in a Long Cable Based PWM Inverter-Fed Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yanmin; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin

    2017-01-01

    would cause serious deterioration of the motor and cable. A passive overvoltage suppression technique of low-loss 'RL-plus-C' filter was proposed recently. It has not only some merits of simple structure, low cost, and good robustness, but also a significant merit of low power dissipation. In order......High-frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) in inverter-fed induction motor drive systems is widely used in industrial applications because of their flexible speed control and energy savings. However, high dv /dt PWM pulses induce overvoltage spikes on the motor via long cable. Such phenomenon...

  3. Energy analysis of vehicle-to-cable barrier impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    An accident reconstruction technique was developed for estimating the energy absorbed during an impact with a cable barrier system as well as the initial impact velocity. The kinetic energy absorbed during a cable barrier system impact is comprised o...

  4. Initial tension loss in cerclage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Jérémie; Émard, Maxime; Canet, Fanny; Brailovski, Vladimir; Petit, Yvan; Laflamme, George Y

    2013-10-01

    Cerclage cables, frequently used in the management of fractures and osteotomies, are associated with a high failure rate and significant loosening during surgery. This study compared the capacity to maintain tension of different types of orthopaedic cable systems. Multifilament Cobalt-Chrome (CoCr) cables with four different crimp/clamp devices (DePuy, Stryker, Zimmer and Smith&Nephew) and one non-metallic Nylon (Ny) cable from Kinamed were instrumented with a load cell to measure tension during insertion. Significant tension loss was observed with crimping for all cables (Ptensioner led to an additional unexpected tension loss (CoCr-DePuy: 18%, CoCr-Stryker: 29%, CoCr-Smith&Nephew: 33%, Ny: 46%, and CoCr-Zimmer: 52%). The simple CoCr (DePuy) cable system outperformed the more sophisticated locking devices due to its significantly better ability to prevent tension loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of a high current DC power supply system for testing the large scaled superconducting cables and magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Tanahashi, Shugo [and others

    1993-11-01

    A dc 75 kA power supply system was constructed to test the superconducting (SC) R and D cables and magnets for the Large Helical Device. It consists of three 25 kA unit banks. A unit bank has two double-star-rectifier connections with the inter-phase reactors. A digital feedback control method is applied to the automatic current regulation (ACR) in each unit bank. For shortening the dead time of the feedback process, a new algorithm of a digital phase controller for the ACR is investigated. A Bode diagram of the feedback process is directly measured. It is confirmed that the dead time of the feedback process is reduced to one sixth, and that the feedback gain of PID compensation is improved by a factor of two from the original method. (author).

  6. Improvement of a high current dc power supply system for testing the large scaled superconducting cables and magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shuichi; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Tanahashi, Shugo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    A dc 75 kA power supply system was constructed to test the SC (superconducting) R and D (research and development) cables and magnets for the Large Helical Device (LHD). It consists of three 25 kA unit banks. A unit bank has two double-star-rectifier connections with the inter-phase reactors. A digital feedback control method is applied to the automatic current regulation (ACR) in each unit bank. For shortening the dead time of the feedback process, a new algorithm of a digital phase controller for the ACR is investigated. A Bode diagram of the feedback process is directly measured. It is confirmed that the dead time of the feedback process is reduced to one sixth, and that the feedback gain of PID (proportional, integral and differential) compensation is improved by a factor of two from the original method.

  7. Switching Restrikes in HVAC Cable Lines and Hybrid HVAC Cable/OHL Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Balle Holst, Per

    2011-01-01

    The disconnection of HV underground cables may, if unsuccessful, originate a restrike in the circuit breaker, leading to high overvoltages, and potentially damaging the cable and near equipment. Due to the cable high capacitance and low resistance the voltage damping is slow, resulting, half...... a cycle after the disconnection, in a voltage of approximately 2 pu at the circuit breaker terminals. In case of restrike in that instant, it is theoretical possible to attain an overvoltage of 3 pu. The overvoltage can be even larger in hybrid cable-Overhead Lines (OHL), due to voltage magnifications...... in the junction point. This paper explains the phenomenon for pure cable lines and hybrid cable-OHL lines, and uses Denmark’s high voltage transmission grid, as planned for the year 2030, as test system. The accuracy of different cable models, and the number of substations from the transient event requiring...

  8. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  9. A geometrically exact formulation for three-dimensional numerical simulation of the umbilical cable in a deep-sea ROV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei-cai; Zhang, Zhu-ying; Zhang, Ai-qun; Zhang, Qi-feng; Tian, Yu

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a geometrically exact formulation for three-dimensional static and dynamic analyses of the umbilical cable in a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle (ROV) system. The presented formulation takes account of the geometric nonlinearities of large displacement, effects of axial load and bending stiffness for modeling of slack cables. The resulting nonlinear second-order governing equations are discretized spatially by the finite element method and solved temporally by the generalized- α implicit time integration algorithm, which is adapted to the case of varying coefficient matrices. The ability to consider three-dimensional union action of ocean current and ship heave motion upon the umbilical cable is the key feature of this analysis. The presented formulation is firstly validated, and then three numerical examples for the umbilical cable in a deep-sea ROV system are demonstrated and discussed, including the steady configurations only under the action of depth-dependent ocean current, the dynamic responses in the case of the only ship heave motion, and in the case of the combined action of the ship heave motion and ocean current.

  10. Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Vibration of a Multispan Cable-Stayed Bridge under Transverse Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear vibrations of cable in a multispan cable-stayed bridge subjected to transverse excitation are investigated. The MECS (multielements cable system model, where multielements per cable stay are used, is built up and used to analyze the model properties of the multispan cable-stayed bridges. Then, a simplified two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOFs model, where the tower or the deck is reduced to a beam, is proposed to analyze the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the beam and cable. The results of MECS model analysis show that the main tower in the multispan cable-stayed bridge is prone to the transverse vibration, and the local vibration of cables only has a little impact on the frequency values of the global modes. The results of simplified model analysis show that the energy can be transformed between the modes of the beam and cable when the nature frequencies of them are very close. On the other hand, with the transverse excitation changing, the cable can exhibit richer quasi-periodic or chaotic motions due to the nonlinear terms caused by the coupled mode between the beam and cable.

  11. How do you like them cables?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sergei Malyukov

    Cabling work is not for clautrophobic people! Cables are like the blood vessels and nervous system of ATLAS. With the help of all these cables, we can power ATLAS, control the detector and read out the data. Like the human blood vessels, they penetrate inside the ATLAS volume, reaching each of its elements. The ATLAS developers started to think about design of services, cables and pipes at the very first stages of the project. The cabling project has been developing most intensively during the last five years, passing through the projection and CAD design phases, then the installation of cable trays and finally the cables. The cable installation itself took two and a half years and was done by teams of technicians from several institutes from Russia, the Czech Republic and Poland. Here are some numbers to illustrate the scale of the ATLAS cabling system. More than 25000 optical fiber channels are used for reading the information from the sub-detectors and delivering the timing signals. The total numbe...

  12. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown...... that the thermal insulation and cooling machine efficiency are the most important loss element in a superconducting cable system...

  13. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  14. Stability improvement of a four cable-driven parallel manipulator using a center of mass balance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salafian, Iman; Stewart, Blake; Newman, Matthew; Zygielbaum, Arthur I.; Terry, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    A four cable-driven parallel manipulator (CDPM), consisting of sophisticated spectrometers and imagers, is under development for use in acquiring phenotypic and environmental data over an acre-sized crop field. To obtain accurate and high quality data from the instruments, the end effector must be stable during sensing. One of the factors that reduces stability is the center of mass offset of the end effector, which can cause a pendulum effect or undesired tilt angle. The purpose of this work is to develop a system and method for balancing the center of mass of a 12th-scale CDPM to minimize vibration that can cause error in the acquired data. A simple method for balancing the end effector is needed to enable end users of the CDPM to arbitrarily add and remove sensors and imagers from the end effector as their experiments may require. A Center of Mass Balancing System (CMBS) is developed in this study which consists of an adjustable system of weights and a gimbal for tilt mitigation. An electronic circuit board including an orientation sensor, wireless data communication, and load cells was designed to validate the CMBS. To measure improvements gained by the CMBS, several static and dynamic experiments are carried out. In the experiments, the dynamic vibrations due to the translational motion and static orientation were measured with and without CMBS use. The results show that the CMBS system improves the stability of the end-effector by decreasing vibration and static tilt angle.

  15. Superconducting power cables in Denmark - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    that HTS cables will be less expensive for high power ratings, have lower losses for lines with a high load, and have a reduced reactive power production. The use of superconducting cables in Denmark accommodate plans by the Danish utility to make a substantial conversion of overhead lines to underground......A case study of a 450 MVA, 132 kV high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cable has been carried out. In the study, a superconducting cable system is compared to a conventional cable system which is under construction for an actual transmission line in the Danish grid. The study...... considers the design and development of a calculation model for an HTS cable system including auxiliary facilities. From calculations of the selected transmission line, conclusions on the feasibility of HTS cables in Denmark are made. HTS cables appear to be feasible in Denmark. Calculations indicate...

  16. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  17. A cabled acoustic telemetry system for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon: Part 1. Engineering design and instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Seim, Thomas A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Fu, Tao; Carlson, Thomas J.; Thronas, Aaron I.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-05-26

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Portland District started development of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS), a nonproprietary technology, in 2001 to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the 31 federal dams in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters, and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver) for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in 2 or 3-dimensions as the fish passed at the facility for determining route of passage. The additional route of passage information, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities and through the FCRPS.

  18. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 1. Engineering Design and Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brad Eppard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2001 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (OR, USA, started developing the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System, a nonproprietary sensing technology, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through eight large hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS. Initial development focused on coded acoustic microtransmitters and autonomous receivers that could be deployed in open reaches of the river for detection of the juvenile salmonids implanted with microtransmitters as they passed the autonomous receiver arrays. In 2006, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began the development of an acoustic receiver system for deployment at hydropower facilities (cabled receiver for detecting fish tagged with microtransmitters as well as tracking them in two or three dimensions for determining route of passage and behavior as the fish passed at the facility. The additional information on route of passage, combined with survival estimates, is used by the dam operators and managers to make structural and operational changes at the hydropower facilities to improve survival of fish as they pass the facilities through the FCRPS.

  19. A new cable-tie based sternal closure system: description of the device, technique of implantation and first clinical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grapow Martin TR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wire closure still remains the preferred technique despite reasonable disadvantages. Associated complications, such as infection and sternal instability, cause time- and cost-consuming therapies. We present a new tool for sternal closure with its first clinical experience and results. Methods The sternal ZipFixTM System is based on the cable-tie principle. It primarily consists of biocompatible Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone implants and is predominantly used peristernally through the intercostal space. The system provides a large implant-to-bone contact for better force distribution and for avoiding bone cut through. Results 50 patients were closed with the ZipFixTM system. No sternal instability was observed at 30 days. Two patients developed a mediastinitis that necessitated the removal of the device; however, the ZipFixTM were intact and the sternum remained stable. Conclusions In our initial evaluation, the short-term results have shown that the sternal ZipFixTM can be used safely and effectively. It is fast, easy to use and serves as a potential alternative for traditional wire closure.

  20. Identification of problems when using long high voltage AC cable in transmission system I: Switching transient problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Saeed; Wiechowski, W.; Randrup, M

    2008-01-01

    Due to political and environmental pressures from the public and government side, upgrading and building new transmission facilities are becoming more and more difficult and in some cases the expansion of overhead transmission lines are impossible. This means that underground cable technology...... is the proper substitution and solution which make the transmission expansion possible with minimized visual impacts on the communities. Within European countries, Denmark was been at the forefront of replacing the transmission lines with cables. The project was supplying the power to the greater Copenhagen...... share of long HV underground cables. The end goal will be a guideline to special solutions and precautions to avoid dangerous over voltage problems and also resonance problems in a transmission network with future increased share of cables. Two major categories of problems are switching transient...

  1. Molds for cable dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, L.D.

    1996-12-10

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

  2. Comparison of Tension-Band Wiring With the Cable Pin System in Patella Fractures: A Randomized Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing-xian; Hai, Yong; Du, Xin-ru; Xu, Zi-yu; Lu, Tie; Shan, Lei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jun-lin

    2015-12-01

    To compare the outcome of tension-band wiring (TBW) with the cable pin system (CPS) for transverse fractures of the patella. Randomized prospective study. Academic Level I trauma center. From February 2008 to December 2011, 73 consecutive patients with transverse fractures of the patella were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: one group was treated using the CPS, and the other group was treated using the modified TBW. The clinical outcome assessment included analyses of the radiographic images, the modified Hospital for Special Surgery scoring system, and complications. The follow-up time ranged from 12 to 29 months. All fractures healed, with a union rate of 100%. The fracture healing time was significantly shorter in the CPS group (8.51 ± 2.59 weeks, n = 34) compared with the TBW group (11.79 ± 3.04 weeks, n = 39). Postoperative complications in the CPS and TBW groups were observed in 1 and 9 patients, respectively, a difference that was statistically significant. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery score for the CPS group (90.53 ± 5.19 points) was significantly higher than that for the TBW group (81.36 ± 12.71 points). The CPS is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella and is associated with a shorter healing time, fewer complications, and better function than TBW. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Results from the Danish high temperature superconducting power cable project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    For the first time, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) demonstration cable system has been installed in a utility network supplying electricity to consumers. The cable is a 30-m long, 30kVrms, 2, 000Arms cable, installed in the network of Copenhagen Energy at a substation supplying...

  4. 46 CFR 111.60-6 - Fiber optic cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiber optic cable. 111.60-6 Section 111.60-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-6 Fiber optic cable. Each fiber optic cable must— (a) Be...

  5. Parametrically excited oscillation of stay cable and its control in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing-nan; Wang, Zhi-gang; Ko, J M; Ni, Y Q

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model for simulation and analysis of a kind of parametrically excited vibration of stay cable caused by support motion in cable-stayed bridges. The sag, inclination angle of the stay cable are considered in the model, based on which, the oscillation mechanism and dynamic response characteristics of this kind of vibration are analyzed through numerical calculation. It is noted that parametrically excited oscillation of a stay cable with certain sag, inclination angle and initial static tension force may occur in cable-stayed bridges due to deck vibration under the condition that the natural frequency of a cable approaches to about half of the first model frequency of the bridge deck system. A new vibration control system installed on the cable anchorage is proposed as a possible damping system to suppress the cable parametric oscillation. The numerical calculation results showed that with the use of this damping system, the cable oscillation due to the vibration of the deck and/or towers will be considerably reduced.

  6. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    This dissertation investigates the possibility of preventing wind-induced cable vibrations on cable-stayed bridges using passive aerodynamic means in the form of cable surface modifications. Especially the phenomenon of rainwind induced vibrations, which is known as the most common type of these ......This dissertation investigates the possibility of preventing wind-induced cable vibrations on cable-stayed bridges using passive aerodynamic means in the form of cable surface modifications. Especially the phenomenon of rainwind induced vibrations, which is known as the most common type...... to a categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...

  7. A Multiscale Finite Element Model Validation Method of Composite Cable-Stayed Bridge Based on Structural Health Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumian Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-step response surface method for multiscale finite element model (FEM updating and validation is presented with respect to Guanhe Bridge, a composite cable-stayed bridge in the National Highway number G15, in China. Firstly, the state equations of both multiscale and single-scale FEM are established based on the basic equation in structural dynamic mechanics to update the multiscale coupling parameters and structural parameters. Secondly, based on the measured data from the structural health monitoring (SHM system, a Monte Carlo simulation is employed to analyze the uncertainty quantification and transmission, where the uncertainties of the multiscale FEM and measured data were considered. The results indicate that the relative errors between the calculated and measured frequencies are less than 2%, and the overlap ratio indexes of each modal frequency are larger than 80% without the average absolute value of relative errors. These demonstrate that the proposed method can be applied to validate the multiscale FEM, and the validated FEM can reflect the current conditions of the real bridge; thus it can be used as the basis for bridge health monitoring, damage prognosis (DP, and safety prognosis (SP.

  8. 47 CFR 76.934 - Small systems and small cable companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rules, or membership fees in social service, recreational or athletic clubs or associations. (ii) The net rate base of a system is the value of all of the system's assets, less depreciation. (iii) The... responsive documents that are missing or destroyed. (iii) A system may file with the Media Bureau an...

  9. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...

  10. Online fault location on crossbonded AC cables in underground transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Jensen, Christian; Bak, Claus Leth; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2014-01-01

    system are identified. The fault locator system uses the Wavelet Transform both to create reliable triggers in the units and to estimate the fault location based on time domain signals obtained in the substations by two fault locator units. Field measurements of faults artificially created on a section...

  11. Cable suspended windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  12. 47 CFR 76.611 - Cable television basic signal leakage performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable television basic signal leakage...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Technical Standards § 76.611 Cable television basic signal leakage performance criteria. (a) No cable television system shall commence or...

  13. Power System Technical Performance Issues related to the Application of Long HVAC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, W.; der Sluis, L.V.; Ohno, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the progress of work of Cigre Working Group C4.502 “Power system technical performance issues related to the application of long HVAC cables”. The primary goal of the WG C4.502 is to write a technical brochure that will serve as practical guide for performing studies necessary...

  14. Involvement of c-Abl Kinase in Microglial Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome and Impairment in Autolysosomal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawana, Vivek; Singh, Neeraj; Sarkar, Souvarish; Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2017-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that excessive microglial activation and pesticide exposure may be linked to the etiology of PD; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Emerging evidence indicates that intracellular inflammasome complex namely NLRP3 complex is involved in the recognition and execution of host inflammatory response. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is linked to rotenone (ROT)-induced microglial activation which is dependent upon a priming stimulus by a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) or damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP), respectively. Herein using both BV2 cells and primary microglial cells, we show that LPS priming and subsequent ROT stimulation enhanced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, c-Abl and PKCδ activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, NF-κB activation, and autophagic markers, while TFEB levels were decreased dramatically. Mechanistic studies revealed c-Abl acts as a proximal signal that exacerbated the activation of the afore mentioned markers. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated depletion or pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl via dasatinib abrogated LPS and ROT-induced microglial activation response via attenuation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and ALS dysfunction. Moreover, mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial antioxidant, attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation effects via blockade of c-Abl and PKCδ activation. In LPS treated mice, dasatinib attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, c-Abl and PKCδ activation; and sickness behavior. Together our findings identify an exaggerated ROS/c-Abl/NLRP3 signaling axis in the heightened microglial activation response evidenced in LPS-primed ROT-stimulated microglial cells and suggest that targeting c-Abl-regulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling offers a novel therapeutic strategy for PD treatment. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Automated Cable Preparation for Robotized Stator Cable Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for robotized cable winding of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator stator has previously been presented and validated. The purpose of this study is to present and validate further developments to the method: automated stand-alone equipment for the preparation of the winding cables. The cable preparation consists of three parts: feeding the cable from a drum, forming the cable end and cutting the cable. Forming and cutting the cable was previously done manually and only small cable drums could be handled. Therefore the robot cell needed to be stopped frequently. The new equipment was tested in an experimental robot stator cable winding setup. Through the experiments, the equipment was validated to be able to perform fully automated and robust cable preparation. Suggestions are also given on how to further develop the equipment with regards to performance, robustness and quality. Hence, this work represents another important step towards demonstrating completely automated robotized stator cable winding.

  16. Multistrand superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Albert R.

    1985-01-01

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easily over one another, so as to facilitate flexing and bending of the cable, while also minimizing the possibility of causing damage to the strands by such flexing or bending. Moreover, the improved cable substantially maintains its compactness and cross-sectional shape when the cable is flexed or bent.

  17. Switching studies for the Horns Rev 2 wind farm main cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Faria da Silva, Filipe; Bak, Claus Leth

    2011-01-01

    sections with a total length of 57.7 km and a 42 km long submarine cable. The submarine cable is a three phase type of cable, and three single conductor cables are used for the land cable. Methods of recalculating the physical cable parameters, given in the data sheet, to parameters suitable for the cable......This article proposes a method of constructing a PSCAD model suitable for switching studies in a system containing long HVAC cables. The transmission network connection to the 215 MW offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 is used as a case study. The connection to Horns Rev 2 consists of two land cable......, and the use of different cable models....

  18. Application study on the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuihua Mei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to push forward the development of CFRP cable-stayed bridge and accumulate experiences, the study on the application of the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China was carried out. The design essentials of main components of the bridge were introduced and its integral performances, including static properties, dynamic properties and seismic response were analyzed using finite element method. A new bond-type anchorage was developed and the processes of fabricating and installing CFRP cables were elaborated. Based on the results of construction simulation, a tension scheme for bridge was propound. During constructing, the stresses and displacement of girder and pylon, as well as the forces and stresses of cables, were tested. The results indicate that all sections of the bridge could meet the requirements of the ultimate bearing capacity and normal service; the performance of the anchorage is good and the stresses in each cable system are similar; the tested values accord well with the calculated values. Further, creep deformation of the resin in anchorages under service load is not obvious. All these results demonstrate that the first application of CFRP cables in the cable-stayed bridge in China is successful.

  19. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  20. Passive Control System for Mitigation of Longitudinal Buffeting Responses of a Six-Tower Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Geng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of mitigation of longitudinal buffeting responses of the Jiashao Bridge, the longest multispan cable-stayed bridge in the world. A time-domain procedure for analyzing buffeting responses of the bridge is implemented in ANSYS with the aeroelastic effect included. The characteristics of longitudinal buffeting responses of the six-tower cable-stayed bridge are studied in some detail, focusing on the effects of insufficient longitudinal stiffness of central towers and partially longitudinal constraints between the bridge deck and part of bridge towers. The effectiveness of viscous fluid dampers on the mitigation of longitudinal buffeting responses of the bridge is further investigated and a multiobjective optimization design method that uses a nondominating sort genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II is used to optimize parameters of the viscous fluid dampers. The results of the parametric investigations show that, by appropriate use of viscous fluid dampers, the top displacements of central towers and base forces of bridge towers longitudinally restricted with the bridge deck can be reduced significantly, with hampering the significant gain achieved in the base forces of bridge towers longitudinally unrestricted with the bridge deck. And the optimized parameters for the viscous fluid dampers can be determined from Pareto-optimal fronts using the NSGA-II that can satisfy the desired performance requirements.

  1. Vertical vibration control system for PC cable-stayed bridge during cantilever construction; Shuketa jogedo seishin sochi ni yoru haridashi sekoji no PC shachokyo no seishin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Statics and Dynamics of Offshore Cable and Flexible Pipe Systems Statique et dynamique des câbles flexibles en mer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyrot A. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the static and dynamic analysis of offshore cable structures is presented. These structures may consist of floating platform, buoys, weights, anchors, etc. interconnected by arbitrary arrangements of cables and flexible pipes. Displacements or forces can be specified at any number of nodal points and wave or current interaction be simulated. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by several applications: dynamic response of deep-water oil production platform, anchor drop, sonar towing, dynamic stiffness of mooring lines, tanker loading systems with flexible pipes, etc. Cet article présente une méthode de calcul pour les structures marines comportant des câbles et des tuyaux flexibles. La méthode est applicable à des réseaux de câbles ou de flexibles reliant des plates-formes flottantes, des bouées, des ancrages, etc. Des déplacements ou des forces peuvent être imposés en un nombre quelconque de nSuds. L'action du courant et de la houle est prise en compte. La méthode a été utilisée pour l'étude de nombreux systèmes de câbles et de flexibles. Les résultats indiquent une excellente performance des calculs proposés.

  3. Coaxial cable distribution plant performance simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carangi, Mark D.; Chen, Walter Y.; Kerpez, Kenneth J.; Valenti, Craig F.

    1995-11-01

    The CATV system delivers analog video signals from a centralized headend through a tree- and-branch fiber/coax network. That architecture is very cost effective for delivering broadcast video channels to a vast area. The introduction of interactive TV, data and telephony services requires an upstream link from customers to the headend. Although equipment for upstream transmission is available, CATV systems are primarily engineered for the delivery of one way analog broadcast TV programs. In this paper, issues related to two-way digital transmission through the coaxial cable distribution plant are examined. The objective is to establish a reliable computer modeling environment for the study and simulation of general and advanced transmission systems over the coaxial cable distribution plant. The discussions are focused on three general topics: the coaxial cable distribution plant transmission channel, the corresponding noise environment, and applicable transmission system architectures. Two- port network models are developed for the components (coaxial cable, taps, etc.) of the coaxial cable distribution plant. A realistic distribution plant channel model can be constructed based on these component models. The distribution plant noise level is analyzed based on thermal noise level, amplifier noise figure, and the funneling effect. The upstream ingress noise model is also developed. Three advanced transmission systems, adaptive transmitter, frame based equalization, and discrete multitone (DMT), are presented. End to end computer simulation results are presented using QPSK upstream.

  4. FY 2000 research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices. R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables and faults current limiters, R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications, and study on the total systems and related subjects; 2000 nendo koryu chodendo denryoku kiki kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chodendo soden cable kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chodendo genryuki kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, denryokuyo chodendo magnet no kenkyu kaihatsu, total system nado no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project for research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices has been started, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables include grasping the mechanical characteristics associated with integration necessary for fabrication of large current capacity and long cables; development of barrier cable materials by various methods; and development of short insulated tubes as cooling technology for long superconducting cables, and grasping its thermal/mechanical characteristics. The R and D of faults current limiters include introduction of the unit for superconducting film fabrication, determination of the structures and layouts for large currents, and improvement of performance of each device for high voltages. R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications include grasping the fundamental characteristics of insulation at cryogenic temperature, completion of the insulation designs for high voltage/current lead bushing, and development of prototype sub-cooled nitrogen cooling unit for cooling each AC power device. Study on the total systems and related subjects include analysis for stabilization of the group model systems, to confirm improved voltage stability when the superconducting cable is in service. (NEDO)

  5. OceanCubes: An Affordable Cabled Observatory System for Integrated Long-Term, High Frequency Biological, Chemical, and Physical Measurements for Understanding Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallager, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding how coastal ocean processes are forcing and/or responding to ecosystem change is a central premise in current oceanographic research and monitoring. A distributed, high capacity observing capability is necessary to address biological processes requiring high frequency observations on short ( turbulence, internal waves), moderate (typhoons), and decadal time scales (e.g., NAO, El Nino-SO, PDO). The current belief that ocean observing systems need to be expensive, large, difficult to deploy and limited in capacity was tested by developing OceanCubes, an end-to-end cabled observational system with real-time telemetry, state-of-the-art sensor packages, high level of expandability, and diver maintained to reduce operating costs. A modular approach allows for a scalable system that can grow over time to accommodate budgets. The control volume design allows for measurement of material flux and energy from the water column to the benthos at a rate of s-1. The sensor package is connected by electro-optical cable to shore providing the capability for internet-based teleoperation by scientists world-wide. The central node provides underwater mateable connections for > 22 serial and Ethernet-based sensors (CTD, four ADCPs, chlorophyll and CDOM fluorescence, O2, nitrate, pCO2, pH, a bio-optical package, a Continuous Plankton Imaging and Classification Sensor (CPICS) for mesoplankton, a pan and tilt webcam, and two stereo cameras to observe and track fish communities. ADCPs and temperature strings mark the corners of the 162,000 m3 control volume. Disparate data streams are remotely archived, correlated, and analyzed while plankton and fish are identified using state-of-the-art machine vision and learning techniques. Two OceanCubes have been installed in Japan (Okinawa and Oshima Island, Tokyo) and have survived several typhoon seasons. Two additional systems are planned for either side of the Panamanian Isthmus. Results of these systems will be discussed.

  6. Estimation of cables’ tension of cable-stayed footbridge using measured natural frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakiel Przemysław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents analysis of cables’ tension of steel cable-stayed footbridge using their field-test natural frequencies. A vibration method is usually used for the measured cable tension during the construction of cable systems stiffened with inclined cables. Practical formulas for the vibration method applied herein, mainly based on cable-sag and vertical angle effects (a survey measurement, have been verified on the one-tower steel cable-stayed bridge. The bridge is situated in Sieradz (Poland and it was the structure with the longest span concerning all the cable-stayed bridges in Poland until 1999. The obtained cable axial forces for estimated natural frequencies of low- and high-order modes are verified using FEM models. The final conclusions drawn on the basis of conducted studies can be useful for technical diagnosis, monitoring programs and repair works of similar class of cable-stayed bridges.

  7. Electrothermal Coordination in Cable Based Transmission Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2013-01-01

    behavior of the components. The dynamic temperature calculations of power cables are suggested to be based on thermoelectric equivalents (TEEs). It is shown that the thermal behavior can be built into widely used load flow software, creating a strong ETC tool. ETC is, through two case scenarios, proven......Electrothermal coordination (ETC) is introduced for cable based transmission grids. ETC is the term covering operation and planning of transmission systems based on temperature, instead of current. ETC consists of one part covering the load conditions of the system and one covering the thermal...... to be beneficial for both operator and system planner. It is shown how the thermal behavior can be monitored in real-time during normal dynamic load and during emergencies. In that way, ETC enables cables to be loaded above their normal rating, while maintaining high reliability of the system, which potentially...

  8. A model for the evaluation of heat loss from underground cables in non-uniform soil to optimize the system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salata F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of technologies and underground systems, analysis of thermal fields in soil has become a topic of great interest in the developing technology of buried structures. In this work, we have investigated the steady state temperature field (from linear heat sources - buried cable - in a different type of soil and excavation geometry. In a laboratory, a physical model was built on scale, which reproduces an "undisturbed" area containing a linear thermal source. This scale model was produced for experimental activity. A measuring chain was made to analyze the thermal field in various types of soils, by varying the electrical current through the line source. The physical model was recreated using a finite volume calculation software. Analysis of the different field system configurations were completed and we have studied a model for the improvement of the design method.

  9. 47 CFR 76.1611 - Political cable rates and classes of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political cable rates and classes of time. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1611 Political cable rates and classes of time. If a system permits a candidate to use its cablecast facilities, the system shall...

  10. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Anthony M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  11. Semiannual report for the period April 1 to September 30, 1978 of work on: (1) superconducting power transmission system development; (2) cable insulation development. Power Transmission Project technical note No. 83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-07

    Progress in the development, fabrication and testing of superconductors for HVAC power transmission systems is reported. Information is included on the materials evaluation of superconducting alloys, production of tapes from these alloys, principally Nb/sub 3/Sn cable insulation requirements and development, and the cryogenic equipment used in this research program. (LCL)

  12. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  13. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  14. Computer-Aided Engineering Of Cabling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Program generates data sheets, drawings, and other information on electrical connections. DFACS program, centered around single data base, has built-in menus providing easy input of, and access to, data for all personnel involved in system, subsystem, and cabling. Enables parallel design of circuit-data sheets and drawings of harnesses. Also recombines raw information to generate automatically various project documents and drawings, including index of circuit-data sheets, list of electrical-interface circuits, lists of assemblies and equipment, cabling trees, and drawings of cabling electrical interfaces and harnesses. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in, and gaining access to, functional definition of system as specified in terms of details of pin connections of end circuits of subsystems and instruments and data on harnessing. Primary objective to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding

  15. The Coaxial Cable

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metal pipe you see direct proof that electromagnetic energy does propagate through a tube. Light is an electromagnetic wave! Then why do cable TV operators put in an inner wire? To find the answer, we need to write down all the relevant equations and solve them. This looks like a problem in calculus, but, as you will see, ...

  16. Exceptional Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Edmund B.; Reid, John E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Ways in which the resources of a university's special education, communication arts, and library services can be combined with those of special education consortiums or parent organizations to provide exceptional children and their parents and teachers with high-quality cable educational television programs that meet their varied needs are…

  17. The glass story: fibre optic cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-12-01

    Fibre optic cable has become the glamour pinup among cables as a result of its ability to carry billions of digital bits of information per second. Fibre optic cables consist of hair-thin fibres of high purity silica glass; enclosed in its protective shield and glass cladding, the cable is immune to electromagnetic interference and carries out its task without the need for boosting. It is the perfect answer to the ever-increasing need for speed and capacity of today's high-speed computers. This paper describes the nature of fibre optics, the two major optical fibre categories of multi-mode and single-mode, and the various possible applications for each type. Although the optical performance of fibres is relatively standardized regardless of the manufacturer, physical characteristics do vary across the industry. Fibre type and fibre parameters are usually defined by the transmission system application, whereas the cable design is usually determined by the physical environment of the particular installation. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. 30 CFR 77.804 - High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.804 High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements. (a) High-voltage trailing cables used in resistance grounded systems shall be...

  19. Development of (RE)BCO cables for HTS power transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukoyama, S., E-mail: mukoyama@ch.furukawa.co.j [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Ichihara 290-8555 (Japan); Yagi, M. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Ichihara 290-8555 (Japan); Masuda, T. [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka 554-0024 (Japan); Amemiya, N. [Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Ishiyama, A. [Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Showa Cable System Co. Ltd., Sagamihara 229-1133 (Japan); Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables transmit bulk power with lower loss than conventional cables. Moreover, HTS cables are expected to be constructed as a new underground cable in urban areas at lower cost compared to a high voltage XLPE cable. To put promising HTS cables to practical use, we need (RE)BCO tapes with long length, high critical current, and low cost. Recently many organizations have improved the performance of the (RE)BCO tapes, such as YBCO tapes, or other coated conductor tapes that are made with a variety of different processes. We have fabricated the conductors for the HTS power cable that was constructed of different kinds of (RE)BCO tapes and measured the I{sub c} and AC losses. We achieved significantly low AC loss of 0.1 W/m at 1 kA in the HTS conductor using narrow slit tapes that were cut by laser. Moreover, a 20 m long HTS power cable model and a cable intermediate joint were developed. Short circuit current tests were conducted on the cable system that consisted of two 10 m cables, a cable joint, and two terminations. The cables and the joint withstood the short circuit current of 31.5 kA for 2 s without damage.

  20. Power applications for superconducting cables in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob; Olsen, S. Krüger

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark a growing concern for environmental protection has lead to wishes that the open country is kept free of overhead lines as far as possible. New lines under 100 kV and existing 60/50 kV lines should be established as underground cables. Superconducting cables represent an interesting...... can be combined with other new technologies such as HVDC light transmission using isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). The network needed in a system with a substantial wind power generation has to be very strong in order to handle energy fluctuations. Such a network will be possible...

  1. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  2. Operating experience of the southwire high-temperature superconducting cable project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, R. L.; Lindsay, D.

    2002-01-01

    Southwire Company of Carrollton, Georgia in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed, built, installed and is operating the world's first field installation of a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable system. The cables supply power to three Southwire manufacturing facilities and part of the corporate headquarters building in Carrollton, GA. The system consists of three 30-m single phase cables rated at 12.4 kV, 1250 Amps, liquid nitrogen cooling system, and the computer-based control system. The cables are built using BSCCO-2223 powder-in-tube HTS tapes and a proprietary cryogenic dielectric material called Cryoflex™. The cables are fully shielded with a second layer of HTS tapes to eliminate any external magnetic fields. The Southwire HTS cables were first energized on january 6, 2000. Since that time they have logged over 8,500 hours of operation while supplying 100% of the required customer load. To date, the cables have worked without failure and operations are continuing. The cable design has passed requisite testing for this class of conventional cables including 10× over current to 12,500 Amps and BIL testing to 110 kV. Southwire has also successfully designed and tested a cable splice. System heat loads and AC Losses have been measured and compared to calculated values. On June 1, 2001 on-site monitoring was ceased and the system was changed to unattended operation to further prove the reliability of the HTS cable system. .

  3. Cable Overheating Risk Warning Method Based on Impedance Parameter Estimation in Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhang; Xiaohui, Song; Jianfang, Li; Fei, Gao

    2017-05-01

    Cable overheating will lead to the cable insulation level reducing, speed up the cable insulation aging, even easy to cause short circuit faults. Cable overheating risk identification and warning is nessesary for distribution network operators. Cable overheating risk warning method based on impedance parameter estimation is proposed in the paper to improve the safty and reliability operation of distribution network. Firstly, cable impedance estimation model is established by using least square method based on the data from distribiton SCADA system to improve the impedance parameter estimation accuracy. Secondly, calculate the threshold value of cable impedance based on the historical data and the forecast value of cable impedance based on the forecasting data in future from distribiton SCADA system. Thirdly, establish risks warning rules library of cable overheating, calculate the cable impedance forecast value and analysis the change rate of impedance, and then warn the overheating risk of cable line based on the overheating risk warning rules library according to the variation relationship between impedance and line temperature rise. Overheating risk warning method is simulated in the paper. The simulation results shows that the method can identify the imedance and forecast the temperature rise of cable line in distribution network accurately. The result of overheating risk warning can provide decision basis for operation maintenance and repair.

  4. Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of a cable-stayed bridge that consists of a simply supported four-cable-stayed deck beam and two rigid towers, subjected to a distributed vortex shedding force on the deck beam with a uniform rectangular cross section, is studied in this work. The cable-stayed bridge is modeled as a continuous system, and the distributed vortex shedding force on the deck beam is modeled using Ehsan-Scanlan’s model. Orthogonality conditions of exact mode shapes of the linearized undamped cable-stayed bridge model are employed to convert coupled governing partial differential equations of the original cable-stayed bridge model with damping to a set of ordinary differential equations by using Galerkin method. The dynamic response of the cable-stayed bridge is calculated using Runge-Kutta-Felhberg method in MATLAB for two cases with and without geometric nonlinear terms. Convergence of the dynamic response from Galerkin method is investigated. Numerical results show that the geometric nonlinearities of stay cables have significant influence on vortex-induced vibration of the cable-stayed bridge. There are different limit cycles in the case of neglecting the geometric nonlinear terms, and there are only one limit cycle and chaotic responses in the case of considering the geometric nonlinear terms.

  5. Method to improve superconductor cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    A method is disclosed of making a stranded superconductor cable having improved flexing and bending characteristics. In such method, a plurality of superconductor strands are helically wound around a cylindrical portion of a mandrel which tapers along a transitional portion to a flat end portion. The helically wound strands form a multistrand hollow cable which is partially flattened by pressure rollers as the cable travels along the transitional portion. The partially flattened cable is impacted with repeated hammer blows as the hollow cable travels along the flat end portion. The hammer blows flatten both the internal and the external surfaces of the strands. The cable is fully flattened and compacted by two sets of pressure rollers which engage the flat sides and the edges of the cable after it has traveled away from the flat end portion of the mandrel. The flattened internal surfaces slide easily over one another when the cable is flexed or bent so that there is very little possibility that the cable will be damaged by the necessary flexing and bending required to wind the cable into magnet coils.

  6. An Experimental Study on Non-Compression X-Bracing Systems Using Carbon Fiber Composite Cable for Seismic Strengthening of RC Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Seok Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-bracing (X-bracing is one of the most popular methods of seismic retrofitting, and has been shown to significantly increase the structural stiffness and strength of buildings. Conventional steel X-bracing methods typically exhibit brittle failure at the connection between the brace and the building, or buckling failure of the braces. This study investigated the structural properties of a new type of non-compression X-bracing system using carbon fiber composite cable (CFCC. This non-compression X-bracing system uses CFCC bracing and bolt connections between structural members and the terminal fixer of the CFCC, instead of conventional steel bracing. The aim is to overcome the brittle and buckling failures that can occur at the connection and bracings with conventional steel X-bracing methods. We carried out cyclic loading tests, and the maximum load carrying capacity and deformation were investigated, as well as hysteresis in the lateral load–drift relations. The test results revealed that the CFCC X-bracing system installed in reinforced concrete frames enhanced the strength markedly, and buckling failure of the bracing was not observed.

  7. Identification of aeroelastic forces on bridge cables from full-scale measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio; Macdonald, J.H.G.; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Despite much research in recent years, large amplitude vibrations of inclined cables continue to be of concern for cable-stayed bridges. Various mechanisms have been suggested for their excitation, including rain-wind excitation, dry inclined cable galloping, high reduced velocity vortex shedding...... Bridge. The system records wind conditions and weather conditions, as well as accelerations of certain cables and a few locations on the deck and tower. Using state-of-the-art methods of output-only system identification, the vibration modes of the cables have been identified. From these modes...

  8. Modeling of the power cable production line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosar, Vanja; Gomzi, Zoran [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Department of Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, University of Zagreb, Savska c. 16, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-06-15

    During the manufacturing of a power cable insulated with the cross-linkable polyethylene, the hot polymer is applied to the conductor by extrusion, below temperatures of the rapid cross-linking. The coated cable passes into a high-pressure tube (filled with nitrogen under the pressure of 10 bar) in order to heat up the insulation to temperatures at which the cross-linking agent is highly active. This is the continuous vulcanization (CV) tube. Changes of process variables associated with the CV tube can cause changes in the physical properties, the aging characteristics, and especially the heat resistance of the cable insulation. Performance of insulating compounds in this area of the cross-linking process can determine maximum output rates of a power cable manufacturing facility. The mathematical model describes cross-linking process in the vulcanization tube, which is in fact a tubular reactor. In the vulcanization tube heat is transferred by convection, conduction and radiation. Also, the reaction heat is liberated by the chemical reaction and the heat balance describes all four impacts. Formal part of the mathematical model is a material balance that describes the reactions kinetics. Heat and mole balance are connected with reaction rate and mathematically present a system of partial differential equations which will be numerically solved for chosen boundary conditions, both for the reaction part and for the cooling part of a process. On the basis of the real process parameters and the presented mathematical model simulation of the process was conducted. From the presented simulation the optimal process parameters such as process temperatures, cable linear velocity (u) and cable cooling properties of CV line are predicted and evaluated. (author)

  9. Corrosion Induced Loss of Capacity of Post Tensioned Seven Wire Strand Cable Used in Multistrand Anchor Systems Installed at Corps Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    5 Figure 2.1 Pull tests performed on a Baldwin BLW 440,000 lb...be performed on pristine cable to establish baseline performance for the corroded specimen. These tests were performed on a Baldwin BLW 440,000 lb...outer cable can be no less than 0.004 in. Figure 2.1 Pull tests performed on a Baldwin BLW 440,000 lb Universal Test Machine ERDC/ITL TR-16-4 8

  10. Non-Intrusive Cable Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A cable tester is described for low frequency testing of a cable for faults. The tester allows for testing a cable beyond a point where a signal conditioner is installed, minimizing the number of connections which have to be disconnected. A magnetic pickup coil is described for detecting a test signal injected into the cable. A narrow bandpass filter is described for increasing detection of the test signal. The bandpass filter reduces noise so that a high gain amplifier provided for detecting a test signal is not completely saturate by noise. To further increase the accuracy of the cable tester, processing gain is achieved by comparing the signal from the amplifier with at least one reference signal emulating the low frequency input signal injected into the cable. Different processing techniques are described evaluating a detected signal.

  11. Fiber Optic Cable Thermal Preparation to Ensure Stable Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoames Jr, William J.; Chuska, Rick F.; LaRocca, Frank V.; Switzer, Robert C.; Macmurphy, Shawn L.; Ott, Melanie N.

    2008-01-01

    Fiber optic cables are widely used in modern systems that must provide stable operation during exposure to changing environmental conditions. For example, a fiber optic cable on a satellite may have to reliably function over a temperature range of -50 C up to 125 C. While the system requirements for a particular application will dictate the exact method by which the fibers should be prepared, this work will examine multiple ruggedized fibers prepared in different fashions and subjected to thermal qualification testing. The data show that if properly conditioned the fiber cables can provide stable operation, but if done incorrectly, they will have large fluctuations in transmission.

  12. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  13. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  14. Crystal River 3 Cable Materials for Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Correa, Miguel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zwoster, Andy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-07

    The Expanded Materials Degradation Assessment Volume 5: Aging of Cables and Cable Systems (EMDA) summarizes the state of knowledge of materials, constructions, operating environments, and aging behavior of low voltage and medium cables in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and identifies potential knowledge gaps with regard to cable operation beyond 60 years. The greatest area of uncertainty relates to how well the accelerated aging used in the original equipment qualification (EQ) processes predicts the performance of cable materials in extended operation. General opinion and utility experience have indicated that actual operating environments of in-plant cables are not as severe, however, as the operating and design basis environments used in the qualification process. Better understanding of the long term aging behavior of cable insulation materials in service conditions and the analysis of actual cable operating environments are the objectives of ongoing research to support subsequent license renewal activities in particular and long term cable aging management in general. A key component of the effort to better understand cable material aging behavior is the availability of representative samples of cables that have been installed in operating light water reactors and have experienced long term service. Unique access to long term service cables, including relatively rich information on cable identity and history, occurred in 2016 through the assistance of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI facilitated DOE receipt of harvested cables from the decommissioned Crystal River Unit 3 (CR3) pressurized water reactor representing six of the nine most common low voltage cable manufacturers (EPRI 103841R1): Rockbestos, Anaconda Wire and Cable Company (Anaconda), Boston Insulated Wire (BIW), Brand-Rex, Kerite and Okonite. Cable samples received had been installed in the operating plant for durations ranging from 10 years to 36 years. These cables provide the

  15. The use of Classical Rolling Pendulum Bearings (CRPB for vibration control of stay-cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papastergiou Georgia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cables are efficient structural elements that are used in cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges and other cable structures. A significant problem which arose from the praxis is the cables’ rain-wind induced vibrations as these cables are subjected to environmental excitations. Rain-wind induced stay-cable vibrations may occur at different cable eigenfrequencies. Large amplitude Rain-Wind-Induced-Vibrations (RWIV of stay cables are a challenging problem in the design of cable-stayed bridges. Several methods, including aerodynamic or structural means, have been investigated in order to control the vibrations of bridge’s stay-cables. The present research focuses on the effectiveness of a movable anchorage system with a Classical Rolling Pendulum Bearing (CRPB device. An analytical model of cable-damper system is developed based on the taut string representation of the cable. The gathered integral-differential equations are solved through the use of the Lagrange transformation. . Finally, a case study with realistic geometrical parameters is also presented to establish the validity of the proposed system.

  16. Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensing-Based Steel Cable NDE Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Seunghee; Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Changgil; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    .... This inspection system measures magnetic flux to detect the local faults (LF) of steel cable. To verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection technique, an 8-channel MFL sensor head prototype was designed and fabricated...

  17. Elimination of a Second-Law-Attack, and All Cable-Resistance-Based Attacks, in the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN Secure Key Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo B. Kish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the so far most efficient attack against the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN secure key exchange system. This attack utilizes the lack of exact thermal equilibrium in practical applications and is based on cable resistance losses and the fact that the Second Law of Thermodynamics cannot provide full security when such losses are present. The new attack does not challenge the unconditional security of the KLJN scheme, but it puts more stringent demands on the security/privacy enhancing protocol than for any earlier attack. In this paper we present a simple defense protocol to fully eliminate this new attack by increasing the noise-temperature at the side of the smaller resistance value over the noise-temperature at the side with the greater resistance. It is shown that this simple protocol totally removes Eve’s information not only for the new attack but also for the old Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv attack. The presently most efficient attacks against the KLJN scheme are thereby completely nullified.

  18. Effect of oxygen concentration on fire growth of various types of cable bending in horizontal and vertical orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, Adrianus; Dhiputra, I. M. K.; Nugroho, Yulianto S.

    2017-03-01

    Electrical cable is a whole of the material including metal (cooper) conductor and its insulation, when an electrical cable is flowed by electric current, based on its own capacity, the temperature of cable conductor increases gradually. If the current flows above the cable carrying capacity, then an extreme temperature rises are expected. When temperature increase, the electric current flow inside cable conductor will decrease gradually related to the resistance and could occur repeatedly in a period. Since electrical faults on electrical cable system are often suspected as the cause of fires, thus this research aims to investigate measures of preventing the fire to start by means of controlling oxygen concentration in a cable compartment. The experimental work was conducted in laboratory by using electrical power cable of 1.5 mm2 size. Two transparent chambers were applied for studying the effect of vertical and horizontal orientations on the cable temperature rise, under various oxygen concentration of the gas streams. In the present work, the electrical was maintained at a constant level during a typical test run. Parametric studies reported in the paper include the use of a bare and insulated cables as well as the bending shape of the cable lines of a straight cable, coiled cable and randomly bent cable which were loaded with the same electric load and oxygen concentration in the gas supply.

  19. Electromagnetic analysis of current distribution in multistrand superconducting cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Negrini, F; Ribani, P L; Sandiumenge, F; Fontcuberta, J

    2000-01-01

    A new electromagnetic model for the simulation of transients in superconducting coils is presented. The model takes into account the non uniform current distribution in a multistrand cable. From Maxwell equations, a system of partial differential equations is obtained which describes the space and time dependence of current in the strands of the cable. The system is numerically solved by means of the finite element method. Comparison of numerical results with experimental ones is shown. (6 refs).

  20. Comparison of several innovative bridge cable surface modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is installed for the protection of inner cable strands or wires. The modifications are based on research undertaken predominantly in Europe...... and Japan, with two different prevailing systems: HDPE tubing fitted with helical fillets and tubing with pattern-indented surfaces. In the US and Europe, helical fillets dominate, whilst pattern indented sur-faces are more common in Asia, particularly for long-span cable-stayed bridges. Research...

  1. Sediment Biogeochemistry After the Entrance of Cable Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    , sulfide-rich coastal sediments, salt marshes seasonally hypoxic basins, subtidal coastal mud plains, as well as freshwater sediments and waterlogged soils. In this talk I will review our current knowledge on how cable bacteria influence the biogeochemistry of sediments. The cable bacteria form electric...... and the formation of sulfate[3] Field studies conducted in the marine environment indicate that some of these effects are expressed in a way that marine systems with active cable bacteria populations have elevated phosphorus-retention{Sulu-Gambari, 2016 #1501} and acts as strong buffers against adverse stage...

  2. Simultaneous Thermal and Gamma Radiation Aging of Cable Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Liu, Shuaishuai; Bowler, Nicola

    2016-12-19

    Polymers used in nuclear power plant electrical cable systems experience aging and degradation over time due to environmental stress including heat and gamma irradiation. Prediction of long-term cable performance has been based on results of short-term accelerated laboratory aging studies, but questions remain regarding the correlation of accelerated aging to long-term, in-plant aging. This work seeks to increase understanding of the combined effects of heat and radiation on cable polymer material aging toward addressing these questions.

  3. Frequency domain reflectometry NDE for aging cables in nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Jones, A. M.; Fifield, L. S.; Hartman, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. Although system tests verify cable function under normal loads, demonstration of some cable's ability to perform under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events is essential to assuring plant integrity. The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program that includes condition monitoring to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. One particularly promising test that is beginning to be used more and more by utilities is frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). FDR is a nondestructive electrical inspection technique used to detect and localize faults in power and communication system conductors along the length of a cable from a single connection point. FDR detects discontinuities in the electrical impedance that arise due to cable splices or similar changes along the path of the conductor pair. In addition, FDR has the potential to provide sensitivity to insulation degradation by detecting small changes in impedance between the cable conductors being examined. The technique is also sensitive to cable bends, the particular lay of the cable in tray, proximity to other cable, and other factors that

  4. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...

  5. Workers in the VAB test SRB cables on STS-98 solid rocket boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- United Space Alliance SRB technician Richard Bruns attaches a cable end cover to a cable pulled from the solid rocket booster on Space Shuttle Atlantis. The Shuttle was rolled back from Launch Pad 39A in order to conduct tests on the SRB cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis before launching. Workers are conducting inspections, making continuity checks and conducting X-ray analysis on the cables. The launch has been rescheduled no earlier than Feb. 6.

  6. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  7. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  8. Erection of the 380 kW high power cable system in Berlin for the interconnection to BEWAG; Errichtung des 380-kV-Hochleistungskabelsystems in Berlin fuer den Verbundanschluss der Bewag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenisch, L. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (Bewag) AG, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Kabeltechnik; Hecklau, D. [Berliner Kraft- und Licht (Bewag) AG, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Kabeltechnik; Schroth, R. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany). Geschaeftssegment HS-Kabelanlagen im Kabelwerk

    1995-05-29

    After long drawn out investigations and tests, the Berlin Senate took a decision at the beginning of 1991, to have the part of the approximately 170 km long interconnection between the West European UCPTE network and the existing 380 kV network of BEWAG lying in the Berlin city area made as an underground cable system. During a construction period of about three years, from Autumn 1991 onwards, an approx. 7.6 km long double cable system, between a newly erected switching station SA Teufelsbruch at the north-western edge of the city and the existing 380/110 kV transformer substation UW Reuter, was erected and set to work in December 1994. The authors describe the concepts and their realisation in the construction of the cable route, in the laying of cooling pipes and in the laying and mounting of cables. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anfang 1991 hatte der Senat von Berlin nach langwierigen Untersuchungen und Pruefungen eine Entscheidung bewirkt, das auf Berliner Stadtgebiet liegende Teilstueck des rd. 170 km langen Verbundanschlusses zwischen dem westeuropaeischen UCPTE-Netz und dem bestehenden 380-kV-Netz der Bewag vorwiegend als unterirdisches Kabelsystem ausfuehren zu lassen. In etwa dreijaehriger Bauzeit wurde dafuer ab Herbst 1991 zwischen einer am nordwestlichen Stadtrand neu errichteten Schaltanlage SA Teufelsbruch und dem vorhandenen 380/110-kV-Umspannwerk UW Reuter ein rd. 7,6 km langes Kabeldoppelsystem errichtet und im Dezember 1994 in Betrieb genommen. Die Verfasser beschreiben die Konzepte und deren Realisierung beim Bau der Trasse, bei der Kuehlrohrlegung sowie bei der Kabellegung und -montage. (orig.)

  9. Stability analysis of an F/A-18 E/F cable mount m odel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy; Farmer, Moses

    1994-01-01

    A full-span F/A-18 E/F cable mounted wind tunnel model is part of a flutter clearance program at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Parametric analysis of this model using GRUMCBL software was conducted to assess stability for wind tunnel tests. Two configurations of the F/A-18 E/F were examined. The parameters examined were pulley-cable friction, mach number, dynamic pressure, cable geometry, center of gravity location, cable tension, snubbing the model, drag, and test medium. For the nominal cable geometry (Cable Geometry 1), Configuration One was unstable for cases with higher pulley-cable friction coefficients. A new cable geometry (Cable Geometry 3) was determined in which Configuration One was stable for all cases evaluated. Configuration Two with the nominal center of gravity position was found to be unstable for cases with higher pulley-cable friction coefficients; however, the model was stable when the center of gravity moved forward 1/2. The model was tested using the cable mount system during the initial wind tunnel entry and was stable as predicted.

  10. On the stiffness analysis of a cable driven leg exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevi, N S S; Vashista, Vineet

    2017-07-01

    Robotic systems are being used for gait rehabilitation of patients with neurological disorder. These devices are externally powered to apply external forces on human limbs to assist the leg motion. Patients while walking with these devices adapt their walking pattern in response to the applied forces. The efficacy of a rehabilitation paradigm thus depends on the human-robot interaction. A cable driven leg exoskeleton (CDLE) use actuated cables to apply external joint torques on human leg. Cables are lightweight and flexible but can only be pulled, thus a CDLE requires redundant cables. Redundancy in CDLE can be utilized to appropriately tune a robot's performance. In this work, we present the stiffness analysis of CDLE. Different stiffness performance indices are established to study the role of system parameters in improving the human-robot interaction.

  11. CECOM Index of Technical Papers, International Wire and Cable Symposia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-18

    PEIIFLUROALKOXY FLUOROCARBON RESIN PROPERTIES RELATING TO ELECTRICAL AN) ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS BY: BJRO, Mole MC CANE, Del * ALLEN, 0.8.e StEED9 J.C...BIEBOHAVE. PIE . POLYFTHVLCNE. STALPETH. ALPETM) 2 A HIANLY EXPANDED POLYTVYLENE INSULATED CATV COAXIAL CARLE 51 TRUNK CABLE) CAIV SYSTEM OPERATION C CALE TEL...TUERHERD COMMUNICATION EAGLES 106 ARCO ALUMINUM STEEL CORmUNICATIDN PTPE 541 EpOS IN nESIGN AND INVTALLATION Or SBMARINE CONHMUNICATION CABLE EXPERIENEE

  12. A New Cable-Pulley Algorithm in RFEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štekbauer Hynek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The cable-pulley system is widely used for its advantages. In this paper, application of a new algorithm for the calculation of cables on pulleys is presented. Unlike other algorithms, this algorithm enables to take the magnitude of the radius of each pulley into account. This new algorithm is implemented in the RFEM program because of its higher accuracy and efficiency. Comparison of the commonly used algorithm, which ignores pulley radius, and the new algorithm is presented.

  13. [Biomechanical performance of different wires and cable fixation devices in posterior instrumentation for atlantoaxial instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie-long; Yan, Wang-jun; Han, Yu; Ye, Xiao-jian; Jia, Lian-shun; Li, Jia-shun; Yuan, Wen

    2010-05-01

    To compare the biomechanical performances of different wires and cable fixation devices in posterior instrumentation for atlantoaxial instability, and test the effect of different fixation strengths and fixation approaches on the surgical outcomes. Six specimens of the atlantoaxial complex (C0-C3) were used to establish models of the normal complex, unstable complex (type II odontoid fracture) and fixed complex. On the wd-5 mechanical testing machine, the parameters including the strength and rigidity of anti-rotation, change and strength of stress, and stability were measured for the normal complex, atlantoaxial instability complex, the new type titanium cable fixation system, Atlas titanium cable, Songer titanium cable, and stainless wire. The strength and rigidity of anti-rotation, change and strength of stress, stability of flexion, extension and lateral bending of the unstable atlantoaxial complex fixed by the new double locking titanium cable fixation system were superior to those of the Songer or Atlas titanium cable (Pmedical stainless wire (P<0.05). Simultaneous cable fastening on both sides resulted in better fixation effect than successive cable fastening (P<0.05). Better fixation effect was achieved by fastening the specimen following a rest (P<0.05). The fixation effects can be enhanced by increased fastening strengths. The new type double locking titanium cable fixation system has better biomechanical performance than the conventional Songer and Atlas titanium cables. Fastening the unstable specimens after a rest following simultaneous fastening of the specimen on both sides produces better fixation effect.

  14. Periodicity of crossover currents in a Rutherford-type cable subjected to a time-dependent magnetic field. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmetov, A.; Devred, A. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Ogitsu, T. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)]|[National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-09-01

    The behavior Of Rutherford-type cables under a time-dependent magnetic field is studied. Existing models are extended describing the currents flowing through the resistive contacts at the crossovers between the cable strands by considering crossover current distributions which are not uniform along the cable axis. The generalized system of equations are applied to a few cases of practical interest and show that, if not uniform, the crossover current distribution is periodic, with a period equal to the cable pitch length.

  15. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  16. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  17. A wireless smart sensor network for automated monitoring of cable tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sung-Han; Li, Jian; Jo, Hongki; Park, Jong-Woong; Cho, Soojin; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2014-02-01

    As cables are primary load carrying members in cable-stayed bridges, monitoring the tension forces of the cables provides valuable information regarding structural soundness. Incorporating wireless smart sensors with vibration-based tension estimation methods provides an efficient means of autonomous long-term monitoring of cable tensions. This study develops a wireless cable tension monitoring system using MEMSIC’s Imote2 smart sensors. The monitoring system features autonomous operation, sustainable energy harvesting and power consumption, and remote access using the internet. To obtain the tension force, an in-network data processing strategy associated with the vibration-based tension estimation method is implemented on the Imote2-based sensor network, significantly reducing the wireless data transmission and the power consumption. The proposed monitoring system has been deployed and validated on the Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge located in South Korea.

  18. Two-way cable television project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H.; Guenther, P.; Kiel, F.; Kraus, F.; Mahnkopf, P.; Schnee, R.

    1982-02-01

    The market demand for a multiuser computer system with interactive services was studied. Mean system work load at peak use hours was estimated and the complexity of dialog with a central computer was determined. Man machine communication by broadband cable television transmission, using digital techniques, was assumed. The end to end system is described. It is user friendly, able to handle 10,000 subscribers, and provides color television display. The central computer system architecture with remote audiovisual terminals is depicted and software is explained. Signal transmission requirements are dealt with. International availability of the test system, including sample programs, is indicated.

  19. Development of polymer packaging for power cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issues of product design and the procedure of developing polymer packaging as one of the most important engineering tasks. For the purpose of packing power cables a polymer packaging has been designed in the form of drum. Packaging and many other consumer products are largely produced using polymeric materials due to many positive features. High Density Polyethylene is the type of polyethylene proposed for packaging purposes due to its low degree of branching and strong intermolecular forces. Transport and storage processes were automated based on the radio-frequency identification technology. The proposed system is flexible in terms of its possibility of accepting and processing different types of cables and other products.

  20. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Evaluation of Localized Cable Test Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-30

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test (NDE) methods focusing particularly on local measurements that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As NPPs consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal (SLR) to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs (AMPs) to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. Most utilities already have a program associated with their first life extension from 40 to 60 years. Regrettably, there is neither a clear guideline nor a single NDE that can assure cable function and integrity for all cables. Thankfully, however, practical implementation of a broad range of tests allows utilities to develop a practical program that assures cable function to a high degree. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other NDE tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. These cable NDE programs vary in rigor and methodology. As the industry gains experience with the efficacy of these programs, it is expected that implementation practice will converge to a more common approach. This report addresses the range of local NDE cable tests that are

  1. Air flow around suspended cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowska, Irena; Dutkiewicz, Maciej

    The impact of wind on construction structures is essential issue in design and operation. In particular, the wind can cause the dengerous vibrations of slender structures with low rigidity, eg. vibrations of cables of suspension and cable-stayed bridges or high voltage transmision lines, thus understanding of wind flow around such constructions is significant. In the paper the results of the analysis of wind flow around the cables for different Reynolds number is presented. The analysed flow meets the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The circle and elipse section of the cable is analysed. The discusion of vorticity, drag and lift coefficients and cases due to different angle of wind flow action is presented. The boundary layer and its infuence on total flow is analysed.

  2. Air flow around suspended cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołębiowska Irena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of wind on construction structures is essential issue in design and operation. In particular, the wind can cause the dengerous vibrations of slender structures with low rigidity, eg. vibrations of cables of suspension and cable-stayed bridges or high voltage transmision lines, thus understanding of wind flow around such constructions is significant. In the paper the results of the analysis of wind flow around the cables for different Reynolds number is presented. The analysed flow meets the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The circle and elipse section of the cable is analysed. The discusion of vorticity, drag and lift coefficients and cases due to different angle of wind flow action is presented. The boundary layer and its infuence on total flow is analysed.

  3. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner

    2016-01-01

    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  4. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for CA Weapons Systems Engineering

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  5. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  6. ELECTROSTATIC PROCESSES IN POWER CABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Bezprozvannych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of contact electrification of power cable samples is made. It is revealed that the contact potential difference and the capacity formed under separation of free charges on the surfaces of the contacting materials depend on cable design, applied materials, and inspection schemes. Time series of capacity drift and dielectric loss tangent caused by instability of triboelectric charging of the contacting surfaces are presented.

  7. Cable Driven Devices for Telemanipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraresi, Carlo; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Cable driven robotic devices present peculiar aspects, requiring the solution of very specific problems. As regards the determination of the main operational characteristics, like the workspace, it is necessary to consider that such devices are often parallel and redundant structures. Moreover, cables can only exert traction forces. As a consequence, the development of such structures requires coping with two main aspects: (a) the solution of forward kinematics and inverse statics, necessary ...

  8. Workers in the VAB remove cable covers from STS-98 SRB's for inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Near the bottom of the solid rocket booster, a worker in the Vehicle Assembly Building begins to detach the SRB system tunnel cover on the 36 cables inside. The SRB is part of Space Shuttle Atlantis, rolled back from Launch Pad 39A in order to conduct tests on the cables. A prior extensive evaluation of NASA'''s SRB cable inventory on the shelf revealed conductor damage in four (of about 200) cables. Shuttle managers decided to prove the integrity of the system tunnel cables already on Atlantis before launching. Workers are conducting inspections, making continuity checks and conducting X-ray analysis on the cables. The launch has been rescheduled no earlier than Feb. 6.

  9. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    2000-01-01

    of a superconducting cable includes the thermal insulation of the cable, the current- and coolant feed-throughs and possibly dynamic vacuum control. Since feed-throughs represent major sources of heat in-leak to the cryogenic system it is important to optimise the design and the number of these in a superconducting...... cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  10. Characterization of a cable-free system based on p-type MOSFET detectors for 'in vivo' entrance skin dose measurements in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, Maria Daniela; D' Andrea, Marco; Strigari, Lidia; D' Alessio, Daniela; Quagliani, Francesco; Santoni, Riccardo; Bosco, Alessia Lo [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Tor Vergata University General Hospital, V.le Oxford 81, 00133 Rome (Italy); Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, V. E. Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome (Italy); Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, V. E. Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome (Italy); Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, V. E. Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome (Italy); Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, V. E. Chianesi 53, 00144 Rome (Italy); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Tor Vergata University General Hospital, V.le Oxford 81, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Tor Vergata University, V. della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: During radiological interventional procedures (RIP) the skin of a patient under examination may undergo a prolonged x-ray exposure, receiving a dose as high as 5 Gy in a single session. This paper describes the use of the OneDose{sup TM} cable-free system based on p-type MOSFET detectors to determine the entrance skin dose (ESD) at selected points during RIP. Methods: At first, some dosimetric characteristics of the detector, such as reproducibility, linearity, and fading, have been investigated using a C-arc as a source of radiation. The reference setting (RS) was: 80 kV energy, 40 cm Multiplication-Sign 40 cm field of view (FOV), current-time product of 50 mAs and source to skin distance (SSD) of 50 cm. A calibrated PMX III solid state detector was used as the reference detector and Gafchromic{sup Registered-Sign} films have been used as an independent dosimetric system to test the entire procedure. A calibration factor for the RS and correction factors as functions of tube voltage and FOV size have been determined. Results: Reproducibility ranged from 4% at low doses (around 10 cGy as measured by the reference detector) to about 1% for high doses (around 2 Gy). The system response was found to be linear with respect to both dose measured with the PMX III and tube voltage. The fading test has shown that the maximum deviation from the optimal reading conditions (3 min after a single irradiation) was 9.1% corresponding to four irradiations in one hour read 3 min after the last exposure. The calibration factor in the RS has shown that the system response at the kV energy range is about four times larger than in the MV energy range. A fifth order and fourth order polynomial functions were found to provide correction factors for tube voltage and FOV size, respectively, in measurement settings different than the RS. ESDs measured with the system after applying the proper correction factors agreed within one standard deviation (SD) with the corresponding ESDs

  11. Characterization of a cable-free system based on p-type MOSFET detectors for "in vivo" entrance skin dose measurements in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Maria Daniela; D'Andrea, Marco; Strigari, Lidia; D'Alessio, Daniela; Quagliani, Francesco; Santoni, Riccardo; Bosco, Alessia Lo

    2012-08-01

    During radiological interventional procedures (RIP) the skin of a patient under examination may undergo a prolonged x-ray exposure, receiving a dose as high as 5 Gy in a single session. This paper describes the use of the OneDose(TM) cable-free system based on p-type MOSFET detectors to determine the entrance skin dose (ESD) at selected points during RIP. At first, some dosimetric characteristics of the detector, such as reproducibility, linearity, and fading, have been investigated using a C-arc as a source of radiation. The reference setting (RS) was: 80 kV energy, 40 cm × 40 cm field of view (FOV), current-time product of 50 mAs and source to skin distance (SSD) of 50 cm. A calibrated PMX III solid state detector was used as the reference detector and Gafchromic(®) films have been used as an independent dosimetric system to test the entire procedure. A calibration factor for the RS and correction factors as functions of tube voltage and FOV size have been determined. Reproducibility ranged from 4% at low doses (around 10 cGy as measured by the reference detector) to about 1% for high doses (around 2 Gy). The system response was found to be linear with respect to both dose measured with the PMX III and tube voltage. The fading test has shown that the maximum deviation from the optimal reading conditions (3 min after a single irradiation) was 9.1% corresponding to four irradiations in one hour read 3 min after the last exposure. The calibration factor in the RS has shown that the system response at the kV energy range is about four times larger than in the MV energy range. A fifth order and fourth order polynomial functions were found to provide correction factors for tube voltage and FOV size, respectively, in measurement settings different than the RS. ESDs measured with the system after applying the proper correction factors agreed within one standard deviation (SD) with the corresponding ESDs measured with the reference detector. The ESDs measured with

  12. Cryogenic and Electrical Test Results of 30 M Hts Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnikov, V. E.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Fetisov, S. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Kochkin, V. I.; Kiselev, A. N.; Terentyev, Yu. A.; Patrikeev, V. M.; Zubko, V. V.

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of the Russian R&D Program for HTS power devices, 3×30 m cable with operating current of ˜1.5-2 kA and operating voltage of 20 kV was delivered by Russian Scientific R&D Cable Institute as the first stage of the HTS power cables project. Different basic HTS materials, cryostats and current leads were used for the cable design in this essentially research part of the project. The cable is being tested at special test facility for superconducting power devices developed at the R&D Center for Power Engineering. The cryogenic system for the test facility was provided by Stirling. The basic cryogenic system was equipped with a specially developed flow distribution unit. This unit permits variation and control of liquid nitrogen flows, pressures and temperatures in all three cable phases. Dependencies on temperature of critical currents of each phase were measured during cable tests. The results of the project]s first stage were used to develop and produce a 3×200 m cable system for Moscow distribution grid. In the paper results of cryogenic system tests and cable electrical tests are presented.

  13. Ground return effect on wave propagation parameters of overhead power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo Machado, V.M.; Brandao Faria, J.A.; Borges da Silva, J.F. (Centro de Electrotecnia da Univ. Tecnia de Lisboa, Inst. Superior Tecnico, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, 1096 Lisboa Codex (PT))

    1990-04-01

    The propagation properties of overhead three-phase cables are usually analyzed assuming that the pipe conductor establishes a perfect shielding between the inner conductor set and any outer conductor, i.e., the power cable is assumed as an isolated system. The influence of a lossy ground plane in the neighborhood of the cable is examined in this paper. The propagation parameters for both approaches are compared---significative differences being found to exist, in the zero mode, at low working frequencies.

  14. Assessment of the burning behavior of protected and unprotected cables and cable trays in nuclear installations using small- and large-scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemon, Matthias; Riese, Olaf; Zehfuss, Jochen [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Baustoffe, Massivbau und Brandschutz (iBMB)

    2015-12-15

    Electric installations and cables are a main fire risk source in industrial buildings and power plants. In general, cables and cable systems are associated with flash-over phenomena due to pyrolysis of fuel gases induced by the heat of an adjacent fire, fire spread along cable trays affecting additional areas besides the fire origin, being an ignition source due to malfunction. If burning, cables can emit large amounts of smoke and toxic products affecting occupants as well as the long-term functionality of structure and installations. Paying attention to these risks has led to the development of fire retardant non-corrosive (non-halogenated) cables which are qualified to reduce the individual or all of the risks mentioned. For existing installations in industrial buildings and power plants with halogenated cables, different protection measures are available and widely applied retroactively. Important protective measures are intumescent or ablative coatings, cable casings and bindings. For qualification of the effects of the protection measures, small-scale tests investigating a single cable specimen as well as large-scale cable tray test setups have been developed and carried out in the last 20 years at iBMB. In this paper, these test results are analysed regarding their effects on the heat release, ignition time and fire spread over cable trays. Furthermore, national and international research projects have investigated the burning behaviour of different cable types, tray installations, tray loading and spacing and ventilation conditions. As a conclusion, the main outcomes of past researches are summarized. Influence factors (e.g. pre-heating due to high power utilization, influence of cable aging) which have not been accounted for in detail are emphasized. The modelling of unprotected cables has been internationally studied in recent years. For future applications, the question of applicability of recently developed sub-models on the fire behaviour of protected

  15. Basic EMC technology advancement for C(3) systems: SHIELD. Volume 4B. A digital computer program for computing crosstalk between shielded cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. R.

    1982-11-01

    This report contains the description and verification of a digital computer program, SHIELD, to be used in the prediction of crosstalk in transmission lines consisting of unshielded wires and/or shielded cables. The line may be above a ground plane (Type 1) or within an overall, circular, cylindrical shield which may be solid or braided and a wire (the shielded wire) located concentrically on the axis of the shield. All wires may be stranded and all conductors are treated as imperfect conductors; that is, their per-unit-length impedances are nonzero. Through-braid coupling for braided shields as well as diffusion for both types are included in the model. The shielded cables may have exposed sections at either end (pigtail sections) in which the shielded wire is not covered by the shield. Over these pigtail sections, a pigtail wire, parallel to the shielded wire, connects the shield to the reference conductor at that end via either a short circuit or an open circuit. These pigtail sections are included in the representation to simulate the common practice of terminating a shielded cable in a connector via these pigtail wires. The pigtail sections may be of different lengths. The program is written in FORTRAN IV and should be implementable on a wide range of digital computers.

  16. Application of Microwave Remote Sensing to Dynamic Testing of Stay-Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Gentile

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in radar techniques and systems have favoured the development of microwave interferometers, suitable for the non-contact vibration monitoring of large structures. The paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to the measurement of the vibration response in the stay-cables of cable-stayed bridges. The reliability and accuracy of the proposed technique were investigated by comparing the natural frequencies (and the cable tensions predicted from natural frequencies identified from radar data and the corresponding quantities obtained using more conventional techniques. The investigation, carried out on the cables of two different cable-stayed bridges, clearly highlights: (a the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing; (b the simplicity of use of the radar technique (especially when compared with conventional approaches and its effectiveness to simultaneously measuring the dynamic response of all the stay-cables of an array.

  17. INFLUENCE OF CONSTRUCTIVE AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEFECTS ON COAXIAL RADIO-FREQUENCY CABLE IMPEDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Bezprozvannych

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Coaxial user's radio-frequency cables belong to a category of cable television network elements parameters of which essentially specify the system capabilities as a whole. The cable working frequency spectrum spreading to 1000 MHz along with digital television and soundtrack signals transmission and high-definition television introduction causes more rigid requirements for wave impedance and, consequently, for the cable design. The established norms on user's cable impedance deviations fail to answer the state-of-the-art requirements for granting a complex of interactive services. On the basis of calculations performed, values of internal and external conductor diameters deviations as well as dielectric permeability of the insulation material are validated. For up-to-date user's radio-frequency cables, the impedance deviation from the normalized average value of 75 Ohm should not exceed ± 2 Ohm.

  18. Optical Measurement of Cable and String Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Achkire

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non contacting measurement technique for the transverse vibration of small cables and strings using an analog position sensing detector. On the one hand, the sensor is used to monitor the cable vibrations of a small scale mock-up of a cable structure in order to validate the nonlinear cable dynamics model. On the other hand, the optical sensor is used to evaluate the performance of an active tendon control algorithm with guaranteed stability properties. It is demonstrated experimentally, that a force feedback control law based on a collocated force sensor measuring the tension in the cable is feasible and provides active damping in the cable.

  19. Offshore Wind Farm Cable Connection Configuration Optimization using Dynamic Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Anew approach, Dynamic Minimal Spanning Tree (DMST) algorithm, whichisbased on the MST algorithm isproposed in this paper to optimizethe cable connectionlayout for large scale offshore wind farm collection system. The current carrying capacity of the cable is considered as the main constraint....... Thedynamic changing of the cable capacity, therefore, the cost during the searching process is presented in this work. Twowind farms arechosen as the studied case and the final results showthat the proposed methodcan save the investment on cables 1.07% and 6.10% respectively compared with MST method...

  20. Theoretical and Numerical Analysis of 1 : 1 Main Parametric Resonance of Stayed Cable Considering Cable-Beam Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the 1 : 1 main parametric resonances problems of cable-bridge coupling vibration, a main parametric resonances model considering cable-beam coupling is developed and dimensionless parametric resonances differential equations are derived. The main parametric resonances characteristics are discussed by means of multiscale approximation solution methods. Using an actual cable of cable-stayed bridge project for research object, numerical simulation analysis under a variety of conditions is illustrated. The results show that when the coupling system causes 1 : 1 parametric resonance, nonlinear main parametric resonances in response are unrelated to initial displacement of the cable, but with the increase of deck beam end vertical initial displacement increases, accompanied with a considerable “beat” vibration. When the vertical initial displacement of deck beam end is 10−6 m order of magnitude or even smaller, “beat” vibration phenomenon of cable and beam appears. Displacement amplitude of the cable is small and considerable amplitude vibration may not occur at this time, only making a slight stable “beat” vibration in the vicinity of the equilibrium position, which is different from 2 : 1 parametric resonance condition of cable-bridge coupling system. Therefore, it is necessary to limit the initial displacement excitation amplitude of beam end and prevent the occurrence of amplitude main parametric excitation resonances.

  1. Field Demonstration of a 24-kV Superconducting Cable at Detroit Edison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Nathan; Corsaro, Pietro

    2004-12-01

    Customer acceptance of high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable technology requires a substantial field demonstration illustrating both the system's technical capabilities and its suitability for installation and operation within the utility environment. In this project, the world's first underground installation of an HTS cable using existing ductwork, a 120 meter demonstration cable circuit was designed and installed between the 24 kV bus distribution bus and a 120 kV-24 kV transformer at Detroit Edison's Frisbie substation. The system incorporated cables, accessories, a refrigeration system, and control instrumentation. Although the system was never put in operation because of problems with leaks in the cryostat, the project significantly advanced the state-of-the-art in the design and implementation of Warm Dielectric cable systems in substation applications. Lessons learned in this project are already being incorporated in several ongoing demonstration projects.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF LOSSES IN INSULATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLES WITH XLPE INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Shchebeniuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors calculate the losses in insulation system cable with XLPE-polyethylene as a solid dielectric insulation and with semiconductor polyethylene used as a conductor screen and a insulation screen. The paper is devoted to the investigation of losses in the insulation system of high- voltage XLPE-cables. The line of XLPE-cables in group running horizontally, provided that the cables are of equal diameter and emit equal losses. It is limited to the following: the air flow around the cables may be necessary restricted by proximity to next cables. The dielectric losses are voltage depended and related to the insulation system materials being used. All current in this insulation system are complex quantities containing both real (Re(I and imaginary (Im(I parts. Values of the loss factor of the insulation system at power frequency tgd are given astgd = Re(I/Im(I. It was proposed the quantities criterion of the loss factor of the insulation system to high voltage XLPE-cables. The work is devoted to creation of a method for calculation of the current rating of high-voltage cables in conditions function.

  3. Long-Term In-Service Monitoring and Performance Assessment of the Main Cables of Long-Span Suspension Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Liu, Yang; Chen, Suren

    2017-06-16

    Despite the recent developments in structural health monitoring, there remain great challenges for accurately, conveniently, and economically assessing the in-service performance of the main cables for long-span suspension bridges. A long-term structural health monitoring technique is developed to measure the tension force with a conventional sensing technology and further provide the in-service performance assessment strategy of the main cable. The monitoring system adopts conventional vibrating strings transducers to monitor the tension forces of separate cable strands of the main cable in the anchor span. The performance evaluation of the main cable is conducted based on the collected health monitoring data: (1) the measured strand forces are used to derive the overall tension force of a main cable, which is further translated into load bearing capacity assessment using the concept of safety factor; and (2) the proposed technique can also evaluate the uniformity of tension forces from different cable strands. The assessment of uniformity of strand forces of a main cable offers critical information in terms of potential risks of partial damage and performance deterioration of the main cable. The results suggest the proposed low-cost monitoring system is an option to provide approximate estimation of tension forces of main cables for suspension bridges. With the long-term monitoring data, the proposed monitoring-based evaluation methods can further provide critical information to assess the safety and serviceability performance of main cables.

  4. Data Base On Cables And Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Arlen R.; Oliver, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes Connector Adapter Cable Information Data Base (CONNAID) computer program, managing data base containing necessary information concerning electrical connectors, breakout boxes, adapter cables, backshells, and pertinent torque specifications for engineering project.

  5. Equalization of data transmission cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  6. Seismic Fragility Assessment of an Isolated Multipylon Cable-Stayed Bridge Using Shaking Table Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, cable-stayed bridges have been widely built around the world due to the appealing aesthetics and efficient and fast mode of construction. Numerous studies have concluded that the cable-stayed bridges are sensitive to earthquakes because they possess low damping characteristics and high flexibility. Moreover, cable-stayed bridges need to warrant operability especially in the moderate-to-severe earthquakes. The provisions implemented in the seismic codes allow obtaining adequate seismic performance for the cable-stayed bridge components; nevertheless, they do not provide definite yet reliable rules to protect the bridge. To date, very few experimental tests have been carried out on the seismic fragility analysis of cable-stayed bridges which is the basis of performance-based analyses. The present paper is aimed at proposing a method to derive the seismic fragility curves of multipylon cable-stayed bridge through shake table tests. Toward this aim, a 1/20 scale three-dimensional model of a 22.5 m cable-stayed bridge in China is constructed and tested dynamically by using the shaking table facility of Tongji University. The cable-stayed bridge contains three pylons and one side pier. The outcomes of the comprehensive shaking table tests carried out on cable-stayed bridge have been utilized to derive fragility curves based on a systemic approach.

  7. Impact of cross-tie design on the in-plane stiffness and local mode formation of cable networks on cable-stayed bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2016-02-01

    Suppressing unfavorable stay cable vibrations using cross-ties is becoming more popular on cable-stayed bridges though the mechanics of the formed cable network is yet fully understood. In practice, the main task in designing cross-ties or cable networks is to choose the cross-tie installation location, stiffness and number based on the main cable properties in the network. To have a more comprehensive picture of how to choose these design parameters to achieve higher in-plane network stiffness while minimizing the number of excited local modes, it is imperative to examine dynamic behavior of cable networks with general configurations. In the current study, an analytical model of a general cable network consisting of multiple main cables interconnected by multiple lines of transverse flexible cross-ties will be developed. A new term, defined as the local mode cluster, will be introduced to assess the severity of local mode excitation. Criteria for identifying the presence of local mode cluster will be proposed. A parametric study will be conducted to evaluate the impact of cross-tie installation location, stiffness and number on the network modal response. Results obtained from the present study will provide deeper insight into the selection of these system parameters to achieve the combined benefits of increasing network in-plane stiffness and minimizing the excitation of local modes.

  8. Trenchless Replacement of Buried Cable Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Bayer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enormous amount of underground electricity and telecommunication cables have been worn over the time with technical defects or need capacity increases. Thus, new lines need to be installed. In urban areas, even in smaller communities and in natural reserves, open trenching is difficult and often not permitted.In response, new patented methods of trenchless cable replacement using the HDD equipment have been developed by the TT Group. The new technology is called “Wash-over-cable-replacement” and applies specially designed drill heads, cutting around the old cable string in various configurations (completely closed, U-shape or S-shape embracing, depending to the coating type of the old cable. This special cable replacement drill head separates the cable from the surrounding adhesive soil or the sand bedding by creating a very small annular space around the cable thus enabling the pulling or dragging out of the old cable section between the start and the exit pit. After the old cable has been loosened from the surrounding soil by means of the wash over process and pulled out, the new cable can be smoothly pulled into the void using the drill rods and embedding the new cable in a rich bed of Bentonite.The wash-over drill heads are slim and have inner and outer nozzles for Bentonite and bits to handle roots, pebbles, gravel and the like. These drill heads perform very quickly (up to 3 meters per minute to effectively wash over existing cables without damaging the cable coating and prepare the ground for a fast new laying of a new cable in the existing line. Network owners also benefit from the fact that new geodetic or topographic surveys and documentations of the new cable are not necessary. Only the documents, remarks, technical codes and existing geodetic data need to be updated.The paper will outline the technological background and include several practical job examples.

  9. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  10. Improved Method for PD-Quantification in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Villefrance, Rasmus; Henriksen, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    n this paper, a method is described for improved quantification of partial discharges(PD) in power cables. The method is suitable for PD-detection and location systems in the MHz-range, where pulse attenuation and distortion along the cable cannot be neglected. The system transfer function...... was calculated and measured in order to form basis for magnitude calculation after each measurements. --- Limitations and capabilities of the method will be discussed and related to relevant field applications of high frequent PD-measurements. --- Methods for increased signal/noise ratio are easily implemented...

  11. Statistical Distribution of Energization Overvoltages of EHV Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Bak, Claus Leth; Ametani, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Statistical distributions of switching overvoltages have been used for decades for the determination of insulation levels of extremely high voltage (EHV) systems. Existing statistical distributions obtained in the 1970s are for overhead lines, and statistical distributions of switching overvoltages...... those on the overhead lines with respect to maximum, 2%, and mean values. As the minimum value is almost at the same level, standard deviations are smaller for the cables. The obtained statistical distributions in this paper are of a great importance in considering insulation levels of cable systems....

  12. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS) electronic packaging and cabling development summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, R. H.; Arnett, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Electronic packaging and cabling activities performed in support of the Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS) Advanced Systems Technology (AST) project are detailed. It describes new electronic compartment, electronic assembly, and module concepts, and a new high-density, planar interconnection technique called discrete multilayer (DML). Development and qualification of high density cabling techniques, using small gage wire and microminiature connectors, are also reported.

  13. Comparison of the cable coupling effects under two kinds of HEMP environment

    CERN Document Server

    Sun Bei Yun; Xie Yan Zhao

    2002-01-01

    There are various kinds of HEMP environment definitions. The coupling effects of electronic system are more different under different HEMP environment. The responds of cable of different length are investigated under 1976 HEMP and 1996 HEMP environment. The results indicate that the cable coupling effects under 1976 HEMP environment are more serious than those under 1996 HEMP environment

  14. 47 CFR 76.1507 - Competitive access to satellite cable programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 76.1507 Section 76.1507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... access to satellite cable programming. (a) Any provision that applies to a cable operator under §§ 76... provides video programming on its open video system, except as limited by paragraph (a) (1)-(3) of this...

  15. Assessing the feasibility and profitability of cable logging in southern upland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Dennis M. May; Tony Johnson; Richard H. Widmann

    1995-01-01

    Procedures developed to assess available timber supplies from upland hardwood forest statistics reported by the USDA Forest Services' Forest Inventory and Analysis unit were modified to assess the feasibility and profitability of cable logging in southern upland hardwood forests. Depending on the harvest system and yarding distance used, cable logging can be...

  16. Condition assessment of power cables using partial discharge diagnosis at damped AC voltages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the condition assessment of the distribution power cables, which have a very critical part in the distribution of electrical power over regional distances. The majority of the outages in the power system is related to the distribution cables, of which for more than 60% to

  17. Laplace Synthesis Validation through Measurements on Underground Transmission Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground cable electrical parameters ZY as well as their modal propagation characteristics are highly frequency dependent which in certain cases turns its analysis difficult. To perform electromagnetic transient studies of cables the calculation of electrical parameters is essential to obtain the waves propagation solution through the multiconductor system. At the same time this requires to solve the inverse Laplace transform on a numerical form. Although the analytic Laplace transform has an indisputable accuracy, the application of its numerical version up-to-date has not been completely accepted. A complete methodology is developed in this work to guide analyst engineers or graduate students in the calculation of electromagnetic transients of underground cable systems. Finally, to help the validation of the numerical inverse Laplace transform a scaled prototype experiment is performed in the laboratory in which a transient step-response at the remote end of an energized conductor is measured.

  18. Design of a Micro Cable Tunnel Inspection Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Wang, Chengjiang

    2016-11-01

    As the ventilation system in cable tunnel is not perfect and the environment is closed, it is easy to accumulate toxic and harmful gas. It is a serious threat to the life safety of inspection staff. Therefore, a micro cable tunnel inspection robot is designed. The whole design plan mainly includes two parts: mechanical structure design and control system design. According to the functional requirements of the tunnel inspection robot, a wheel arm structure with crawler type is proposed. Some sensors are used to collect temperature, gas and image and transmit the information to the host computer in real time. The result shows the robot with crawler wheel arm structure has the advantages of small volume, quick action and high performance-price ratio. Besides, it has high obstacle crossing and avoidance ability and can adapt to a variety of complex cable tunnel environment.

  19. On the use of unshielded cables in ionization chamber dosimetry for total-skin electron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Agostinelli, Alfred; Nath, Ravinder

    1998-03-01

    configuration were altered during the two-polarity measurements. This suggests that automatic scanning systems with unshielded cables should not be used in TSET ionization chamber dosimetry. However, the data did show that an unshielded cable may be used in TSET ionization chamber dosimetry if the size of cable-induced error in a given TSET beam is pre-evaluated and the measurement is carefully conducted. When such an evaluation has not been performed, additional shielding should be applied to the cable being used, making measurements at multiple points difficult.

  20. Optimal Selection of AC Cables for Large Scale Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The investment of large scale offshore wind farms is high in which the electrical system has a significant contribution to the total cost. As one of the key components, the cost of the connection cables affects the initial investment a lot. The development of cable manufacturing provides a vast...... choice space and a great opportunity to optimize the system cost while meets the operational requirements of the offshore wind farms and the connected power systems. In this paper, a new cost model for AC-cable is proposed and the optimal cable selection framework is established using the optimization...... platform in Matlab. A real offshore wind farm is chosen as the study case to demonstrate the proposed method. Furthermore, the optimization is also applied to an offshore wind farm under development. It can be observed from the results that the proposed optimal cable selection framework is an efficient...

  1. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for the Cable Excited with Parametric and Forced Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Z. Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the deck vibration effect on the cable in cable-stayed bridge, using nonlinear structure dynamics theory, the nonlinear dynamical equation for the stayed cable excited with deck vibration is proposed. Research shows that the vertical vibration of the deck has a combined parametric and forced excitation effect on the cable when the angle of the cable is taken into consideration. Using multiscale method, the 1/2 principle parametric resonance is studied and the bifurcation equation is obtained. Despite the parameters analysis, the bifurcation characters of the dynamical system are studied. At last, by means of numerical method and software MATHMATIC, the effect rules of system parameters to the dynamical behavior of the system are studied, and some useful conclusions are obtained.

  2. Cable Television and Satellite Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-31

    homes by the end teevision per week. However, accorigtthIne op that de a ay anthr 4 million hoesby - tohoe pendent Broadcast Authority’s (IBA...France to create a leisure desire to buy cable TV. park and a production studio for cartoons. 8 The Role of Public Service Providers In the Next Decade

  3. Study of special spacer with damping device for suppressing wake galloping in tandem cables of cable-stayed bridges and its application to full scale bridge; Nendanseitai wo riyoshita heiretsu cable yo gensui kinotsuki spacer to sono jikkyo cable eno tekiyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M.; Setouchi, H.; Yoshioka, A. [Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Shimoda, I.; Kawahara, S. [Oiles Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-20

    Cable vibration called wake galloping occurs in a cable-stayed bridge, in which cables are arranged tandem, and suppression of the vibration is an extremely important discussion item. This paper describes a complex eigen value analysis performed on tandem cables having lengths of 200 m and 100 m. The analysis revealed that damping characteristics added by a spacer system with a damping device (a type to install a visco-elastic body at about middle of the tandem cables via a jig) depend largely on torsional rigidity of the cables; and the characteristics may vary with difference in intervals between cable centers and that in cable diameters. A visco-elastic damping material of an asphalt system and a spacer with a damping device used as a spring material were fabricated and applied to a full scale bridge to identify quantitatively the damping addition characteristics of this system. Furthermore, the results of tests on the full scale bridge were compared with the result of the complex eigen value analysis, from which findings useful for actual works were obtained. 18 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Validation of shielding effectiveness of cables with pigtails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocher, Timothy W.

    1990-03-01

    This report focuses on the validation of experimental data used to develop the field-to-wire coupling algorithm in the Intrasystem Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Program (IEMCAP). IEMCAP is a computer code used to assess the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of Air Force systems. The experimental data of interest was obtained by measuring, in a mode tuned reverberation chamber (MTRC), the shielding effectiveness (SE) of coaxial cables terminated in pigtails. The results of these measurements indicate that a coaxial cable terminated in pigtail has no shielding from electromagnetic interference (EMI). When repeating these measurements, it was found that coaxial cables terminated in pigtails can have a degree of SE. Due to the opposing results, the various characteristics of pigtails, such as length and construction, are investigated to determine which pigtail attributes critically reduce the SE of coaxial cables. From this investigation, the parameters that critically reduce the SE of coaxial cables are identified. Recommendations are then made regarding the field-to-wire coupling algorithm in IEMCAP and regarding follow-up investigations.

  5. Update of foundation design modifications of data cables and piping in nuclear power plants in operation; Actualizacion de modificaciones de sieno de bases de datos de cables y conducciones en centrales nucleares en operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pereira, J.

    2013-07-01

    The scope of this application is the manage the life cycle of cables electrical and pipes of cables in Trillo NPP. The application is integrated in a configuration Control system, so both cables and conduits become elements of configuration and management of life and history associated with the of the relevant modifying documents. The guarantees criteria of physical separation of wires for jobs and for independent networks designed according to the redundancy of the Central System.

  6. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  7. Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan Pawel

    of a cable stayed bridge. Characterization of a bridge monitoring data is shown and a generic method for the analysis of a cable fatigue in cable supported bridge structure is proposed. With this research, one of the most basic oversights in the lifetime assessment of cablesupported structures, namely......This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified...

  8. SSME Electrical Harness and Cable Development and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Russ; Heflin, Johnny; Burns, Bob; Camper, Scott J.; Hill, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) electrical harness and cable system consists of the various interconnecting devices necessary for operation of complex rocket engine functions. Thirty seven harnesses incorporate unique connectors, backshell adapters, conductors, insulation, shielding, and physical barriers for a long maintenance-free life while providing the means to satisfy performance requirements and to mitigate adverse environmental influences. The objective of this paper is to provide a description of the SSME electrical harness and cable designs as well as the development history and lessons learned.

  9. Seismic Passive Control of Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam-Eddin M. Ali

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional modeling procedure is proposed for cable-stayed bridges with rubber, steel, and lead energy dissipation devices. The passive control technique is investigated by considering the response of bridge models with and without energy dissipation devices. The impact of various design parameters on the seismic response of current and future bridge designs is studied. Appropriate locations and properties of the passive devices can achieve better performance for cable-stayed bridges by balancing the significant reduction in earthquake-induced forces against tolerable displacements. Proper design of passive systems can help provide solutions for retro-fitting some existing bridges.

  10. The multi service cable network along a natural gas network for urban distribution; Reseau cable multiservice associe a un reseau de gaz naturel pour la consommation publique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, D.; Krsmanovic, Z. [NIS-Energogas (Yugoslavia)

    2000-07-01

    The paper discusses parallel construction and development of natural gas and telecommunications projects in Europe, with an emphasis on the situation in FR Yugoslavia. Deregulation of postal services has created an opportunity for joint construction of multipurpose cable networks and gas distribution systems. Advantages are shown of such joint construction of gas pipeline and cable systems, and the strategy of further development of telecommunications and gas supply projects in FR Yugoslavia is presented. (authors)

  11. Cost of wetland protection using a Christy cable yarder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; John E. Baumgras; Edwin S. Miyata

    1990-01-01

    Forest managers, loggers, land-use planners, and other decision makers need an understanding of estimating the cost of protecting wetlands using cable logging systems to harvest timber products. Results suggest that protection costs can range from $245 to $490 per acre depending on the degree of protection desired.

  12. A second look at cable logging in the Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry G. Gibson; Cleveland J. Biller

    1975-01-01

    Cable logging, once used extensively in the Appalachians, is being re-examined to see if smaller, more mobile systems can help solve some of the timber-managment problems on steep slopes. A small Austrian skyline was tested in West Virginia to determine its feasibility for harvesting enstern hardwoods. The short-term test included both selection and clearcut harvesting...

  13. Modelling of wander ratios, travel speeds and productivity of cable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop predictive models for cable and grapple skidder wander ratios, travel speeds (loaded and unloaded), and productivity in softwood roundwood sawtimber harvesting operations. For field data collection, the study utilised on-board computing systems supported by manual time study.

  14. Investigation of the Ampacity of a Prefabricated Straight-Through Joint of High Voltage Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on the ampacity of the prefabricated straight-through joint of a 110 kV high voltage cable. Thermal modelling revealed that the critical spot limiting the ampacity of this type of cable joint is located on its crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE insulation section. The axial distribution of the thermal field in this type of cable joint was also determined. An algorithm for assessing ampacity in this type of cable joint was developed. Experiments were conducted on a real cable system with a prefabricated straight-through joint under different loading conditions. The experiments show a good agreement with the thermal modelling results.

  15. Study of Transient Heat Transport Mechanisms in Superfluid Helium Cooled Rutherford-Cables

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100615

    The Large Hadron Collider leverages superconducting magnets to focus the particle beam or keep it in its circular track. These superconducting magnets are composed of NbTi-cables with a special insulation that allows superfluid helium to enter and cool the superconducting cable. Loss mechanisms, e.g. continuous random loss of particles escaping the collimation system heating up the magnets. Hence, a local temperature increase can occur and lead to a quench of the magnets when the superconductor warms up above the critical temperature. A detailed knowledge about the temperature increases in the superconducting cable (Rutherford type) ensures a secure operation of the LHC. A sample of the Rutherford cable has been instrumented with temperature sensors. Experiments with this sample have been performed within this study to investigate the cooling performance of the helium in the cable due to heat deposition. The experiment uses a superconducting coil, placed in a cryostat, to couple with the magnetic field loss m...

  16. Dynamic Response Analysis of Cable of Submerged Floating Tunnel under Hydrodynamic Force and Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified analysis model of cable for submerged floating tunnel subjected to parametrically excited vibrations in the ocean environment is proposed in this investigation. The equation of motion of the cable is obtained by a mathematical method utilizing the Euler beam theory and the Galerkin method. The hydrodynamic force induced by earthquake excitations is formulated to simulate real seaquake conditions. The random earthquake excitation in the time domain is formulated by the stochastic phase spectrum method. An analytical model for analyzing the cable for submerged floating tunnel subjected to combined hydrodynamic forces and earthquake excitations is then developed. The sensitivity of key parameters including the hydrodynamic, earthquake, and structural parameters on the dynamic response of the cable is investigated and discussed. The present model enables a preliminary examination of the hydrodynamic and seismic behavior of cable for submerged floating tunnel and can provide valuable recommendations for use in design and operation of anchor systems for submerged floating tunnel.

  17. Full Scale Test on a 100km, 150kV AC Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria da Silva, Filipe Farria; Wiechowski, W.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results obtained from the electrical measurements on a 99.7 km, 150 kV three-phase AC cable, connecting 215 MW offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2, located in Denmark west coast, to Denmark's 400 kV transmission network. The measurements were performed at nominal voltage......, but unusual in overhead lines. In this paper is made a characterization of the cable and the power transmission system in which the cable is installed, followed by a description of the measurement equipment and of the test setup/procedures. A theoretical explanation and presentation of different analysed...... phenomena is conducted. The cases analysed in this paper are: Zero-missing phenomenon, Ferranti effect, energisation transient, effect of the cable's connection in the busbar voltage and cable disconnection. For all the phenomena described in the paper measurement data are presented and it is verified...

  18. External electromagnetic transient sources: analysis of its effect in underground power cables; Fuentes transitorias electromagneticas externas: analisis de su efecto en los cables de potencia subterraneos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escamilla Paz, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    In most of the electrical power systems that operate at present, the subterranean cables are only a complement. The cost of these cables is generally higher than the one of the aerial power lines, thus its use is restricted only to those areas where the construction of the aerial power lines is not feasible. It is estimated that for voltages lower than 110 kV this cost is up to seven times greater than the one of an aerial power line and for voltages higher than 380 kV it can be up to twenty times greater. Nevertheless, important reasons exist to construct a subterranean cable system such as: a) the fast growth of the urban centers and the industrial zones, which brings about restrictions of the rights of way for the construction of aerial power lines, b) the crossing of large water bodies, c) the congestion of aerial power lines near the generating substations or power plants, d) the crossing of air lines and e) the laws and the regulations, to mention some of them. The importance of the underground transmission systems of high and extra high voltage will be increased in the medium and the long term, therefore, it is considered that the effects of the external phenomena in these systems, like the inductions produced by the electromagnetic transient sources, will be more severe. In this research work the atmospheric discharges are defined as the external electromagnetic transient sources. The large dimension cables such as the power cables, behave as large collectors of the interferences produced by the atmospheric discharges, which can bring about damages in the components of a system. In order to avoid the damages and to increase the reliability of the subterranean cable systems it is necessary to use protective devices and appropriate insulation levels, mainly. If the phenomenon and the behavior of the system are properly represented, it is possible to more accurately determine the characteristics that the equipment must have to resist the over voltages and the

  19. Automatic detection of ECG cable interchange by analyzing both morphology and interlead relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Gregg, Richard E; Feild, Dirk Q; Babaeizadeh, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    ECG cable interchange can generate erroneous diagnoses. For algorithms detecting ECG cable interchange, high specificity is required to maintain a low total false positive rate because the prevalence of interchange is low. In this study, we propose and evaluate an improved algorithm for automatic detection and classification of ECG cable interchange. The algorithm was developed by using both ECG morphology information and redundancy information. ECG morphology features included QRS-T and P-wave amplitude, frontal axis and clockwise vector loop rotation. The redundancy features were derived based on the EASI™ lead system transformation. The classification was implemented using linear support vector machine. The development database came from multiple sources including both normal subjects and cardiac patients. An independent database was used to test the algorithm performance. Common cable interchanges were simulated by swapping either limb cables or precordial cables. For the whole validation database, the overall sensitivity and specificity for detecting precordial cable interchange were 56.5% and 99.9%, and the sensitivity and specificity for detecting limb cable interchange (excluding left arm-left leg interchange) were 93.8% and 99.9%. Defining precordial cable interchange or limb cable interchange as a single positive event, the total false positive rate was 0.7%. When the algorithm was designed for higher sensitivity, the sensitivity for detecting precordial cable interchange increased to 74.6% and the total false positive rate increased to 2.7%, while the sensitivity for detecting limb cable interchange was maintained at 93.8%. The low total false positive rate was maintained at 0.6% for the more abnormal subset of the validation database including only hypertrophy and infarction patients. The proposed algorithm can detect and classify ECG cable interchanges with high specificity and low total false positive rate, at the cost of decreased sensitivity for

  20. PCACE- PERSONAL COMPUTER AIDED CABLING ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A computerized interactive harness engineering program has been developed to provide an inexpensive, interactive system which is designed for learning and using an engineering approach to interconnection systems. PCACE is basically a database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. This directly emulates the typical manual engineering methods of data handling, thus making the user interface to the program very natural. Data files can be created, viewed, manipulated, or printed in real time. The printed ouput is in a form ready for use by fabrication and engineering personnel. PCACE also contains a wide variety of error-checking routines including connector contact checks during hardcopy generation. The user may edit existing harness data files or create new files. In creating a new file, the user is given the opportunity to insert all the connector and harness boiler plate data which would be part of a normal connector wiring diagram. This data includes the following: 1) connector reference designator, 2) connector part number, 3) backshell part number, 4) cable reference designator, 5) cable part number, 6) drawing revision, 7) relevant notes, 8) standard wire gauge, and 9) maximum circuit count. Any item except the maximum circuit count may be left blank, and any item may be changed at a later time. Once a file is created and organized, the user is directed to the main menu and has access to the file boiler plate, the circuit wiring records, and the wiring records index list. The organization of a file is such that record zero contains the connector/cable boiler plate, and all other records contain circuit wiring data. Each wiring record will handle a circuit with as many as nine wires in the interface. The record stores the circuit name and wire count and the following data for each wire: 1) wire identifier, 2) contact, 3) splice, 4) wire gauge if different from standard

  1. Vibration mitigation of a bridge cable using a nonlinear energy sink: design and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design and experiment of a cubic nonlinear energy sink (NES for horizontal vibration mitigation of a bridge cable. Modal analysis of horizontal linear modes of the cable is experimentally performed using accelerometers and displacement sensors. A theoretical simplified 2-dof model of the coupled cable-NES system is used to analytically design the NES by mean of multi-time scale systems behaviours and detection its invariant manifold, equilibrium and singular points which stand for periodic and strongly modulated regimes, respectively. Numerical integration is used to confirm the efficiency of the designed NES for the system under step release excitation. Then, the prototype system is built using geometrical cubic nonlinearity as the potential of the NES. Efficiency of the prototype system for mitigation of horizontal vibrations of the cable under for step release and forced excitations is experimentally demonstrated.

  2. Fatigue of cable anchorage of large cable stayed bridge; Daikibo shachokyo cable teichaku kozo no hiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T.; Matsumoto, T. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan); Tsukahara, H. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miki, C. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-21

    Design considerations such as design schemes, the assemblage and welding of steel plates, and safety for fatigue of welded connections have to be taken for the cable anchorages of the steel cable stayed bridges. In this study, two full scale models, which have different shape of box anchorages welded to the web of the main girder, were made to investigate fatigue characteristics as well as assemblage of plate and gelding details. Finite element analyses for both test models and actual bridges here carried out to compare stress distribution. It was confirmed that the assemblage and welding of both types of box anchorage were attainable kith required quality and accuracy. According to the fatigue test, fatigue cracks originated from the weldings of the bearing plate to which the load from cable socket applied directly were caused by out-of-plane bending of the bearing plate. It was proved that the slight modifications of the details around the bearing plate resulted in sufficient fatigue strength in both types of anchorage. 1 ref., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. ESTIMATION OF INDUCED CURRENTS IN THE SHIELDS OF ELECTRICAL POWER CABLES WITH XLPE INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical power cables with Cross-Linked Polyethylene Insulation (XLPE-insulation are currently utilized in projects of the electric-power supply systems of modern facilities. However, the higher costs, the incomplete design, installation and maintenance normativetechnical basis as well as certain constructional features of the XLPE-insulated cable lines hinder their large-scale implementation.The cables with XLPE insulation are mostly produced in a single-conductor core version being provided with a composite copper shield whose cross-section may vary while the electric conductor cross-section remains uniform. Earthing the cable shields on both sides causes the flow of electricity in them. The course of operational service of the XLPE-insulated cable lines revealed the following fact – the currents induced in the cable shields can run up to the levels commeasurable with those in the conductor-cores themselves. That, in its turn, leads to electrical safety-level reduction, cable lines failure, and economic losses. The currents induced in the shields may occur both in symmetric (normal and emergency and asymmetric operating modes of the power grid with values of the induced currents reaching 80 % of the conducting core currents. Many factors affect the level of the current induced in the shield: the midpoint conductor modes, the values of the core longitudinal currents in the normal and emergency operating modes, failure mode, the cross-section area of the shield, the cables mutual disposition, and the distance between them.The paper claims experimental existence conformation of the cable-shield current induced by that in the conductor-core and demonstrates its measured value. The author establishes that induction of dangerous currents in the cable shields demands elaboration of measures on reducing their level.

  4. Managing cable thermal stress through predictive ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, R.; Pilgrim, J.A.; Lewin, P.L.; Scott, D.; Morrice, D.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of high voltage cables are sized and operated by a continuous current rating which is based on the worst-case assumptions. However, the load on the cables themselves may vary significantly depending upon the time and season. In this paper, a dynamic thermal model for a cable in air installation is built using the finite difference method. The real-time load current and ambient conditions are accessible to allow improved cable modelling. This model is then used to support the rati...

  5. MARS: a cabled observatory testbed in Monterey Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, M.; Massion, G.; Raybould, K.; Bellingham, J.; Paull, C.

    2003-04-01

    With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) will be installing a deep-sea observatory in Monterey Bay, California, that will serve as a test bed for a future regional-scale cabled observatory. Monterey Bay offers a variety of active processes for scientific inquiry, including a very productive zone of ocean upwelling, a seismically active strand of the San Andreas fault system, cold seeps, and a very dynamic submarine canyon. The MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable will extend more than 60 km offshore to an instrument node at a depth of approximately 1.2 km. Extension cords can be run by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) from the cable node up to several kilometers away in order to provide greater flexibility in siting instruments. The observatory will be serviced using ROVs and will serve as a test bed for developing new sensors, instruments systems, experiment protocols, and mobile platforms for which submarine cables will provide power and two-way communications. In addition to serving as a test bed for instrumentation and platforms, the MARS project will demonstrate models for how to operate, service, and manage a community facility of this sort. In cooperation with our outreach partner, the Monterey Bay Aquarium, we will be examining ways to exploit the full potential of deep-sea observatories for student education and public information. We will also be preparing a proposal to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) to provide a nearby drill hole for connecting bore-hole experiments to the MARS cable, thereby accelerating the development of new tools for probing Earth beneath the oceans.

  6. 75 FR 26798 - Distribution of the 2000-2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Football League, Inc. v. FCC, 454 U.S. 1143 (1982). Cable systems were now free to import as many distant... Administration Unit, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; and Professor Debra J. Ringold.\\3\\ The Settling...

  7. Vibration Control on Multilayer Cable Moving through the Crossover Zones on Mine Hoist

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Xia; Gong, Xian-sheng; Liu, Jin-jun

    2016-01-01

      Mine hoist is an important piece of equipment in mine hoist systems, and we achieve deep mine hoist through the multilayer winding, but the cable always undergoes severe shock and vibration during...

  8. Deep ocean CTD data 2011-2013 from the Aloha Cabled Observatory (NODC Accession 0123115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is a system of hardware and software that extends electric power and the Internet offshore, supporting sustained real-time...

  9. Cable fire tests in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2000-05-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [German] Modifikationen werden in allen franzoesischen Kernkraftwerken durchgefuehrt, um die Brandschutzsicherung zu verbessern. Die Modifikationen sind auf einem Dreistufenkonzept begruendet: brandvorbeugende Massnahmen, begrenzter Brandschutz und Brandkontrolle. Begrenzter Brandschutz verlangt viele Modifikationen wie Brandschutz von Kabelanlagen und Kenntnisse ueber Feuerentwicklung, die Forschung und Entwicklung brauchen. Einerseits werden die aus Mineralwolle hergestellten Kabelhuellen fuer alle moeglichen Faelle geprueft, einschliesslich der Auswirkung von Alterung, Ueberhitzung und Feuer, um so die Huellen als Schutz zu nutzen. Andererseits werden Kabelanlagen der Stufe eins mit Gas und Loesungsmitteln entzuendet, um Entzuendung, Feuerentwicklung und Feueruebersprung zu simulieren. Diese Versuche werden unter unterschiedlichen Anlagenbedingungen durchgefuehrt. Die Ergebnisse koennen fuer Computermodelle zur Pruefung von Brandschutztechniken benutzt werden. (orig.)

  10. Torsional Buckling and Writhing Dynamics of Elastic Cables and DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, S; Perkins, N C; Lee, C L

    2003-02-14

    Marine cables under low tension and torsion on the sea floor can undergo a dynamic buckling process during which torsional strain energy is converted to bending strain energy. The resulting three-dimensional cable geometries can be highly contorted and include loops and tangles. Similar geometries are known to exist for supercoiled DNA and these also arise from the conversion of torsional strain energy to bending strain energy or, kinematically, a conversion of twist to writhe. A dynamic form of Kirchhoff rod theory is presented herein that captures these nonlinear dynamic processes. The resulting theory is discretized using the generalized-method for finite differencing in both space and time. The important kinematics of cross-section rotation are described using an incremental rotation ''vector'' as opposed to traditional Euler angles or Euler parameters. Numerical solutions are presented for an example system of a cable subjected to increasing twist at one end. The solutions show the dynamic evolution of the cable from an initially straight element, through a buckled element in the approximate form of a helix, and through the dynamic collapse of this helix through a looped form.

  11. POTS to broadband ... cable modems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    There have been 3 columns talking about broadband communications and now at the very end when it's time to compare using a telco or cableco, I'm asking does it really matter? So what if I can actually get the whole 30 Mbps with a cable network when the website I'm connecting to is running on an ISDN line at 128 Kbps? Broadband offers a lot more bandwidth than the connections many Internet servers have today. Except for the biggest websites, many servers connect to the Internet with a switched 56-Kbps, ISDN, or fractional T1 line. Even with the big websites, my home network only runs a 10 Mbps Ethernet connection to my cable modem. Maybe it doesn't matter that the cable lines are shared or that I can only get 8 Mbps from an ADSL line. Maybe the ISP that I use has a T1 line connection to the Internet so my new ADSL modem has a fatter pipe than my provider! (See table 1). It all makes me wonder what's in store for us in the future. PC technology has increased exponentially in the last 10 years with super fast processor speeds, hard disks of hundreds of gigabytes, and amazing video and audio. Internet connection speeds have failed to keep the same pace. Instead of hundreds of times better or faster--modem speeds are barely 10 times faster. Broadband connections offer some additional speed but still not comparable growth as broadband connections are still in their infancy. Rather than trying to make use of existing communication paths, maybe we need a massive infrastructure makeover of something new. How about national wireless access points so we can connect anywhere, anytime? To use the latest and fastest wireless technology you will simply need to buy another $9.95 WLAN card or download the latest super slick WLAN compression/encryption software. Perhaps it is time for a massive infra-restructuring. Consider the past massive infrastructure efforts. The telcos needed to put in their wiring infrastructure starting in the 1870s before telephones were useful to the

  12. Bulk Current Injection Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques, 50 kHz to 400 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.; Singh, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated using bulk current injection (BCI) techniques with radiated fields from 50 kHz - 400 MHz. It is a follow up to the two-part paper series presented at the Asia Pacific EMC Conference that focused on TEM cell signal injection. This paper discusses the effects of cable types, shield connections, and chassis connections on cable noise. For each topic, well established theories are compared with data from a real-world physical system.

  13. Note: Model-based identification method of a cable-driven wearable device for arm rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiang; Chen, Weihai; Zhang, Jianbin; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Cable-driven exoskeletons have used active cables to actuate the system and are worn on subjects to provide motion assistance. However, this kind of wearable devices usually contains uncertain kinematic parameters. In this paper, a model-based identification method has been proposed for a cable-driven arm exoskeleton to estimate its uncertainties. The identification method is based on the linearized error model derived from the kinematics of the exoskeleton. Experiment has been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model-based method in practical application.

  14. A new multiconstraint method for determining the optimal cable stresses in cable-stayed bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, B; Osman, S A; Adnan, A

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  15. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Asgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM. The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  16. Wind-induced vibration of stay cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Cable-stayed bridges have become the form of choice over the past several decades for bridges in the medium- to long-span range. In some cases, serviceability problems involving large amplitude vibrations of stay cables under certain wind and rain co...

  17. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Pedersen, Morten Virklund; Expethit, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns an increase in off-shore windfarms has been observed in recent years, leading to an increased demand for three-core-wire-armoured submarine cables. However, the IEC Standard 60287 used to calculate the ampacity of these cables is widely recognized as being not accurate...

  18. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... constitute an integral part of a circuit for transmitting electrical energy. (d) Cable reels for shuttle cars... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.45 Cable reels. (a) A self-propelled machine, that receives electrical energy through a portable...

  19. Pay Cable: A Viable Advertising Medium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Dean M.; Barban, Arnold M.

    Cable television, which cannot only clarify local signals to weak signal areas but can also bring in distant signals to areas which have been receiving few signals, has the capacity to present special television programs to customers for extra fees. The number of pay cable subscribers is growing and industry projections are that it will reach 20…

  20. The Status of Cable Communications in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brigitte L.

    Librarians are and will be using cable television technologies to enhance and extend their services. While questions remain in regard to the technology itself, the health and viability of the industry, and government policy, librarians are seeing cable communications as an opportunity to gain credibility and visibility, and also as an extension of…

  1. When is hardwood cable logging economical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1985-01-01

    Using cable logging to harvest eastern hardwood logs on steep terrain can result in low production rates and high costs per unit of wood produced. Logging managers can improve productivity and profitability by knowing how the interaction of site-specific variables and cable logging equipment affect costs and revenues. Data from selected field studies and forest model...

  2. Status and Progress of a Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable to BE Installed in the con EDISON Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, J.; Folts, D.; Yuan, J.; Henderson, N.; Lindsay, D.; Knoll, D.; Rey, C.; Duckworth, R.; Gouge, M.; Wolff, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2010-04-01

    In the last decade, significant advances in the performance of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting wire have made it suitable for commercially viable applications such as electric power cables and fault current limiters. Currently, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security is co-funding the design, development and demonstration of an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable under the Hydra project with American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison. The cable will be approximately 300 m long and is being designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The underground cable will be installed and energized in New York City. The project is led by American Superconductor teamed with Con Edison, Ultera (Southwire and nkt cables joint venture), and Air Liquide. This paper describes the general goals, design criteria, status and progress of the project. Fault current limiting has already been demonstrated in 3 m prototype cables, and test results on a 25 m three-phase cable will be presented. An overview of the concept of a fault current limiting cable and the system advantages of this unique type of cable will be described.

  3. Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

    2011-11-01

    Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

  4. Monitoring and Failure Analysis of Corroded Bridge Cables under Fatigue Loading Using Acoustic Emission Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cables play an important role in cable-stayed systems, but are vulnerable to corrosion and fatigue damage. There is a dearth of studies on the fatigue damage evolution of corroded cable. In the present study, the acoustic emission (AE technology is adopted to monitor the fatigue damage evolution process. First, the relationship between stress and strain is determined through a tensile test for corroded and non-corroded steel wires. Results show that the mechanical performance of corroded cables is changed considerably. The AE characteristic parameters for fatigue damage are then established. AE energy cumulative parameters can accurately describe the fatigue damage evolution of corroded cables. The failure modes in each phase as well as the type of acoustic emission source are determined based on the results of scanning electron microscopy. The waveform characteristics, damage types, and frequency distribution of the corroded cable at different damage phases are collected. Finally, the number of broken wires and breakage time of the cables are determined according to the variation in the margin index.

  5. Feasibility Study of the Electromagnetic Damper for Cable Structures Using Real-Time Hybrid Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Yeon Jung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cable structure is a major component of long-span bridges, such as cable-stayed and suspension bridges, and it transfers the main loads of bridges to the pylons. As these cable structures are exposed to continuous external loads, such as vehicle and wind loads, vibration control and continuous monitoring of the cable are required. In this study, an electromagnetic (EM damper was designed and fabricated for vibration control and monitoring of the cable structure. EM dampers, also called regenerative dampers, consist of permanent magnets and coils. The electromagnetic force due to the relative motion between the coil and the permanent magnet can be used to control the vibration of the structure. The electrical energy can be used as a power source for the monitoring system. The effects of the design parameters of the damper were numerically analyzed and the damper was fabricated. The characteristics of the damper were analyzed with various external load changes. Finally, the vibration-control and energy-harvesting performances of the cable structure were evaluated through a hybrid simulation. The vibration-control and energy-harvesting performances for various loads were analyzed and the applicability to the cable structure of the EM damper was evaluated.

  6. Nonlinear Vibration Signal Tracking of Large Offshore Bridge Stayed Cable Based on Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Qingwei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stayed cables are key stress components of large offshore bridge. The fault detection of stayed cable is very important for safe of large offshore bridge. A particle filter model and algorithm of nonlinear vibration signal are used in this paper. Firstly, the particle filter model of stayed cable of large offshore bridge is created. Nonlinear dynamic model of the stayed-cable and beam coupling system is dispersed in temporal dimension by using the finite difference method. The discrete nonlinear vibration equations of any cable element are worked out. Secondly, a state equation of particle filter is fitted by least square algorithm from the discrete nonlinear vibration equations. So the particle filter algorithm can use the accurate state equations. Finally, the particle filter algorithm is used to filter the vibration signal of bridge stayed cable. According to the particle filter, the de-noised vibration signal can be tracked and be predicted for a short time accurately. Many experiments are done at some actual bridges. The simulation experiments and the actual experiments on the bridge stayed cables are all indicating that the particle filter algorithm in this paper has good performance and works stably.

  7. Monitoring and Failure Analysis of Corroded Bridge Cables under Fatigue Loading Using Acoustic Emission Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping; Lan, Chengming; Li, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Cables play an important role in cable-stayed systems, but are vulnerable to corrosion and fatigue damage. There is a dearth of studies on the fatigue damage evolution of corroded cable. In the present study, the acoustic emission (AE) technology is adopted to monitor the fatigue damage evolution process. First, the relationship between stress and strain is determined through a tensile test for corroded and non-corroded steel wires. Results show that the mechanical performance of corroded cables is changed considerably. The AE characteristic parameters for fatigue damage are then established. AE energy cumulative parameters can accurately describe the fatigue damage evolution of corroded cables. The failure modes in each phase as well as the type of acoustic emission source are determined based on the results of scanning electron microscopy. The waveform characteristics, damage types, and frequency distribution of the corroded cable at different damage phases are collected. Finally, the number of broken wires and breakage time of the cables are determined according to the variation in the margin index. PMID:22666009

  8. Feasibility Study of the Electromagnetic Damper for Cable Structures Using Real-Time Hybrid Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Yeon; Kim, In-Ho; Jung, Hyung-Jo

    2017-10-31

    Cable structure is a major component of long-span bridges, such as cable-stayed and suspension bridges, and it transfers the main loads of bridges to the pylons. As these cable structures are exposed to continuous external loads, such as vehicle and wind loads, vibration control and continuous monitoring of the cable are required. In this study, an electromagnetic (EM) damper was designed and fabricated for vibration control and monitoring of the cable structure. EM dampers, also called regenerative dampers, consist of permanent magnets and coils. The electromagnetic force due to the relative motion between the coil and the permanent magnet can be used to control the vibration of the structure. The electrical energy can be used as a power source for the monitoring system. The effects of the design parameters of the damper were numerically analyzed and the damper was fabricated. The characteristics of the damper were analyzed with various external load changes. Finally, the vibration-control and energy-harvesting performances of the cable structure were evaluated through a hybrid simulation. The vibration-control and energy-harvesting performances for various loads were analyzed and the applicability to the cable structure of the EM damper was evaluated.

  9. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    and economical gain, such severe network changes necessitate correct estimation and optimisation of load conditions in the cable grid. Both IEC and IEEE have published standards for rating transmission cables' current carrying capacity. These standards are based on assumptions of a number of parameters......, such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...

  10. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Yang, Li-Farn (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  11. High-Speed Automated Tester for Vacuum Chamber Feedthrough Connectors and Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swope, Robert H.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center's thermal vacuum laboratory has developed a high-speed automated system for testing the integrity of 37-pin MIL-C-5015 cylindrical electrical feedthrough connectors used on penetration plates of thermal vacuum chambers. The system consists of a desktop PC driving a data acquisition front end. The latter measures the resistance through each pin of the connector and the resistance from each pin to all other pins and the connector shell. In addition to identifying unacceptable feedthroughs, the system is also used for testing cables. In the special case of Type T thermocouples (used almost exclusively at the lab), the difference in resistance between the copper and constantan wires provides positive proof of accidentally reversed connector wiring. Data acquisition time to completely test a cable or feedthrough connector is less than thirty seconds. The system provides a hardcopy printout of the resistance readings. Connectors or cables with fewer wires are tested using simple adapter cables. Initial tests indicate that the performance of a given feedthrough connector can be predicted on the basis of measured resistance readings, reducing ongoing cost of connector replacement. The opportunity to positively certify the integrity of cables, cable connectors and feedthroughs before the start of a thermal vacuum test minimizes the likelihood of a circuit problem that would require returning the chamber to ambient conditions for repair. This system has two principal advantages for the Goddard thermal vacuum laboratory. Its only significant cost was the labor to fabricate the test cable and shorting cable -- about 40 man-hours total. The system was built around a computer and data acquisition unit that were already on hand. The second advantage is that it very quickly tests both of the parameters that are essential.

  12. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  13. Performance Improvement of a Measurement Station for Superconducting Cable Test

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Montenero, G; Le Naour, S

    2012-01-01

    A fully digital system, improving measurements flexibility, integrator drift, and current control of superconducting transformers for cable test, is proposed. The system is based on a high-performance integration of Rogowski coil signal and a flexible direct control of the current into the secondary windings. This allows state-of-the-art performance to be overcome by means of out-of-the-shelf components: on a full-scale of 32 kA, current measurement resolution of 1 A, stability below 0.25 Amin-1, and controller ripple less than 50 ppm. The system effectiveness has been demonstrated experimentally on the superconducting transformer of the Facility for the Research of Superconducting Cables at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

  14. 30 CFR 77.906 - Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage mobile equipment; ground wires and ground check...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... portable or mobile equipment from low-voltage three-phase resistance grounded power systems shall contain... Alternating Current Circuits § 77.906 Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage mobile equipment; ground... conductor. Such trailing cables shall include an insulated conductor for the ground continuity check circuit...

  15. Wind-induced cable vibrations and countermeasures of cables of PC cable-stayed bridge. PC syachokyo keburu no kaze ni yoru shindo to sono taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    In recent years, long span of cable-stayed bridges is remarkable. The wind-induced cable vibration called as line vibration and wake galloping was given as an important problem not only in the steel cable-stayed bridges but also in the PC cable-stayed bridges. The technical engineers in design of the cable-stayed bridges have many times to confront the problems on the vibration control of cables, it is considered that sufficient understand of the wind-induced vibration and countermeasures for cables of the PC cable-stayed bridges is necessary. Many reports on the countermeasure examples and trend of vibration control centred on cables of the cable-stayed bridges have been published. In this paper, the wind-induced vibration of cables in the cable-stayed bridges was reviewed, the examples of countermeasures of vibration control on cables in the PC cable-stayed bridges was mainly introduced. The remaining tasks and future prospects on vibration control of the PC cable-stayed bridges were described. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  17. Steady State Assessment of Shunt Compensated EHV Insulated Cables by Means of Multiconductor Cell Analysis (MCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Benato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has already presented some papers which allow studying cable systems by means of the multiconductor cell analysis (MCA. This method considers the cable system in its real asymmetry without simplified and approximated hypotheses. The multiconductor matrix procedure based on the use of admittance matrices, which account for the line cells (with earth return currents, different types of screen bonding, possible multiple circuits (single and double circuit or more, allows predicting the steady-state regime of any cable system. In the previous papers, these matrix algorithms have been presented with reference to a short extra-high voltage (EHV double-circuit cross-bonded (CB underground cable (UGC system. Since the cable link was short, the shunt reactive compensation was not necessary and consequently not considered. In this paper the procedure is generalized in order to take into account three single-phase (or also one three-phase reactors installed at the cable ends or also at intermediate locations.

  18. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC DEFORMATIONS OF THE TRACK CABLE ON EFFORTS IN THE HAULING ROPE OF AERIAL ROPEWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Raksha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate influence of elastic deformations of the track cable arising at movement of cars, on effort in a hauling rope of the aerial ropeway. Methodology. The method of consecutive approaches was used for research influence of elastic deformations of a track cable on effort in a hauling rope. Thus, definition of a tension of a track cable was carried out with use of the technique based on principles of modular configuration, the essence of which consists in formation of mathematical model by a combination of blocks of the formulas describing balance of the track cable on supports. Findings. The research has shown that influence of elastic deformations of a track cable on effort in a hauling rope was insignificant (less than 1 %. That points to possibility not to consider change of the track cable length, caused by its elastic properties, when modeling loading of elements of system «drive – traction rope – tension device». Also it has been found that use of the tension device of a track cable increased influence of its elastic properties on loading of rope system elements. At the same time the elastic component of the track cable tension in the test flight does not depend on a car position in the adjacent span, but only determines by the parameters of the rope system. Originality. The possibility of excluding the changes of track cable length caused by its elastic properties, when modeling loading of elements of system «drive – traction rope – tension device» was proved. Practical value. The use of these techniques and the results will simplify the mathematical model of loading of elements of the cable system and the system «drive – traction rope – tension device» as a whole.

  19. Back-to-Back Energization of a 60kV Cable Network - Inrush Currents Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria da Silva, Filipe; Bak, Claus Leth; Hansen, M. Lind

    2010-01-01

    Network, and force a change in the approach used until now when planning, analyzing and operating electrical power systems. One problem that might arise is the energization of cables in parallel, as this operation may originate high inrush currents, which represent a risk to the circuit breakers connected...... to the purchase of a new circuit breaker for the cable. A theoretical background of this phenomenon is also presented....

  20. CABLE MOULDING – MOVEMENT AND DYNAMISM IN ORNAMENT ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to present an ornament, less used in decoration because of the practical difficulties in manufacturing, either manually or in the industrial system. In the paper are presented the elements related to the design (geometry of the cable mouldings, both for constant and variable pitch type and also the kinematics of generating these ornaments. Finally the working schemes of processing these ornaments in the wood industrial system are presented, the ornaments being used to decorate pieces of furniture. The cable moulding type decoration gives to furniture and building products a certain dynamism and vigor, wherefore remains permanently in the attention of designers in construction and furniture fields and also of the interior designers.

  1. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  2. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two...

  3. Choice Of Computer Networking Cables And Their Effect On Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer networking is the order of the day in this Information and Communication Technology (ICT) age. Although a network can be through a wireless device most local connections are done using cables. There are three main computer-networking cables namely coaxial cable, unshielded twisted pair cable and the optic ...

  4. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must be...

  5. Multiconductor Short/Open Cable Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Frequent or regular testing of multiconductor cables terminated in multipin conductors tedious, if not impossible, task. This inexpensive circuit simplifies open/short testing and is amenable to automation. In operation, pair of connectors selected to match pair of connectors installed on each of cables to be tested. As many connectors accommodated as required, and each can have as many conductors as required. Testing technique implemented with this circuit automated easily with electronic controls and computer interface. Printout provides status of each conductor in cable, indicating which, if any, of conductors has open or short circuit.

  6. The first cable for the HL-LHC produced at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    A Rutherford cabling machine is operated in the superconducting laboratory in building 163. The machine was used for the production of the Nb-Ti cables in the LHC magnets. Today, it is operated for the assembly of the high-performance cables, made from state-of-the-art Nb3Sn conductor, for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. Key elements of the machine are of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The video shows the production of a long length Rutherford cable, made from 40 Nb3Sn strands, that will be use in a 11 T LHC High Luminosity dipole magnet. The wiring machine is the only one left in Europe able to do such a job.

  7. Classification of surface defects on bridge cable based on PSO-SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinke; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai; Shao, Yanhua; He, Fuliang

    2014-07-01

    Distributed machine vision system was applied for the detection on the cable surface defect of the cable-stayed bridge, and access to surface defects including longitudinal cracking, transverse cracking, surface erosion and scarring pit holes and other scars. In order to achieve the automatic classification of surface defects, firstly, part of the texture features, gray features and shape features on the defect image were selected as the target classification feature quantities; then the particle swarm optimization (PSO) was introduced to optimize the punitive coefficient and kernel function parameter of the support vector machine (SVM) model; and finally the objective of defects was identified with the help of the PSOSVM classifier. Recognition experiments were performed on cable surface defects, presenting a recognition rate of 96.25 percent. The results showed that PSO-SVM has high recognition rate for classification of surface defects on bridge cable.

  8. Numerical simulation of dynamic characteristics of a cable-stayed aqueduct bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuchun; di, Qingshuang

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a full-scale 3-D finite element model of the Jundushan cable-stayed aqueduct bridge is established with ANSYS Code. The shell, fluid, tension-only spar and beam elements are used for modeling the aqueduct deck, filled water, cables and support towers, respectively. A multi-element cable formulation is introduced to simulate the cable vibration. The dry (without water) and wet (with water) modes of the aqueduct bridge are both extracted and investigated in detail. The dry modes of the aqueduct bridge are basically similar to those of highway cable-stayed bridges. A dry mode may correspond to two types of wet modes, which are called the in-phase (with lower frequency) and out-of-phase (with higher frequency) modes. When the water-structure system vibrates in the in-phase/out-of-phase modes, the aqueduct deck moves and water sloshes in the same/opposite phase-angle, and the sloshing water may take different surface-wave modes. The wet modes of the system reflect the properties of interaction among the deck, towers, cables and water. The in-phase wet frequency generally decreases as the water depth increases, and the out-of-phase wet frequency may increase or decrease as the water depth increases.

  9. Operational Experience of the World's First Transmission Level Voltage Hts Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, J. F.; Yuan, J.; Schmidt, F.; Soika, R.; Bratt, S.; King, C.; McNamara, J.; Welsh, T. E.

    2010-04-01

    Underground High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power cables have attracted extensive interest in recent years due to their potential for high power density. With funding support from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the world's first transmission voltage level HTS power cable has been designed, fabricated and permanently installed in Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) grid. The HTS cable was successfully commissioned on April 22, 2008 and has been in operation since then. The three phase cable is 600 meter long and was designed to carry 574 MVA at a voltage of 138 kV. The project is being led by American Superconductor (AMSC). The team is comprised of Nexans, Air Liquide and LIPA. This paper describes the operational experience of the cable and refrigeration system since energization. A detailed description of various events and lessons learned over the course of operation is presented. The cable system performance is compared before and after more than one year of in-grid operation. In addition, the status and progress of the recently awarded LIPA II project is included.

  10. MIMO Device Performance Testing with the Wireless Cable Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2018-01-01

    Conducted cable testing has been dominantly utilized in the industry to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable mobile terminals. Desired testing signals can be guided directly to the antenna ports on the mobile terminal by radio frequency (RF) coaxial cables in the conducted cable...... of the wireless cable method is done both in simulation and active throughput measurements. Future directions and applicability of the wireless cable method are also discussed....

  11. On the Minimum Cable Tensions for the Cable-Based Parallel Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the minimum cable tension distributions in the workspace for cable-based parallel robots to find out more information on the stability. First, the kinematic model of a cable-based parallel robot is derived based on the wrench matrix. Then, a noniterative polynomial-based optimization algorithm with the proper optimal objective function is presented based on the convex optimization theory, in which the minimum cable tension at any pose is determined. Additionally, three performance indices are proposed to show the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in a specified region of the workspace. An important thing is that the three performance indices can be used to evaluate the stability of the cable-based parallel robots. Furthermore, a new workspace, the Specified Minimum Cable Tension Workspace (SMCTW, is introduced, within which all the minimum tensions exceed a specified value, therefore meeting the specified stability requirement. Finally, a camera robot parallel driven by four cables for aerial panoramic photographing is selected to illustrate the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in the workspace and the relationship between the three performance indices and the stability.

  12. Cable Capacitance Attack against the KLJN Secure Key Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Pu Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The security of the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-(like-noise (KLJN key exchange system is based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem of classical statistical physics. Similarly to quantum key distribution, in practical situations, due to the non-idealities of the building elements, there is a small information leak, which can be mitigated by privacy amplification or other techniques so that unconditional (information-theoretic security is preserved. In this paper, the industrial cable and circuit simulator LTSPICE is used to validate the information leak due to one of the non-idealities in KLJN, the parasitic (cable capacitance. Simulation results show that privacy amplification and/or capacitor killer (capacitance compensation arrangements can effectively eliminate the leak.

  13. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  14. Thermally induced EMF in unirradiated MI cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, R.; Hodgson, E. R.

    2007-08-01

    Radiation and temperature induced currents and voltages in mineral insulated (MI) cables, (generally termed RIEMF and TIEMF, respectively) have recently been the object of discussion and study. The problem is due to a possible electromagnetic force (EMF) generated along the centre conductor of ITER magnetic diagnostic coils in a radiation field, and the difficulty of separating radiation and temperature effects from the required signal. Previous work has shown the importance of temperature gradient effects. To address this problem further, studies of TIEMF have been carried out on an MI cable across the ends of the centre conductor at temperatures up to 550 °C, making point-by-point measurements, as well as annealing tests. It has been confirmed that voltage maxima appear in well-localized regions of the cable, indicating that some inhomogeneity is present. No geometric variations were observed by X-ray imaging of the cable.

  15. AmpaCity Project - World's First Superconducting Cable and Fault Current Limiter Installation in a German City Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmle, Mark; Merschel, Frank; Noe, Mathias

    This chapter will give an overview on the German AmpaCity project, which started in September 2011. The objective of the project is developing, manufacturing and installing a 10 kV, 40MVA HTS system consisting of a fault current limiter and of a 1 km cable in the city of Essen. It is the first time that a one kilometer HTS cable system is installed together with an HTS fault current limiter in a real grid application. In addition, it is the longest installed HTS cable system worldwide. Within the project the development phase was finished in March 2013 with successfully completing the type test of the cable system. Subsequently, all system components were manufactured for the installation on site in Essen. The installation took less than three months finishing at the end of November 2013. Afterwards, the commissioning test of the system was performed in December and the system was finally commissioned beginning of 2014.

  16. Bias in Cable News: Persuasion and Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory J; Ali Yurukoglu

    2014-01-01

    We measure the persuasive effects of slanted news and tastes for like-minded news, exploiting cable channel positions as exogenous shifters of cable news viewership. Channel positions do not correlate with demographics that predict viewership and voting, nor with local satellite viewership. We estimate that Fox News increases Republican vote shares by 0.3 points among viewers induced into watching 2.5 additional minutes per week by variation in position. We then estimate a model of voters who...

  17. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Transient EMF induced in LV cables due to wind turbine direct lightning strike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarajcev, Petar; Sarajcev, Ivan; Goic, Ranko [University of Split, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Rudera Boskovica bb, HR-21000 Split (Croatia)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents a novel, easy to use, engineering method for determining the transient electromotive force (EMF) induced in low-voltage (LV) cables, connecting the wind turbine with a near-by transformer, in the event of direct lightning strike into the top of the wind turbine tower. Proposed method is based on the application of the travelling wave analysis onto the system consisted of wind turbine tower, earthing system of wind turbine, earthing system of near-by transformer station and LV cables connecting the wind turbine with associated transformer. Hence, this design gives rise to a complex, mutually connected, earthing system. Direct lightning strike to the wind turbine initiates a travelling wave process in the system consisted of lightning channel, wind turbine tower and earthing system of the wind turbine. Due to the transient nature of the observed phenomenon, current and voltage states at the earthing system as well as in the associated low-voltage cables are formed through the propagation and reflection of the accompanying travelling waves. Transient EMF induced in LV cables could endanger cable main insulation and insulation of the associated transformer LV winding. Developed theory is subsequently applied on the concrete wind turbine example. (author)

  19. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  20. Special MV cable for long stator winding application Transrapid Shanghai; Cable MT special pour enroulements de stator long sur le train Transrapid de Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buethe, H.; Le Dren, S.; Steinbrink, D.; Zamzow, P.E. [Nexans Industries GmbH and Co KG (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The long stator winding of the Transrapid represents the most innovative high speed MAGLEV technology application for a special rubber MV cable with formerly unequaled mechanical and electrical requirements. For the first time, we are able to provide details about this special MV cable solution, using high quality rubber compounds for conductor insulation and semiconductive outer sheath with gliding coating for the long stator winding of the Transrapid Shanghai propulsion system, and to report that the high demands and specifications of the whole system were fulfilled. (authors)

  1. How IMS Enables Converged Services for Cable and 3G Technologies: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The IP multimedia subsystem (IMS is a service control overlay standardized by the 3GPP. The IMS is based on session initiation protocol (SIP to establish, modify, and terminate the sessions. It provides a clean separation between services, signaling, and media with the potential to enable control and management of services over multiple transport technologies. In the scope of fixed-mobile convergence, this paper is dedicated to presenting a review of how cable networks can be integrated into IMS technology to achieve 3G-cable horizontal convergence. Cable networks, as one of the major fixed broadband access technologies with PacketCable architecture, are able to provide broadband internet access and VoIP in addition to cable TV. In this article, we review the evolution in PacketCable architecture to take up IMS. In this way, we consider the standardization and research activities to address this integration. We review some important challenges such as SIP protocol compatibility, defining unique user profile, required enhancement in authentication process, QoS and charging system.

  2. Unusual Attenuation Recovery Process After Fiber Optic Cable Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Z.; Plaček, V.; Havránek, P.

    2017-11-01

    At present, the number of optical cables in nuclear power plants has been increasing. Fiber optic cables are commonly used at nuclear power plants in instrumentation and control systems but they are usually used in environments without radiation. Nevertheless, currently, the number of applications in NPP containment with radiation is increasing. One of the most prevalent effects of radiation exposure is an increase of signal attenuation (signal loss). This is the result of fiber darkening due to radiation exposure and it is the main limitation factor in application of fiber optics in radiation environment. However, after the irradiation, the fiber optics go through a “recovery process” during which the optical properties improve again; i.e. attenuation decreases. However, we have found cable, where the expected healing process after few days changed its trend and the attenuation increased again to a value well above the attenuation just after the irradiation. This paper describes experiments that were carried out to explain this unusual recovery behaviour.

  3. Evaluation of cable ageing in Nuclear Power Plants; Evaluacion del envejecimiento de cables en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Vergara, T. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I. E. Madrid (Spain); Alonso Chicote, J. [TECNATOM, S. A. (Spain); Burnay, S. [AEA Technology (UK)

    2000-07-01

    The majority of power, control and instrumentation cables in nuclear power plants use polymers as their basic material for insulation and jacket. In many cases, these cables form part of safety-related circuits and should therefore be capable of operating correctly under both normal and accident conditions. Since polymeric materials are degraded by the long term action of the radiation and thermal environments found in the plant, it is important to be able to establish the cable condition during the plant lifetime. Nowadays there are a number of different methods to evaluate the remaining lifetime of cables. In the case of new plants, or new cables in old plants, accelerated ageing tests and predictive models can be used to establish the behaviour of the cable materials under operating conditions. There are verified techniques and considerable experience in the definition of predictive models. This type of approach is best carried out during the commissioning stage or in the early stages of operation. In older plants, particularly where there is a wide range of cable types in use, it is more appropriate to use condition monitoring methods to establish the state of degradation of cables in-plant. Over the last 10 years there have been considerable developments in methods for condition monitoring of cables and a tool-box of practical techniques are now available. There is no single technique which is suitable for all cable materials but the range of methods covers nearly all of the types currently in use, at present, the most established methods are the indented, thermal analysis (OIT, OITP and TGA) and dielectric loss measurements, All of these are either non-destructive methods or require only micro-samples of material. (Author) 15 refs.

  4. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kewish, R.W. Jr.; Boicourt, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces.

  5. Stability Measurements of Rutherford Cables with Various Treatments

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S W; Wilson, M N; Ghosh, A; Sampson, W B

    1999-01-01

    To improve the stability of Rutherford type superconducting cables, various methods of treating cables were considered and tested. These treatments include strand coating, partial soldering, "barber-pole" insulation and "porous $9 metal" solder filling. To study the effect of these treatments, several cables were prepared and MQE (minimum quench energy) values were measured. Coating, partial soldering or "barber-pole insulation" improved the relative stability $9 for some cables. The "porous metal" filled cables showed higher MQE. However the results suggest that the porous metal process needs to be improved. The measured data for cables with various treatments are presented. (8 refs).

  6. 3D beam shape estimation based on distributed coaxial cable interferometric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Baokai; Zhu, Wenge; Liu, Jie; Yuan, Lei; Xiao, Hai

    2017-03-01

    We present a coaxial cable interferometer based distributed sensing system for 3D beam shape estimation. By making a series of reflectors on a coaxial cable, multiple Fabry-Perot cavities are created on it. Two cables are mounted on the beam at proper locations, and a vector network analyzer (VNA) is connected to them to obtain the complex reflection signal, which is used to calculate the strain distribution of the beam in horizontal and vertical planes. With 6 GHz swept bandwidth on the VNA, the spatial resolution for distributed strain measurement is 0.1 m, and the sensitivity is 3.768 MHz mɛ -1 at the interferogram dip near 3.3 GHz. Using displacement-strain transformation, the shape of the beam is reconstructed. With only two modified cables and a VNA, this system is easy to implement and manage. Comparing to optical fiber based sensor systems, the coaxial cable sensors have the advantage of large strain and robustness, making this system suitable for structure health monitoring applications.

  7. Development of innovative superconducting DC power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Kiuchi, Masaru [Dept. of Computer Science and Electronics Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    It is required to reduce the cost of superconducting cable to realize a superconducting DC power network that covers a wide area in order to utilize renewable energy. In this paper a new concept of innovative cable is introduced that can enhance the current-carrying capacity even though the same superconducting tape is used. Such a cable can be realized by designing an optimal winding structure in such a way that the angle between the tape and magnetic field becomes small. This idea was confirmed by preliminary experiments for a single layer model cable made of Bi-2223 tapes and REBCO coated conductors. Experiments of three and four layer cables of practical sizes were also done and it was found that the current-carrying capacity increased as theoretically predicted. If the critical current properties of commercial superconducting tapes are further improved in a parallel magnetic field, the enhancement will become pronounced and this technology will surely contribute to realization of superconducting DC power network.

  8. Impacts of an underwater high voltage DC power cable on fish migration movements in the San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, M. T.; Kavet, R.; Klimley, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    There is an increasingly strong interest on a global scale in offshore renewable energy production and transportation. However, there is concern that the electromagnetic fields (EMF) produced by these underwater cables may alter the behavior and physiology of marine species. Despite this concern, few studies have investigated these effects in free-living species. In 2009, a 85 km long high-voltage DC (HVDC) power cable was placed within the San Francisco Bay, running parallel, then perpendicular to, the migration route of anadromous species moving from the inland river system to the oceans. In this study, we assess the impacts of this HVDC cable on the migration behaviors of EMF-sensitive fish, including juvenile salmonids (Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and adult green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris. Acoustic telemetry techniques were used to track fish migration movements through the San Francisco Bay both before and after the cable was activated; individuals implanted with acoustic transmitters were detected on cross-channel hydrophone arrays at key locations in the system. Magnetic fields were surveyed and mapped at these locations using a transverse gradiometer, and models of the cable's magnetic field were developed that closely matched the empirically measured values. Here, we present our analyses on the relationships between migration-related behavioral metrics (e.g., percent of successful migrations, duration of migration, time spent near vs. far from cable location, etc.) and environmental parameters, such as cable activation and load level, local magnetic field levels, depth, and currents.

  9. Chaos theory analysis of a cable-stayed bridge: Part I. Finite element model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuang; Livingston, Richard A.

    2007-04-01

    Cable-stayed bridges can exhibit large amplitude irregular stay cable oscillations under certain conditions of combined traffic flow and rain-wind loads that can pose severe risks to structural integrity. To investigate the mechanisms causing this behavior, a high fidelity nonlinear finite element model of a typical cable-stayed bridge has been developed using LS-DYNA based on the design of the Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge at Cape Girardeau, MO. The model uses over 540,000 finite elements representing 1254 bridge components to fully describe the detailed real geometry of the bridge tower, deck, stay cables, edge girders and floor-beam support girders. Traffic loads on the bridge deck are simulated by a Poisson Distributed Pulse (PDP) stochastic process model involving multi-lane traffic flows of more than 300 vehicles of various axle loads with varying arrival rates. The response data sets generated by the LS-DYNA simulations were then analyzed for chaotic behavior with the software CTBR. This extracts the nonlinear system invariants, the Lyapunov exponents, to identify the chaotic behavior from the dynamics of the structural system. The simulations showed positive Lyapunov exponents at various locations of the bridge deck and the bridge stay cable network. The analysis of these results revealed that even in the absence of strong rain-wind excitations the bridge deck vibration exhibits significant chaotic behavior that could excite the stay cables into a stronger chaotic regime, especially at the upper portion of the networked stay cables. This illustrates a phenomenon often ignored or unable to be captured by conventional linear dynamics analysis. Analysis of actual data sets collected from a monitoring network on the bridge also confirmed this chaotic behavior.

  10. Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

  11. Scientific re-use of retired undersea fiber optic telecommunications cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R.; Duennebier, F. K.

    2003-04-01

    The first generation of fiber optic undersea telecommunications cables that span the North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are now being retired. Three are in the Pacific: Hawaii-4 (California-Hawaii), TransPacific Cable-3 (TPC-3 Hawaii-Guam+Japan), GPT (Guam-Philippines-Taiwan). Four are in the Atlantic: TransAtlantic-8 (TAT-8 NewJersey-UK+France), TAT-9 (NewJersey +Canada-UK+France+Spain), TAT-10 (RhodeIsland-Germany), and TAT-11 (NewJersey-UK+France). The systems are being retired 10-15 years early, because newer generation systems are so much faster and upgradeable that maintaining these 'slower' systems is not economical for the telecommunications companies. However, there is now an extraordinary opportunity for re-using these systems for science. These first generation systems contain one to three fiber pairs, with each pair supporting communications at 296 Mb/s, or for TAT-,--10, and -11 at 592 Mb/s. The systems operate at 1.7 amps and 7 kvolt, and about 5 kwatts of power are available for a seafloor observatory system. There are a number of ways that these systems may be re-used. Observatories may be installed along the current cable route. It is possible to recover and re-lay sections of these cable systems with a cable ship to locations more advantageous for science. The transfer of coaxial telephone systems in the 1990s-the Hawaii-2 from AT&T and sections of the TransPacific Cable-1 and -2 systems from AT&T and KDD-to the scientific community through IRIS and the University of Tokyo has shown the challenges and successes that cabled observatories on the seafloor offer science. The Hawaii-2 Observatory (H2O) between Hawaii and California has provided years of high-quality real-time data from the seafloor. These newly retiring fiber optic telecommunications cables offer far greater opportunities for the scientific community.

  12. Analysis of Electrical Coupling Parameters in Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Rosso, C

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of current distribution and redistribution in superconducting cables requires the knowledge of the electric coupling among strands, and in particular the interstrand resistance and inductance values. In practice both parameters can have wide variations in cables commonly used such as Rutherford cables for accelerators or Cable-in-Conduits for fusion and SMES magnets. In this paper we describe a model of a multi-stage twisted cable with arbitrary geometry that can be used to study the range of interstrand resistances and inductances that is associated with variations of geometry. These variations can be due to cabling or compaction effects. To describe the variations from the nominal geometry we have adopted a cable model that resembles to the physical process of cabling and compaction. The inductance calculation part of the model is validated by comparison to semi-analytical results, showing excellent accuracy and execution speed.

  13. Ecuador: David y Goliat en el cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay un enorme desequilibrio en la televisión ecuatoriana pagada, por un lado la existencia solo de dos operadores de cable, uno de los cuales capta el 90 por ciento del mercado actual y por otro, la histórica supremacía de Estados Unidos en la pantalla electrónica latinoamericana es más dramática en el cable ecuatoriano: en algún caso, el 80 por ciento de canales ofertados provienen de ese país. Es necesaria una "honda" sostenida, compartida y plural para derribar esta supremacía.

  14. Calorimetric measurements of losses in HTS cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Veje, Niels Erling Winsløv; Rasmussen, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    A calorimetric test rig is used to investigate various loss components in a 10 m long superconducting cable model. A calorimetric technique, based on thermocouple measurements, is used to measure the losses of the 10 m long superconducting cable model. The current dependent losses are also measured...... electrically and compared with the losses obtained with the calorimetric method. The results obtained by the two methods are consistent. Based on an I2 (current) fitting procedure, the loss, caused by the eddy current generated in the stainless steel cryostat housing, and the hysteresis loss generated...

  15. Influence of Icing on Bridge Cable Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Frej Henningsen, Jesper; Olsen, Idar

    2013-01-01

    °C may lead to large amplitude vibrations of bridge cables under wind action. For the prediction of aerodynamic instability quasi-steady models have been developed estimating the cable response magnitude based on structural properties and aerodynamic force coefficients for drag, lift and torsion....... The determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study the influence of ice accretion on the aerodynamic...

  16. The Protection of Undersea Cables: A Global Security Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    10 Samuel Morse demonstrated “ Morse Code” in 1844 and patented the design in 1850. The first undersea ( telegraph ) cable was laid between England... telegraph cable linked London with the new world, via Newfoundland.2 The 143 words transmitted in 10 hours, replaced a one-way dispatch that would...Cable History The history of undersea cables started in 1795 when a Spaniard named Salva suggested the idea of underwater telegraphic communication

  17. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: Continuing lessons and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Since June 2011, the ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is providing 1 kW power, 100 Mbs network communications and PPS timing to a seafloor node and instruments at 4728 m water depth 100 km north of Oahu. Station ALOHA is the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated physical and biogeochemical variability of the water column near-monthly since 1988. The abyssal near bottom acoustic Doppler profiler data are showing stronger than expected internal tide flows and turbulence 20-80 m above bottom. In this oligotrophic environment, the video camera has detected significant biological activity. Acoustic data collected on two hydrophones clearly show very high call density of baleen whales during September-May and sperm whale choruses spread throughout the year. Recent Navy exercises provided examples of anthropogenic sounds. We are also monitoring in real time an acoustic "heartbeat" signal from the nearby HOT Profiler mooring (M. Alford et al.). ACO operation over the last year continues to provide valuable lessons. Several failures occurred at or during deployment, including two ground faults that have isolated two CTDs, a fluorometer, and an acoustic modem from the system. Two independent LED light systems failed after 4 and 6 weeks. Most recently, the pressure sensor has failed perhaps due to loss of vacuum in the quartz crystal chamber. The one remaining conductivity/temperature sensor is episodically, but strongly, affected by thermal plume signatures from the nearby power supply. Understanding the reasons for these failures and limitations will be necessary to improve the methodologies for sustained long-term abyssal measurements. This will be well worth the effort, as suggested by the surprisingly rich video, ADCP, and acoustic data sets.

  18. Deck and Cable Dynamic Testing of a Single-span Bridge Using Radar Interferometry and Videometry Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniotis, George; Gikas, Vassilis; Mpimis, Thanassis; Perakis, Harris

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the dynamic testing of a roadway, single-span, cable-stayed bridge for a sequence of static load and ambient vibration monitoring scenarios. Deck movements were captured along both sideways of the bridge using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and a Ground-based Microwave Interfererometer (GBMI) system. Cable vibrations were measured at a single point location on each of the six cables using the GBMI technique. Dynamic testing involves three types of analyses; firstly, vibration analysis and modal parameter estimation (i. e., natural frequencies and modal shapes) of the deck using the combined DIC and GBMI measurements. Secondly, dynamic testing of the cables is performed through vibration analysis and experimental computation of their tension forces. Thirdly, the mechanism of cable-deck dynamic interaction is studied through their Power Spectra Density (PSD) and the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) analyses. Thereby, the global (deck and cable) and local (either deck or cable) bridge modes are identified, serving a concrete benchmark of the current state of the bridge for studying the evolution of its structural performance in the future. The level of synergy and complementarity between the GBMI and DIC techniques for bridge monitoring is also examined and assessed.

  19. ACTIVE DELIVERY CABLE TUNED TO DEVICE DEPLOYMENT STATE: ENHANCED VISIBILITY OF NITINOL OCCLUDERS DURING PRE-CLINICAL INTERVENTIONAL MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jamie A.; Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Franson, Dominique N.; Sonmez, Merdim; Slack, Michael C.; Lederman, Robert J.; Kocaturk, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop an active delivery system that enhances visualization of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during deployment under real-time MRI. Materials and Methods We constructed an active delivery cable incorporating a loopless antenna and a custom titanium microscrew to secure the occluder devices. The delivery cable was tuned and matched to 50Ω at 64 MHz with the occluder device attached. We used real-time balanced SSFP in a wide-bore 1.5T scanner. Device-related images were reconstructed separately and combined with surface-coil images. The delivery cable was tested in vitro in a phantom and in vivo in swine using a variety of nitinol cardiac occluder devices. Results In vitro, the active delivery cable provided little signal when the occluder device was detached and maximal signal with the device attached. In vivo, signal from the active delivery cable enabled clear visualization of occluder device during positioning and deployment. Device release resulted in decreased signal from the active cable. Post-mortem examination confirmed proper device placement. Conclusions The active delivery cable enhanced the MRI depiction of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during positioning and deployment, both in conventional and novel applications. We expect enhanced visibility to contribute to effectiveness and safety of new and emerging MRI-guided treatments. PMID:22707441

  20. Calculation of harmonic losses and ampacity in low-voltage power cables when used for feeding large LED lighting loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Milardovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation on the harmonic disturbances in low-voltage cables feeding large LED loads is reported. A frequency domain analysis on several commercially-available LEDs was performed to investigate the signature of the harmonic current injected into the power system. Four-core cables and four single-core cable arrangements (three phases and neutral of small, medium, and large conductor cross sections, with the neutral conductor cross section approximately equal to the half of the phase conductors, were examined. The cables were modelled by using electromagnetic finite-element analysis software. High harmonic power losses (up to 2.5 times the value corresponding to an undistorted current of the same rms value of the first harmonic of the LED current were found. A generalized ampacity model was employed for re-rating the cables. It was found that the cross section of the neutral conductor plays an important role in the derating of the cable ampacity due to the presence of a high-level of triplen harmonics in the distorted current. The ampacity of the cables should be derated by about 40 %, almost independent of the conductor cross sections. The calculation have shown that an incoming widespread use of LED lamps in lighting could create significant additional harmonic losses in the supplying low-voltage lines, and thus more severely harmonic emission limits should be defined for LED lamps.

  1. An optimal method for producing low-stress fibre optic cables for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Graham; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Ekpenyong, Paul; Jenkins, Daniel; Leeson, Kim; Trezise, Shaun; Butterley, Timothy; Gunn, James; Ferreira, Decio; Oliveira, Ligia; Sodre, Laerte

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of astronomical spectrographs employ optical fibres to collect and deliver light. For integral-field and high multiplex multi-object survey instruments, fibres offer unique flexibility in instrument design by enabling spectrographs to be located remotely from the telescope focal plane where the fibre inputs are deployed. Photon-starved astronomical observations demand optimum efficiency from the fibre system. In addition to intrinsic absorption loss in optical fibres, another loss mechanism, so-called focal ratio degradation (FRD) must be considered. A fundamental cause of FRD is stress, therefore low stress fibre cables that impart minimum FRD are essential. The FMOS fibre instrument for Subaru Telescope employed a highly effective cable solution developed at Durham University. The method has been applied again for the PFS project, this time in collaboration with a company, PPC Broadband Ltd. The process, planetary stranding, is adapted from the manufacture of large fibre-count, large diameter marine telecommunications cables. Fibre bundles describe helical paths through the cable, incorporating additional fibre per unit length. As a consequence fibre stress from tension and bend-induced `race-tracking' is minimised. In this paper stranding principles are explained, covering the fundamentals of stranded cable design. The authors describe the evolution of the stranding production line and the numerous steps in the manufacture of the PFS prototype cable. The results of optical verification tests are presented for each stage of cable production, confirming that the PFS prototype performs exceptionally well. The paper concludes with an outline of future on-telescope test plans.

  2. 24 CFR 3285.906 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Telephone and cable TV. 3285.906... Installation Instructions § 3285.906 Telephone and cable TV. It is recommended that the installation instructions explain that telephone and cable TV wiring should be installed in accordance with requirements of...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.704 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Telephone and cable TV. 3285.704....704 Telephone and cable TV. Refer to § 3285.906 for considerations pertinent to installation of telephone and cable TV. ...

  4. Perturbation of near-field scan from connected cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The perturbation of near-fields scan from connected cables are investigated and how to handle the cables is discussed. A connected cable induced small but theoretical detectable changes in the near-field. This change can be seen in Huygens’ box simulations (equivalent source currents on a box) at...

  5. Cable Television 1980: Status and Prospect for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, F., Ed.

    Baseline information for the would-be cable television educational programer is provided by two papers, one an overview of the state of the cable television industry, and the other a report on a marketing study conducted to determine consumer attitudes toward cable TV as an educational medium. In "The Promise and Reality of Cable…

  6. North Sea submarine cable disruptions and fishing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the North Sea seafloor, numerous submarine cables are positioned that connect telecommunication networks between countries. Worldwide, human activities cause most of the cable disruptions with fisheries accounting for nearly half of all reported faults. Due to a recent increase of submarine cable

  7. Numerical solutions of the current distribution in superconducting cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, R.A.; Rem, P.C.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting cables are described by current sheets using the continuum model of W. Carr Jr. [1] and assuming an anisotropic conductivity. Two different situations are considered: a) finite length of cable in spatially independent magnetic field; b) infinitely long cable in a periodical magnetic

  8. FCC Commissioner, Legal Assistant and Staff Perceptions of Cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Dean M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a methodology used in interviewing Federal Communications Commission commissioners, legal assistants, and Cable Bureau staff members about their attitudes toward the cable industry and regulation; reports results of the interviews, noting respondents' disappointment in the lack of cable growth. (GT)

  9. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    As the number of offshore wind farms increases so does the number of array cables. The array cables are used to interconnect the wind turbines in a wind farm and to connect the wind farm to a collector platform, whereas the connection to shore is performed by means of a HV transmission cable. For...

  10. 47 CFR 76.111 - Cable sports blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable sports blackout. 76.111 Section 76.111... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.111 Cable sports blackout. (a) No community unit located in whole or in part within the specified...

  11. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance...

  12. 30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1 Section 75.600-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant. ...

  13. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by...

  14. Mathematical Model for Thermal Processes of Single-Core Power Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a mathematical model for thermal processes that permits to calculate non-stationary thermal processes of core insulation and surface of a single-core power cable in real-time mode. The model presents the cable as four thermal homogeneous bodies: core, basic insulation, protective sheath and internal environment. Thermal processes between homogeneous bodies are described by a system of four differential equations. The paper contains a proposal to solve this system of equations with the help of a thermal equivalent circuit and the Laplace transform. All design ratios for thermal parameters and algorithm for calculating temperature of core insulation and temperature of power cable surface. These algorithms can be added in the software of microprocessor devices. The paper contains results of experimental investigations and reveals that an absolute error of the mathematical model does not exceed 3ºС.

  15. Assessment of transient stability of cable based transmission grids with reactive power compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foo, Yii; Dall, Laurids; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2017-01-01

    through a series of sensitivity analysis with respect to the cables compensation degree. A separate case of disconnecting the SRs of the faulted line is also carried out. The tendencies are initially observed and explained for smaller systems, Single-Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) and 9-bus system...... by switching out the corresponding SRs of the faulted line when the line is taken out of service. Over-compensation without SR switching, also leads to a positive effect on the transient stability. However, over-compensation improves the excitation condition of the SGs at the expense of voltage stability......Underground transmission cables are gaining popularity due to its applications near cities and aesthetic purpose. For example in Denmark, the transmission power grid is changing significantly as many conventional overhead lines (OHL) are replaced by cables and more is expected over the coming years...

  16. Production and cost of a live skyline cable yarder tested in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward L. Fisher; Harry G. Gibson; Cleveland J. Biller

    1980-01-01

    Logging systems that are profitable and environmentally acceptable are needed in Appalachian hardwood forests. Small, mobile cable yarders show promise in meeting both economic and environmental objectives. One such yarder, the Ecologger, was tested on the Jefferson National Forest near Marion, Virginia. Production rates and costs are presented for the system along...

  17. Measurements and modeling of multipath interference at wavelengths below cable cut-off in a G.654 optical fiber span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; DePedro, Hector; Garner, Steven; Blaker, Jeremy; Zakharian, Aramais; Ten, Sergey; Mills, Greg

    2017-04-17

    Transmission below the cable cut-off wavelength may be a concern in some systems, especially for an optical supervisory channel (OSC) operating below the signal transmission band in systems built with G.654 fiber. In this work, we constructed a cabled span of G.654-compliant fiber and measured the multipath interference (MPI) generated during propagation through the span at a range of wavelengths below the cable cut-offs of the constituent fibers. Measurements were made under a range of conditions including different splice losses and the presence or absence of higher order mode filters placed around the splices. MPI levels were found to be sufficiently low at wavelengths far below the average cable cut-off such that OSC transmission was penalty-free. We compare the experimental results to modeling predictions and find very good agreement.

  18. The Effects of Posterior Rotator Cuff Cable Tears on Glenohumeral Biomechanics in a Cadaveric Model of the Throwing Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photopoulos, Christos Demetris; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Doermann, Alex; Akeda, Masaki; McGarry, Michelle H.; Lee, Thay Q.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The rotator cuff cable has been postulated to be the primary load bearing substructure of the superior part of the rotator cuff. Tears of the posterior rotator cable are frequently seen in overhead throwing athletes. Although the biomechanical significance of the anterior rotator cable has been well described, our current understanding of the relevance of the posterior cable is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine how partial-thickness tears and full-thickness tears of the posterior rotator cable would alter glenohumeral biomechanics and kinematics in cadaveric shoulder models. Methods: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens were prepared and tested. To simulate the sequence of glenohumeral positions during the throwing motion, specimens were mounted on a custom shoulder testing system with the humerus positioned at 90° of abduction (30° scapular upward rotation, 60° glenohumeral abduction) and tested at 30, 60, 90, and 120 degrees of external rotation. After a circumferential capsulotomy was performed, rotator cuff muscles were loaded based on physiologic cross-sectional area ratios, and testing for each specimen was performed on each the following three conditions: intact posterior cable, partial-thickness (50%) articular-sided posterior cable tear, and full-thickness posterior cable tear. Primary outcome measures tested for each condition under the various degrees of glenohumeral rotation were: 1) anterior and total glenohumeral translation after application of a 30N anterior force; 2) path of glenohumeral articulation; 3) glenohumeral joint force. Results: With a 30N anterior force at 120° of external rotation, there was a significant increase in anterior glenohumeral translation between intact and full-thickness tear specimens (7.28±2.00mm and 17.49±3.75mm, respectively; pbiomechanics and kinematics. These changes were most profound at 120° of external rotation, suggesting the importance of an intact posterior cable as

  19. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - Other; BBRI_cableOther12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - Other" technology. Broadband availability is...

  20. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0; BBRI_cableDOCSIS12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0" technology. Broadband availability is...

  1. Microminiature coaxial cable and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1989-01-01

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 .mu.m thick and from 150 to 200 .mu.m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately, the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microspheres to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion.

  2. Microminiature coaxial cable and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1983-12-29

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 ..mu..m thick and from 150 to 200 ..mu..m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dieleectric. Alternately the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microballoons to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion.

  3. Microminiature coaxial cable and methods manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1986-01-01

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 .mu.m thick and from 150 to 200 .mu.m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microballoons to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion.

  4. Microminiature coaxial cable and method of manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1989-03-28

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 [mu]m thick and from 150 to 200 [mu]m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately, the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microspheres to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion. 2 figs.

  5. Microminiature coaxial cable and methods manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongianni, W.L.

    1986-04-08

    A coaxial cable is provided having a ribbon inner conductor surrounded by a dielectric and a circumferential conductor. The coaxial cable may be microminiature comprising a very thin ribbon strip conductor from between 5 to 15 [mu]m thick and from 150 to 200 [mu]m wide, having a surrounding foamed dielectric or parylene applied thereon by a vapor plasma process and an outer conductor of an adhering high conductivity metal vacuum deposited on the dielectric. Alternately the foam dielectric embodiment may have a contiguous parylene coating applied adjacent the inner conductor or the outer conductor or both. Also, the cable may be fabricated by forming a thin ribbon of strip conductive material into an inner conductor, applying thereabout a dielectric by spraying on a solution of polystyrene and polyethylene and then vacuum depositing and adhering high conductivity metal about the dielectric. The cable strength may be increased by adding glass microfilament fibers or glass microballoons to the solution of polystyrene and polyethylene. Further, the outer conductive layer may be applied by electroless deposition in an aqueous solution rather than by vacuum deposition. A thin coating of parylene is preferably applied to the outer conductor to prevent its oxidation and inhibit mechanical abrasion. 2 figs.

  6. History of cable-stayed bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The principle of supporting a bridge deck by inclined tension members leading to towers on either side of the span has been known for centuries. However, the real development of cable-stayed bridges did not begin before the 1950s. Since then the free span has been increased from 183 m in the Strö...

  7. Space charge fields in DC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Pedersen, Aage

    1996-01-01

    The space charge that accumulates in DC cables can, mathematically, be resolved into two components. One is related to the temperature and the other to the magnitude of the electric field strength. Analytical expressions for the electric fields arising from each of these space charge components...

  8. Submarine Telecommunication Cables in Disputed Maritime Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Logchem, Youri

    2014-01-01

    There are a considerable number of maritime areas where no boundary exists, or where a boundary is delimited only in part. This article deals with the issue of submarine telecommunication cables, which are sometimes placed on the seabed or buried in the subsoil of areas that are claimed by multiple

  9. Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel or Cable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Hoffmann, Kay

    1998-01-01

    In the late 1960s, the cinema was pronounced dead. Television, like a Biblical Cain had slain his brother Abel. Some thirty years later, a remarkable reversal: rarely has the cinema been more popular. And yet, rarely has the cinema's future seemed more uncertain. Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel or Cable?

  10. Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik Anders; Tetzlaff, Tom

    2014-01-01

    suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general...

  11. Galloping instability to chaos of cables

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book provides students and researchers with a systematic solution for fluid-induced structural vibrations, galloping instability and the chaos of cables. They will also gain a better understanding of stable and unstable periodic motions and chaos in fluid-induced structural vibrations. Further, the results presented here will help engineers effectively design and analyze fluid-induced vibrations.

  12. Observation of polyphosphate granules in cable bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Nielsen, L. P.; Risgaard-Petersen, N.

    2015-12-01

    Cable bacteria are long filamentous bacteria that capable for long distance electron transport: transporting electrons derived from oxidizing sulfide in anoxic layers, to oxygen at the sediment surface, over a distance of centimeters. Cable bacteria are found in many types of freshwater and marine sediment all over the world, with density of approximately thousands of kilometers per square meter. These long filaments are composed by individual cells closely related to Desulfobulbaceae, connected with a shared outer membrane inside which the strings structure are presumed to be highly conductive. The observed doubling time of cells within the filament is about 20 min, which is among the shortest compare to other bacteria. In these cable cells, we constantly observed polyphosphate granules (poly-P), regardless of cell dimension and shape. This is very interesting since it has long been recognized that the microbial polyP content is low during rapid growth and increases under unfavorable conditions, for example, increasing sulfide concentration and anoxia resulted in a decomposition of poly-P in Beggiatoa. Here, we investigated marine cable bacteria from Netherland and Aarhus Bay, focusing on the poly-P dynamics under various redox conditions. In poly-P stained cells, typically there are two big poly-P granules locate at each polar. In dividing cells, however, the morphology of poly-P changed to six small granules precisely arranged to two row. Moreover, the cells seem be able to continuously divide more than one time without elongation step. These varied poly-P morphologies demonstrate that poly-P is closely related to the cell growth and cell division, by an unknown mechanism. Individual cable filaments were picked up and were exposed to different redox conditions; our primary data indicated the cable cells could suffer anoxic condition better than oxic condition. We also detected decomposition of poly-P under anoxia. These results call for an in-depth examination

  13. Lateral Vibrations of a Cable-Stayed Bridge under Crowd Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cable-stayed bridge model under crowd excitation is established in this paper by considering the geometric nonlinear property of the cables. Lateral vibrations of the model are investigated by employing the center manifold theory, and the first-order approximation solution of the periodic vibration of the bridge is derived by using the energy method. Numerical simulations are carried out to verify the validity of our analytical expressions. Our research shows that the existence of the cables can reduce the amplitude and frequency of the bridge, especially for the large amplitude case. This might explain why measured data of a cable-stayed bridge (T-bridge in Japan vibrating under crowd excitation are much less than the theoretical results reported in previous studies in which the cable-stayed bridge is viewed as a single-degree-of-freedom system. Our analysis results suggest that the structure types of footbridges should not be easily ignored in the study of pedestrian-footbridge interaction.

  14. Analysis of Nb3Sn Rutherford cable production and strand deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Peggiani, Sonia; Beghi, Marco

    The development of cutting-edge 11-12 T superconducting magnets made from Nb3Sn technology is one of the major milestones for the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The upgrade, called High Luminosity LHC Project, was planned in order to reach higher luminosity and discover new particles. Replacing the NbTi superconductor with the Nb3Sn makes it possible to reach a practical operating magnetic field limit of up to 16 T. The superconducting coils are formed by Nb3Sn Rutherford cables with a trapezoidal cross section and composed of 40 strands. Since the superconducting phase of Nb3Sn is very brittle and it is reached after a thermal cycle, the Nb3Sn Rutherford cable needs to be wound in a coil before the thermal treatment. The cabling process is a delicate step in the production of high performing cables that need different systems to control their quality. This work aims to provide practical tools to analyze the Nb3Sn Rutherford cable production and the strands deformations due to the high aspec...

  15. A Computer Model to Differentiate Skidder and Cable-Yarder Based Road Network Concepts on Steep Slopes

    OpenAIRE

    Hans R., Heinimann; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Section of Forest Engineering

    1998-01-01

    Road spacing on slopes depends on the underlying off-road transportation technology. One major decision in road network planning is to determine under what terrain conditions ground- or cable based extraction systems should be applied. The present investigation aims to develop a road spacing model for steep slope conditions and to implement a total cost model for skidder and cable-yarder based road network concepts. The study analyzes transportation and road geometry to specify the relationsh...

  16. Proposal for using commercial submarine telecommunications cables for monitoring earthquakes and tsunamis - the SMART cable concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, Frederik; Howe, Bruce; Butler, Rhett; Strollo, Angelo; Weinstein, Stuart

    2017-04-01

    Hundreds of thousands of kilometres of commercial telecommunications cables traverse the world's oceans, many of them crossing large ocean basins, which are otherwise poorly sampled by geophysical sensors (seismometers or pressure gauges), or running along active continental margins, where additional observations would be particularly valuable for allowing observation of subduction zone earthquakes and offshore plate deformation from the updip end. However, as of today these cables are unaware of their environment. These cables are equipped with repeaters spaced at 50 km intervals to boost the telecom signal, though. These repeaters in principle offer access to power and bandwidth, providing the opportunity to add sensor capability to future "SMART" cables (Science Monitoring and Reliable Telecommunications). In a workshop held in early November 2016 at the German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam (GFZ) research scientists, practitioners from earthquake observatories and tsunami warning centers, and engineers discussed possible applications of such SMART cables both from the viewpoint of fundamental research, i.e. Earth imaging and the study of earthquake processes and possibly plate deformation, as well as technical aspects of possible implementations by drawing on the expertise of operators of existing cabled networks. In this presentation, we will summarise the outcomes of this workshop.

  17. Shape accuracy optimization for cable-rib tension deployable antenna structure with tensioned cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiwei; Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Rongqiang; Wang, Hongxiang; Tang, Dewei; Song, Xiaoke

    2017-11-01

    Shape accuracy is of substantial importance in deployable structures as the demand for large-scale deployable structures in various fields, especially in aerospace engineering, increases. The main purpose of this paper is to present a shape accuracy optimization method to find the optimal pretensions for the desired shape of cable-rib tension deployable antenna structure with tensioned cables. First, an analysis model of the deployable structure is established by using finite element method. In this model, geometrical nonlinearity is considered for the cable element and beam element. Flexible deformations of the deployable structure under the action of cable network and tensioned cables are subsequently analyzed separately. Moreover, the influence of pretension of tensioned cables on natural frequencies is studied. Based on the results, a genetic algorithm is used to find a set of reasonable pretension and thus minimize structural deformation under the first natural frequency constraint. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to analyze the deployable structure under two kinds of constraints. Results show that the shape accuracy and natural frequencies of deployable structure can be effectively improved by pretension optimization.

  18. Sixty-four-Channel Inline Cable Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Faults in wiring are a serious concern for the aerospace and aeronautics (commercial, military, and civil) industries. A number of accidents have occurred because faulty wiring created shorts or opens that resulted in the loss of control of the aircraft or because arcing led to fires and explosions. Some of these accidents have resulted in the massive loss of lives (such as in the TWA Flight 800 accident). Circuits on the Space Shuttle have also failed because of faulty insulation on wiring. STS-93 lost power when a primary power circuit in one engine failed and a second engine had a backup power circuit fault. Cables are usually tested on the ground after the crew reports a fault encountered during flight. Often such failures result from vibration and cannot be replicated while the aircraft is stationary. It is therefore important to monitor faults while the aircraft is in operation, when cables are more likely to fail. Work is in progress to develop a cable fault tester capable of monitoring up to 64 individual wires simultaneously. Faults can be monitored either inline or offline. In the inline mode of operation, the monitoring is performed without disturbing the normal operation of the wires under test. That is, the operations are performed unintrusively and are essentially undetectable for the test signal levels are below the noise floor. A cable can be monitored several times per second in the offline mode and once a second in the inline mode. The 64-channel inline cable tester not only detects the occurrence of a fault, but also determines the type of fault (short/open) and the location of the fault. This will enable the detection of intermittent faults that can be repaired before they become serious problems.

  19. Simulation of power cable ohm heat by using labview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y. H.; Kim, J. S.; Jung, I. S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institue, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Even it is necessary to consider the ohm heat of cable conductor for the evaluation of cable aging, temperature measurement of cable conductor for the evaluation of cable aging, temperature measurement of cable conductor is impractical due to untouchable condition of cable conductor which is surrounded by insulation and jacket. We have studied the way how to get the ohm heat of conductor by measuring the surface temperature of cable jacket. We verified that jacket temperature can be controlled under the 10% error limit by applying the PI control in LabView program. The relation between surface temperature of jacket and ohm heat of conductor can be predicted after this type of experiment. This study show that the ohm heat can be delivered from temperature monitoring of jacket surface.

  20. submitter On Roebel Cable Geometry for Accelerator Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Fleiter, J; Ballarino, A

    2016-01-01

    Roebel-type cables made of a ReBCO conductor are potential candidates for high-field accelerator magnets. The necessity to promote a large effective transverse section in a Roebel cable to avoid local overstress leading to degradation in electrical performance has been recently addressed. In this paper, a new geometry of meander tapes for a Roebel cable that enhances both the transverse effective section and the current margin at crossing segments is discussed. As Roebel cables are bent at the coil ends, the modulation of the bending radius of strands along the cable pitch leads to a shift of the strands with respect to each other. The shift magnitude is analytically investigated in this paper as a function of both cable features and coil geometry. Finally, the minimum transposition pitch of Roebel cables is determined on the basis of coil characteristics.

  1. The management of large cabling campaigns during the Long Shutdown 1 of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meroli, Stefano; Formenti, Fabio; Frans, Marten; Guillaume, Jean Claude; Ricci, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN entered into its first 18 month-long shutdown period in February 2013. During this period the entire CERN accelerator complex will undergo major consolidation and upgrade works, preparing the machines for LHC operation at nominal energy (7 TeV/beam). One of the most challenging activities concerns the cabling infrastructure (copper and optical fibre cables) serving the CERN data acquisition, networking and control systems. About 1000 kilometres of cables, distributed in different machine areas, will be installed, representing an investment of about 15 MCHF. This implies an extraordinary challenge in terms of project management, including resource and activity planning, work execution and quality control. The preparation phase of this project started well before its implementation, by defining technical solutions and setting financial plans for staff recruitment and material supply. Enhanced task coordination was further implemented by deploying selected competences to form a ...

  2. Stochastic Response of an Inclined Shallow Cable with Linear Viscous Dampers under Stochastic Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qiang; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, Weilian

    2010-01-01

    Considering the coupling between the in-plane and out-of-plane vibration, the stochastic response of an inclined shallow cable with linear viscous dampers subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation is investigated in this paper. Selecting the static deflection shape due to a concentrated force...... at the dampers location and the first sine term as shape functions, a reduced four-degree-of-freedom system of nonlinear stochastic ordinary differential equations are derived to describe dynamic response of the cable. Since only polynomial-type terms are contained, the fourth-order cumulant-neglect closure...... of several factors, which include excitation level and direction as well as damper size, on the dynamic response of the cable is extensively investigated. It is found that the sum of mean square in-plane and out-of-plane displacement is primarily independent of the load direction when the excitation level...

  3. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  4. Electric field analysis of extra high voltage (EHV) underground cables using finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Mantosh; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    Transmission and Distribution of electric power through underground cables is a viable alternative to overhead lines, particularly in residential or highly populated areas. The electrical stresses are consequences of regular voltages and over voltages and the thermal stresses are related to heat...... produced inside the conductor due to flow of high rated current which is the main factors that affect its reliability. The performance of these underground power cables is important for proper operation of the power system. Long-term problems with them are related to the degradation of polymer materials...... used for the insulator due electrical, thermal or environmental stress. Most of these problems are related to the electric field stress on the insulation of the underground cables. The objective of the electric field analysis by using different numerical techniques is to find electric field stress...

  5. New method for the detection and monitoring of subsea power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philipp; Schneider, Jens; Feldens, Peter; Wilken, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy farms, no matter what kind of, have in common that they need a connection with the onshore power grid. Thus, not only their offshore generation facilities could have impacts on the surrounding environment, but also associated submarine power cables. These cables have to be buried in the seabed - at least in coastal heavy shipping environments - for safety reasons. Cable laying disturbs the local seafloor and the sub-bottom. Refillment of dredged sediments are expected softer than the original material and could be washed away by currents. Therefore, buried cables have to be repeatedly monitored to ensure their burial depth. This study presents a new method for efficient cable detection. A parametric echosounder system using 15 kHz as secondary frequency was adapted to investigate the angular response of sub-bottom backscatter strength of layered mud and to introduce a new method for enhanced acoustic detection of buried targets. Adaptations to achieve both vertical (0°) and non-vertical inclination of incident sound on the seabed (1-15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) comprise mechanical tilting of the acoustic transducer and electronic beam steering. A sample data set was acquired at a study site at 18 m water depth and a flat and muddy seafloor. At this site, a 0.1 m diameter power cable is buried 1-2 m below the sea floor. Surveying the cable with vertical incidence revealed that the buried cable can hardly be discriminated against the backscatter strength of the layered mud. However, the backscatter strength of layered mud was found to strongly decrease at >3±0.5° incidence and the layered mud echo pattern vanished beyond 5°. As a consequence the visual recognition of the cable echo in acoustic images improves for higher incidence angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. Data analysis support this visual impression. The size of the cable echo pattern was found to linearly increase with incidence, whereas the signal-to-noise ratio peaks at about

  6. Improved diagnosis of MV paper-insulated cables using signal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villefrance, Rasmus; Holbøll, Joachim T.; Sørensen, John Aasted

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of improving the PD estimation accuracy and the degree of automation of the measurements, the following study is carried out. Initially, a library of different discharge pulses and actual background noise from a selection of cables is established. The library is then used...... for the estimation of PD-signals from a parametric model leading to reduction of the noise superimposed on the PD-signals and thus to improved PD-detection. The applicability of these methods is discussed in relation to mobile systems for the assessment of cable insulation condition....

  7. Environmental aspects concerning medium- and highvoltage cables; Umweltfragen bei Mittel- und Hochspannungskabeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiem, B. [Stadtwerke Muenchen (Germany)

    1997-09-22

    Environmental compatibility is nowadays a very important part in the case of planing, construction, operation and maintainance of cable systems. A lot of laws and orders have to be observed. Some new aspects concerning the removal of oil filled cables and the consideration of electromagnetic fields even for cabels will be presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Umweltschutz ist heute unverzichtbarer Bestandteil der Planung, Bau, Betrieb und Instandhaltung von Kabelanlagen. Zahlreiche Gesetze und Verordnungen sind hierbei zu beachten. Der Verfasser stellt einige Neuerungen im Zusammenhang mit dem Ausbau und Oelkabeln vor und erlaeutert die auch bei Kabeln zu beruecksichtigenden elektromagnetischen Felder. (orig.)

  8. Dynamics modeling of a semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicle with a towfish towed by a cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinmo Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we employ a dynamics modeling method for investigating a multi-body dynamics system of semi-submersible autonomous underwater vehicles consisting of a towing vehicle operated near the water surface, a tow cable, and a towfish. The towfish, which is towed by a marine cable for the purposes of exploration or mine hunting, is modeled with a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DOF equation of motion that reflects its hydrodynamics characteristics. The towing cable, which can experience large displacements and deformations, is modeled using an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. To reflect the hydrodynamic characteristics of the cable during motion, the hydrodynamic force due to added mass and the drag force are imposed. To verify the completeness of the modeling, a few simple numerical simulations were conducted, and the results confirm the physical plausibility of the model.

  9. Dynamic Analysis of Cable-Stayed Bridges Affected by Accidental Failure Mechanisms under Moving Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Greco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of cable-stayed bridges subjected to moving loads and affected by an accidental failure in the cable suspension system is investigated. The main aim of the paper is to quantify, numerically, the dynamic amplification factors of typical kinematic and stress design variables, by means of a parametric study developed in terms of the structural characteristics of the bridge components. The bridge formulation is developed by using a geometric nonlinear formulation, in which the effects of local vibrations of the stays and of large displacements in the girder and the pylons are taken into account. Explicit time dependent damage laws, reproducing the failure mechanism in the cable system, are considered to investigate the influence of the failure mode characteristics on the dynamic bridge behavior. The analysis focuses attention on the influence of the inertial characteristics of the moving loads, by accounting coupling effects arising from the interaction between girder and moving system. Sensitivity analyses of typical design bridge variables are proposed. In particular, the effects produced by the moving system characteristics, the tower typologies, and the failure mode characteristics involved in the cable system are investigated by means of comparisons between damaged and undamaged bridge configurations.

  10. A Force Method Model for Dynamic Analysis of Flat-Sag Cable Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new force method is proposed for analysing the dynamic behaviour of oscillating cables with small sags. The accepted dynamic model of such cables reduces to a partial differential equation (the equation of motion and an integral equation (the compatibility equation. In the paper, D’Alembert’s travelling wave solution is applied to the partial differential equation (PDE. Substituting the solution into the compatibility and boundary conditions, the governing equation is obtained in terms of the dynamic tension increment. This equation has been named the force method dynamic equation (FMDE. In this way the infinite-degree-of-freedom dynamic system is effectively simplified to a system with only one unknown. Explicit solutions for both single-span and multi-span cable systems are derived. The natural frequencies obtained from the FMDE are shown to be identical to those deduced using the conventional displacement method (DM. Nonlinear governing equations are developed by considering the effect of quadratic and cubic displacement terms. Finally, two examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the proposed force method for single and multi-span cable systems subjected to harmonic forces.

  11. Smart synthetic material arresting cable based on embedded distributed fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Prohaska, John; Kempen, Cornelia; Bentley, Douglas; Murdock, Chad; Piatkowski, David; White, Lonnie

    2007-07-01

    Redondo Optics Inc. in collaboration with the Cortland Cable Company and the US. Navy under a Navy sponsored SBIR program is in the process of developing an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOS TM) system for the real-time, structural health monitoring, damage assessment, and lifetime prediction of full scale synthetic material arresting gear cables. The EDIFOS TM system uses a distributed array of fiber Bragg grating sensors, sensitive to stress/strain, impact damage, kinking and bending, and temperature, embedded within the strands of a synthetic material arresting cable structure. Fiber Bragg grating sensors are a mature technology typically used for the in-situ structural health monitoring of advanced structures. The periodic grating produces an optical, wavelength-encoded signal whose properties are dependent on the structural, and mechanical environment of the sensor fiber. The FBG sensor interrogation system monitors the status of each of the individual FBG sensors distributed along the embedded sensor fibers and transforms this information in real-time in to a graphical display of the stress/strain and temperature state of the entire arresting gear cable. An alarm system triggers to pinpoint those locations of potential damage.

  12. Test matrices for evaluating cable median barriers placed in v-ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Cable barrier systems designed to be used in median ditches have been traditionally full-scale crash tested placed either : within 4 ft from the slope break point (SBP) of a 4H:1V front slope or near the bottom of the ditch. Recently, there has been ...

  13. Identification of aeroelastic forces on twin bridge cables from full-scale measurements in skew winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio; Macdonald, J.H.G.; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    of this paper is to identify the aeroelastic forces for in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of bridge cables in dry conditions as in [2], but now for skewed winds. To achieve this, an output-only system identification employing the Eigenvalue Realisation Algorithm (ERA) [3] has been applied to selected...

  14. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytnikov, V. E., E-mail: vsytnikov@gmail.com; Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A. [JSC NTTs FSC EES (Russian Federation); Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V. [JSC Irkutskkabel (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  15. Proportional derivative based stabilizing control of paralleled grid converters with cables in renewable power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    consisting in LCL filters and cables. Both grid and converter current controls are analyzed. The frequency region, within which the system may be destabilized, is identified by means of the impedance-based stability analysis and frequency-domain passivity theory. A proportional derivative control strategy...

  16. The creation of high-temperature superconducting cables of megawatt range in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnikov, V. E.; Bemert, S. E.; Krivetsky, I. V.; Romashov, M. A.; Popov, D. A.; Fedotov, E. V.; Komandenko, O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Urgent problems of the power industry in the 21st century require the creation of smart energy systems, providing a high effectiveness of generation, transmission, and consumption of electric power. Simultaneously, the requirements for controllability of power systems and ecological and resource-saving characteristics at all stages of production and distribution of electric power are increased. One of the decision methods of many problems of the power industry is the development of new high-efficiency electrical equipment for smart power systems based on superconducting technologies to ensure a qualitatively new level of functioning of the electric power industry. The intensive research and development of new types of electrical devices based on superconductors are being carried out in many industrialized advanced countries. Interest in such developments has especially increased in recent years owing to the discovery of so-called high-temperature superconductors (HTS) that do not require complicated and expensive cooling devices. Such devices can operate at cooling by inexpensive and easily accessible liquid nitrogen. Taking into account the obvious advantages of superconducting cable lines for the transmission of large power flows through an electrical network, as compared with conventional cables, the Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (JSC FGC UES) initiated a research and development program including the creation of superconducting HTS AC and DC cable lines. Two cable lines for the transmitted power of 50 MVA/MW at 20 kV were manufactured and tested within the framework of the program.

  17. Development of a socketed foundation for cable barrier posts : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Four socketed foundation designs were evaluated for use as a new reusable base for high-tension, cable barrier : systems. Each foundation was a reinforced concrete cylindrical shape. The top of the foundation had an open steel tube to : accept the po...

  18. Identification of aeroelastic forces and static drag coefficients of a twin cable bridge stay from full-scale ambient vibration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio; Georgakis, Christos T.; Macdonald, J.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    rather than reduced velocity, indicating that Reynolds number governs the aeroelastic effects in these conditions. There is a significant drop in the aerodynamic damping in the critical Reynolds number range, which is believed to be related to the large amplitude cable vibrations observed on some bridges...... presents results from full-scale measurements on the special arrangement of twin cables adopted for the Øresund Bridge. The monitoring system records wind and weather conditions, as well as accelerations of certain cables and a few locations on the deck and tower. Using the Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm...... (ERA), the damping and stiffness matrices are identified for different vibration modes of the cables, with sufficient accuracy to identify changes in the total effective damping and stiffness matrices due to the aeroelastic forces acting on the cables. The damping matrices identified from the full...

  19. Offshore wind farm electrical cable layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, A. C.; Chick, J.; Johanning, L.; Khorasanchi, M.; de Laleu, V.

    2015-12-01

    This article explores an automated approach for the efficient placement of substations and the design of an inter-array electrical collection network for an offshore wind farm through the minimization of the cost. To accomplish this, the problem is represented as a number of sub-problems that are solved in series using a combination of heuristic algorithms. The overall problem is first solved by clustering the turbines to generate valid substation positions. From this, a navigational mesh pathfinding algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation is applied to identify valid cable paths, which are then used in a mixed-integer linear programming problem to solve for a constrained capacitated minimum spanning tree considering all realistic constraints. The final tree that is produced represents the solution to the inter-array cable problem. This method is applied to a planned wind farm to illustrate the suitability of the approach and the resulting layout that is generated.

  20. Water-tree resistant cable formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, H.; Dobbin, C.J.B.

    1992-10-06

    Polyethylene compositions are disclosed which are suitable for use as cable insulation for high voltage power distribution cables and, more particularly, contain an additive to inhibit the propagation of water trees in the insulation. The polyethylene composition of the invention is obtained by cross-linking a composition comprising ca 95 wt % of a low-density crosslinkable polyethylene and at least 1 wt % of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of ethylene, vinyl acetate, and vinyl alcohol. The terpolymer is obtained from the at least 95% hydrolysis of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer having a 20-30 wt % vinyl acetate content. The polyethylene and the terpolymer have a substantially similar melt index. Tests conducted to evaluate insulation compositions of the invention are described. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Cabled-observatory Regional Circulation Moorings on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaly, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    In September of 2010, one of four moorings was deployed on the Endeavour node of the NEPTUNE Canada cabled-observatory network. The installation included the laying of a 7km cable from the node to the mooring site in the axial valley about 3km north of the Main Endeavour Vent Field over extraordinary bathymetry. This September, three more cables and secondary junction boxes will be deployed to support the three additional moorings that complete the regional circulation array. The cable-laying is facilitated by the Canadian Scientific Submersible Facility's ROV ROPOS and a remotely operated cable-laying system, whereas the actual deployment of the moorings is a two ship operation. The CCGS John P. Tully lowers the mooring anchor first, while the RV Thomas G. Thompson supports the ROV operations which navigate the mooring to underwater mateable cable end. Precise navigation is needed because there are few areas suitable for placement of the junction boxes. Scientifically, the moorings are designed and located to best constrain the hydrothermally driven circulation within the rift valley, the regional circulation can then be used as a proxy measurement for hydrothermal fluxes. Each mooring carries a current meter/ ctd pair at 4, 50, 125, and 200m, with an upward looking ADCP at 250m. The northern moorings are located between the Hi-Rise and Salty Dawg fields about 700m apart in the ~1km wide rift valley and the southern moorings are located south of the Mothra vent field. Here we present initial results from the four mooring array.

  2. A displacement-based approach for determining non-linear effects on pre-tensioned-cable cross-braced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems are widely employed in structural engineering to limit lateral deflections and stabilize structures. A suitable configuration of the pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems in a structure is an important issue since the internal force distribution, emerging from the interaction with the existing structure, significantly affects the structural dynamic behavior. The design, however, is often based on the intuition and the previous experience of the engineer. In recent years, the authors have been investigating the non-linear dynamic response of cable systems, installed on cable-stayed bridges, and in particular the so-called ;cable-cross-tie systems; forming a cable network. The bracing cables (cross-ties) can exhibit slackening or snapping. Therefore, a non-linear unilateral model, combined with the taut-cable theory, is required to simulate the incipient slackening conditions in the stays. Capitalizing from this work on non-linear cable dynamics, this paper proposes a new approach to analyze, in laterally- braced truss structures, the unilateral effects and dynamic response accounting for the loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the bracing cables. This effect leads to non-linear vibration of the structure. In this preliminary study, the free vibrations of the structure are investigated by using the ;Equivalent Linearization Method;. A performance coefficient, a real positive number between 0.5 and 1.0, is defined and employed to monitor the relative reduction in the apparent stiffness of the braces during structural vibration, ;mode by mode;. It is shown that the system can exhibit alternate unilateral behavior of the cross-braces. A reduction of the performance coefficient close to fifty percent is observed in the braces when the initial pre-tensioning force is small. On the other hand the performance coefficient tends to one in the case of a high level of pre-stress. It is concluded that the performance coefficient may

  3. Occupational Asthma in a Cable Manufacturing Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Mohammadi, Saber; Golchin, Mahdie; Sadeghi, Zargham; Moafi, Masoud; Seyed Mehdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the past decade, incidence of asthma has increased, which might have been due to environmental exposures. Objectives: Considering the expansion of cable manufacturing industry in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company in Iran as well as its related factors. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on employees of a cable manufacturing company in Yazd, Iran, in 2012. The workers were divided into two groups of exposure (to toluene diisocyanate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene or polypropylene) and without exposure. Diagnosis of occupational asthma was made based on the subjects’ medical history, spirometry and peak flowmetry, and its frequency was compared between the two groups. Results: The overall prevalence of occupational asthma was 9.7%. This rate was 13.8% in the exposed group. Logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, a significant correlation existed between the frequency of occupational asthma and exposure to the produced dust particles (P < 0.05). In addition, age, work experience, body mass index, cigarette smoking and shift work had significant correlations with the prevalence of occupational asthma (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of occupational asthma among cable manufacturing company workers in Iran, this issue needs to be addressed immediately in addition to reduction of exposure among subjects. Reduction in work shift duration, implementation of tobacco control and cessation programs for the personnel, and performing spirometry tests and respiratory examinations in shorter periods may be among effective measures for reducing the incidence of occupational asthma in this industry. PMID:25558389

  4. Examining cable plant bandwidth for FDDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, James E.

    1991-02-01

    Networks designed around the ANSI X3T9. 5 standard called Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) are limited in distance by the bandwidth not the attenuation of the fiber optic cable. The magnitude of this limitation is defined and potential options in sources and fibers are examined. Since FDDI is limited in distance by the bandwidth of the cable plant not the attenuation many end users have put a bandwidth specification in their fiber optic cable purchase specifications. Some have even specified testing for bandwidth. This has caused much controversy between vendors installers and users. As a test equipment vendor we have " refereed" quite a few of these already and we have found that more myths are believed than realities are understood. What Limits Fiber Bandwidth? Two things limit fiber bandwidth: modal dispersion and chromatic dispersion. Modal dispersion is caused by the fact that the graded index profile of the fiber isn''t perfect so all modes do not have exactly the same transit time through the fiber. Chromatic dispersion is caused by the fact that the velocity of light in the fiber is dependent on the wavelength of the fiber. Fibers are designed for a zero dispersion wavelength light of any other wavelength will have some dispersion. Sources of wide spectral width like LEDs will suffer from more dispersion than narrow spectral width sources like laser diodes. In most circumstances one can

  5. Occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Mohammadi, Saber; Golchin, Mahdie; Sadeghi, Zargham; Moafi, Masoud; Seyed Mehdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, incidence of asthma has increased, which might have been due to environmental exposures. Considering the expansion of cable manufacturing industry in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company in Iran as well as its related factors. This study was conducted on employees of a cable manufacturing company in Yazd, Iran, in 2012. The workers were divided into two groups of exposure (to toluene diisocyanate, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene or polypropylene) and without exposure. Diagnosis of occupational asthma was made based on the subjects' medical history, spirometry and peak flowmetry, and its frequency was compared between the two groups. The overall prevalence of occupational asthma was 9.7%. This rate was 13.8% in the exposed group. Logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, a significant correlation existed between the frequency of occupational asthma and exposure to the produced dust particles (P company workers in Iran, this issue needs to be addressed immediately in addition to reduction of exposure among subjects. Reduction in work shift duration, implementation of tobacco control and cessation programs for the personnel, and performing spirometry tests and respiratory examinations in shorter periods may be among effective measures for reducing the incidence of occupational asthma in this industry.

  6. A method to improve data transmission efficiency of non-cabled seismographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, F.; Lin, J.; Huaizhu, Z.; Yang, H.

    2012-12-01

    having the functions of a regular non-cable seismograph such as collecting, storing and transmitting, and on top of that, the abilities to acquire, record and transmit source triggering time. GPS is built into the non-cable seismograph to ensure accurate clock synchronization for all working non-cable seismographs. The source-triggered station can obtain the source trigger time accurately and store it in a file, send it to the server or portable terminal using wireless technology. The management system in the server checks clock synchronization information of each non-cable seismograph against the trigger time, determines the exact sampling location of the trigger time, extracts the corresponding data according to predetermined triggering length. It then sequences data according to the survey line, and integrate it into the seismic data file in appropriate format, thus completing the extraction of single-shot data. For off-site data recovery, one can extract all trigger time from the triggered station and recover data in the above-mentioned method post-experimental. The method can rapidly extract valid data from recovered data. Many field experiments have shown that the method can effectively improve data transmission efficiency of non-cabled seismographs and save data storage spaces in the servers.

  7. Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Self-Anchored Cable-Stayed Suspension Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui-Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed.

  8. Geometric nonlinear analysis of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Li, Wang; Yan-Bin, Tan; Si-Feng, Qin; Zhe, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Geometric nonlinearity of self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridges is studied in this paper. The repercussion of shrinkage and creep of concrete, rise-to-span ratio, and girder camber on the system is discussed. A self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m is analyzed with linear theory, second-order theory, and nonlinear theory, respectively. In the condition of various rise-to-span ratios and girder cambers, the moments and displacements of both the girder and the pylon under live load are acquired. Based on the results it is derived that the second-order theory can be adopted to analyze a self-anchored cable-stayed suspension bridge with a main span of 800 m, and the error is less than 6%. The shrinkage and creep of concrete impose a conspicuous impact on the structure. And it outmatches suspension bridges for system stiffness. As the rise-to-span ratio increases, the axial forces of the main cable and the girder decline. The system stiffness rises with the girder camber being employed.

  9. Multiobjective Optimal Control of Longitudinal Seismic Response of a Multitower Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Fangfang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a multitower cable-stayed bridge with the application of partially longitudinal constraint system using viscous fluid dampers under real earthquake ground motions is presented. The study is based on the dynamic finite element model of the Jiashao Bridge, a six-tower cable-stayed bridge in China. The prime aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of viscous fluid dampers on the longitudinal seismic responses of the bridge and put forth a multiobjective optimization design method to determine the optimized parameters of the viscous fluid dampers. The results of the investigations show that the control objective of the multitower cable-stayed bridge with the partially longitudinal constraint system is to yield maximum reductions in the base forces of bridge towers longitudinally restricted with the bridge deck, with slight increases in the base forces of bridge towers longitudinally unrestricted with the bridge deck. To this end, a multiobjective optimization design method that uses a nondominating sort genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II is used to optimize parameters of the viscous fluid dampers. The effectiveness of the proposed optimization design method is demonstrated for the multitower cable-stayed bridge with the partially longitudinal constraint system, which reveals that a design engineer can choose a set of proper parameters of the viscous fluid dampers from Pareto optimal fronts that can satisfy the desired performance requirements.

  10. Designing Predictive Diagnose Method for Insulation Resistance Degradation of the Electrical Power Cables from Neutral Insulated Power Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobra, R.; Pasculescu, D.; Risteiu, M.; Buica, G.; Jevremović, V.

    2017-06-01

    This paper describe some possibilities to minimize voltages switching-off risks from the mining power networks, in case of insulated resistance faults by using a predictive diagnose method. The cables from the neutral insulated power networks (underground mining) are designed to provide a flexible electrical connection between portable or mobile equipment and a point of supply, including main feeder cable for continuous miners, pump cable, and power supply cable. An electronic protection for insulated resistance of mining power cables can be made using this predictive strategy. The main role of electronic relays for insulation resistance degradation of the electrical power cables, from neutral insulated power networks, is to provide a permanent measurement of the insulated resistance between phases and ground, in order to switch-off voltage when the resistance value is below a standard value. The automat system of protection is able to signalize the failure and the human operator will be early informed about the switch-off power and will have time to take proper measures to fix the failure. This logic for fast and automat switch-off voltage without aprioristic announcement is suitable for the electrical installations, realizing so a protection against fires and explosion. It is presented an algorithm and an anticipative relay for insulated resistance control from three-phase low voltage installations with insulated neutral connection.

  11. An Experimental Multi-disciplinary observatory (VENUS at the Ryukyu Trench using the Guam-Okinawa Geophysical Submarine Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shirasaki

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A multidisciplinary Ocean Bottom Observatory (MDOBO was installed on VENUS (Versatile Eco-monitoring Network by Undersea-cable System a depth of 2,170 meters on the slope of the Ryukyu Trench. In this context, “Eco-“ refers to both economic (e.g., earthquake hazard mitigation and ecological motivation. The first step in this instillation was to insert a telemetry/power system into the submarine coaxial cable; this system could then service the MODOBO, which consist of seven major bottom sensor packages. During August-September 1999, using a deep-towed unit and both manned and unmanned submersibles coupled with precise ship navigation, the MDOBO system and its attendant cables were deployed over a range of distances from 80 m to 1 km from the telemetry system, with several meter allowance for navigational uncertainty in positioning. The unmanned submersible then extended the multi-conductor extension cables from the instrument units toward the telemetry system and connected them to undersea mateable connectors on a junction box installed on the submarine cable. The MDOBO collected one and half months of continuous records. Several kinds of useful data were collected after installation, including an aftershock (Ms=6.1 of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Ms=7.7 in Taiwan.

  12. Modeling Cable and Guide Channel Interaction in a High-Strength Cable-Driven Continuum Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Matthew S.; Murphy, Ryan J.; Kutzer, Michael D. M.; Armand, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents several mechanical models of a high-strength cable-driven dexterous manipulator designed for surgical procedures. A stiffness model is presented that distinguishes between contributions from the cables and the backbone. A physics-based model incorporating cable friction is developed and its predictions are compared with experimental data. The data show that under high tension and high curvature, the shape of the manipulator deviates significantly from a circular arc. However, simple parametric models can fit the shape with good accuracy. The motivating application for this study is to develop a model so that shape can be predicted using easily measured quantities such as tension, so that real-time navigation may be performed, especially in minimally-invasive surgical procedures, while reducing the need for hazardous imaging methods such as fluoroscopy. PMID:27818607

  13. 75 FR 42722 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... System name: Cable Affairs Personnel/Agency Records System location: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile... 31793) Changes: * * * * * System location: Delete entry and replace with ``Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Cable Affairs Offices at missile bases reporting to Headquarters Air Global Strike Command...

  14. Antenna mechanism of length control of actin cables

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Lishibanya; Kondev, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This antenna mechanism involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentra...

  15. Guy cable design and damping for vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.

    1981-01-01

    Guy cables are frequently used to support vertical axis wind turbines since guying the turbine reduces some of the structural requirements on the tower. The guys must be designed to provide both the required strength and the required stiffness at the top of the turbine. The axial load which the guys apply to the tower, bearings, and foundations is an undesirable consequence of using guys to support the turbine. Limiting the axial load so that it does not significantly affect the cost of the turbine is an important objective of the cable design. The lateral vibrations of the cables is another feature of the cable design which needs to be considered. These aspects of the cable design are discussed, and a technique for damping cable vibrations was mathematically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental data.

  16. Dynamic wind effects on suspension and cable-stayed bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Allan; Larose, Guy L.

    2015-01-01

    Cable supported bridges are flexible structures which may be excited into oscillations by the wind. The excitation forces acting on cable supported bridges are aerodynamic by nature, but are for a large part set into play by the underlying structural dynamics of the bridge structures. The paper discusses the various types of dynamic wind effects commonly encountered for suspension and cable-stayed bridges emphasizing the importance of the structural dynamics.

  17. Understanding of bridge cable vibrations and the associate flow-field through the full-scale monitoring of vibrations and Wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio

    bridges continuously becoming longer and lighter have resulted in a high number of observations of cable vibrations. A theoretical background for the tool used in this work is presented in terms of cables vibrations mechanisms, aerodynamic damping and system identification techniques. A detailed......-scale monitoring events. Special thanks to Rune Brincker to grant permission to use the material of his newly published book about system identification to form the chapter of this thesis. A special thanks also to Anela Bajeric for granting the permission to use her material about system identification review...... vibrations. The research starts from data collection of cables vibrations of the Øresund Bridge. A dedicated monitoring system was installed to record full-scale data together with wind field measurements and meteorological data, during cables vibrations. Results from the monitoring system are reported...

  18. Stochastic unilateral free vibration of an in-plane cable network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Caracoglia, Luca

    2015-03-01

    Cross-ties are often used on cable-stayed bridges for mitigating wind-induced stay vibration since they can be easily installed on existing systems. The system obtained by connecting two (or more) stays with a transverse restrainer is designated as an "in-plane cable-network". Failures in the restrainers of an existing network have been observed. In a previous study [1] a model was proposed to explain the failures in the cross-ties as being related to a loss in the initial pre-tensioning force imparted to the connector. This effect leads to the "unilateral" free vibration of the network. Deterministic free vibrations of a three-cable network were investigated by using the "equivalent linearization method". Since the value of the initial vibration amplitude is often not well known due to the complex aeroelastic vibration regimes, which can be experienced by the stays, the stochastic nature of the problem must be considered. This issue is investigated in the present paper. Free-vibration dynamics of the cable network, driven by an initial stochastic disturbance associated with uncertain vibration amplitudes, is examined. The corresponding random eigen-value problem for the vibration frequencies is solved through an implementation of Stochastic Approximation, (SA) based on the Robbins-Monro Theorem. Monte-Carlo methods are also used for validating the SA results.

  19. Field Application of Cable Tension Estimation Technique Using the h-SI Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates field applicability of a new system identification technique of estimating tensile force for a cable of long span bridges. The newly proposed h-SI method using the combination of the sensitivity updating algorithm and the advanced hybrid microgenetic algorithm can allow not only avoiding the trap of local minimum at initial searching stage but also finding the optimal solution in terms of better numerical efficiency than existing methods. First, this paper overviews the procedure of tension estimation through a theoretical formulation. Secondly, the validity of the proposed technique is numerically examined using a set of dynamic data obtained from benchmark numerical samples considering the effect of sag extensibility and bending stiffness of a sag-cable system. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is investigated through actual field data extracted from a cable-stayed Seohae Bridge. The test results show that the existing methods require precise initial data in advance but the proposed method is not affected by such initial information. In particular, the proposed method can improve accuracy and convergence rate toward final values. Consequently, the proposed method can be more effective than existing methods in terms of characterizing the tensile force variation for cable structures.

  20. Analysis of monitoring data from cable-stayed bridge using sensor fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Daniele; Bruschetta, Federico; Zandonini, Riccardo; Pozzi, Matteo; Wang, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Inaudi, Daniele; Posenato, Daniele; Glisic, Branko

    2013-04-01

    This paper illustrates an application of Bayesian logic to monitoring data analysis and structural condition state inference. The case study is a 260 m long cable-stayed bridge spanning the Adige River 10 km north of the town of Trento, Italy. This is a statically indeterminate structure, having a composite steel-concrete deck, supported by 12 stay cables. Structural redundancy, possible relaxation losses and an as-built condition differing from design, suggest that long-term load redistribution between cables can be expected. To monitor load redistribution, the owner decided to install a monitoring system which combines built-on-site elasto-magnetic and fiber-optic sensors. In this note, we discuss a rational way to improve the accuracy of the load estimate from the EM sensors taking advantage of the FOS information. More specifically, we use a multi-sensor Bayesian data fusion approach which combines the information from the two sensing systems with the prior knowledge, including design information and the outcomes of laboratory calibration. Using the data acquired to date, we demonstrate that combining the two measurements allows a more accurate estimate of the cable load, to better than 50 kN.

  1. A Novel Position Compensation Scheme for Cable-Pulley Mechanisms Used in Laparoscopic Surgical Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunlei; Du, Zhijiang; Wang, Weidong; Sun, Lining

    2017-09-30

    The tendon driven mechanism using a cable and pulley to transmit power is adopted by many surgical robots. However, backlash hysteresis objectively exists in cable-pulley mechanisms, and this nonlinear problem is a great challenge in precise position control during the surgical procedure. Previous studies mainly focused on the transmission characteristics of the cable-driven system and constructed transmission models under particular assumptions to solve nonlinear problems. However, these approaches are limited because the modeling process is complex and the transmission models lack general applicability. This paper presents a novel position compensation control scheme to reduce the impact of backlash hysteresis on the positioning accuracy of surgical robots' end-effectors. In this paper, a position compensation scheme using a support vector machine based on feedforward control is presented to reduce the position tracking error. To validate the proposed approach, experimental validations are conducted on our cable-pulley system and comparative experiments are carried out. The results show remarkable improvements in the performance of reducing the positioning error for the use of the proposed scheme.

  2. CATV Fiberoptic Cable Markets In The U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, John N.

    1984-03-01

    "Bandwidth on a metropolitan CATV cable plant is a resource that may be compared today with the crude oil beneath the Arabian desert at the turn of the century. It will provide a radically new two-way communications medium for homes and businesses, and it will change not only the way we communicate but possibly even the way we live." This prediction was made last year by William Zachman, vice president of research for International Data Corp. If Zachman is right, and our research tends to indicate he is, then fiberoptics will become the transmission medium that will facilitate two-way broadband communication. However, many of the multiple system CATV operators in the U.S. as well as many of the manufacturers of fiberoptic waveguide and cable believe that interactive video systems are not really very important. They are wrong. Broadband fiberoptic systems have just begun to impact the U.S. communications market. And within 5 years, tremendous changes will occur not only with regard to growth, but with regard to the supplier industry structure. Interactive, switched, video systems in the U.S. go back to the early 1960s, and the experiments at Bell Laboratories with what was then called Picturephone. This was com-pressed video transmission via telephone lines from one subscriber to another. Field trials were conducted in several U.S. cities for a period of years. But the commercial response to Picturephone at that time was so lacking that AT&T discontinued the trials and the work. But that is changing. Part of the reason for the change is due to the changing communication needs of the U.S. and of the world: the increase in the amount of information used by large numbers of people, the concurrent rise in the use of computers, the digitization of communications media, the rise in the level of experience with electronic communications, and perhaps most importantly the convergence of audio, data, image and video communications. There are technological reasons for the slow

  3. The influence of cardiograph design and automated algorithms on the incidence and detection of electrode cable reversals in an academic electrocardiogram laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kent R; Sewell, Phyllis M; Blunden-Kasdorf, Patricia; Starkey, Kimberly; Grant, Augustus O; Wagner, Galen S

    2008-01-01

    Medical errors have been increasingly identified as a major source of morbidity and mortality in both outpatient and acute care settings. Central to the evaluation of many medical problems, the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is susceptible to both technical and interpretative errors. Proper interpretation, however, is dependent on the quality and accuracy of the acquired ECG. We evaluated the impact of both a newly designed electrocardiograph and a newly developed automated computer algorithm on the incidence and detection of electrode cable reversals (lead reversals). The study tested the association of the incidence of electrode cable reversals and the design of the connection terminal. The study was performed during a 7-month period preceding (53,875 ECGs) and after (53,344 ECGs) the implementation of the new system. Electrode cable reversals occurring in various sites of the medical center were tabulated and compared. We then sought to determine if computer detection algorithms could increase point-of-care detection of electrode cable reversals and, thereby, offset the influence of cardiograph design changes. Two commercially available automated detection algorithms were compared for their abilities to identify electrode cable reversals in our study population. During the 7-month postimplementation period, there was a significant increase in the incidence in electrode cable reversals (0.5% vs 0.1%, P algorithm supplied by the manufacturer. Electrode cable reversals are a prevalent source of medical errors that receives very little attention by the clinical community. The association of an increase in electrode cable reversals with an altered electrode cable connection terminal, coupled with an increased ability to detect electrode cable reversals using the manufacturer's recently developed algorithms, emphasizes the importance of ongoing research efforts to identify technical errors in electrocardiography.

  4. The Performance of Aircraft Control Cables Under Service Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    wires in the cables is illustr;tcd in Ifigs. I ald 2. Fatigue tests were also carried out on samples of galvanised steel cable (5 cwt. (2.49kN) minimumil...sheave ratio using the MIL-C-151I cable of 2.38 mm (3:32 in.) diameter would have been 13.3. For a satisfactory fatigue performance for 7 x 19 galvanised ...critical region in which cable life is relatively low". Reference 13 recommends a sheave ratio of 18 for 7 x 19 galvanised and stainless ,ables and a

  5. Strand critical current degradation in $Nb_{3}$ Sn Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Higley, H C; Scanlan, R M; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing 11 Tesla superconducting accelerator magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn strands produced using the modified jelly roll, internal tin, and powder-in-tube technologies were used for the development and test of the prototype cable. To optimize the cable geometry with respect to the critical current, short samples of Rutherford cable with packing factors in the 85 to 95% range were fabricated and studied. In this paper, the results of measurements of critical current, n-value and RRR made on the round virgin strands and on the strands extracted from the cable samples are presented. (5 refs).

  6. Simulations of a moored power cable at OBSEA platform

    OpenAIRE

    Prat Farran, Joana d'Arc; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del

    2013-01-01

    New green energy sources deployed at sea in mobile platforms use power cables in order to transport green energy at sea surface to the bottom. Theses power cables are exposed to the dynamic behaviour of the platform movements due to waves, currents and wind. OBSEA is a seafloor cabled observatory at 20 m depth in front of Vilanova, in Catalan coast. OBSEA captures data in real time like current, waves and wind among others. In this paper, a model of a moored power cable installed at OBS...

  7. Aircraft optical cable plant program plan: the approach for the physical layer for fly-by-light control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Murdock, John K.

    1995-05-01

    A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits. Among them are increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability by redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. Over the past two decades, considerable effort has been expended on applying photonic technologies to aircraft. Great successes have occurred in optoelectronic components development. In the development of these systems to link those components, known as the cable plant, progress has also been made, but only recently has it been organized in a coordinated, systems-oriented fashion. The FLASH program will expand on the nascent cable plant systems efforts by building upon recent work in individual components, and integrating that work into a cohesive aircraft cable plant. Therefore, the FLASH program will develop the low cost, reliable cables, connectors, splices, backplanes, manufacturing and installation methods, test methods, support equipment, and training systems needed to form a true optical cable plant for transport aircraft, tactical aircraft, and helicopters.

  8. Transforming Ocean Sciences in the Northeast Pacific: NSF's Ocean Observatories Initiative Cabled Array is Now Operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    In July-August, 2015 the first operations and maintenance cruise was successfully completed for the high power and bandwidth underwater cabled component of the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative: the Cabled Array. This system includes 900 km of backbone cable and 7 Primary Nodes, which provide 8 kW power and 10 Gbs bandwidth to myriad seafloor instruments (Manalang et al., this meeting) and instrumented full water column moorings (McRae et al., this meeting). Over 33,000 m of extension cables connected to 17 secondary junction boxes support >100 instruments now streaming data live to shore. In concert, this array forms: 1) the most advanced observatory along the global mid-ocean ridge network were 20 instruments and a state-of-the-art mooring system are providing new insights into volcanic and overlying water column processes at Axial Seamount (which erupted April 2015, see Delaney et al., this meeting); and 2) an extensive, technologically-advanced coastal observatory spanning 80 m to 2900 m water depths off Newport, OR. Here, cabled, instrumented moorings, with up to 18 instruments each, and associated seafloor arrays provide real-time, coregistered geophysical, biogeochemical, and physical measurements at unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. Nearly 1.5 years of continuous data (see Knuth et al., this meeting), two-way communication capabilities that allow responses to events, and continuing real-time data flow, will allow the community to investigate in ways never before possible earthquakes along the Cascadia margin with impacts on fluid flow and release of methane into the hydrosphere, underwater eruptions resulting in perturbations to hydrothermal systems, associated biological communities, and overlying water column properties, and linkages among biogeochemical and physical processes along the Cascadia margin.

  9. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    of electromagnetic phenomena associated to their operation, among them electromagnetic transients, increased as well. Transient phenomena have been studied since the beginning of power systems, at first using only analytical approaches, which limited studies to more basic phenomena; but as computational tools became...... more powerful, the analyses started to expand for the more complex phenomena. Being old phenomena, electromagnetic transients are covered in many publications, and classic books such as the 40-year-old Greenwood’s ‘‘Electric Transients in Power Systems’’ are still used to this day. However...... example.However, the book is not only intended for students . It can also be used by engineers who work in this area and need to understand the challenges/problems they are facing or who need to learn how to prepare their simulation models as well as their function. It also shows how to calculate...

  10. Deep ocean current profiles, water temperatures, and echo amplitudes from bottom-moored ADCP during 2011-2013 of the Aloha Cabled Observatory (NCEI Accession 0123608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) is a system of hardware and software that extends electric power and the Internet offshore, supporting sustained real-time...

  11. 76 FR 77533 - Mandatory Electronic Filing for Cable Special Relief Petitions and Cable Show Cause Petitions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ...: This document announces the implementation of electronic filing of Cable Special Relief (CSR) Petitions... filing of CSR and CSC petitions will be permitted through January 3, 2012, when electronic filing will... Tillery of the Media Bureau at (202) 418-1056. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This is a summary of the CSR and...

  12. Cable bacteria generate a firewall against euxinia in seasonally hypoxic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitaj, Dorina; Schauer, Regina; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Burdorf, Laurine D. W.; Slomp, Caroline P.; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal oxygen depletion (hypoxia) in coastal bottom waters can lead to the release and persistence of free sulfide (euxinia), which is highly detrimental to marine life. Although coastal hypoxia is relatively common, reports of euxinia are less frequent, which suggests that certain environmental controls can delay the onset of euxinia. However, these controls and their prevalence are poorly understood. Here we present field observations from a seasonally hypoxic marine basin (Grevelingen, The Netherlands), which suggest that the activity of cable bacteria, a recently discovered group of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms inducing long-distance electron transport, can delay the onset of euxinia in coastal waters. Our results reveal a remarkable seasonal succession of sulfur cycling pathways, which was observed over multiple years. Cable bacteria dominate the sediment geochemistry in winter, whereas, after the summer hypoxia, Beggiatoaceae mats colonize the sediment. The specific electrogenic metabolism of cable bacteria generates a large buffer of sedimentary iron oxides before the onset of summer hypoxia, which captures free sulfide in the surface sediment, thus likely preventing the development of bottom water euxinia. As cable bacteria are present in many seasonally hypoxic systems, this euxinia-preventing firewall mechanism could be widely active, and may explain why euxinia is relatively infrequently observed in the coastal ocean. PMID:26446670

  13. Evaluation of Bluetooth as a replacement for cables in intensive care and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Mats K E B; Wajntraub, Samson

    2004-03-01

    In today's intensive care and surgery, a great number of cables are attached to patients. These cables can make the care and nursing of the patient difficult. Replacing them with wireless communications technology would facilitate patient care. Bluetooth is a modern radio technology developed specifically to replace cables between different pieces of communications equipment. In this study we sought to determine whether Bluetooth is a suitable replacement for cables in intensive care and during surgery with respect to electromagnetic compatibility. The following questions were addressed: Does Bluetooth interfere with medical equipment? And does the medical equipment decrease the quality of the Bluetooth communication? A Bluetooth link, simulating a patient monitoring system, was constructed with two laptops. The prototype was then used in laboratory and clinical tests according to American standards at the Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm. The tests, which included 44 different pieces of medical equipment, indicated that Bluetooth does not cause any interference. The tests also showed that the hospital environment does not affect the Bluetooth communication negatively. Bluetooth, a new radio technology transmitting at 2.4 GHz, was tested in a clinical setting. The study showed that a single Bluetooth link was robust and electromagnetically compatible with the tested electronic medical devices.

  14. Kinetostatic Analysis of Cable-Driven Parallel Robots with Consideration of Sagging and Pulleys

    OpenAIRE

    Gouttefarde, Marc; Nguyen, Dinh Quan; Baradat, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Cable-driven parallel robots manipulating heavy payloads typically use cables having non-negligible diameters and mass. The associated cable guiding pulleys may then have non-negligible radii whose influence on the robot kinematics can hardly be neglected. This paper focuses on the output pulleys from which the cables extend to the robot mobile platform. A kinetostatic analysis of cable-driven parallel robots considering both cable mass and output pulleys is presented.

  15. Dynamic Loadability of Cable Based Transmission Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    . Kinectrics is a large consultancy who employ, among others, one of the experts within loadability calculations, Dr. George Anders. During my stay, I obtained much insight i into dynamic rating techniques, practical issues with loadability calculations and the mathematics behind. During the PhD project I...... supervised 2 master projects, as well as 5 special courses at DTU. Furthermore I created and taught a cable course, with approximately 25 students, throughout 13 weeks during the spring of 2011. The PhD project has until now contributed with 3 journal papers and 4 conference papers. Selected papers can...

  16. On the control performance of motors driven by long cables for remote handling at ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sol, Enrique del, E-mail: enrique.delsol@oxfordtechnologies.co.uk [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX141RL (United Kingdom); Meek, Richard [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX141RL (United Kingdom); Ruiz Morales, Emilio; Vitelli, Ricardo; Esqué, Salvador [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla, 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • We show the dangerous effects of reflections on the actuator’s system. • We prove how to solve the reflections issue with a commercial LC filter. • We study the filter influence for short cables on two control modes. • We show the filter performance under a real remote handling operation. • We study the excellent performance of the filter for different cable lengths. - Abstract: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is nowadays the most used method for controlling a servo-motor. When combining PWM with motors and long cables, such as the ones that will be found at ITER, the standing waves originated are potentially very harmful for both actuator’s life span and control performance. Several methods have been investigated to cope with this issue, such as the use of chokes, filters, snubbers or active modification of the PWM signal. Of all possible locations where an electrical servo-motor could be used at ITER, the most critical scenario arises when mounting a low power motor, with a low gear ratio, in a dexterous manipulator for bilateral teleoperation. In those circumstances cable lengths of more than 150 m are expected between manipulator and control cubicle. In this paper, the effects of long cables in the system safety are analysed on a custom made test bench. The most common solutions to cope with this issue are analysed and a commercial LC filter is selected for further experimentation. An extensive set of experiments are carried out in order to validate the proposed solution for being used on remote handling equipment at ITER.

  17. A Cabled, High Bandwidth Instrument Platform for Continuous Scanning of the Upper Ocean Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, E.; Delaney, J. R.; Kelly, D.; Daly, K. L.; Luther, D. S.; Harkins, G.; Harrington, M.; McGuire, C.; Tilley, J.; Dosher, J.; Waite, P.; Cram, G.; Kawka, O. E.

    2016-02-01

    The Cabled Array portion of the National Science Foundation funded Ocean Observatories Initiative is a large scale, high bandwidth and high power subsea science network designed by the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory. Part of that system is a set of winched profilers which continuously scan the upper 200m of the ocean at their deployment sites. The custom built profilers leverage the Cabled Array's technology for interfacing collections of science instruments and add the ability to run predefined missions and to switch missions or mission parameters on the fly via command from shore. The profilers were designed to operate continuously for up to two years after deployment after which certain wearing components must be replaced. The data from the profiler's science and engineering sensors are streamed to shore via the seafloor network in real time. Data channel capacity from the profilers exceeds 40 Mbps. For profiler safety, mission execution is controlled within the platform. Inputs such as 3D gyro, pressure depth and deployed cable calculations are monitored to assure safe operation during any sea state. The profilers never surface but are designed to approach within 5m of the surface if conditions allow. Substantial engineering effort was focused on reliable cable handling under all ocean conditions. The profilers are currently operated from subsea moorings which also contain sets of fixed science and engineering sensors. The profilers and their associated mooring instrument assemblies are designed for rapid replacement using ROVs. We have operated this system for two years, including one annual maintenance turn and information relative to that experience will be included in the paper.[Image Caption] Cabled Array Shallow Profiler shown in its parking position.

  18. Designing and Implementation a Lab Testing Method for Power Cables Insulation Resistance According with STAS 10411-89, SR EN ISO/CEI/17025/2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobra, R.; Pasculescu, D.; Marc, G.; Risteiu, M.; Antonov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Insulation resistance measurement is one of the most important tests required by standards and regulations in terms of electrical safety. Why these tests are is to prevent possible accidents caused by electric shock, damage to equipment or outbreak of fire in normal operating conditions of electrical cables. The insulation resistance experiment refers to the testing of electrical cable insulation, which has a measured resistance that must be below the imposed regulations. Using a microcontroller system data regarding the insulation resistance of the power cables is acquired and with SCADA software the test results are displayed.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Instability of Iced Bridge Cable Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Lund, Mia Schou Møller

    2013-01-01

    of bridge cables under wind action. This paper describes the experimental simulation of ice accretion on a real bridge cable sheet HDPE tube segment (diameter 160mm) and its effect on the aerodynamic load. Furthermore, aerodynamic instability will be estimated with quasi-steady theory using the determined...

  20. Levitation of Superconductive Cable in Earth Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Karban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an introductory study about a superconductive cable levitating in Earth’s magnetic field. Built are two mathematical models of the problem providing both the shape of the arc of the cable and forces acting along it. The theoretical analysis is supplemented with an illustrative example.