WorldWideScience

Sample records for cable railroads

  1. Automated Recognition of Railroad Infrastructure in Rural Areas from LIDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Arastounia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at developing automated methods to recognize railroad infrastructure from 3D LIDAR data. Railroad infrastructure includes rail tracks, contact cables, catenary cables, return current cables, masts, and cantilevers. The LIDAR dataset used in this study is acquired by placing an Optech Lynx mobile mapping system on a railcar, operating at 125 km/h. The acquired dataset covers 550 meters of Austrian rural railroad corridor comprising 31 railroad key elements and containing only spatial information. The proposed methodology recognizes key components of the railroad corridor based on their physical shape, geometrical properties, and the topological relationships among them. The developed algorithms managed to recognize all key components of the railroad infrastructure, including two rail tracks, thirteen masts, thirteen cantilevers, one contact cable, one catenary cable, and one return current cable. The results are presented and discussed both at object level and at point cloud level. The results indicate that 100% accuracy and 100% precision at the object level and an average of 96.4% accuracy and an average of 97.1% precision at point cloud level are achieved.

  2. DOT Basemap Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents railroads lines within the state of Minnesota. It has its source as one of the layers in the State of Minnesota BaseMap 2001. This layer was...

  3. Cable manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  4. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  5. Cable Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L

    2014-01-01

    Superconductor stability is at the core of the design of any successful cable and magnet application. This chapter reviews the initial understanding of the stability mechanism, and reviews matters of importance for stability such as the nature and magnitude of the perturbation spectrum and the cooling mechanisms. Various stability strategies are studied, providing criteria that depend on the desired design and operating conditions.

  6. 78 FR 17763 - Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc., Maybrook Railroad Company, and Housatonic Transportation Company--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Housatonic Railroad Company, Inc. (HRRC), Maybrook Railroad Company (MRC), and Housatonic Transportation Company (HTC) (collectively,...

  7. Universal Cable Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanvalkenburgh, C.

    1985-01-01

    Concept allows routing easily changed. No custom hardware required in concept. Instead, standard brackets cut to length and installed at selected locations along cable route. If cable route is changed, brackets simply moved to new locations. Concept for "universal" cable brackets make it easy to route electrical cable around and through virtually any structure.

  8. Superconducting ac cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.)

  9. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  10. UtilityTelecom_CABLE2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT Cable System dataset (CABLE2005) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable system as of 12/31/2005. Numerous cable companies provide service in...

  11. UtilityTelecom_CABLE2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT Cable System dataset (CABLE2007) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable system as of 12/31/2007. Numerous cable companies provide service in...

  12. Cable-fault locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J.; Heymann, A. P., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Inexpensive system automatically indicates location of short-circuited section of power cable. Monitor does not require that cable be disconnected from its power source or that test signals be applied. Instead, ground-current sensors are installed in manholes or at other selected locations along cable run. When fault occurs, sensors transmit information about fault location to control center. Repair crew can be sent to location and cable can be returned to service with minimum of downtime.

  13. 76 FR 1666 - Susquehanna Union Railroad Company-Control Exemption-North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Susquehanna Union Railroad Company--Control Exemption--North Shore Railroad Company, Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company, Shamokin Valley Railroad Company, Juniata Valley Railroad Company, Lycoming Valley Railroad Company, and Union County Industrial Railroad Company On April 12,...

  14. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  15. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  16. Modeling vibration response and damping of cables and cabled structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Kaitlin S.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    In an effort to model the vibration response of cabled structures, the distributed transfer function method is developed to model cables and a simple cabled structure. The model includes shear effects, tension, and hysteretic damping for modeling of helical stranded cables, and includes a method for modeling cable attachment points using both linear and rotational damping and stiffness. The damped cable model shows agreement with experimental data for four types of stranded cables, and the damped cabled beam model shows agreement with experimental data for the cables attached to a beam structure, as well as improvement over the distributed mass method for cabled structure modeling.

  17. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  18. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  19. Cable fault locator research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C. A.; Honey, S. K.; Petro, J. P.; Phillips, A. C.

    1982-07-01

    Cable fault location and the construction of four field test units are discussed. Swept frequency sounding of mine cables with RF signals was the technique most thoroughly investigated. The swept frequency technique is supplemented with a form of moving target indication to provide a method for locating the position of a technician along a cable and relative to a suspected fault. Separate, more limited investigations involved high voltage time domain reflectometry and acoustical probing of mine cables. Particular areas of research included microprocessor-based control of the swept frequency system, a microprocessor based fast Fourier transform for spectral analysis, and RF synthesizers.

  20. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  1. UtilityTelecom_CABLE2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT Cable dataset (CABLE2013) includes lines depicting the extent of Vermont's cable modem broadband system as of 6/30/2013 in addition to those companies who do...

  2. Cable tracking system proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Facilities Division requires a labeling system to identify and catalog the instrumentation, control, and computer cables that will run throughout the building. Tom Sheridan from the MIS Group has already made some general suggestions about the information that could be included in an Oracle-based Cable Tracking System (E-mail text distributed by Gary Gunderson on the 27th of August). Glenn Decker's LS Note No. 191 is also relevant to the subject since it addresses name assignment rules for the storage ring devices. The intent of this note is to recommend a mechanism for tracking wires/cables, with enough specifics, to which all groups in the Division would adhere when pulling cables. Because most cables will run between various beamline devices, hutch safety components, and equipment racks, any method of tracking cables is related to the Equipment Tracking System. That system has been developed by the APS Project personnel and is described in the APS Project Equipment Tracking System Guidelines (DRAFT). It can be adopted to XFD's needs. Two essential features of the Cable Tracking System are: 1) Each cable shell have a unique Identifier, and 2) Cable label must contain information that is helpful during troubleshooting in the field. The Identifier is an alphanumeric string of characters that will originate in the Oraclebased Cable Tracking System. It is not necessary for the identifier to carry a lot of intelligence its primary purpose is simply to provide a link to the database. Bar-coding the Identifier would make it easy to combine cable information with the Equipment Tracking System

  3. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  4. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  5. Touch DNA-The prospect of DNA profiles from cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sharon; Subhani, Zuhaib; Daniel, Barbara; Frascione, Nunzianda

    2016-05-01

    Metal theft in the railroad industry poses significant challenges to transport investigators. Cable sheaths left behind at crime scenes, if appropriately analysed, could provide valuable evidence in a forensic investigation, but attempts at recovering DNA are not routinely made. Experiments were set up to ascertain the success in DNA recovery from the surface of cable sheaths after deposition of (a) sweat, (b) extracted DNA and (c) fingermarks. Since investigators try to collect fingermarks and often treat the cables with cyanoacrylate fuming (CNA fuming) or wet powder suspensions (WPS) to enhance the marks this study investigated the recovery of DNA from fingermarks pre- and post-enhancement. The double-swab technique and mini-taping were compared as options to recover DNA from the cable sheaths. Results demonstrate that generally, there is no significant difference between using swabs or mini-tapes to recover the DNA from the non-porous cables (p>0.05). It was also illustrated that CNA fuming performed better than WPS in terms of subsequent recovery and profiling of DNA. CNA fuming resulted in an average increase in DNA recovered via swabbing and taping (more than 4× and 8×, respectively), as compared to no treatment, with 50% of the DNA recovered after CNA fuming generating full DNA profiles. PMID:27162019

  6. Railroad Lines, Railroad, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Railroad'....

  7. Railroad and locomotive technology roadmap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2003-02-24

    Railroads are important to the U.S. economy. They transport freight efficiently, requiring less energy and emitting fewer pollutants than other modes of surface transportation. While the railroad industry has steadily improved its fuel efficiency--by 16% over the last decade--more can, and needs to, be done. The ability of locomotive manufacturers to conduct research into fuel efficiency and emissions reduction is limited by the small number of locomotives manufactured annually. Each year for the last five years, the two North American locomotive manufacturers--General Electric Transportation Systems and the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors--have together sold about 800 locomotives in the United States. With such a small number of units over which research costs can be spread, outside help is needed to investigate all possible ways to reduce fuel usage and emissions. Because fuel costs represent a significant portion of the total operating costs of a railroad, fuel efficiency has always been an important factor in the design of locomotives and in the operations of a railroad. However, fuel efficiency has recently become even more critical with the introduction of strict emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to be implemented in stages (Tiers 0, 1, and 2) between 2000 and 2005. Some of the technologies that could be employed to meet the emission standards may negatively affect fuel economy--by as much as 10-15% when emissions are reduced to Tier 1 levels. Lowering fuel economy by that magnitude would have a serious impact on the cost to the consumer of goods shipped by rail, on the competitiveness of the railroad industry, and on this country's dependence on foreign oil. Clearly, a joint government/industry R&D program is needed to help catalyze the development of advanced technologies that will substantially reduce locomotive engine emissions while also improving train system energy efficiency. DOE convened an industry

  8. Infiniband Based Cable Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minich, Makia [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    As Infiniband continues to be more broadly adopted in High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter applications, one major challenge still plagues implementation: cabling. With the transition to DDR (double data rate) from SDR (single datarate), currently available Infiniband implementations such as standard CX4/IB4x style copper cables severely constrain system design (10m maximum length for DDR copper cables, thermal management due to poor airflow, etc.). This paper will examine some of the options available and compare performance with the newly released Intel Connects Cables. In addition, we will take a glance at Intel's dual-core and quad-core systems to see if core counts have noticeable effect on expected IO patterns.

  9. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    We investigate the costs of transportation regulation using the example of agricultural markets in the United States. Using a large database of prices by state of agricultural commodities, we find that the coefficient of variation (as a measure of market integration between states) falls for many...... commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...

  10. Magnet cable manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superconducting magnets used in the construction of particle accelerators are mostly built from flat, multistrand cables with rectangular or keystoned cross sections. The superconducting strands are mostly circular but a design of a cable made of preflattened wires was proposed a few years ago under the name of Berkeley flat; such cable shows some interesting characteristics. Another design consists of a few smaller precabled wires (e.g. 6 around 1). This configuration allows smaller filaments and a better transposition of the current elements. The Superconducting Super Collider project involves the largest amount of superconducting cable ever envisaged for a single machine. Furthermore, the design calls for exceptional accuracy and improved characteristics of the cable. A part of the SSC research and development program is focused on these important questions. In this paper we emphasize the difference between the conventional cabling and wires with superconducting. A new concept for the tooling will be introduced as well as the necessary characteristics of a specialized cabler. 5 figs

  11. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... productivity adjustment, as measured by the average change in railroad productivity for the years 2004...

  12. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2007-2011 (5-year) averaging period....

  13. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Process. See 66 FR 4104, 4198 (January 17, 2001). To FRA's knowledge this requirement has not presented... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 231 RIN 2130-AB97 Railroad Safety Appliance Standards AGENCY... establishing a process for the review and approval of existing industry standards. This process will...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1027 - Railroad work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad work. 404.1027 Section 404.1027...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1027 Railroad work. We exclude from employment any work you do as an employee or employee representative...

  15. Pyrotechnic-actuated cable release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Remote, unattended means has been designed and reduced to practice that retains and then releases an attached load by means of a restrained cable. The cable is released by an electrical impulse on signal.

  16. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  17. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  18. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the worlds first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  19. 23 CFR 646.107 - Railroad protective insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad protective insurance. 646.107 Section 646.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Insurance Protection § 646.107 Railroad protective insurance. In connection...

  20. Cable Television Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept. , Albany. Bureau of Mass Communications.

    Cable television for the State of New York is discussed in detail with relation to: (1) the regents of the University of the State of New York, (2) legislation, (3) planning and proposals for franchises, (4) the Federal Communications Commission, (5) access rules, (6) a list of companies and those serving schools, and (7) federal/state/local…

  1. State of dental morbidity rateamong passenger car attendant of Chernivtsi railroad centre of Lviv railroad

    OpenAIRE

    Kitsak Tetiana

    2015-01-01

    3661 railroad men are employed by Chernivtsi railroad centre of Lviv railroad, of which the car attendants constitute the largest part– 484 (13,2%). working temperature range, noise and vibration, dust content, enhanced level of air microbial contamination inside the cars, disturbance of sleep and rest schedule, physiological and neuro-emotional tension. The increase of dental morbidity rateamong people whose professional activity is connected with chronic exposure of their organs to occupati...

  2. Railroad Lines, Published in Not Provided, Embarq.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  3. 49 CFR 236.787a - Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.787a Railroad... Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and (b) High speed ground transportation systems that...

  4. Internal coaxial cable seal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Sneddon, Cameron; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-07-25

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable and is placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including load ring components and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable sealing the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. The seal system can be used in a variety of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  5. Model railroad industry nuclear emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some day, perhaps soon, there will be a serious rail accident involving nuclear materials, and there will be some significant damage to the nuclear containers. There may be some release of the radioactive contents. What then. How well will be railroads be prepared to handle the many problems that will arise when that bad accident happens. How will the railroads handle the cleanup problems. How will such an accident interfere with restoring railroad operations, different from what happens in other hazardous materials accidents. How will the railroads handle the public information aspects of a nuclear accident, a whole new ball game from what is involved in other hazardous materials accidents. Should the railroads hire their own nuclear experts. Should they train and equip radiological monitoring teams of their own. Do they even have a plan of how to deal with all of these matters. An approach is discussed for dealing with these problems and what the Association of American Railroads is doing to help solve them

  6. 75 FR 18254 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R.J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC Railroad Company... from R.J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC (RJC Railroad Property), and to operate approximately 42...

  7. EIGENFREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF CABLE STRUCTURES WITH INCLINED CABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Paulsen; Greg Slayton

    2006-01-01

    The approximate eigenfrequencies for the in-plane vibrations of a cable structure consisting of inclined cables, together with point masses at various points were computed. It was discovered that the classical transfer matrix method was inadequate for this task, and hence the larger exterior matrices were used to determine the eigenfrequency equation. Then predictions of the dynamics of the general cable structure based on the asymptotic estimates of the exterior matrices were made.

  8. Cable networks, services, and management

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Cable Networks, Services, and Management is the first book to cover cable networks, services, and their management, in-depth, for network operators, engineers, researchers, and students. Thirteen experts in various fields have contributed their knowledge of network architectures and services, Operations, Administration, Maintenance, Provisioning, Troubleshooting (OAMPT) for residential and business services, cloud, Software Defined Networks (SDN), as well as virtualization concepts and their applications as part of the future directions of cable networks. The book begins by introducing architecture and services for Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0/ 3.1, Converged Cable Access Platform (CCAP), Content Distribution Networks (CDN, IP TV, and Packet Cable and Wi-Fi for Residential Services. Topics that are discussed in proceeding chapters include: operational systems and management architectures, service orders, provisioning, fault manageme t, performance management, billing systems a...

  9. 14 CFR 23.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 23.689 Section 23.689... Systems § 23.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley used must... primary control systems; (2) Each cable system must be designed so that there will be no hazardous...

  10. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the fre...

  11. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  12. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben; Lomholt, Karin; Mikkelsen, Søren D.; Okholm, Jan; Salvin, Sven; Østergaard, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...... that the insertion of these cables in the network is not without problems. The network stability requirements may impose severe constraints on the actual obtainable length of superconducting cables. Load flow considerations show that it may be difficult to use these high current cables to their full...

  13. LOCA testing of damaged cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of dielectric withstand voltage testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin cables, the results suggest that 8 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage levels necessary to detect when 8 mils of insulation remain are expected to be roughly 40 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. Although two Rockbestos silicone rubber cables failed during the accident test, the induced wall thickness did not seem to be the major cause of the failures. It appears likely that under less stressful thermal aging conditions, the cables would survive accident testing with as little as 4 mils or less of insulation remaining

  14. Superconducting flat tape cable magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayasu, Makoto

    2015-08-11

    A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.

  15. 77 FR 38884 - Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-SLA Property Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sisseton Milbank Railroad Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc. Sisseton Milbank Railroad... from SLA Property Management Limited Partnership and Sisseton Milbank Railroad, Inc., their...

  16. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  17. Fatigue crack initiation life prediction of railroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of multiaxial high-cycle fatigue initiation life prediction for railroad is done in this paper. Using ANSYS 11.0 software three dimensional elasto-plastic finite element model of rail/wheel contact is constructed and fine mesh technique in contact region is used to achieve both computational efficiency and accuracy. Stress analysis is performed and fatigue damage in railroad is evaluated numerically using multiaxial fatigue crack initiation model. Using the stress history during one loading cycle and fatigue damage model, the effects of vertical loading, material hardness material fatigue properties and wheel/rail contact situation on fatigue crack initiation life are investigated.

  18. 78 FR 13933 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2012 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital for 2012. The decision solicits comments on the following issues: (1) The railroads' 2012...

  19. 75 FR 16894 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2009 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad ] industry's cost of capital for 2009. The decision solicits comments on the following narrow issues: (1) The railroads'...

  20. 77 FR 6625 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2011 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2011 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  1. 76 FR 10430 - Railroad Cost of Capital-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost of Capital--2010 AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of decision instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's 2010 cost of capital. SUMMARY: The Board is instituting a proceeding to determine the railroad industry's cost of capital...

  2. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In a... change in railroad productivity for the 2006-2010 (5-year) averaging period. This represents a...

  3. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2004-2008 (5-year) averaging period. This is...

  4. 76 FR 2748 - Competition in the Railroad Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Competition in the Railroad Industry AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board... to explore the current state of competition in the railroad industry and possible policy alternatives... Railroad Industry and Analysis of Proposals That Might Enhance Competition (November 2009), is available...

  5. 49 CFR 219.105 - Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad's duty to prevent violations. 219.105 Section 219.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... duty to prevent violations. (a) A railroad may not, with actual knowledge, permit an employee to go...

  6. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  7. Railroad Lines, railroads, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'railroads'....

  8. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  9. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    For more than a century, overhead lines have been the most commonly used technology for transmitting electrical energy at all voltage levels, especially on the highest levels. However, in recent years, an increase in both the number and length of HVAC cables in the transmission networks...... concerning HVAC cables. An important topic that is not covered in this book is measurements protocols/ methods. The protocols used when performing measurements on a cable depend on what is to be measured, the available equipment and accessibility. Readers interested in the topic are referred to search...... of the method. The chapter continues by analysing the frequency-spectrums of cable-based networks which have lower resonance frequencies than usual because of the larger capacitance of the cables. At the same time, a technique that may help save time when plotting the frequency spectrum of a network is proposed...

  10. Length of a Hanging Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Costello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a cable hanging under its own weight and uniform horizontal tension between two power poles is a catenary. The catenary is a curve which has an equation defined by a hyperbolic cosine function and a scaling factor. The scaling factor for power cables hanging under their own weight is equal to the horizontal tension on the cable divided by the weight of the cable. Both of these values are unknown for this problem. Newton's method was used to approximate the scaling factor and the arc length function to determine the length of the cable. A script was written using the Python programming language in order to quickly perform several iterations of Newton's method to get a good approximation for the scaling factor.

  11. Railroad Lines, Line feature class representing individual Railroad rail lines, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Line feature class representing individual...

  12. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom...

  13. 75 FR 61552 - Federal Railroad Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Informational Filing In accordance with Section 236.913 of Title... Administration (FRA) has received an informational filing from the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter...

  14. 77 FR 14058 - Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Rail Line of Verde Logistics Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Logistics Railroad, LLC at Santa Teresa, Dona Ana County, NM Santa Teresa Southern Railroad, LLC (STSR), a... feet of rail line owned by Verde Logistics Railroad, LLC (Verde). The rail line extends between a point... to shippers and receivers located in the Santa Teresa Logistics Industrial Park. \\1\\ STSR states...

  15. Cable Aerodynamic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth

    categorization of the different control technics together with an identification of two key mechanisms for reduction of the design drag force. During this project extensive experimental work examining the aerodynamics of the currently used cable surface modifications together with new innovative proposals have...... drag force due to the high intensity of streamwise vorticity, whereas the helical fillets resulted in a more gradual flow transition because of the spanwise variation. During yawed flow conditions, the asymmetrical appearance of the helical solution was found to induce a significant lift force with a...... were tested. While a proper discrete helical arrangement of Cylindrical Vortex Generators resulted in a superior drag performance, only systems applying "mini-strakes" were capable of complete rivulet suppression. When the strakes was positioned in a staggered helical arrangement, the innovative system...

  16. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-09-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage. PMID:26116678

  17. On the cable expansion formula

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qihou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized version of Morton's formula is proved. Using this formula, one can write down the colored Jones polynomials of cabling of an knot in terms of the colored Jones polynomials of the original knot.

  18. Algorithmic generation of railroad and highway routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J. T.; Bushnell, R. C.; Shannon, R.; Borsos, R.; Graham, J.; Sherry, R.

    1979-01-01

    A minimum-time algorithm can be used to generate realistic highway routes between specific origins and destinations. Minimizing distances on links will not produce realistic railroad routes if links bear any resemblance to physical trackage. There are also multiple routes between two points since each carrier has its own philosophy. This paper outlines a systematic method of preparing information such that a computer algorithm can generate realistic routes for single- or multiple-carrier movements.

  19. Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridge with CFRP Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the scope of CFRP cables in cable-stayed bridges is studied by establishing a numerical model of a 1400-m span of the same. The mechanical properties and characteristics of CFRP stay cables and of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are here subjected to comprehensive analysis. The anomalies in the damping properties of free vibration, nonlinear parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration between steel cables and CFRP cables are determined. The structural stiffness, wind resistance and traffic vibration of the cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables are also analyzed. It was found that the static performances of a cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and steel cables are basically the same. The natural frequencies of CFRP cables do not coincide with the major natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge, so the likelihood of CFRP cable-bridge coupling vibration is minuscule. For CFRP cables, the response amplitudes of both parametric vibration and wind fluctuating vibration are smaller than those of steel cables. It can be concluded from the research that the use of CFRP cables does not change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration. Therefore, they can be used in long-span cable-stayed bridges with an excellent mechanical performance.

  20. Parametric Vibration and Vibration Reduction of Cables in Cable-stayed Space Latticed Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Yan; ZHOU Dai; LIU Jie

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical model and vibration equation of a cable in cable-stayed sparse latticed structure (CSLS) under external axial excitation were founded. Determination of the mass lumps and natural frequencies supplied by the space latticed structure (SLS) was analyzed. Multiple scales method (MSM) was introduced to analyze the characteristics of cable's parametric vibration, and the precise time-integration method (PTIM) was used to solve vibration equation. The vibration behavior of a cable is closely relative to the frequency ratio of the cable and SLS. The cable's parametric vibration caused by the external axial excitation easily occurs if the frequency ratio of the cable and SLS is in a certain range, and the cable's vibration amplitude varies greatly even if the initial disturbance supplied by SLS changes a little. Furthermore, the mechanical model and vibration equation of the composite cable system consisting of main cables and assistant cables were studied. The parametric analysis such as the pre-tension level and arrangement of the assistant cables was carried out. Due to the assistant cables, the single-cable vibration mode can be transferred to the global vibration mode, and the stiffness and damping of the cable system are enhanced. The natural frequencies of the composite cable system with the curve line arrangement of assistant cables are higher than those with the straight-line arrangement and the former is more effective than the latter on the cable's vibration suppression.

  1. Railroad expansion and entrepreneurship: evidence from Meiji Japan

    OpenAIRE

    John Tang

    2013-01-01

    Railroads in Meiji Japan are credited with facilitating factor mobility as well as access to human and financial capital, but the impact on firms is unclear. Using a newly developed firm-level dataset and a difference-in-differences model that exploits the temporal and spatial variation of railroad expansion, I assess the relationship between railways and firm activity across Japan. Results indicate that railroad expansion corresponded with increased firm activity, particularly in manufacturi...

  2. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  3. Optical Measurement of Cable and String Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Achkire

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a non contacting measurement technique for the transverse vibration of small cables and strings using an analog position sensing detector. On the one hand, the sensor is used to monitor the cable vibrations of a small scale mock-up of a cable structure in order to validate the nonlinear cable dynamics model. On the other hand, the optical sensor is used to evaluate the performance of an active tendon control algorithm with guaranteed stability properties. It is demonstrated experimentally, that a force feedback control law based on a collocated force sensor measuring the tension in the cable is feasible and provides active damping in the cable.

  4. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  5. Equalization of data transmission cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  6. Development of the communication cable suspending robot. Automation of cable suspending works; Tsushin cable tsurika robot no kaihatsu. Cable tsurika sagyo no jidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T. [Kansai Electaric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The automatic communication cable suspending robot was developed. For disuse of dangerous stringers and improvement of suspending workability, adoption of the new mechanical high-speed labor-saving cable laying method was decided regardless of current communication cable laying methods. This robot can deal with automatic removal works of existing cable hangers which has been thought to be extremely difficult, and thus integration works of many cables by a cable hanger in cable additional installation work. For easy handling of the robot, the robot body is composed of 6 separated parts such as driving part, power source part, cable draw-in part, hanger attaching part, hanger removing part and hanger recovering part according to each function. For avoiding troubles with telephone lines and CATV lines in city areas, the size and mass of the robot were considered enough. After this, some verification tests on the robot effectiveness including performance test, workability test on dummy poles, and field test are scheduled. (NEDO)

  7. North American Submarine Cable Association (NASCA) Submarine Cables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data show the locations of in-service and out-of-service submarine cables that are owned by members of NASCA and located in U.S. territorial waters. More...

  8. 47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems. 76.640 Section 76.640 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Standards § 76.640 Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems. (a)...

  9. Improvements in electric cable gland seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electric cable gland seal has a deformable sealing member which is penetrated by cables arranged in annular spaced array, the sealing member being disposed between two spreader plates which when urged together by springs compress and deform the sealing member into sealing contact with the cables, a distributor which holds the cables in the spaced array, and a cylindrical body adapted for sealing about an opening in the wall of a vessel. (UK)

  10. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of underground cable installed in conduit and...

  11. Your Personal Genie in the Cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafly, Hubert J.

    The technology necessary for the use of cable television (TV) has been invented; it simply must be put to use. By the 1970's, cable TV should be commonplace in this country. Its rapid growth was caused in part by its appearance at a time of explosive expansion of related technologies like data theory and computer design. The coaxial cable system…

  12. EMP coupling to multiconductor shielded cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for calculating EMP coupling to multiconductor shielded cables by electromagnetic pulse. The induced voltage of inner conductor of the SYV-50-7 cable and SYVZ-9 cable placed on the ground are computed. The computed results agree with those measured

  13. Using Cable Television for Library Data Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Douglas A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses information gained from a test of cable data circuits on a Geac bibliographic control system at the Wayne Oakland Library Federation (WOLF) (Michigan). Highlights include an introduction to cable, hardware profile, the WOLF experience, and key questions that will affect the future use of cable for data transmission. (EJS)

  14. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42 Section 408.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an...

  15. Railroad infrastructure adequacy for safe transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the railroad industry's concerns on the movement of spent nuclear fuel including the magnitude of thermal and mechanical forces in train accidents, emergency response capability, railroad's liability for non-breach-of-cask accidents, and the importance of using dedicated trains to improve public perception of these movements; summarize the current status of the condition of the American railroads' equipment, facilities, track structure, and right-of-way; outline the continuing efforts of the railroad industry to improve customer service and profitability through downsizing and shifting of branch lines to more customer-oriented and efficient short-line carriers; and discuss potential problems of government subsidization of private railroads to enable upgrading of tracks and structures to handle rights-of-way in the future

  16. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: Early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.; Duennebier, F. K.

    2011-12-01

    The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) was installed 6 June 2011, extending power, network communications and timing to a seafloor node and instruments at 4726 m water depth 100 km north of Oahu. The system was installed using ROV Jason operated from the R/V Kilo Moana. Station ALOHA is the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated temporal dynamics in biology, physics, and chemistry since 1988. HOT conducts near monthly ship-based sampling and makes continuous observations from moored instruments to document and study climate and ecosystem variability over semi-diurnal to decadal time scales. The cabled observatory system will provide the infrastructure for continuous, interactive ocean sampling enabling new measurements as well as a new mode of ocean observing that integrates ship and cabled observations. The ACO is a prototypical example of a deep observatory system that uses a retired first-generation fiber-optic telecommunications cable. Sensors provide live video, sound from local and distant sources, and measure currents, pressure, temperature, and salinity. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed.

  17. 300 Area signal cable study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system

  18. Railroad Lines - RAILROAD_100K_NTAD_IN: Railroad Network in Indiana (National Transportation Atlas Database, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAILROAD_NTAD_100K_SW is a 1:100,000 scale line shapefile which is a subset of the rail network. Bureau of Transportation Statistics metadata states - "The Rail...

  19. Advanced method for cable aging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project of 'Assessment of Cable Aging for Nuclear Power Plants' started in FY2002. Until the end of FY2006, approximately 80% of the planned aging data has been acquired by the cable aging evaluation tests. The LOCA tests for nine kinds of cables were also conducted using the simultaneous aging specimens. Based on these results, the outlines of 'Guidelines for environmental qualification test for cables (Draft)' were developed. And a tentative assessment for seven kinds of cables was made using data acquired until present according to the outlines of guidelines. (author)

  20. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  1. Offshore Cable Installation - Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unosson, Oscar (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    This report describes the installation method and the experiences gained during the installation of the submarine cables for the offshore wind farm at Lillgrund. The wind farm consists of 48 wind turbines and is expected to produce 0.33 TWh annually. Different aspects of the installation, such as techniques, co-operation between the installation teams, weather conditions and regulatory and environmental issues are described in this report. In addition, recommendations and guidelines are provided, which hopefully can be utilised in future offshore wind projects. The trenches, in which the submarine cables were laid, were excavated weeks before the cable laying. This installation technique proved to be successful for the laying of the inter array cables. The export cable, however, was laid into position with difficulty. The main reason why the laying of the export cable proved more challenging was due to practical difficulties connected with the barge entrusted with the cable laying, Nautilus Maxi. The barge ran aground a number of times and it had difficulties with the thrusters, which made it impossible to manoeuvre. When laying the inter array cables, the method specification was closely followed, and the laying of the cables was executed successfully. The knowledge and experience gained from the offshore cable installation in Lillgrund is essential when writing technical specifications for new wind plant projects. It is recommended to avoid offshore cable installation work in winter seasons. That will lower the chances of dealing with bad weather and, in turn, will reduce the risks

  2. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  3. Power applications for superconducting cables in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Østergaard, Jacob; Olsen, S. Krüger

    1999-01-01

    In Denmark a growing concern for environmental protection has lead to wishes that the open country is kept free of overhead lines as far as possible. New lines under 100 kV and existing 60/50 kV lines should be established as underground cables. Superconducting cables represent an interesting...... alternative to conventional cables, as they are able to transmit two or more times the energy than a conventional cable. HTS cables with a room temperature dielectric design are especially interesting as a target for replacing overhead lines. Superconducting cables in the overall network are of interest in...... cases such as transmission of energy into cities and through areas of special interest. The planned large groups of windmills in Denmark generating up to 2000 MVA or more both on dry land and off-shore will be an obvious case for the application of superconducting AC or DC cables. These opportunities...

  4. Gjoea power cable; a green solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dretvik, Svein-Egil

    2010-07-01

    An alternative to today's power generation offshore using either gas or diesel, is alternating current (AC) electric power cable from shore. The power from shore through the AC cable gives high savings for the environment. The cable replaces 4 gas turbines with a total CO2 disposal of 240 00 tonnes each year which represents the disposal of 100 000 cars. ABB was awarded the contract which includes engineering, fabrication and installation of the power cable from Mongstad to the Gjoea platform which will be the longest AC cable in the world with a total length of 100 km. The presentation will include system design, qualification of dynamic power cable, cable fabrication experiences, testing at fabrication yard and installation aspects. (Author)

  5. Electrical testing of generator station cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests have been performed at a decommissioned nuclear plant to assess the ability of electrical diagnostic tests to determine the remaining life of cable insulation. Power and control cables with either SBR or PVC insulation were tested. These materials are typical of cables in plants built before 1960. Insulation resistance, capacitance, dissipation factor and partial discharge activity were not correlated to the dc breakdown voltage of the cables, which is taken as a measure of insulation condition. Thus it is uncertain if such tests can be used to predict remaining life, especially if historical data has not been collected. All the cables had very high dc breakdown voltages, which was consistent with the generally good physical condition of the cables. Based on this limited study, it seems that hipot tests may be the only convenient electrical method currently available to assure the condition of cables in a generating station undergoing life extension. However more work is needed to determine suitable hipot test voltages

  6. Study on the effects of cable sliding motion on the seismic response of cable tray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In various industrial plants such as thermal power plants, nuclear power plants or chemical plants, many cable trays are generally used for supporting cables by which control signals will be transmitted. Cable trays are generally made by thin steel plates both sides of which are folded in the vertical direction, while cables are simply placed on the tray. Thus, cables begin to slides when the response acceleration of trays exceeds some amount of value. Consequently, seismic responses of cable tray will also depend on the occurrence of sliding motion of cables. Therefore, cable trays are seen as highly nonlinear structural systems. In this study, seismic responses of the cable tray are investigated analytically considering the cable sliding motions. A cable tray is modeled by a two-degree-of-freedom system. Response acceleration and displacement of the tray and the cable are evaluated for seismic inputs. It is confirmed that the sliding motion of the cable has very large influences on the seismic responses of the cable tray. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 220.307 - Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of railroad-supplied electronic devices. 220.307 Section 220.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Electronic Devices § 220.307 Use of railroad-supplied electronic...

  8. 77 FR 45715 - Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Notice of Public Hearing: Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad The Reading Blue Mountain and Northern Railroad (RBMN) has petitioned the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... interested parties. See 77 FR 2774-2775 (January 19, 2012). After examining the carrier's proposal and...

  9. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  10. 49 CFR 219.601 - Railroad random drug testing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing... be selected as the result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. The selection method must...

  11. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  12. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.; Zuijderduin, R.; Smit, J.; Willen, D.; Lentge, H.; Thidemann, C.; Traeholt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Particulars of 6 km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160 mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly affe

  13. Field application of a cable NDT system for cable-stayed bridge using MFL sensors integrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an automated cable non-destructive testing(NDT) system was developed to monitor the steel cables that are a core component of cable-stayed bridges. The magnetic flux leakage(MFL) method, which is suitable for ferromagnetic continuum structures and has been verified in previous studies, was applied to the cable inspection. A multi-channel MFL sensor head was fabricated using hall sensors and permanent magnets. A wheel-based cable climbing robot was fabricated to improve the accessibility to the cables, and operating software was developed to monitor the MFL-based NDT research and control the climbing robot. Remote data transmission and robot control were realized by applying wireless LAN communication. Finally, the developed element techniques were integrated into an MFL-based cable NDT system, and the field applicability of this system was verified through a field test at Seohae Bridge, which is a typical cable-stayed bridge currently in operation.

  14. Cable force monitoring system of cable stayed bridges using accelerometers inside mobile smart phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Hu, Weitong; Jiao, Dong; Han, Ruicong; Mao, Xingquan; Li, Mingchu; Ou, Jinping

    2015-03-01

    Cable force is one of the most important parameters in structural health monitoring system integrated on cable stayed bridges for safety evaluation. In this paper, one kind of cable force monitoring system scheme was proposed. Accelerometers inside mobile smart phones were utilized for the acceleration monitoring of cable vibration. Firstly, comparative tests were conducted in the lab. The test results showed that the accelerometers inside smartphones can detect the cable vibration, and then the cable force can be obtained. Furthermore, there is good agreement between the monitoring results of different kinds of accelerometers. Finally, the proposed cable force monitoring system was applied on one cable strayed bridge structure, the monitoring result verified the feasibility of the monitoring system.

  15. Chinese Sojourn Labor and the American Transcontinental Railroad

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Alan Carson

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the institutional arrangements and labor market forces that interacted in the construction of America's transcontinental railroad. The demand for Chinese laborers on the transcontinental railroad was a product of a complex set of relationships, including the transaction costs of turnover costs, labor queuing and demand-side learning. Institutions that facilitated the supply of Chinese workers included the Chinese Six Companies. The influences of external factors, such as ...

  16. RAILROAD RENAISSANCE: THE POST-1970 SHORT LINE MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1970 and especially since railroad deregulation in 1980, there has been a proliferation of hundreds of new short line rail companies. These railroads range in length from about a mile to more than a thousand miles (those over 350 miles are called “regionals”. They were mainly formed when major Class 1 rail systems spun off marginal trackage. This paperdiscusses the reasons for the short line renaissance.

  17. Occupational Asthma in a Cable Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Dehghan, Faezeh; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Mohammadi, Saber; Golchin, Mahdie; Sadeghi, Zargham; Moafi, Masoud; Seyed Mehdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the past decade, incidence of asthma has increased, which might have been due to environmental exposures. Objectives: Considering the expansion of cable manufacturing industry in Iran, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of occupational asthma in a cable manufacturing company in Iran as well as its related factors. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on employees of a cable manufacturing company in Yazd, Iran, in 2012. The workers were divi...

  18. Review of high voltage direct current cables

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, George; Miao, Hao; Z. Xu; A. S. Vaughan; Cao, Junzheng; Wang, Haitian

    2015-01-01

    Increased renewable energy integration and international power trades have led to the construction and development of new HVDC transmission systems. HVDC cables, in particular, play an important role in undersea power transmission and offshore renewable energy integration having lower losses and higher reliability. In this paper, the current commercial feasibility of HVDC cables and the development of different types of HVDC cables and accessories are reviewed. The non-uniform electric field ...

  19. Optimal Sensor Placement for Stay Cable Damage Identification of Cable-Stayed Bridge under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Qun Hou; Xue-Feng Zhao; Rui-Cong Han; Chun-Cheng Liu

    2013-01-01

    Large cable-stayed bridges utilize hundreds of stay cables. Thus, placing a sensor on every stay cable of bridges for stay cable damage identification (SCDI) is costly and, in most cases, not necessary. Optimal sensor placement is a significant and critical issue for SCDI. This paper proposes the criteria for sensor quantity and location optimization for SCDI on the basis of the concept of damage identification reliability index (DIRI) under uncertainty. Random elimination (RE) algorithm and ...

  20. Railroad Lines, To provide railroads of Louisiana, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2007. It is described as 'To provide railroads of Louisiana'. The extent of these data is...

  1. Railroad Lines, Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Railroads in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by this...

  2. Railroad Lines, This is an ESRI feature class of Railroads within Rock County, Wisconsin., Published in 2001, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset as of 2001. It is described as 'This is an ESRI feature class of Railroads within Rock County, Wisconsin.'. Data by this publisher are...

  3. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  4. How do you like them cables?

    CERN Multimedia

    Sergei Malyukov

    Cabling work is not for clautrophobic people! Cables are like the blood vessels and nervous system of ATLAS. With the help of all these cables, we can power ATLAS, control the detector and read out the data. Like the human blood vessels, they penetrate inside the ATLAS volume, reaching each of its elements. The ATLAS developers started to think about design of services, cables and pipes at the very first stages of the project. The cabling project has been developing most intensively during the last five years, passing through the projection and CAD design phases, then the installation of cable trays and finally the cables. The cable installation itself took two and a half years and was done by teams of technicians from several institutes from Russia, the Czech Republic and Poland. Here are some numbers to illustrate the scale of the ATLAS cabling system. More than 25000 optical fiber channels are used for reading the information from the sub-detectors and delivering the timing signals. The total numbe...

  5. Railroad Lines, Railroad Crossings: Public Roads, Published in 2007, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2007. It is described as...

  6. The Blue Comet: A Railroad's Astronomical Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Between 1929 February 21 and 1941 September 27, the Central New Jersey Railroad operated a luxury passenger train between Jersey City and Atlantic City. Named The Blue Comet, the locomotive, tender, and coaches sported a unique royal blue paint scheme designed to evoke images of celestial bodies speeding through space. Inside each car were etched window panes and lampshades featuring stars and comets. And each coach sported the name of a famous comet on its side; these comets were of course named for their discoverers. Some of the astronomers honored in this unique fashion remain famous to this day, or at least their comets do. The names D'Arrest, Barnard, Encke, Faye, Giacobini, Halley, Olbers, Temple, Tuttle, and Westphal are familiar ones. But Biela, Brorsen, deVico, Spitaler, and Winnecke have now largely faded into obscurity; their stories are recounted here. Although more than sixty years have elapsed since its last run, The Blue Comet, perhaps the most famous passenger train in American history, lives on in the memories of millions of passengers and railfans. This famous train returned to the attention of millions of television viewers on the evening of 2007 June 3, in an episode of the HBO series The Sopranos. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  7. 76 FR 39156 - R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line-Lease and Operation Exemption-R. J. Corman Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... Register on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18,254), and became effective on April 25, 2010. On May 28, 2010, RJC... Surface Transportation Board R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line--Lease and Operation Exemption--R. J. Corman Railroad Property, LLC R. J. Corman Railroad Company/Bardstown Line (RJC...

  8. Compatibility of radioactive materials transportation with railroad operations: two views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has a growing need for safe, economical and efficient transport of nuclear spent fuel and similar radioactive materials. In most cases railroads are the clearly economic mode of transport. Many US rail carriers have shown an increasing reluctance - in some instances an outright refusal - to handle these commodities. This is in spite of very stringent packaging and safety regulations, and a virtually perfect accident record to date. Following several years of fruitless discussions with the railroads on this issue, the nuclear industry filed several complaints with the Interstate Commerce Commission seeking to force the railroads to handle this traffic in normal operations. The history and results of the investigations stemming from these complaints are covered in other papers. The testimony, exhibits and briefs submitted in these cases illustrate the reasons for the railroads' safety concerns and why they believe certain train operating restrictions will produce a safer transport environment. Despite the acknowledged sturdiness of spent fuel casks, the rail industry has not been convinced that the tests and model simulations used by the nuclear industry to design and certify casks adequately portrayed the forces actually generated in a railroad accident. The most significant of the operating changes proposed by the carriers in response to this concern was the requirement that spent fuel be moved only in special trains.According to the railroads, this would permit closer monitoring; reduce both the probability and consequences of accidents; permit better control of speeds; and minimize switching and terminal handling. A review of the material submitted by both the protestants and respondents in these proceedings provides a clearer understanding of the litigants' respective positions, as well as some insights into practical railroading as it pertains to the transportation of nuclear materials

  9. Local Government Uses of Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The local government cable access channel is essentially a television station completely controlled by the local government. It differs from a local broadcast television station by being able to reach only those places which are connected to the cable system, having much less programming distribution costs, and having the capacity to deliver…

  10. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  11. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrode cable. 890.1175 Section 890.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable....

  12. 14 CFR 25.689 - Cable systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 25.689 Section 25.689... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.689 Cable systems. (a... smaller than 1/8 inch in diameter may be used in the aileron, elevator, or rudder systems; and (2)...

  13. Cable Television: Its Urban Context and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthman, Forrest

    Cable television's future in urban settings is discussed in the context of alternative media capable of serving similar markets with similar programing. In addition to cable television, other transmission networks such as the telephone network, radio and television broadcasting, microwave networks, domestic satellites, and recording media are…

  14. GIS for Nevada railroads: 1993 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on a task within a large, ongoing study by the University of Nevada, Reno to examine the safety of Nevada railroads. The overall goal, of which this year's research is a middle stage, is to develop models based on the use of geographic information systems (GIS). These models are to enable the selection of the best and safest railway routes for the transport of high-level nuclear waste across Nevada to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Last year's research concluded that the databases are adequate and that GIS are feasible and desirable for displaying the multi-layered data required to reach decisions about safety. It developed several database layers. This report deals with work during 1993 on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for rail-route selection. The goal was to identify and assemble many of the databases necessary for the models. In particular, the research aimed to identify (a) any problems with developing database layers; and (b) the level of effort required. This year's effort developed database layers for two Nevada counties: Clark and Lincoln. The layers dealt with: topographic information, geologic information, and land ownership. These are among the most important database layers. The database layers were successfully created. No significant problems arose in developing them. The level of effort did not exceed the expected level. The most effective approach is by means of digital, shaded relief maps. (Sample maps appear in plates.) Therefore, future database development will be straightforward. Research may proceed on the full development of shaded relief elevation maps for Elko, White Pine, Nye and Eureka counties and with actual modeling for the selection of a route or routes between the UP/SP line in northern Nevada and Yucca Mountain

  15. Optical cable fault locating using Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer and cable localized heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel optical cable fault location method, which is based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR) and cable localized heating, is proposed and demonstrated. In the method, a BOTDR apparatus is used to measure the optical loss and strain distribution along the fiber in an optical cable, and a heating device is used to heat the cable at its certain local site. Actual experimental results make it clear that the proposed method works effectively without complicated calculation. By means of the new method, we have successfully located the optical cable fault in the 60 km optical fiber composite power cable from Shanghai to Shengshi, Zhejiang. A fault location accuracy of 1 meter was achieved. The fault location uncertainty of the new optical cable fault location method is at least one order of magnitude smaller than that of the traditional OTDR method

  16. Optical cable fault locating using Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer and cable localized heating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y. G.; Zhang, X. P.; Dong, Y. M.; Wang, F.; Liu, Y. H.

    2007-07-01

    A novel optical cable fault location method, which is based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR) and cable localized heating, is proposed and demonstrated. In the method, a BOTDR apparatus is used to measure the optical loss and strain distribution along the fiber in an optical cable, and a heating device is used to heat the cable at its certain local site. Actual experimental results make it clear that the proposed method works effectively without complicated calculation. By means of the new method, we have successfully located the optical cable fault in the 60 km optical fiber composite power cable from Shanghai to Shengshi, Zhejiang. A fault location accuracy of 1 meter was achieved. The fault location uncertainty of the new optical cable fault location method is at least one order of magnitude smaller than that of the traditional OTDR method.

  17. Electrohydrodynamic pumping in cable pipes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, J.M.; Chato, J.C.

    1983-02-01

    Many oil-insulated electric power cables are limited by heat buildup caused in part by the low thermal conductivity of the oil. Circulation of the oil is known to reduce the cable temperature, but can lead to excessive pressure buildup on long cables when using conventional pumping methods. An alternate pumping method using distributed electric fields to avoid this pressure buildup is described. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) pumping was studied both theoretically and experimentally for possible application in underground cable cooling. Theoretical studies included both analytical and finite-element analysis of the flow patterns driven by travelling electric fields. Experimentally, flow rates in a cable-pipe model were measured under a wide variety of operating conditions. Theory and experiment are in agreement for velocities below 10 cm/s, but higher velocities could not be reached in the experiment, due to increased electroconvection and, possibly, turbulence.

  18. Behaviour of electrical cables under fire conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment - called the Fire PSA - is being carried out by the French Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to be used in the framework of the safety assessment of operating 900 MWe PWRs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the core damage conditional probability which could result from a fire. A fire can induce unavailability of safety equipment, notably damaging electrical cables introducing a significant risk contributor. The purpose of this paper is to present the electrical cable fire tests carried out by IPSN to identify the failure modes and to determine the cable damage criteria. The impact of each kind of cable failure mode and the methodology used to estimate the conditional probability of a failure mode when cable damage occurred is also discussed. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic flux leakage-based steel cable NDE and damage visualization on a cable climbing robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee; Lee, Jong Jae

    2012-04-01

    The steel cables in long span bridges such as cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges are critical members which suspend the load of main girders and bridge floor slabs. Damage of cable members can occur in the form of crosssectional loss caused by fatigue, wear, and fracture, which can lead to structural failure due to concentrated stress in the cable. Therefore, nondestructive examination of steel cables is necessary so that the cross-sectional loss can be detected. Thus, an automated cable monitoring system using a suitable NDE technique and a cable climbing robot is proposed. In this study, an MFL (Magnetic Flux Leakage- based inspection system was applied to monitor the condition of cables. This inspection system measures magnetic flux to detect the local faults (LF) of steel cable. To verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection technique, an 8-channel MFL sensor head prototype was designed and fabricated. A steel cable bunch specimen with several types of damage was fabricated and scanned by the MFL sensor head to measure the magnetic flux density of the specimen. To interpret the condition of the steel cable, magnetic flux signals were used to determine the locations of the flaws and the level of damage. Measured signals from the damaged specimen were compared with thresholds set for objective decision making. In addition, the measured magnetic flux signal was visualized into a 3D MFL map for convenient cable monitoring. Finally, the results were compared with information on actual inflicted damages to confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed cable monitoring method.

  20. Design and Evaluation of Ybco Cable for the Albany Hts Cable Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, M.; Yumura, H.; Ashibe, Y.; Ito, H.; Masuda, T.; Sato, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Albany Cable Project's aim is to develop a 350 meter long HTS cable system with a capacity of 800 A at 34.5 kV, located between two substations in the National Grid Power Company's grid. In-grid use of BSCCO HTS cable began on July 20, 2006, and successful long-term operation proceeded as planned. The cable system consists of two cables, one 320 meters long and the other 30 meters, a cable-to-cable splice in a vault, two terminations, and a cooling system. In Phase-II of the Albany project, this autumn, the 30-meter section will be replaced with YBCO cable. The test manufacturing and evaluation of YBCO cable has been carried out using SuperPower's YBCO wires in order to confirm the credibility of the cable design. No degradation of the critical current was found at any stage of manufacture. The fault-current test, involving a 1-meter sample carrying 23 kA at 38 cycles, was conducted under open-bath conditions. The temperature increases at the conductor and shield were comparable to those of the BSCCO core, and no Ic degradation was found after the fault-current test. After the design suitability was confirmed, a 30-meter YBCO cable was manufactured. The critical current of the conductor and the shield were approximately 2.6 kA and 2.4 kA, respectively, almost the same as the design values, considering the wire's Ic and the effect of the magnetic field. The AC loss of the sample cable was 0.34 W/m/phase at 800 Arms and 60 Hz. Following favorable shipping test results, the YBCO cable was shipped to the United States, and arrived at the site in June 2007.

  1. Non-cable vehicle guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugela, G.C.; Willott, A.M.; Chopiuk, R.G.; Thornton, S.E.

    1988-06-01

    The purpose is to determine the most promising driverless mine vehicle guidance systems that are not dependent on buried cables, and to plan their development. The project is presented in two phases: a preliminary study and literature review to determine whether suitable technologies exist to justify further work; and an in-depth assessment and selection of technologies for vehicle guidance. A large number of guidance elements are involved in a completely automated vehicle. The technologies that hold the best potential for development of guidance systems for mine vehicles are ultrasonics, radar, lasers, dead reckoning, and guidance algorithms. The best approach to adaptation of these technologies is on a step by step basis. Guidance modules that are complete in themselves and are designed to be integrated with other modules can provide short term benefits. Two modules are selected for development: the dragline operations monitor and automated machine control for optimized mining (AMCOM). 99 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  2. Handbook for preservation of local railroad service. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, E.P.; Langley, C.J. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Throughout the United States, there is an accelerating abandonment of redundant and/or unprofitable light-density railroad lines. This abandonment can be economically harmful to both the shippers and the communities that were previously served. Although greater dependence upon truck transportation is a viable alternative in many cases, other situations indicate that the greatest priority should be attached to preserving some form of local railroad service. The objective of this research was to develop a handbook to assist shippers, local and state governments, and rail planners when their Class I rail service is scheduled for abandonment. Two major options are detailed in the handbook. The first regards innovative procedures which may be used by local groups in attempting to preserve service by the existing Class I carrier. The second approach considers the alternative of operating the particular line as an independent railroad.

  3. INTERLINE, a railroad routing model: program description and user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INTERLINE is an interactive computer program that finds likely routes for shipments over the US railroad system. It is based on a shortest path algorithm modified both to reflect the nature of railroad company operations and to accommodate computer resource limitations in dealing with a large transportation network. The first section of the report discusses the nature of railroad operations and routing practices in the United States, including the tendency to concentrate traffic on a limited number of mainlines, the competition for traffic by different companies operating in the same corridors, and the tendency of originating carriers to retain traffic on their systems before transferring it to terminating carriers. The theoretical foundation and operation of shortest path algorithms are described, as well as the techniques used to simulate actual operating practices within this framework. The second section is a user's guide that describes the program operation and data structures, program features, and user access. 11 refs., 11 figs

  4. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  5. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  6. Power plant practices to ensure cable operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the design, installation, qualification, maintenance, and testing of nuclear power plant cables with regard to continued operability. The report was initiated after questions arose concerning inadvertent abuse of cables during installation at two nuclear power plants. The extent of the damage was not clear and there was a concern as to whether cables, if damaged, would be able to function under accident conditions. This report reviews and discusses installation practices in the industry. The report also discusses currently available troubleshooting and in-situ testing techniques and provides cautions for some cases which may lead to further cable damage. Improved troubleshooting techniques currently under development are also discussed. These techniques may reduce the difficulty of testing while being able to identify cable flaws more definitively. The report finds, in general, that nuclear power plant cables have been relatively trouble-free; however, there is a need for further research and development of troubleshooting techniques which will make cable condition testing easier and more reliable. Also, recommendations for ''good'' installation practices are needed

  7. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  8. Does a critical speed for railroad vehicles exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    The author discusses the definition and existence of a critical speed for the onset of hunting of railroad vehicles. First the field test situation is described. It is argued that the important problem is the determination of the forces and accelerations in the vehicle and the rails, which may be...... large even when the vehicle does not hunt. Next the author discusses the relevance of the critical speed in railway engineering. It is desirable to know the speed below which a vehicle will not hunt, since hunting is always connected with large wheel-rail forces. Next the modelling of railroad vehicles...

  9. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  10. 76 FR 21426 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Partial Revocation of Exemption... protective conditions set forth in Oregon Short Line Railroad--Abandonment Portion Goshen Branch...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2424 - Submarine & deep sea cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submarine & deep sea cable. 32.2424 Section 32... Submarine & deep sea cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of submarine cable and deep sea... defined below, are to be maintained for nonmetallic submarine and deep sea cable and metallic...

  12. Basic cable routing guidelines for a fast reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the guidelines evolved for cable routing in 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) are presented. Safety related redundant system cables in a nuclear plant shall not become unavailable due to cable fire. This is ensured by proper cable routing in the plant in addition to the other general fire protection measures

  13. Cable Television 1980: Status and Prospect for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, F., Ed.

    Baseline information for the would-be cable television educational programer is provided by two papers, one an overview of the state of the cable television industry, and the other a report on a marketing study conducted to determine consumer attitudes toward cable TV as an educational medium. In "The Promise and Reality of Cable Television,"…

  14. A unique cabling machine designed to produce rutherford-type superconducting cable for the SSC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to 25,000 Km of keystoned flat cable must be produced for the SSC project. Starting from a specification developed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), a special cabling machine has been designed by Dour Metal. It has been designed to be able to run at a speed corresponding to a maximum production rate of 10 m/min. This cabling machine is the key part of the production line which consists of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The main features of the cabling unit to be described are a design with nearly equal path length between spool and assembling point for all the wires, and the possibility to run the machine with several over- or under-twisting ratios between cable and wires. These requirements led Dour Metal to the choice of an unconventional mechanical concept for a cabling machine

  15. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  16. Parametrically excited oscillation of stay cable and its control in cable-stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炳楠; 汪至刚; 高赞明; 倪一清

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model for simulation and analysis of a kind of parametrically excited vibration of stay cable caused by support motion in cable-stayed bridges. The sag, inclination angle of the stay cable are considered in the model, based on which, the oscillation mechanism and dynamic response characteristics of this kind of vibration are analyzed through numerical calculation. It is noted that parametrically excited oscillation of a stay cable with certain sag, inclination angle and initial static tension force may occur in cable-stayed bridges due to deck vibration under the condition that the natural frequency of a cable approaches to about half of the first model frequency of the bridge deck system. A new vibration control system installed on the cable anchorage is proposed as a possible damping system to suppress the cable parametric oscillation. The numerical calculation results showed that with the use of this damping system, the cable oscillation due to the vibration of the deck and/or towers will be considerably reduced.

  17. Condition Monitoring of Cables Task 3 Report: Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaran, M.; Lofaro, R.; na

    2009-11-30

    For more than 20 years the NRC has sponsored research studying electric cable aging degradation, condition monitoring, and environmental qualification testing practices for electric cables used in nuclear power plants. This report summarizes several of the most effective and commonly used condition monitoring techniques available to detect damage and measure the extent of degradation in electric cable insulation. The technical basis for each technique is summarized, along with its application, trendability of test data, ease of performing the technique, advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of the test results to characterize and assess the condition of electric cables.

  18. Switching Restrikes in HVAC Cable Lines and Hybrid HVAC Cable/OHL Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Bak, Claus Leth; Balle Holst, Per

    2011-01-01

    The disconnection of HV underground cables may, if unsuccessful, originate a restrike in the circuit breaker, leading to high overvoltages, and potentially damaging the cable and near equipment. Due to the cable high capacitance and low resistance the voltage damping is slow, resulting, half a...... cycle after the disconnection, in a voltage of approximately 2 pu at the circuit breaker terminals. In case of restrike in that instant, it is theoretical possible to attain an overvoltage of 3 pu. The overvoltage can be even larger in hybrid cable-Overhead Lines (OHL), due to voltage magnifications in...

  19. 20 CFR 216.42 - How a private railroad pension affects a supplemental annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How a private railroad pension affects a... pension affects a supplemental annuity. (a) What is a private railroad pension. The Board determines whether a pension established by a railroad employer is a private pension that will cause a reduction...

  20. 77 FR 50323 - Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... of contractor employees at Sec. Sec. 243.1(b), 243.101(e)-(f), and 243.209. 77 FR 6453. These... Railroad Workplace Safety; Roadway Worker Protection Miscellaneous Revisions (RRR); Proposed Rule #0;#0... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 214 RIN 2130-AB89 Railroad Workplace Safety;...

  1. 77 FR 14058 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over a portion of a line of railroad known as...

  2. 78 FR 65040 - BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company, CBEC Railway Inc., Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd., and Union Pacific Railroad Company--Joint Relocation Project Exemption--In Council Bluffs, Iowa On September 30, 2013, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), CBEC Railway Inc. (CBEC), Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd....

  3. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  4. 49 CFR 213.347 - Automotive or railroad crossings at grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. 213.347 Section 213.347 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Higher § 213.347 Automotive or railroad crossings at grade. (a) There shall be no at-grade...

  5. 77 FR 25229 - Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company--Discontinuance of Trackage Rights Exemption--in Dallas County, TX Dallas, Garland & Northeastern Railroad Company (DGNO) has filed a... from Union Pacific Railroad Company exclusive trackage rights over the Line. See Dallas,...

  6. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Continuance in Control Exemption--Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... notice of exemption under 49 CFR 180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC... filed verified notice of exemption in Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--...

  7. 49 CFR 220.21 - Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Communication Procedures § 220.21 Railroad operating rules; radio communications; recordkeeping. (a) The operating rules of each railroad with respect to radio communications shall conform to the requirements of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad operating rules; radio...

  8. Chinese Market for Fibres and Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxing Zhao

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a summary of Chinese market of optical fibres and cables based on the development of the optical communications industry. Analysis shows that the market will keep growing for sometime in the future.

  9. 3-D Numerical Simulations of Twisted Stacked Tape Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Philipp A. C.; Zermeño, Victor M. R.; Takayasu, Makoto; Grilli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Different magnet applications require compact high current cables. Among the proposed solutions, the Twisted Stacked Tape Cable (TSTC) is easy to manufacture and has very high tape length usage efficiency. In this kind of cables the tapes are closely packed, so that their electromagnetic interaction is very strong and determines the overall performance of the cable. Numerical models are necessary tools to precisely evaluate this interaction and to predict the cable's behavior, e.g. in terms o...

  10. Experimental Simulation of Wet-Snow Shedding from Sagged Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Fonyó, András; Kollar, László E.; Farzaneh, Masoud; Montpellier, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The process of wet-snow shedding from overhead cables was simulated in cold-chamber experiments under different ambient conditions. The main objective of the study was to examine how cable sag influences the snow-shedding process. However, the effects of several other parameters were also considered, such as air temperature, solar radiation, snow-sleeve length, and periodic excitation of the cable. Periodic excitation was applied at the suspension point of the cable, leading to cable vibratio...

  11. High frequency characteristics of medium voltage XLPE power cables

    OpenAIRE

    Mugala, Gavita

    2005-01-01

    The response of a cable can be used to analyze the variation of the material characteristics along its length. For diagnosis of possible ageing, it is necessary to know how cable design, material properties and cable insulation ageing affects the wave propagation. A cable model has therefore been worked out based upon the high frequency properties of the cable insulation and conductor systems. The high frequency characteristics of the semi-conducting screens, new and water-tree aged cross-lin...

  12. Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottomof the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron ‘carpet’, trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottomof the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron ‘carpet’, trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  13. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  14. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.......Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide....

  15. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric;

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... productivity of railway operations and aiming to improve both may be a feasible strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. 77 FR 22381 - Odorant Fade in Railroad Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... in the basement of a building under construction resulted in an explosion and fire. This incident... the LPG leak prior to the explosion. While the LPG involved in the Norfolk accident did not originate.... Facilities that load, offer, receive, or offload railroad tank cars containing LPG review their procedures...

  17. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer for Cable Structures—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP is an advanced composite material with the advantages of high strength, lightweight, no corrosion and excellent fatigue resistance. Therefore, unidirectional CFRP has great potential for cables and to replace steel cables in cable structures. However, CFRP is a typical orthotropic material and its strength and modulus perpendicular to the fiber direction are much lower than those in the fiber direction, which brings a challenge for anchoring CFRP cables. This paper presents an overview of application of CFRP cables in cable structures, including historical review, state of the art and prospects for the future. After introducing properties of carbon fibers, mechanical characteristics and structural forms of CFRP cables, existing CFRP cable structures in the world (all of them are cable bridges are reviewed. Especially, their CFRP cable anchorages are presented in detail. New applications for CFRP cables, i.e., cable roofs and cable facades, are also presented, including the introduction of a prototype CFRP cable roof and the conceptual design of a novel structure—CFRP Continuous Band Winding System. In addition, other challenges that impede widespread application of CFRP cable structures are briefly introduced.

  18. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  19. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  20. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease...

  1. Application study on the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuihua Mei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to push forward the development of CFRP cable-stayed bridge and accumulate experiences, the study on the application of the first cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables in China was carried out. The design essentials of main components of the bridge were introduced and its integral performances, including static properties, dynamic properties and seismic response were analyzed using finite element method. A new bond-type anchorage was developed and the processes of fabricating and installing CFRP cables were elaborated. Based on the results of construction simulation, a tension scheme for bridge was propound. During constructing, the stresses and displacement of girder and pylon, as well as the forces and stresses of cables, were tested. The results indicate that all sections of the bridge could meet the requirements of the ultimate bearing capacity and normal service; the performance of the anchorage is good and the stresses in each cable system are similar; the tested values accord well with the calculated values. Further, creep deformation of the resin in anchorages under service load is not obvious. All these results demonstrate that the first application of CFRP cables in the cable-stayed bridge in China is successful.

  2. Generalized cable theory for neurons in complex and heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Cable theory has been developed over the last decade, usually assuming that the extracellular space around membranes is a perfect resistor. However, extracellular media may display more complex electrical properties due to various phenomena, such as polarization, ionic diffusion, or capacitive effects, but their impact on cable properties is not known. In this paper, we generalize cable theory for membranes embedded in arbitrarily complex extracellular media. We outline the generalized cable equations, then consider specific cases. The simplest case is a resistive medium, in which case the equations recover the traditional cable equations. We show that for more complex media, for example, in the presence of ionic diffusion, the impact on cable properties such as voltage attenuation can be significant. We illustrate this numerically, always by comparing the generalized cable to the traditional cable. We conclude that the nature of intracellular and extracellular media may have a strong influence on cable filtering as well as on the passive integrative properties of neurons.

  3. Cable condition monitoring in a pressurized water reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oconee Nuclear Station is the first nuclear plant designed, engineered and constructed by Duke Power Company. Even though the accelerated aging method was available to determine the life expectancy of the cable used in the reactor building, no natural aging data was available at that time. In order to be able to verify the condition of the reactor building cable over the life of the plant, an on-going cable monitoring plan was instituted. Various types of cable were selected to be monitored, and they were installed in cable life evaluation circuits in the reactor building. At five year intervals over the life of the plant, cable samples would be removed from these cable life evaluation circuits and tested to determine the effects of the reactor building environment on the integrity of the cable. A review of the cable life evaluation circuits and the results of the evaluation program to date is presented

  4. Ship nuclear power device of cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable for marine nuclear power plant continuous delivery of electrical energy. Cable is mostly in the high temperature and strong radiation and harsh working environment, and can not be replaced in the lifetime This should be the cable aging management methods through research, maintenance and repair program to provide a scientific basis. Cable aging management approach for a number of different levels of cable management at different levels, relying on computers and other modern tools, the use of information management database software maintenance of the cable through the science of aging control. Cable Aging Management including the scope of cable aging management, classification management basis and used for different levels of management supervision and implementation of means testing approach. Application of the ship that has the operational management science, both planned maintenance to improve the science, but also improves the efficiency of aging management. This management method can be extended to nuclear power plants of cable aging management. (authors)

  5. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO2, CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  6. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, Rick [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hampton, Nigel [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Perkel, Josh [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Hernandez, JC [Univ. de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Elledge, Stacy [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); del Valle, Yamille [Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC), Atlanta, GA (United States). National Electric Energy Testing, Research and Applications Center (NEETRAC); Grimaldo, Jose [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Deku, Kodzo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  7. Cable support for electric poles. Support de cables pour poteau electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrieres, P.

    1989-11-21

    The cable support according to this invention comprises a central body of insulating material upon which are mounted individual cable supports and means for connecting the central body to a pole. In this manner, a support designed to support a plurality of cables is realized in a single operation. On the other hand, the placing of the cable support is carried out by a single operation of connecting the central body to the pole, allowing provision for mounting a cable support after erecting the pole, or in additions, a quick repair by transferring the central body from the broken end fo a pole to a new pole or to the trunk of the pole for a temporary restoration of electrical service.

  8. Development of university-industry partnerships in railroad engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautala, Pasi T.

    Rail transportation has been an important part of the North American transportation network since the 19th century and it continues to be a major contributor to the economic well-being and the global competitiveness of the U.S. The recent expansion in freight rail volumes and forecasts for continuous growth, together with more favorable attitudes for urban passenger rail present several challenges for the rail industry. One of the challenges is the availability of a well educated engineering workforce. The rail industry has recognized a need to attract new railroad professionals from various disciplines for management and technical positions, but most universities eliminated railroad engineering from their curricula after the recruitment levels faded several decades ago. Today, railroad expertise and related engineering courses exist at only a few universities and most students graduate without any exposure to rail topics. While industry representatives have expressed their concern about a future workforce, little data is available on the extent of the demand, on the characteristics and skills of preferred candidates, and on the role that universities can play. A benchmarking study was undertaken to investigate the demand for university engineering graduates and assess whether current methods are sufficient to attract, educate, recruit, train and retain engineering students in the railroad profession. Data was collected from industry human resources and training managers to define the quantitative and qualitative needs for railroad engineers. In addition, recently hired engineers working in the rail industry were surveyed to determine the extent of their university exposure in rail topics and how it affected their career choice. The surveys indicated an increase of over 300 percent in the annual recruitment for railroad engineers by the participating companies between 2002 and 2005. Recruitment levels are expected to remain high for the next five to ten years due

  9. 76 FR 27173 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rocky Mount & Western Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a... Rocky Mount & Western Railroad Co., Inc. d/b/a Nash County Railroad (NCR), and to operate,...

  10. Evaluation of cable ageing in Nuclear Power Plants; Evaluacion del envejecimiento de cables en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Vergara, T. [Empresarios Agrupados, A. I. E. Madrid (Spain); Alonso Chicote, J. [TECNATOM, S. A. (Spain); Burnay, S. [AEA Technology (UK)

    2000-07-01

    The majority of power, control and instrumentation cables in nuclear power plants use polymers as their basic material for insulation and jacket. In many cases, these cables form part of safety-related circuits and should therefore be capable of operating correctly under both normal and accident conditions. Since polymeric materials are degraded by the long term action of the radiation and thermal environments found in the plant, it is important to be able to establish the cable condition during the plant lifetime. Nowadays there are a number of different methods to evaluate the remaining lifetime of cables. In the case of new plants, or new cables in old plants, accelerated ageing tests and predictive models can be used to establish the behaviour of the cable materials under operating conditions. There are verified techniques and considerable experience in the definition of predictive models. This type of approach is best carried out during the commissioning stage or in the early stages of operation. In older plants, particularly where there is a wide range of cable types in use, it is more appropriate to use condition monitoring methods to establish the state of degradation of cables in-plant. Over the last 10 years there have been considerable developments in methods for condition monitoring of cables and a tool-box of practical techniques are now available. There is no single technique which is suitable for all cable materials but the range of methods covers nearly all of the types currently in use, at present, the most established methods are the indented, thermal analysis (OIT, OITP and TGA) and dielectric loss measurements, All of these are either non-destructive methods or require only micro-samples of material. (Author) 15 refs.

  11. High voltage pulsed cable design: a practical example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of optimum high voltage pulse cable is difficult because very little emperical data are available on performance in pulsed applications. This paper follows the design and testing of one high voltage pulse cable, 40/100 trigger cable. The design was based on an unproven theory and the impressive outcome lends support to the theory. The theory is outlined and it is shown that there exists an inductance which gives a cable of minimum size for a given maximum stress. Test results on cable manufactured according to the design are presented and compared with the test results on the cable that 40/100 replaces

  12. CSNS control cable information management system based on web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an approach to data modeling a great number of control devices and cables with complicated relations of CSNS (China Spallation Neutron Source). The CSNS accelerator control cable database was created using MySQL, and the control cable information management system based on Web was further built. During the development of the database, the design idea of IRMIS database was studied. and the actual situation of CSNS accelerator control cables was investigated. The control cable database model fitting the requirements was designed. This system is of great convenience to manage and maintain CSNS control devices and cables in the future. (authors)

  13. Low Friction Cryostat for HTS Power Cable of Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan;

    2012-01-01

    affecting public acceptance of the project. In order to solve this problem, a model cryostat was developed consisting of alternating rigid and flexible sections and hydraulic tests were conducted using sub-cooled liquid nitrogen. In the 47 m-long cryostat, containing a full-size HTS cable model, measured......Particulars of 6km long HTS AC power cable for Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160mm, with only two cooling stations at the cable ends [1]. Application of existing solutions for HTS cables would result in excessively high coolant pressure drop in the cable, possibly...

  14. Cable condition monitoring research activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories is currently conducting long-term aging research on representative samples of nuclear power plant cables. The objectives of this program are to determine the suitability of these cables for extended life (beyond 40 year design basis) and to assess various cable condition monitoring techniques for predicting remaining cable life. The cables are being aged for long times at relatively mild exposure conditions with various condition monitoring techniques to be employed during the aging process. Following the aging process, the cables will be exposed to a sequential accident profile consisting of high dose rate irradiation followed by a simulated design basis loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) steam exposure

  15. Energy losses of superconducting power transmission cables in the grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Okholm, Jan; Lomholt, Karin;

    2001-01-01

    One of the obvious motives for development of superconducting power transmission cables is reduction of transmission losses. Loss components in superconducting cables as well as in conventional cables have been examined. These losses are used for calculating the total energy losses of conventional...... as well as superconducting cables when they are placed in the electric power transmission network. It is concluded that high load connections are necessary to obtain energy saving by the use of HTSC cables. For selected high load connections, an energy saving of 40% is expected. It is shown that the...... thermal insulation and cooling machine efficiency are the most important loss element in a superconducting cable system...

  16. NEPO cable system aging management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cable polymer aging and condition monitoring is being studied in detail under the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO) that is co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI. Significant advances in modeling of polymer aging and condition monitoring have occurred and continue to be developed. The activities include: Analysis of the linearity of the Arrhenius model to room temperature; Development of a wear-out technique for determining remaining life of cable polymers; Determination of the aging fragility point for composite EPR/CSPE insulation with respect to LOCA function; Development of visual/tactile training aids for cable assessment; Development of a totally new nuclear magnetic resonance condition monitoring technique; Assessment of existing techniques with regard to repeatability, accuracy and ease of use. Through use of highly precise oxygen consumption experiments, the linearity of the Arrhenius model is being evaluated. In these experiments, polymer is placed in vials with a known amount of oxygen and aged at much lower temperatures than is possible with standard accelerated aging techniques. aging results are possible at room temperature. The technique is being applied to commonly used insulation and jacket polymers. The wear-out technique allows highly non-linear aging behavior to be made linear. The wearout point of a polymer is determined through high-rate aging and use of a condition monitoring technique to establish the end point. Then, micro-samples of cable that have been naturally aged are subjected to high rate aging to the same end point. The ratio of the remaining high rate aging period to the total high rate aging time provides a linear indication of the remaining service time. Initial screening of nuclear plant cable systems can use visual/tactile techniques to identify cable that has aged significantly. Training aids have been developed by developing sets of specimens with accelerated aging ranging from none

  17. HTS twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of high field magnet applications of the twisted stacked-tape cabling method with 2G YBCO tapes has been investigated. An analysis of torsional twist strains of a thin HTS tape has been carried out taking into account the internal shortening compressive strains accompanied with the lengthening tensile strains due to the torsional twist. The model is benchmarked against experimental tests using YBCO tapes. The critical current degradation and current distribution of a four-tape conductor was evaluated by taking account of the twist strain, the self-field and the termination resistances. The critical current degradation for the tested YBCO cables can be explained by the perpendicular self-field effect. It is shown that the critical current of a twisted stacked-tape conductor with a four-tape cable does not degrade with a twist pitch length as short as 120 mm. Current distribution among tapes and hysteresis losses are also investigated. A compact joint termination method for a 2G YBCO tape cable has been developed. The twisted stacked-tape conductor method may be an attractive means for the fabrication of highly compact, high current cables from multiple flat HTS tapes.

  18. Computer-Aided Engineering Of Cabling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Program generates data sheets, drawings, and other information on electrical connections. DFACS program, centered around single data base, has built-in menus providing easy input of, and access to, data for all personnel involved in system, subsystem, and cabling. Enables parallel design of circuit-data sheets and drawings of harnesses. Also recombines raw information to generate automatically various project documents and drawings, including index of circuit-data sheets, list of electrical-interface circuits, lists of assemblies and equipment, cabling trees, and drawings of cabling electrical interfaces and harnesses. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in, and gaining access to, functional definition of system as specified in terms of details of pin connections of end circuits of subsystems and instruments and data on harnessing. Primary objective to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding

  19. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  20. Insulation systems for superconducting transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole

    This paper describes shortly the status of superconducting transmission lines and assesses what impact the recently discovered BSCCO superconductors may have on the design of the cables.Two basically different insulation systems are discussed:1) The room temperature dielectric design, where the...... electrical insulation is placed outside both the superconducting tube and the cryostat. The superconducting tube is cooled by liquid nitrogen which is pumped through the hollow part of the tube.2) The cryogenic dielectric design, where the electrical insulation is placed inside the cryostat and thus is kept...... at temperature near 77 K.The optimal design is determined by a loss evaluation in relation to the power transfer capacity of the cable. Development work in progress on the design and construction of superconducting cables in Denmark is described as an example....

  1. Aging assessment of nuclear generating station cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of diagnostic techniques requiring small samples (e.g. shavings) for monitoring the condition of nuclear generating station cables have been identified. The cables studied were insulated with cross-linked or unmodified polyethylene, ethylene propylene rubber, butyl rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, and polyvinyl chloride. Specimens were aged at elevated temperatures, or gamma irradiated up to 120 Mrad. The degradation was assessed by conventional elongation measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), oxidation induction time, DSC oxidation induction temperature (under high oxygen pressure), infrared carbonyl absorption, density, and swelling measurements. The sensitivities of the diagnostic techniques in measuring oxidation and embrittlement were compared with the elongation results, and a criterion for monitoring the cable degradation was developed. Some results presented illustrate the use of the diagnostic techniques in monitoring degradation. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  2. Electrothermal Coordination in Cable Based Transmission Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2013-01-01

    Electrothermal coordination (ETC) is introduced for cable based transmission grids. ETC is the term covering operation and planning of transmission systems based on temperature, instead of current. ETC consists of one part covering the load conditions of the system and one covering the thermal...... behavior of the components. The dynamic temperature calculations of power cables are suggested to be based on thermoelectric equivalents (TEEs). It is shown that the thermal behavior can be built into widely used load flow software, creating a strong ETC tool. ETC is, through two case scenarios, proven to...... be beneficial for both operator and system planner. It is shown how the thermal behavior can be monitored in real-time during normal dynamic load and during emergencies. In that way, ETC enables cables to be loaded above their normal rating, while maintaining high reliability of the system, which...

  3. Electromechanical Suspension-based Energy Harvesting Systems for Railroad Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nagode, Clement Michel Jean

    2013-01-01

    Currently, in the railroad industry, the lack of electrical sources in freight cars is a problem that has yet to find practical solutions. Although the locomotive generates electricity to power the traction motors and all the equipment required to operate the train, the electrical power cannot, in a practical manner, be carried out along the length of the train, leaving freight cars unpowered. While this has not been a major issue in the past, there is a strong interest in equipping modern ca...

  4. Railroading technique of dermal grafting for linear atrophic scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Nirmal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal grafting is a valuable technique in the field of dermatosurgery for the treatment of atrophic scars where the source of filler material is the patient′s own dermis. However, it is underused for the reasons being difficulties in placing the graft in the tunnel, keratin cysts and complications due to biofilms. Railroading technique used in urology for rupture urethra has been described for dermal grafts to overcome the technical difficulties of graft placement.

  5. Modelling of structural flexiblity in multibody railroad vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, José L.; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a review of recent research investigations on the computer modelling of flexible bodies in railroad vehicle systems. The paper will also discuss the influence of the structural flexibility of various components, including the wheelset, the truck frames, tracks, pantograph/catenary systems, and car bodies, on the dynamics of railroad vehicles. While several formulations and computer techniques for modelling structural flexibility are discussed in this paper, a special attention is paid to the floating frame of reference formulation which is widely used and leads to reduced-order finite-element models for flexible bodies by employing component modes synthesis techniques. Other formulations and numerical methods such as semi-analytical approaches, absolute nodal coordinate formulation, finite-segment method, boundary elements method, and discrete elements method are also discussed. This investigation is motivated by the fact that the structural flexibility can have a significant effect on the overall dynamics of railroad vehicles, ride comfort, vibration suppression and noise level reduction, lateral stability, track response to vehicle forces, stress analysis, wheel-rail contact forces, wear and crashworthiness.

  6. Diesel exhaust exposure in the Canadian railroad work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Finkelstein, Murray M; Kurtz, Lawrence; Smolynec, Kathy; Eyre, Susan

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust, in terms of elemental carbon, was conducted as part of a feasibility study in the Canadian railroad industry. Both personal and area samples were collected from three major operating divisions of the railways: mechanical service, transportation, and engineering. A total of 255 elemental carbon samples have been described. The results show that all but six elemental carbon concentrations, expressed as size-selective respirable air samples taken using a 10 mm nylon cyclone, are well below the 2001 proposed American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) of 20 microg/m3. The concentration of diesel exhaust, expressed as elemental carbon, in the railroad industry is much lower than that in some other major industries such as mining and forklift truck operations. If the TLV is to be applicable to a broad range of workplace settings such as railroad, construction, and mining, the use of a TLV that is based on an elemental carbon measurement of size selective respirable samples, as recommended in the 2001 ACGIH proposal, would appear to be the most valid strategy for control of exposure to diesel exhaust. PMID:12650546

  7. Improving an energy harvesting device for railroad safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A.; Phillips, Kyle J.; Fateh, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    Due to hundreds of fatalities annually at unprotected railroad crossings (mostly because of collisions with passenger vehicles and derailments resulting from improperly maintained tracks and mechanical failures), supplying a reliable source of electrical energy to power crossing lights and distributed sensor networks is essential to improve safety. With regard to the high cost of electrical infrastructure for railroad crossings in remote areas and the lack of reliability and robustness of solar and wind energy solutions, development of alternative energy harvesting devices is of interest. In this paper, improvements to a mechanical energy harvesting device are presented. The device scavenges electrical energy from deflection of railroad track due to passing railcar traffic. It is mounted to and spans two rail ties and converts and magnifies the track's entire upward and downward displacement into rotational motion of a PMDC generator. The major improvements to the new prototype include: harvesting power from upward displacement in addition to downward, changing the gearing and generator in order to maximize power production capacity for the same shaft speed, and improving the way the system is stabilized for minimizing lost motion. The improved prototype was built, and simulations and tests were conducted to quantify the effects of the improvements.

  8. Calorimetric measurements of losses in HTS cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Veje, Niels Erling Winsløv; Rasmussen, Carsten;

    2001-01-01

    A calorimetric test rig is used to investigate various loss components in a 10 m long superconducting cable model. A calorimetric technique, based on thermocouple measurements, is used to measure the losses of the 10 m long superconducting cable model. The current dependent losses are also measured...... electrically and compared with the losses obtained with the calorimetric method. The results obtained by the two methods are consistent. Based on an I2 (current) fitting procedure, the loss, caused by the eddy current generated in the stainless steel cryostat housing, and the hysteresis loss generated in the...

  9. Configuration Synthesis for Fully Restrained 7-Cable-Driven Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cable distribution plays a vital role in Cable Driven Parallel Manipulators (CDPMs regarding tension and workspace quality, especially in fully restrained CDPMs. This paper focuses on three typical configurations of fully restrained CDPMs with 7 cables in order to introduce an approach for configuration synthesis. Firstly, the kinematic models of three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are set up. Then, in order to evaluate workspace quality, two new indices are proposed by using tensions along each cable, which are the All Cable Tension Distribution Index (ACTDI and Global Tension Distribution Index (GTDI. Next, the three types of CDPMs with 7 cables are analysed with the two indices. At the end, according to different performance requirements, the configurations of cable distribution are discussed and selected.

  10. Superscreened co-axial cables for the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the requirements of superscreened cables. Part 1 covers general requirements and test methods. Part 2 covers data sheets setting out the electrical and mechanical requirements for each type of cable, together with engineering information. (U.K.)

  11. Fault Management of a Cold Dielectric HTS Power Transmission Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) power transmission cables offer significant advantages in power density over conventional copper-based cables. As with conventional cables, HTS cables must be safe and reliable when abnormal conditions, such as local and through faults, occur in the power grid. Due to the unique characteristics of HTS power cables, the fault management of an HTS cable is different from that of a conventional cable. Issues, such as nitrogen bubble formation within lapped dielectric material, need to be addressed. This paper reviews the efforts that have been performed to study the fault conditions of a cold dielectric HTS power cable. As a result of the efforts, a fault management scheme has been developed, which provides both local and through faults system protection. Details of the fault management scheme with examples are presented

  12. Dynamic Analysis of Towed and Variable Length Cable Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-xin; WANG Yan-hui; LI Xiao-ping

    2007-01-01

    Towed cable systems are frequently used in marine measurements where the length of the towed cable varies during launch and recovery. In this paper a novel method for modeling variable length cable systems is introduced based on the finite segment formulation. The variable length of the towed cable is described by changing the length of the segment near the towing point and by increasing or decreasing the number of the discrete segments of the cable. In this way, the elastic effects of the cable can be easily handled since geometry and material properties of each segment are kept constant. Experimental results show that the dynamic behavior of the towed cable is consistent between the model and the physical cable. Results show that the model provides numerical efficiency and simulation accuracy for the variable length towed system.

  13. Basic Requirements for Cables of Systems Important to NPP Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the need for equipment upgrades at Ukrainian nuclear power plants, the replacement of cables, as an integral part of any system, becomes important. There is no document in Ukraine that combines requirements for cables of systems important to nuclear safety. The paper systematizes the technical requirements of national regulatory documents on nuclear and radiation safety in relation to cable products. The most important requirements for selecting cables are fire safety, resistance to high temperatures, humidity and pressure, resistance to ionizing radiation, seismic resistance and electromagnetic compatibility. The use of cables in the NPP containment and safety systems imposes on them the most stringent requirements as regards nuclear and radiation safety in plant operation. The paper identifies features and operating conditions for cable lines as part of NPP safety systems and shows the general classification of cable products. Development of a regulatory document to combine requirements for cables of safety systems will facilitate their selection during upgrading.

  14. Analysis of Electrical Coupling Parameters in Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Rosso, C

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of current distribution and redistribution in superconducting cables requires the knowledge of the electric coupling among strands, and in particular the interstrand resistance and inductance values. In practice both parameters can have wide variations in cables commonly used such as Rutherford cables for accelerators or Cable-in-Conduits for fusion and SMES magnets. In this paper we describe a model of a multi-stage twisted cable with arbitrary geometry that can be used to study the range of interstrand resistances and inductances that is associated with variations of geometry. These variations can be due to cabling or compaction effects. To describe the variations from the nominal geometry we have adopted a cable model that resembles to the physical process of cabling and compaction. The inductance calculation part of the model is validated by comparison to semi-analytical results, showing excellent accuracy and execution speed.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic response of stay cables under axial harmonic excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu XIE; He ZHAN; Zhi-cheng ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new numerical simulation method for analyzing the parametric vibration of stay cables based on the theory of nonlinear dynamic response of structures under the asynchronous support excitation.The effects of important parameters related to parametric vibration of cables,I.e., characteristics of structure,excitation frequency,excitation amplitude,damping effect of the air and the viscous damping coefficient of the cables,were investigated by using the proposed method for the cables with significant length difference as examples.The analysis results show that nonlinear finite element method is a powerful technique in analyzing the parametric vibration of cables,the behavior of parametric vibration of the two cables with different Irvine parameters has similar properties,the amplitudes of parametric vibration of cables are related to the frequency and amplitude of harmonic support excitations and the effect of distributed viscous damping on parametric vibration of the cables is very small.

  16. Broadcast Service Areas, Cable, cable, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Comcast.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Broadcast Service Areas, Cable dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale as of Not Provided. It is described as 'cable'. Data by this publisher are often...

  17. Environmental Impact of a Submarine Cable: Case Study of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/ Pioneer Seamount Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, I.; Paull, C. K.; Kuhnz, L.; von Thun, S.; Burton, E.; Greene, H. G.; Barry, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    To better understand the potential impacts of the presence of cables on the seabed, a topic of interest for which little data is published or publicly available, a study of the environmental impacts of the ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable was conducted. The 95 km long, submarine, coaxial cable extends between Pioneer Seamount and the Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California. Approximately two thirds of the cable lies within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The cable is permitted to NOAA- Oceanic and Atmospheric Research for transmitting data from a hydrophone array on Pioneer Seamount to shore. The cable was installed unburied on the seafloor in 1995. The cable path crosses the continental shelf, descends to a maximum depth of 1,933 m, and climbs back upslope to 998 m depth near the crest of Pioneer Seamount. A total of 42 hours of video and 152 push cores were collected in 10 stations along cable and control transects using the ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. The condition of the cable, its effect on the seafloor, and distribution of benthic megafauna and infauna were determined. Video data indicated the nature of interaction between the cable and the seafloor. Rocky nearshore areas, where wave energies are greatest, showed the clearest evidence of impact. Here, evidence of abrasion included frayed and unraveling portions of the cable's armor and vertical grooves in the rock apparently cut by the cable. The greatest incision and armor damage occurred on ledges between spans in irregular rock outcrop areas. Unlike the nearshore rocky region, neither the rocks nor the cable appeared damaged along outcrops on Pioneer Seamount. Multiple loops of slack cable added during a 1997 cable repair operation were found lying flat on the seafloor. Several sharp kinks in the cable were seen at 240 m water depths in an area subjected to intense trawling activity. Most of the cable has become buried with time in sediment

  18. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in...

  19. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  20. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  1. 47 CFR 76.111 - Cable sports blackout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable sports blackout. 76.111 Section 76.111... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.111 Cable sports blackout. (a) No community unit located in whole or in part within the...

  2. Working Paper for the Revision of San Francisco's Cable Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Public Library, CA. Video Task Force.

    Ideas are presented for the revision of San Francisco's cable franchise. The recommendations in the report are based upon national research of library and urban use of cable communications and are designed to help the city's present and future cable franchises to comply with the regulations of the Federal Communications Commission by March 31,…

  3. Estimation of Medium Voltage Cable Parameters for PD Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villefrance, Rasmus; Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens

    measured signal at the cable terminations to a specific PD-amplitude and location on the cable, the attenuation and the transmission speed of PD-pulses on the cable have to be known. Consequently, the main parameter to be determined is the complex propagation constant which consists of the attenuation and...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2426 - Intrabuilding network cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intrabuilding network cable. 32.2426 Section 32... Intrabuilding network cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of cables and wires located on the company's side of the demarcation point or standard network interface inside subscribers' buildings...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6426 - Intrabuilding network cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intrabuilding network cable expense. 32.6426... Intrabuilding network cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with intrabuilding network cable. (b) Subsidiary record categories shall be maintained as provided in § 32.2426(a) of...

  6. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - Other; BBRI_cableOther12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - Other" technology. Broadband availability is...

  7. Broadband Wireline Provider Service: Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0; BBRI_cableDOCSIS12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of wireline broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via "Cable Modem - DOCSIS 3.0" technology. Broadband availability is...

  8. Overhead lines: materials. Guard conductors and cables; Lignes aeriennes: materiels. Conducteurs et cables de garde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanal, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Direction de la Production et du Transport; Leveque, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-02-01

    This article presents the characteristics of bare cables for the construction of overhead lines. During the last decades, no important change has been made in the choice of conductive materials. The main materials used are: the high purity cold drawn aluminium in bi-metal aluminium-steel cables, and the 'almelec', an aluminium alloy with a reinforced traction resistance. Recently, new conductors with a higher transport capacity and a better temperature resistance have been developed. Another way of research concerns the combination of conductors and composite materials (carbon fibers) but no satisfactory solutions have been obtained so far. A more important evolution concerns the guard cables for high voltage lines which now include telecommunication circuits (optical fibers) for high flow rate transmission of numerical data. The laying out of such cables has been generalized in France in order to supply the overall territory with equivalent and satisfactory performances. (J.S.)

  9. Insulation system for high temperature superconductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, P. C.; Haight, A. E.; Bromberg, L.; Kano, K.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale superconductor applications, like fusion magnets, require high-current capacity conductors to limit system inductance and peak operating voltage. Several cabling methods using high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes are presently under development so that the unique high-field, high-current-density, high operating temperature characteristics of 2nd generation REBCO coated conductors can be utilized in next generation fusion devices. Large-scale magnets are generally epoxy impregnated to support and distribute electromagnetic stresses through the magnet volume. However, the present generation of REBCO coated conductors are prone to delamination when tensile stresses are applied to the broad surface of REBCO tapes; this can occur during epoxy cure, cooldown, or magnet energization. We present the development of an insulation system which effectively insulates HTS cabled conductors at high withstand voltage while simultaneously preventing the intrusion of the epoxy impregnant into the cable, eliminating degradation due to conductor delamination. We also describe a small-scale coil test program to demonstrate the cable insulation scheme and present preliminary test results.

  10. Modeling of Pressure Effects in HVDC Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Strøbech, Esben

    1999-01-01

    A model is developed for the prediction of pressure effects in HVDC mass impregnatedcables as a result of temperature changes.To test the model assumptions, experiments were performed in cable like geometries.It is concluded that the model may predict the formation of gas cavities....

  11. Dynamic Loadability of Cable Based Transmission Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    supervised 2 master projects, as well as 5 special courses at DTU. Furthermore I created and taught a cable course, with approximately 25 students, throughout 13 weeks during the spring of 2011. The PhD project has until now contributed with 3 journal papers and 4 conference papers. Selected papers can be...

  12. Dutch VULA consumer market services over Cable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anoniem

    2015-01-01

    KPN offers a virtual unbundled local access wholesale service over its DSL infrastructure. This offer has been accepted by the Dutch Authority Consumer Market. In the report, it is argued that for consumer market services, the Dutch cable providers can develop an equivalent wholesale service from th

  13. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Marijn Pieter

    2000-01-01

    The present study discusses the AC loss in high-temperature superconductors. Superconducting materials with a relatively high critical temperature were discovered in 1986. They are presently developed for use in large-scale power-engineering devices such as power-transmission cables, transformers an

  14. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  15. History of cable-stayed bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The principle of supporting a bridge deck by inclined tension members leading to towers on either side of the span has been known for centuries. However, the real development of cable-stayed bridges did not begin before the 1950s. Since then the free span has been increased from 183 m in the Strö...

  16. History, Path Dependence and Development: Evidence from Colonial Railroads, Settlers and Cities in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Remi Jedwab; Edward Kerby; Alexander Moradi

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the extent and forces of urban path dependence in developing countries.  Railroad construction in colonial Kenya provides a natural experiment to study the emergence and persistence of this spatial equilibrium.  Using new data at a fine spatial level over one century shows that colonial railroads causally determined the location of European settlers, which in turn decided the location of the main cities of the country at independence.  Railroads declined and settlers lef...

  17. Economies of Density and Regulatory Change in the U.S. Railroad Freight Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bitzan, John D; Keeler, Theodore E.

    2007-01-01

    Two reform acts, the Staggers Railroad Act of 1980 and the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, represented big changes in U.S. policy toward railroads. An important welfare gain from these changes predicted by researchers was the efficiency gain from increased densities in rail freight traffic. However, few retrospective studies have analyzed the accuracy of these predictions. The present paper fills this gap by analyzing the effects of regulatory changes on freight tra...

  18. Wireless Power Transfer for High-precision Position Detection of Railroad Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hyun-Gyu; Har, Dongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Detection of vehicle position is critical for successful operation of intelligent transportation system. In case of railroad transportation systems, position information of railroad vehicles can be detected by GPS, track circuits, and so on. In this paper, position detection based on tags onto sleepers of the track is investigated. Position information stored in the tags is read by a reader placed at the bottom of running railroad vehicle. Due to limited capacity of battery or its alternative...

  19. Cable deformation simulation and a hierarchical framework for Nb{sub 3}Sn Rutherford cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbelaez, D; Prestemon, S O; Ferracin, P; Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Sabbi, G, E-mail: darbelaez@lbl.go [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional strain state induced in the superconducting filaments due to loads on Rutherford cables is essential to analyze the performance of Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets. Due to the large range of length scales involved, we develop a hierarchical computational scheme that includes models at both the cable and strand levels. At the Rutherford cable level, where the strands are treated as a homogeneous medium, a three-dimensional computational model is developed to determine the deformed shape of the cable that can subsequently be used to determine the strain state under specified loading conditions, which may be of thermal, magnetic, and mechanical origins. The results can then be transferred to the model at the strand/macro-filament level for rod restack process (RRP) strands, where the geometric details of the strand are included. This hierarchical scheme can be used to estimate the three-dimensional strain state in the conductor as well as to determine the effective properties of the strands and cables from the properties of individual components. Examples of the modeling results obtained for the orthotropic mechanical properties of the Rutherford cables are presented.

  20. Cable deformation simulation and a hierarchical framework for Nb3Sn Rutherford cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbelaez, D.; Prestemon, S. O.; Ferracin, P.; Godeke, A.; Dietderich, D. R.; Sabbi, G.

    2009-09-13

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional strain state induced in the superconducting filaments due to loads on Rutherford cables is essential to analyze the performance of Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets. Due to the large range of length scales involved, we develop a hierarchical computational scheme that includes models at both the cable and strand levels. At the Rutherford cable level, where the strands are treated as a homogeneous medium, a three-dimensional computational model is developed to determine the deformed shape of the cable that can subsequently be used to determine the strain state under specified loading conditions, which may be of thermal, magnetic, and mechanical origins. The results can then be transferred to the model at the strand/macro-filament level for rod restack process (RRP) strands, where the geometric details of the strand are included. This hierarchical scheme can be used to estimate the three-dimensional strain state in the conductor as well as to determine the effective properties of the strands and cables from the properties of individual components. Examples of the modeling results obtained for the orthotropic mechanical properties of the Rutherford cables are presented.

  1. A unique cabling designed to produce Rutherford-type superconducting cable for the SSC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to 25,000 Km of keystoned flat cable must be produced for the SSC project. Starting from a specification developed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), a special cabling machine has been designed by Dour Metal. It has been designed to be able to run at a speed corresponding to a maximum production rate of 10 m/min. This cabling machine is the key part of the production line which consists of a precision Turkshead equipped with a variable power drive, a caterpillar, a dimensional control bench, a data acquisition system, and a take-up unit. The main features of the cabling unit to be described are a design with nearly equal path length between spool and assembling point for all the wires, and the possibility to run the machine with several over- or under-twisting ratios between cable and wires. These requirements led Dour Metal to the choice of an unconventional mechanical concept for a cabling machine. 4 refs., 2 figs

  2. Energy dispatching analysis of lightning surges on underground cables in a cable connection station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aimed to simulate the transient over-voltage phenomena which occur at 345 kV and 161 kV underground cables, when lighting strikes on or near the cable connection station, by using the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP). A feasibility study on changing related parameters, as well as cable connections and grounding methods to reduce the impact caused by lightning strikes, will be thoroughly conducted. The various components required for a detailed simulation including; lightning surges, transmission line and tower, arrester, and underground cables are all considered. Then, the transient voltage of the cables will be analyzed under different situations including; connection methods, grounding locations, length of the grounding wire of arrester, and the grounding resistance for different locations. The simulation results show that the length of the grounding wire is more sensitive to the transient over-voltage which occurred when a common grounding topology was adopted. In contrast, the use of an independent grounding topology resulted in a reduction of the grounding resistance, which effectively decreased the over-voltage, thereby avoiding surpassing the shielding voltage level of the cable, caused by the rise of ground voltage.

  3. Superconducting power cables in Denmark - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    HTS cables will be less expensive for high power ratings, have lower losses for lines with a high load, and have a reduced reactive power production. The use of superconducting cables in Denmark accommodate plans by the Danish utility to make a substantial conversion of overhead lines to underground......A case study of a 450 MVA, 132 kV high temperature superconducting (HTS) power transmission cable has been carried out. In the study, a superconducting cable system is compared to a conventional cable system which is under construction for an actual transmission line in the Danish grid. The study...

  4. Comparison of advanced high power underground cable designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, advanced high power underground cable designs are compared in the light of available literature, of reports and information supplied by participating industries (AEG, BICC, CGE, Pirelli, Siemens), spontaneous contributions by EdF, France, BBC and Felten and Guilleaume Kabelwerke A.G., Germany, and Hitachi, Furukawa, Fujikura and Sumitomo, Japan, and earlier studies carried out at German public research centres. The study covers cables with forced cooling by oil or water, SF6-cables, polyethylene cables, cryoresistive and superconducting cables. (orig.)

  5. 2nd International Conference on Cable-Driven Parallel Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the outcome of the second forum to cable-driven parallel robots, bringing the cable robot community together. It shows the new ideas of the active researchers developing cable-driven robots. The book presents the state of the art, including both summarizing contributions as well as latest research and future options. The book cover all topics which are essential for cable-driven robots: Classification Kinematics, Workspace and Singularity Analysis Statics and Dynamics Cable Modeling Control and Calibration Design Methodology Hardware Development Experimental Evaluation Prototypes, Application Reports and new Application concepts

  6. Analytical Solution for the Current Distribution in Multistrand Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Fabbri, M G

    2002-01-01

    Current distribution in multistrand superconducting cables can be a major concern for stability in superconducting magnets and for field quality in particle accelerator magnets. In this paper we describe multistrand superconducting cables by means of a distributed parameters circuit model. We derive a system of partial differential equations governing current distribution in the cable and we give the analytical solution of the general system. We then specialize the general solution to the particular case of uniform cable properties. In the particular case of a two-strand cable, we show that the analytical solution presented here is identical to the one already available in the literature. For a cable made of N equal strands we give a closed form solution that to our knowledge was never presented before. We finally validate the analytical solution by comparison to numerical results in the case of a step-like spatial distribution of the magnetic field over a short Rutherford cable, both in transient and steady ...

  7. Deployment/Retrieval Modeling of Cable-Driven Parallel Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Duan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A steady-state dynamic model of a cable in air is put forward by using some tensor relations. For the dynamic motion of a long-span Cable-Driven Parallel Robot (CDPR system, a driven cable deployment and retrieval mathematical model of CDPR is developed by employing lumped mass method. The effects of cable mass are taken into account. The boundary condition of cable and initial values of equations is founded. The partial differential governing equation of each cable is thus transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which can be solved by adaptive Runge-Kutta algorithm. Simulation examples verify the effectiveness of the driven cable deployment and retrieval mathematical model of CDPR.

  8. RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS OF WIND EXCITED CABLES WITH ARTIFICIAL RIVULET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明; 刘慈军; 徐幼麟; 项海帆

    2002-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of response characteristics of cables with artificial rivulet is presented.A series of cable section models of different mass and stiffness and damping ratio were designed with artificial rivulet.They were tested in smooth flow under different wind speed and yaw angle and for different position of artificial rivulet.The measured response of cable models was then analyzed and compared with the experimental results obtained by other researchers and the existing theories for wind-induced cable vibration.The results show that the measured response of horizontal cable models with artificial rivulet could be well predicted by Den Hartog' s galloping theory when wind is normal to the cable axis.For the wind with certain yaw angles, the cable models with artificial rivulet exhibit velocity-restricted response characteristics.

  9. Spectral anomaly over Railroad Valley oil field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.C. (Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Honey, F.R. (Geoscan Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia)); Ballew, G.I. (Geodata Images, Carson City, NV (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Oil was first discovered in Railroad Valley, south-central Nevada in 1954. Since that time, over 195 wells have been drilled and six oil fields have been found: Bacon Flat, Currant, Trap Spring, Eagle Springs, Grant Canyon and Kate Spring. Two wells in the Grant Canyon field had flows between 2,480 and 4,108 bbl/day in 1987 and may be the most prolific wells onshore in the continental US. Production in the Railroad Valley fields is from Oligocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Paleozoic carbonate formations. Traps are structural or structural and stratigraphic, and reservoir seals are indurated or clayey valley fill, weathered tuff, and shales in Tertiary sediments. Reservoir temperatures range between 95 and 309{degree}F. Previous workers have identified a statistically significant positive correlation between hydrocarbon microseepage and vegetation anomalies over the Railroad Valley oil fields with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) imagery. Several flight lines of high spectral and spatial resolution imagery in the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum were flown with Geoscan's MkII Airborne Multispectral Scanner to determine if there was a mineralogical signature associated with the oil fields. The 24-channel scanner collected 8-m resolution picture elements over a swath of about 8 km. Image processing strategies were developed from a knowledge of the spectral curves of minerals in the laboratory. The results from processing Geoscans MkII data were also compared with those obtained from processing Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery over the same area. An 8 {times} 6 km carbonate and iron anomaly was detected on the processed MkII imagery over the Trap Spring oil field. This anomaly may be related to hot spring activity, reported by other workers, that has formed extensive calcite deposits along faults.

  10. A Study on the System and Method for Drawing 3-Dimensional Cable Object with the cable tracking Navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D cable tracking system with navigation makes it possible to easily search the objects which users want to retrieve and to measure the visual, spatial and structural distance by connecting the existing cable management system with 3D cable tracking system with navigation. With this consideration, we hope to create a more advanced cable management system in the future. I would like to describes the management system and method of the cable installed in the nuclear power plant, and how to build the database of the system. More specifically, it will be operated to the maintenance and management function, and the life management system of the cable, describing the creation method of three-dimensional cable object formed by the information of trace route through navigation and how to build the system database automatically

  11. A Study on the System and Method for Drawing 3-Dimensional Cable Object with the cable tracking Navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhang, Keugjin; Jung, Sunchul [Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Junhee [Chungnam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    3D cable tracking system with navigation makes it possible to easily search the objects which users want to retrieve and to measure the visual, spatial and structural distance by connecting the existing cable management system with 3D cable tracking system with navigation. With this consideration, we hope to create a more advanced cable management system in the future. I would like to describes the management system and method of the cable installed in the nuclear power plant, and how to build the database of the system. More specifically, it will be operated to the maintenance and management function, and the life management system of the cable, describing the creation method of three-dimensional cable object formed by the information of trace route through navigation and how to build the system database automatically.

  12. Railroad Lines, MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale as of 2008. It is described as 'MFRDC has railroad data for Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley,...

  13. Railroad Lines, Separate layers for active and inactive railroad lines for an eleven county region. Data is a subset from NCOneMap., Published in 2007, NC Dept of Commerce - DCA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Separate layers for active and inactive railroad...

  14. Southwire's High Temperature Superconducting Cable Development - Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final technical report on Southwire HTS cable development program. Southwire started an HTS cable development program beginning early 1995 with a Co-operative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The development task was to study the properties of HTS tapes, and construct hand wound 1-m cables to study the winding characteristics of the tapes. Within a short time several 1-m long cables were constructed and tested. A goal was established to construct a 30-m long, three single-phase cables suitable to carry 1250-Aac at 12.4 kV and power Southwire's two main manufacturing plants, machinery division, and part of the corporate headquarters building. Southwire chose to construct a cold dielectric (CD) design cable that has the advantage of shielding magnetic fields and suitable for carrying larger amounts of current for future applications. The CD design however, required a dielectric material that would be suitable at liquid nitrogen temperature. After considerable testing, a polymer based tape called ''Cryoflex'' was developed by Southwire for use as a cold dielectric. Southwire developed a HTS cable making facility for the winding of HTS and dielectric tapes. At the same time Southwire and ORNL developed at Oak Ridge a dielectric testing laboratory and a 5-m cable test bed. The HTS cable requires special terminations that connect cables at 77 K and high pressures (design pressure of 150 psi) with outside power at ambient temperature and pressure. Two types of terminations called Vacuum (T-1) and Pressure termination (T-2) were developed. The vacuum termination needed very high vacuum (10-5 bar) and cold ceramic bushings that were expensive and unreliable. The modified pressure termination eliminated vacuum, utilize industrial bushings, reduced cost, and increased reliability. Two 5-m cables were designed and constructed at Southwire with the same rating as needed for the 30-m cables. The 5-m cables were tested successfully at

  15. Offshore wind farm electrical cable layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, A. C.; Chick, J.; Johanning, L.; Khorasanchi, M.; de Laleu, V.

    2015-12-01

    This article explores an automated approach for the efficient placement of substations and the design of an inter-array electrical collection network for an offshore wind farm through the minimization of the cost. To accomplish this, the problem is represented as a number of sub-problems that are solved in series using a combination of heuristic algorithms. The overall problem is first solved by clustering the turbines to generate valid substation positions. From this, a navigational mesh pathfinding algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation is applied to identify valid cable paths, which are then used in a mixed-integer linear programming problem to solve for a constrained capacitated minimum spanning tree considering all realistic constraints. The final tree that is produced represents the solution to the inter-array cable problem. This method is applied to a planned wind farm to illustrate the suitability of the approach and the resulting layout that is generated.

  16. Development of polymer packaging for power cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sremac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issues of product design and the procedure of developing polymer packaging as one of the most important engineering tasks. For the purpose of packing power cables a polymer packaging has been designed in the form of drum. Packaging and many other consumer products are largely produced using polymeric materials due to many positive features. High Density Polyethylene is the type of polyethylene proposed for packaging purposes due to its low degree of branching and strong intermolecular forces. Transport and storage processes were automated based on the radio-frequency identification technology. The proposed system is flexible in terms of its possibility of accepting and processing different types of cables and other products.

  17. Aging assessment of cable for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation energy is measured with UTM (Universal Testing Machine), TGA (Thermo-gravimetric Analyzer) and DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer) to analyze the aging degree of cables for NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Insulation power cables containing EPR (Ethylene Propylene Rubber) are arranged for two kinds of specimens which are intact specimens and aged specimens by exposing to LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) environmental conditions regulated in IEEE 323. In case of intact specimen, values of activation energy are 1.1 eV for UTM, 1.24 eV with storage modulus and 1.13 eV with loss modulus for DMA, 1.29 eV for TGA, respectively. Damping of specimen under LOCA conditions decreases the activation energy to 0.88 eV for TGA. (author)

  18. Horizon-T Experiment Calibrations - Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, D; Iakovlev, A; Makhataeva, Z; Vildanova, M I; Yelshibekov, K; Zhukov, V V

    2016-01-01

    An innovative detector system called Horizon-T is constructed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) in the energy range above 1016 eV coming from a wide range of zenith angles (0o - 85o). The system is located at Tien Shan high-altitude Science Station of Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences at approximately 3340 meters above the sea level. The detector consists of eight charged particle detection points separated by the distance up to one kilometer as well as optical detector to view the Vavilov-\\v{C}erenkov light from the EAS. Each detector connects to the Data Acquisition system via cables. The calibration of the time delay for each cable and the signal attenuation is provided in this article.

  19. Emotional Intelligence and job performance: Evidence from railroad industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bahmanabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance in railroad industry. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring emotional intelligence adopted from Salovey and Mayer (1989 [Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989. Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3, 185-211.] and the other one for measuring job performance. The study selects 300 full time employees who work for railroad industry in city of Tehran, Iran, distributes two questionnaires among the employees and managed to collect all filled ones. Using Spearman correlation, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance (r = 0.796, Sig. = 0.000. In addition, there were positive and meaningful relationships between four components of emotional intelligence, namely consciousness (r = 0.642, Sig. = 0.000, self-regulation (r = 0.41, Sig. = 0.000, self-awareness ( r = 0.552, Sig. = 0.000 and social skills (r = 0.524, Sig. = 0.000.

  20. Development of radiation resistant electrical cable insulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new polyethylene cable insulations have been formulated for nuclear applications, and have been tested under gamma radiation. Both insulations are based on low density polyethylene, one with PbO and the other with Sb2O3 as additives. The test results show that the concept of using inorganic antioxidants to retard radiation initiated oxidation (RIO) is viable. PbO is more effective than Sb2O3 in minimizing RIO

  1. Optical fibre cable selection for electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The report provides an assessment of the range of optical fibre cable solutions available, by type e.g. OPGW, ADSS, rather than by design. it also examines the key issues which will influence an electricity utilities decisions and proposes a method of evaluating the options to identify the one which most closely matches the utility's critical needs, with measurements against time, cost and quality targets. (author)

  2. Ultrasonic security seal with a cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sonic delay line of the seal is prolongated by a truncated part and terminated by a spherical cap which can be marked. The sealing capsule has a bore adapted to the size of the truncated part of the identity module. The sealing cable is fastened between the sealing capsule and the module. Application is made to the monitoring of containers for dangerous or radioactive materials

  3. Space charge fields in DC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Pedersen, Aage

    The space charge that accumulates in DC cables can, mathematically, be resolved into two components. One is related to the temperature and the other to the magnitude of the electric field strength. Analytical expressions for the electric fields arising from each of these space charge components are...... derived. Thereafter, the significance of these field components under both normal operating conditions and immediately following polarity reversal is discussed...

  4. Influence of Icing on Bridge Cable Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Frej Henningsen, Jesper; Olsen, Idar

    2013-01-01

    determination of these force coefficients require a proper simulation of the ice layer occurring under the specific climatic conditions, favouring real ice accretion over simplified artificial reproduction. The work presented in this paper was performed to study the influence of ice accretion on the aerodynamic...... forces of different bridge cables types. The experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel facility capable amongst others to simulate incloud icing conditions....

  5. Automated wireless monitoring system for cable tension using smart sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sung-Han; Li, Jian; Jo, Hongki; Park, Jongwoong; Cho, Soojin; Spencer, Billie F.; Yun, Chung-Bang

    2013-04-01

    Cables are critical load carrying members of cable-stayed bridges; monitoring tension forces of the cables provides valuable information for SHM of the cable-stayed bridges. Monitoring systems for the cable tension can be efficiently realized using wireless smart sensors in conjunction with vibration-based cable tension estimation approaches. This study develops an automated cable tension monitoring system using MEMSIC's Imote2 smart sensors. An embedded data processing strategy is implemented on the Imote2-based wireless sensor network to calculate cable tensions using a vibration-based method, significantly reducing the wireless data transmission and associated power consumption. The autonomous operation of the monitoring system is achieved by AutoMonitor, a high-level coordinator application provided by the Illinois SHM Project Services Toolsuite. The monitoring system also features power harvesting enabled by solar panels attached to each sensor node and AutoMonitor for charging control. The proposed wireless system has been deployed on the Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge located in South Korea. Tension forces are autonomously monitored for 12 cables in the east, land side of the bridge, proving the validity and potential of the presented tension monitoring system for real-world applications.

  6. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3A - Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment... unemployment repayment tax. (a) Requirement—(1) Employers. Every rail employer (as defined in section 3323(a) and section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) shall make a return of the tax imposed...

  7. 23 CFR 646.210 - Classification of projects and railroad share of the cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS RAILROADS Railroad-Highway Projects § 646.210 Classification of projects...) Pursuant to 23 U.S.C. 130(b), and 49 CFR 1.48: (1) Projects for grade crossing improvements are deemed to...) shall be based on the costs for preliminary engineering, right-of-way and construction within the...

  8. 77 FR 65446 - Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Consolidated Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc. (TCKR), a noncarrier and a wholly...

  9. 76 FR 13445 - Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption--SEDA--COG Joint Rail Authority Lycoming Valley Railroad Company (LVRR), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of... Track, extending between milepost 0.0 and milepost 0.4 in Muncy, Lycoming County, Pa. The line is...

  10. 75 FR 35513 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash... milepost 58.75 near Grandview, in Yakima County, Wash.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service... to the Central Washington Railroad Company (CWRR). See Central Wash. R.R.-- Lease and...

  11. 78 FR 65422 - Notice of Funding Availability and Solicitation of Applications for Grants Under the Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... costs are generally only those associated with the purchases of land which is allowable for Federal... total cost of consultants Land, structures, rights-of-way, appraisals, and related items: List the... Under the Railroad Rehabilitation and Repair Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...

  12. 77 FR 6411 - Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...). 75 FR 47906. The Final Crane Rule sets forth requirements that are designed to improve safety for... titled ``Railroad Occupational Safety and Health Standards'' (Policy Statement). 43 FR 10583. The Policy..., and 243 Training, Qualification, and Oversight for Safety-Related Railroad Employees; Proposed Rule...

  13. 76 FR 36617 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Freeborn County, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Freeborn County, MN Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will...

  14. 78 FR 21494 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Washington County, Idaho Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 C.F.R. pt... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  15. 78 FR 44190 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Miami County, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Miami County, KS Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by...

  16. 75 FR 82426 - Big Four Terminal Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-RMW Ventures, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Big Four Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--RMW Ventures, LLC Big Four Terminal Railroad, LLC (BFTR), has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31...

  17. 77 FR 60742 - BNSF Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 10, 2012, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant restricted temporary trackage rights to BNSF Railway...

  18. 77 FR 67442 - Soo Line Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Soo Line Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant temporary overhead trackage rights to Soo Line Railroad Company d/b/a Canadian...

  19. 75 FR 56161 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway... Railway Company (BNSF) granted approximately 5.5 miles of incidental overhead trackage rights to Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc. (SLWC), extending between: (1) Milepost 384.6 and milepost 390.0, on...

  20. 76 FR 22746 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wiregrass Central Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wiregrass Central Railroad Company, Inc. Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC (WCR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wiregrass Central Railroad Company,...

  1. 78 FR 63564 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) over the following UP rail lines: (1)...

  2. 76 FR 31009 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. (YVRR) has agreed to grant, pursuant to a prospective written trackage rights agreement,\\1\\ restricted local and overhead trackage rights to BNSF Railway Company...

  3. 75 FR 21146 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--BNSF Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 16, 2009, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) over a...

  4. 78 FR 50141 - Illinois Central Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board Illinois Central Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- BNSF Railway Company BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated June 17, 2013, has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC), a wholly...

  5. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...

  6. 19 CFR 123.6 - Train sheet for arriving railroad trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. 123.6 Section 123.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.6 Train sheet for arriving railroad trains. The conductor...

  7. 75 FR 65049 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pulaski County, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pulaski County, AR Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  8. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part...

  9. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart...

  10. 76 FR 13446 - Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority Juniata Valley Railroad Company (JVRR), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to...

  11. 76 FR 13445 - North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority North Shore Railroad Company (NSRR), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to...

  12. 75 FR 24400 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; CSX Railroad, Trout River, Mile 0.9, Jacksonville, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ..., Jacksonville, FL in the Federal Register (74 FR 106). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; CSX Railroad, Trout... is changing the regulation governing the operation of the CSX Railroad Bridge across the Trout...

  13. 77 FR 27857 - Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC-Operation Exemption-Kingman Airport Authority, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC--Operation Exemption--Kingman Airport Authority, Inc. Kingman Terminal Railroad, LLC (KTRR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to operate over approximately 3 miles of track \\1\\ within the Kingman...

  14. 49 CFR 220.43 - Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.43 Radio communications consistent with federal regulations and railroad operating rules. Radio communication shall not be used in connection with a railroad... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio communications consistent with...

  15. 75 FR 73161 - Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In East Carroll Parish, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--In East Carroll Parish, LA Delta Southern Railroad, Inc. (DSR) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  16. 75 FR 47650 - Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public Meeting Notice is hereby given in accordance with Public Law 92-463 that the Actuarial Advisory Committee...

  17. 76 FR 67774 - Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public Meeting Notice is hereby given in accordance with Public Law 92-463 that the Actuarial Advisory Committee...

  18. 77 FR 24233 - Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD Actuarial Advisory Committee With Respect to the Railroad Retirement Account; Notice of Public Meeting Notice is hereby given in accordance with Public Law 92-463 that the Actuarial Advisory Committee...

  19. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  20. 75 FR 25313 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Wichita, Tillman and Jackson Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Wichita, Tillman and Jackson Railway Company, Inc., and Hollis & Eastern Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Trackage Agreement) dated January 22, 1992, Wichita, Tillman & Jackson...

  1. Prospective barrier coatings for superconducting cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipatov, Y.; Dolgosheev, P.; Sytnikov, V.

    1997-07-01

    Known and prospective types of chromium coatings, used in the production of superconducting `cable-in-conduit' conductors designed for the ITER and other projects, are considered. The influence of the technological conditions during the galvanic plating of hard, grey, black and combined chromium coatings in various electrolytes and the annealing conditions in air and in vacuum on the contact electrical resistance of copper and superconducting wire at room temperature and 4.2 K as well as on other physical properties, e.g. resistance to abrasion, elasticity and thickness of the coatings, is investigated. Black oxide - chromium coatings and combined chromium coatings, containing oxides of chromium and a number of other metals, ensure the possibility of a significant increase of contact resistance as well as its regulation in a broad range of values in comparison with hard chromium. The results of the present work and also an independent investigation of the cable containing the strand, manufactured in JSC `VNIIKP', allow us to propose the oxide - chromium coating as a barrier layer for multistrand superconducting cables.

  2. Cable energy function of cortical axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Huiwen; Hines, Michael L; Yu, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of action potential (AP)-related metabolic cost is essential for understanding energetic constraints on brain connections and signaling processes. Most previous energy estimates of the AP were obtained using the Na(+)-counting method, which seriously limits accurate assessment of metabolic cost of ionic currents that underlie AP conduction along the axon. Here, we first derive a full cable energy function for cortical axons based on classic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neuronal equations and then apply the cable energy function to precisely estimate the energy consumption of AP conduction along axons with different geometric shapes. Our analytical approach predicts an inhomogeneous distribution of metabolic cost along an axon with either uniformly or nonuniformly distributed ion channels. The results show that the Na(+)-counting method severely underestimates energy cost in the cable model by 20-70%. AP propagation along axons that differ in length may require over 15% more energy per unit of axon area than that required by a point model. However, actual energy cost can vary greatly depending on axonal branching complexity, ion channel density distributions, and AP conduction states. We also infer that the metabolic rate (i.e. energy consumption rate) of cortical axonal branches as a function of spatial volume exhibits a 3/4 power law relationship. PMID:27439954

  3. Cable energy function of cortical axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Huiwen; Hines, Michael L.; Yu, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of action potential (AP)-related metabolic cost is essential for understanding energetic constraints on brain connections and signaling processes. Most previous energy estimates of the AP were obtained using the Na+-counting method, which seriously limits accurate assessment of metabolic cost of ionic currents that underlie AP conduction along the axon. Here, we first derive a full cable energy function for cortical axons based on classic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neuronal equations and then apply the cable energy function to precisely estimate the energy consumption of AP conduction along axons with different geometric shapes. Our analytical approach predicts an inhomogeneous distribution of metabolic cost along an axon with either uniformly or nonuniformly distributed ion channels. The results show that the Na+-counting method severely underestimates energy cost in the cable model by 20–70%. AP propagation along axons that differ in length may require over 15% more energy per unit of axon area than that required by a point model. However, actual energy cost can vary greatly depending on axonal branching complexity, ion channel density distributions, and AP conduction states. We also infer that the metabolic rate (i.e. energy consumption rate) of cortical axonal branches as a function of spatial volume exhibits a 3/4 power law relationship. PMID:27439954

  4. OptaSense distributed acoustic and seismic sensing using COTS fiber optic cables for infrastructure protection and counter terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Gregory L.; Ku, Emery M.

    2013-06-01

    The OptaSense® Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) technology can turn any cable with single-mode optical fiber into a very large and densely sampled acoustic/seismic sensor array—covering up to a 50 km aperture per system with "virtual" sensor separations as small as 1 meter on the unmodified cable. The system uses Rayleigh scattering from the imperfections in the fiber to return the optical signals measuring local fiber strain from seismic or air and water acoustic signals. The scalable system architecture can provide border monitoring and high-security perimeter and linear asset protection for a variety of industries—from nuclear facilities to oil and gas pipelines. This paper presents various application architectures and system performance examples for detection, localization, and classification of personnel footsteps, vehicles, digging and tunneling, gunshots, aircraft, and earthquakes. The DAS technology can provide a costeffective alternative to unattended ground sensors and geophone arrays, and a complement or alternative to imaging and radar sensors in many applications. The transduction, signal processing, and operator control and display technology will be described, and performance examples will be given from research and development testing and from operational systems on pipelines, critical infrastructure perimeters, railroads, and roadways. Potential new applications will be discussed that can take advantage of existing fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure as "the sensor"—leading to low-cost and high-coverage systems.

  5. Rapid optimization of tension distribution for cable-driven parallel manipulators with redundant cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bo; Shang, Weiwei

    2016-03-01

    The solution of tension distributions is infinite for cable-driven parallel manipulators(CDPMs) with redundant cables. A rapid optimization method for determining the optimal tension distribution is presented. The new optimization method is primarily based on the geometry properties of a polyhedron and convex analysis. The computational efficiency of the optimization method is improved by the designed projection algorithm, and a fast algorithm is proposed to determine which two of the lines are intersected at the optimal point. Moreover, a method for avoiding the operating point on the lower tension limit is developed. Simulation experiments are implemented on a six degree-of-freedom(6-DOF) CDPM with eight cables, and the results indicate that the new method is one order of magnitude faster than the standard simplex method. The optimal distribution of tension distribution is thus rapidly established on real-time by the proposed method.

  6. 26 CFR 31.6302(c)-2A - Use of Government depositaries in connection with the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with the railroad unemployment repayment tax. 31.6302(c)-2A Section 31.6302(c)-2A Internal Revenue...) § 31.6302(c)-2A Use of Government depositaries in connection with the railroad unemployment repayment...,000,000, such employer shall (except as provided below) deposit his undeposited railroad...

  7. 76 FR 37888 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Dawson and Richland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Dawson and Richland Counties, Mont. Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ has filed a verified... Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco Holdings, Watco Companies, and Watco Transp....

  8. 78 FR 13932 - Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.-Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage Rights Operations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C.--Discontinuance of Lease and Trackage... County, ND On February 11, 2013, Yellowstone Valley Railroad, L.L.C. (YVRR) \\1\\ filed with the Surface... 59270. \\1\\ According to YVRR, its name was formerly Yellowstone Valley Railroad, Inc. See Watco...

  9. 78 FR 73585 - The Three Rivers Railway Company-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Mahoning State Line Railroad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board The Three Rivers Railway Company--Corporate Family Merger Exemption--Mahoning State Line Railroad Company The Three Rivers Railway Company (TRRC) and Mahoning State Line Railroad...)(3) for a corporate family transaction. According to applicants, TRRC is a Class III railroad and...

  10. 76 FR 13272 - Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption-Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC Columbia & Cowlitz Railway, LLC (CLC) and Patriot Woods Railroad, LLC (Woods... corporate family. CLC seeks to lease and operate all of Woods' lines of railroad consisting of...

  11. Numerical method of thermal design of power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryukhanov, O.N.; Trigorlyy, S.V.

    1985-05-01

    Increasing the accuracy of computation of permissible current loads in cables requires that thermal calculations be performed considering the actual distribution of temperatures in the cables. An analysis of methods of thermal design of cables showed that numerical methods allowing most complete consideration of various heat exchange factors are superior. The authors suggest the use of the method of finite elements to study thermal states of multiple-conductor power cables laid in various ways. As an example, thermal calculation of three-conductor cable with circular conductors is studied. For a number of cables the permissible current loads calculated by the method of finite elements are greater than those established by the standards documents of calculated according to previous methods.

  12. Aging assessment of electrical cables from NPD nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of NPD Nuclear Generating Station control and power cables after approximately 25 years of service was assessed. The PVC and SBR insulated cables were also exposed to radiation, accident and post-accident conditions, and accelerated aging to simulate extended service life. The degradation of the samples from the containment boiler room was minimal, caused mainly by thermal conditions rather than radiation. Although irradiation to 55 Mrad, simulating normal operation and accident radiation levels, caused degradation, the cables could still function during accident and post-accident conditions. Accelerated thermal aging to simulate an additional 10 years of service at 45 degrees C caused embrittlement of the PVC and a 60% decrease in elongation of the SBR. Comparison of test results of aged NPD cables with newer PVC cables obtained from Pickering NGS 'A' shows that the newer cables have improved aging stability and therefore should provide adequate service during their design life of 31 years

  13. Optimization and stability of a cable-in-conduit superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimization process for strand number and diameter, cable void fraction, and Cu/NbTi-ratio of the cable-in-conduit conductor for the superconducting magnet system of the planned stellarator fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X is presented. Main optimization criteria are stability and cable cooling requirements, taking into account transient disturbances and losses. A simple stability criterion regarding transient disturbances is used which is derived from cable compression experiments. The resulting data for the 16 kA, 6 T cable are: cable and strand diameter ∼11.5 mm and ∼0.57 mm, respectively, strand number ∼250, void ∼36%, and Cu/sc-ratio ∼2.7

  14. Dynamic behavior of stay cables with passive negative stiffness dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Zhu, Songye; Li, Jin-Yang; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2016-07-01

    This paper systematically investigates the dynamic behavior of stay cables with passive negative stiffness dampers (NSD) installed close to the cable end. A passive NSD is modeled as a combination of a negative stiffness spring and a viscous damper. Through both analytical and numerical approaches, parametric analysis of negative stiffness and viscous damping are conducted to systematically evaluate the vibration control performance of passive NSD on stay cables. Since negative stiffness is an unstable element, the boundary of passive negative stiffness for stay cables to maintain stability is also derived. Results reveal that the asymptotic approach is only applicable to passive dampers with positive or moderate negative stiffness, and loses its accuracy when a passive NSD possesses significant negative stiffness. It has been found that the performance of passive NSD can be much better than those of conventional viscous dampers. The superior control performance of passive NSD in cable vibration mitigation is validated through numerical simulations of a full-scale stay cable.

  15. Analytical dynamic solution of a flexible cable-suspended manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamdad, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    Cable-suspended manipulators are used in large scale applications with, heavy in weight and long in span cables. It seems impractical to maintain cable assumptions of smaller robots for large scale manipulators. The interactions among the cables, platforms and actuators can fully evaluate the coupled dynamic analysis. The structural flexibility of the cables becomes more pronounced in large manipulators. In this paper, an analytic solution is provided to solve cable vibration. Also, a closed form solution can be adopted to improve the dynamic response to flexibility. The output is provided by the optimal torque generation subject to the actuator limitations in a mechatronic sense. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through simulations.

  16. Antenna mechanism of length control of actin cables

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Lishibanya; Kondev, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This antenna mechanism involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentra...

  17. Transverse stress effects in Nb3Sn cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of transverse compressive stress on the critical current of solder-filled and unfilled Nb3Sn cables is reported. The conductor used in this study is a Nb3Sn Rutherford cable manufactured with a bronze-process wire of 0.92 mm diameter. Like epoxy-impregnated cables, solder-filled cables exhibit much less degradation than wire samples when subjected to the same stresses. On the other hand, unfilled specimens are irreversibly damaged at the thin edge when loaded to 160 MPa, and show significantly higher degradation than similar specimens of the solder-filled cable. A finite-element calculation of the stress state inside a particular composite superconductor indicates that more compressive stress is developed in the virgin wire than in a straight wire segment in a real cable environment

  18. Optical Fiber Grating Sensor for Force Measurement of Anchor Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Desheng; FU Jinghua; LIU Shengchun; SUI Lingfeng; FU Rong

    2006-01-01

    The development of the sensor suitable for measuring large load stress to the anchor cable becomes an important task in bridge construction and maintenance. Therefore, a new type of optical fiber sensor was developed in the laboratory - optical fiber grating sensor for force measurement of anchor cable (OFBFMAC). No similar report about this kind of sensor has been found up to now in China and other countries. This sensor is proved to be an effective way of monitoring in processes of anchor cable installation, cable cutting, cable force regulation, etc, with the accurate and repeatable measuring results. Its successful application in the tie bar cable force safety monitoring for Wuhan Qingchuan bridge is a new exploration of optical fiber grating sensing technology in bridge tie bar monitoring system.

  19. The Coupling Effect of Spatial Reticulated Shell Structure with Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; ZHOU Dai; FU Xu-chen

    2005-01-01

    The spatial reticulated shell structure with cables (RSC) is a kind of coupling working system, which consists of flexible cables, reticulated shell structure (RS) and tower columns. The dynamic analysis of RSC based on the coupling model was carried out. Three kinds of elements such as the spatial bar element, cable element and beam element were introduced to analyze the reticulated shell, cable and tower column respectively. Furthermore,such parameter influences as structural boundary conditions, grid configuration, the span-to-depth ratio and the arrangement of cable system upon structural dynamics were analyzed. The structural vibration modes can be divided into four groups based on some numerical examples. And the frequencies in the same group are very close while the frequencies in different groups are different from each other obviously. It is clear that the sequence of the appearance of the each mode group heavily depends on the comparative stiffness of the tower column system, RS and cables.

  20. Study on the Configuration of Towed Flexible Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏康; 张仁颐

    2003-01-01

    Based on the fundamental equation of flexible cable dynamics for a towed system, an easily solved mathematical model is set up in this paper by means of appropriate simplification. Several regular patterns of spatial motion of towed flexible cables in water are obtained through numerical simulation with the finite difference method, and then modification and verification by trial results at sea. A technical support is provided for the towing ship to maneuver properly when a flexible cable is towed. Furthermore, the relations between two towed flexible cables, which are towed simultaneously by a ship, are investigated. The results show that the ship towing two flexible cables is safe under the suggested arrangement of two winches for the towing system, and the coiling/uncoiling sequences of the cables as well as the suggested way of maneuvering.

  1. DC Cable Short Circuit Fault Protection in VSC-MTDC

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shining

    2015-01-01

    With the development of offshore wind farms, Voltage Source Converter based High Voltage Direct Current or Multi-terminal High Voltage Direct Current Technology (VSC-HVDC/MTDC) is becoming promising in the field of large-capacity and long-distance power transmission. However, its extreme vulnerability to DC contingencies remains a challenge in both research and practice. DC cable short circuit faults, or cable pole-to-pole faults, though less common than DC cable ground faults, can cause the ...

  2. 46 CFR 111.60-6 - Fiber optic cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiber optic cable. 111.60-6 Section 111.60-6 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-6 Fiber optic cable. Each fiber optic cable must— (a) Be... 60332-3-22 (all three standards incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1); or (b) Be installed...

  3. Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials

  4. Total Magnetic Field Signatures over Submarine HVDC Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Tchernychev, M.; Johnston, J. M.; Tryggestad, J.

    2013-12-01

    Mikhail Tchernychev, Geometrics, Inc. Ross Johnson, Geometrics, Inc. Jeff Johnston, Geometrics, Inc. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is widely used to transmit electrical power over considerable distances using submarine cables. The most commonly known examples are the HVDC cable between Italy and Greece (160 km), Victoria-Tasmania (300 km), New Jersey - Long Island (82 km) and the Transbay cable (Pittsburg, California - San-Francisco). These cables are inspected periodically and their location and burial depth verified. This inspection applies to live and idle cables; in particular a survey company could be required to locate pieces of a dead cable for subsequent removal from the sea floor. Most HVDC cables produce a constant magnetic field; therefore one of the possible survey tools would be Marine Total Field Magnetometer. We present mathematical expressions of the expected magnetic fields and compare them with fields observed during actual surveys. We also compare these anomalies fields with magnetic fields produced by other long objects, such as submarine pipelines The data processing techniques are discussed. There include the use of Analytic Signal and direct modeling of Total Magnetic Field. The Analytic Signal analysis can be adapted using ground truth where available, but the total field allows better discrimination of the cable parameters, in particular to distinguish between live and idle cable. Use of a Transverse Gradiometer (TVG) allows for easy discrimination between cable and pipe line objects. Considerable magnetic gradient is present in the case of a pipeline whereas there is less gradient for the DC power cable. Thus the TVG is used to validate assumptions made during the data interpretation process. Data obtained during the TVG surveys suggest that the magnetic field of a live HVDC cable is described by an expression for two infinite long wires carrying current in opposite directions.

  5. A linear model of stationary elevator traveling and compensation cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. D.; Ren, H.

    2013-06-01

    Based on a recent asymptotic analysis of a nonlinear model of a slack cable, a computationally efficient, linear model is developed for calculating the natural frequencies, mode shapes, and dynamic responses of stationary elevator traveling and compensation cables. The linear cable model consists of two vertical cable segments connected by a half-circular lower loop. The two vertical cable segments are modeled as a string with a variable tension due to the weight of the cable. The horizontal displacements of the cable segments consist of boundary-induced displacements and relative elastic displacements, where the boundary-induced displacements are interpolated from the displacements of the two lower ends of the cable segments, and the relative elastic displacements satisfy the corresponding homogeneous boundary conditions of the cable segments. The horizontal displacement of the lower loop is interpolated from those of the two lower ends of the two cable segments, and the bending stiffness of the lower loop is modeled by a spring with a constant stiffness, which can be calculated from the nonlinear model. Given a car position, the natural frequencies and mode shapes of an elevator traveling or compensation cable are calculated using the linear model and compared with those from the nonlinear model. The calculated natural frequencies are also compared with those from a full-scale experiment. In addition, the dynamic responses of a cable under a boundary excitation are calculated and compared with those from the nonlinear model. There is a good agreement between the predictions from the linear and nonlinear models and between the measured natural frequencies from the full-scale experiment and the corresponding calculated ones.

  6. Similarity Analysis of Cable Insulations by Chemical Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    As result of this experiment, it was found that FT-IR test for material composition, TGA test for aging trend are applicable for similarity analysis of cable materials. OIT is recommended as option if TGA doesn't show good trend. Qualification of new insulation by EQ report of old insulation should be based on higher activation energy of new insulation than that of old one in the consideration of conservatism. In old nuclear power plant, it is easy to find black cable which has no marking of cable information such as manufacturer, material name and voltage. If a type test is required for qualification of these cables, how could I select representative cable? How could I determine the similarity of these cables? If manufacturer has qualified a cable for nuclear power plant more than a decade ago and composition of cable material is changed with similar one, is it acceptable to use the old EQ report for recently manufactured cable? It is well known to use FT-IR method to determine the similarity of cable materials. Infrared ray is easy tool to compare compositions of each material. But, it is not proper to compare aging trend of these materials. Study for similarity analysis of cable insulation by chemical test is described herein. To study a similarity evaluation method for polymer materials, FT-IR, TGA and OIT tests were performed for two cable insulation(old and new) which were supplied from same manufacturer. FT-IR shows good result to compare material compositions while TGA and OIT show good result to compare aging character of materials.

  7. Prospects of Research on Cable Logging in Forest Engineering Community

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalli, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of researches on cable logging carried out in the past 12 years (2000–2011) as found in the scientific literature at international level is proposed in order to evaluate which have been the main topics of interest of the researchers and to evaluate the evolution of the research in the field of cable logging in the next future. International scientific literature on cable logging was extracted from the main databases, scientific journals and conference proceedings on forest enginee...

  8. Underwater-cable power-transmission system: bottom segment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    After a survey of the state of the art for bottom cables, some possible configurations are considered for candidate OTEC sites. General considerations on laying and embedding are discussed, and solutions are considered. Optimization of cable dimensions and the problem of flexible joints are covered. The state of the art of cable installation and repair is reviewed and discussed with reference to the representative OTEC sites. Costs for shore terminal stations are evaluated. (LEW)

  9. Demand Pull and Supply Push in Portuguese Cable Television

    OpenAIRE

    João Leitão

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a Vector Autoregressive Model is applied to the most representative Portuguese cable television operators, in order to obtain a dynamic analysis of the interactivity established between the supply and the demand of network services, through the strategy of vertical integration of services. The results reveal the existence of two driving forces in the Portuguese main cable networks, on the one hand, the supply push which contributes to the enhancement of the basic cable demand, a...

  10. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2014-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...... increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead to the...

  11. Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensing-Based Steel Cable NDE Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghee Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive evaluation (NDE of steel cables in long span bridges is necessary to prevent structural failure. Thus, an automated cable monitoring system is proposed that uses a suitable NDE technique and a cable-climbing robot. A magnetic flux leakage- (MFL- based inspection system was applied to monitor the condition of cables. This inspection system measures magnetic flux to detect the local faults (LF of steel cable. To verify the feasibility of the proposed damage detection technique, an 8-channel MFL sensor head prototype was designed and fabricated. A steel cable bunch specimen with several types of damage was fabricated and scanned by the MFL sensor head to measure the magnetic flux density of the specimen. To interpret the condition of the steel cable, magnetic flux signals were used to determine the locations of the flaws and the levels of damage. Measured signals from the damaged specimen were compared with thresholds that were set for objective decision-making. In addition, the measured magnetic flux signals were visualized as a 3D MFL map for intuitive cable monitoring. Finally, the results were compared with information on actual inflicted damages, to confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed cable monitoring method.

  12. Modeling and Experiments of Spray System for Cable Painting Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-liang; Lü Tian-sheng; LI Bei-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Many cable-stayed bridges have been built in the world in the past decades,and cable-stayed structures have been adopted in many large constructions.The cable painting robot is safe and economically efficient for stay cable maintenance.In order to satisfy the need for spraying cables in hiigh attitude,an automatic cable spray system for cable painting robots is presented in this paper.Using the βdistribution,paint thickness distribution on a cylinder surface is modeled.The spray gun's number,angle and movement are analyzed to get coat evenness.Then a robotic spray system engineering prototype has been developed,which includes a cable electric running climbing base,a spray cover,four airless spray guns and a pressurized paint container.Experiments indicate that four airless spray guns can guarantee good coat quality for general stay cables.The field tests have been successfully conducted on Nanpu Bridge,Shanghai.

  13. Modelling Subsea Coaxial Cable as FIR Filter on MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisin, D.; Nordin, M. S.; Hazrul, M. H.; Kumar, E. A.

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents the modelling of subsea coaxial cable as a FIR filter on MATLAB. The subsea coaxial cables are commonly used in telecommunication industry and, oil and gas industry. Furthermore, this cable is unlike a filter circuit, which is a "lumped network" as individual components appear as discrete items. Therefore, a subsea coaxial network can be represented as a digital filter. In overall, the study has been conducted using MATLAB to model the subsea coaxial channel model base on primary and secondary parameters of subsea coaxial cable.

  14. Research on Cable Assembly Technology Facing Tridimention Layout in Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Zaicheng; Zhang, Yidan; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Zhibin

    According to the requirement for cables tridimensional layout in spacecraft, the research on new transmission line support (NTLS) is carried out. NTLS is namely T support. Based on the analysis of NTLS's physical parameters, the scheme of cable installing is established. Experimentations of statics and vibration prove the feasibility and dependability of the scheme. The results of experimentation indicate that the scheme of cable installing on T support is reasonable along with the requirement of cables tridimensional layout is satisfied. Therefore the efficiency of spacecraft assembly and integration is greatly enhanced.

  15. Interstrand contact resistances of Bi-2212 Rutherford cables for SMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawagoe, A. [Kagoshima University, Kohrimoto 1-21-40, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawagoe@eee.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Kawabata, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kohrimoto 1-21-40, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, F. [Kagoshima University, Kohrimoto 1-21-40, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Kitazekiyama 20-1, Ohtakacho-aza, Midori-ku, Nagoya 249-8522 (Japan); Hirano, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Kitazekiyama 20-1, Ohtakacho-aza, Midori-ku, Nagoya 249-8522 (Japan)

    2006-10-01

    Interstrand contact resistances of Bi-2212 Rutherford cables for SMES coils were evaluated from a comparison between measured data and 2D-FEM analyses on interstrand coupling losses in these cables. The cables were composed of 30 non-twisted Bi-2212 strands with a diameter of 0.81 mm and a cable twist pitch of 90 mm. Three samples were measured; one of them had NiCr cores and the others had no cores. One of the latter two samples repeatedly experienced bending. The interstrand coupling losses were measured in liquid helium for the straight samples under transverse ac ripple magnetic fields superposed on dc bias magnetic fields. The transverse magnetic field was applied to the samples in directions both perpendicular and parallel to the flat face of the cable. The effect of the bending on the interstrand coupling losses could be neglected for the non-cored samples. The interstrand coupling losses of NiCr cored sample decreased by about 30% compared with the non-cored samples, in case the direction of the transverse magnetic fields applied to the cable is perpendicular to the flat face of the cable. Using these results and 2D-FEM analyses, taking into account that interstrand contact conditions vary from the center to the edge in the cross-section of cables, gave us the conclusion that the between side-by-side strands contact with metallurgical bond only in both edges of the cables.

  16. Strand critical current degradation in $Nb_{3}$ Sn Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Higley, H C; Scanlan, R M; Yamada, R; Zlobin, A V

    2001-01-01

    Fermilab is developing 11 Tesla superconducting accelerator magnets based on Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor. Multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn strands produced using the modified jelly roll, internal tin, and powder-in-tube technologies were used for the development and test of the prototype cable. To optimize the cable geometry with respect to the critical current, short samples of Rutherford cable with packing factors in the 85 to 95% range were fabricated and studied. In this paper, the results of measurements of critical current, n-value and RRR made on the round virgin strands and on the strands extracted from the cable samples are presented. (5 refs).

  17. Development mineral insulated cables for nuclear instrumentation of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-core and out-of-core neutron detectors for reactor and safety control systems are usually connected by means of mineral insulated cables. The electrical signal, either a pulse or a current, is transmitted along the cable at high temperature, pressure and radiation and should not be influenced by electromagnetic interfereces from the environment. In this paper it is presented the result of the analysis of the mechanical and electrical properties of several types of mineral insulated cables and also the design, manufacture, sealing, cable ends and their applications to nuclear detectors of various types. (author)

  18. BEHAVIOR OF ELASTIC TOWING CABLES IN SHEAR CURRENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Guo-xiang; LI Hong-bin; ZHANG Sheng-jun; YANG Yun-tao; XU Shi-hua; XIE Wei

    2005-01-01

    The formulation and solution of governing equations that can be used to analyse the three-dimensional behaviour of elastic towing cables subjected to arbitrary sheared currents were presented in this paper. The elastic cable geometry was described in terms of two angles, elevation and azimuth, which are related to Cartesian co-ordinates by geometry compatibility relations. These relations were combined with the cable equilibrium equations to obtain a system of non-linear differential equations. In the end, results for cable tension, angles, geometry and elongation are presented for example cases.

  19. Prevention of damage to highways and railroads in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roads and railways, a distinctive part of Civil Engineering, when situated in subsidence areas, are subjected to the multiparameter reactions of soil due to subgrade deformation. The essence of technical degradation of such objects due to mining-induced subsidence entail changes in their functional and stability-strength properties. These changes take place within the structural system itself and, also in its subgrade. The linear character of such objects as a highway or a railroad creates a specific type of interaction between the subgrade and the elongated structure. The type of mining-induced contact reactions and the magnitude of service loads determine the operating capability of structures under these specific conditions. The need to maintain the proper geometrical parameters of the system (grade line, slope, superelevation, horizontal and/or vertical curvatures) arises from the necessity to maintain safe and uninterrupted traffic. The paper is based primarily on the author's broad and lengthy research experience

  20. Port wine landscape: railroads, phylloxera, and agricultural science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Marta

    2011-01-01

    It is easy to understand why regions that produce very fine goods such as port wine tend to conceal technological and scientific inputs and praise the uniqueness of the terroir. This paper suggests that, during the last decades of the nineteenth century, viticulture in the Douro region of Portugal was as much a product of soil, local farming traditions, and individual entrepreneurship as it was of modern state science and national politics for agricultural improvement. the unprecedented public projects of building a railroad and fighting phylloxera permanently changed the land of port wine. Moreover, those engineering practices of rationalization, simplification, and standardization that were inscribed on Douro's landscape proved essential for the Portuguese experience of modernization and nation-building. PMID:21563604

  1. Comparison of FT-IR and NIR method for cable classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are about 50,000 cables in NPP. The number of the cables need to be environmentally qualified are 1,000 cables to 3,000 cables depending on the NPP respectively. Some EQ cables are environmentally qualified and the steam test reports prepared, but some other EQ cables are not environmentally qualified or not prepared steam test reports. Not qualified EQ cables need to be qualified by steam test; high temperature and high pressure with the same condition of DBAs. There are thousands of EQ cables in NPP but all the EQ cables don't have to be tested entirely. The steam tests can be carried out by the same types of cables. One type of cable is tested and demonstrated that the cable's capability for the duration of the installed life, all the same type of cables are qualified. Therefore, the classification the EQ cables is very important to carry out the steam test effectively. Also cable classification method selection is important, too. I tried two kinds of methods to classify the Wolsong Unit 1 EQ cables, Near InfraRed (NIR) spectroscopy and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In case of old NPPs, lots of cables are missing their material information or have the wrong material information. The two methods are capable of searching for the material information of the cable. Briefly, the purpose FT-IR and NIR scanning is to find out their material information and classification of the EQ cables

  2. Chemical-Sensing Cables Detect Potential Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems Inc. (IOS) completed Phase I and II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with NASA's Langley Research Center to develop moisture- and pH-sensitive sensors to detect corrosion or pre-corrosive conditions, warning of potentially dangerous conditions before significant structural damage occurs. This new type of sensor uses a specially manufactured optical fiber whose entire length is chemically sensitive, changing color in response to contact with its target, and demonstrated to detect potentially corrosive moisture incursions to within 2 cm. After completing the work with NASA, the company received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Phase III SBIR to develop the sensors further for detecting chemical warfare agents, for which they proved just as successful. The company then worked with the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) to fine tune the sensors for detecting potential threats, such as toxic industrial compounds and nerve agents. In addition to the work with government agencies, Intelligent Optical Systems has sold the chemically sensitive fiber optic cables to major automotive and aerospace companies, who are finding a variety of uses for the devices. Marketed under the brand name Distributed Intrinsic Chemical Agent Sensing and Transmission (DICAST), these unique continuous-cable fiber optic chemical sensors can serve in a variety of applications: Corrosive-condition monitoring, aiding experimentation with nontraditional power sources, as an economical means of detecting chemical release in large facilities, as an inexpensive "alarm" systems to alert the user to a change in the chemical environment anywhere along the cable, or in distance-resolved optical time domain reflectometry systems to provide detailed profiles of chemical concentration versus length.

  3. The technology of cable and cable fault locating : part 4, high voltage non persistent fault finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G. [Radiodetection Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-04-01

    The use of high voltage surge generators known as 'thumpers' was discussed in this last of a four part series on cable and fault locating technologies. The thumper is a portable source of high voltage, which repeatedly connects high voltage to a buried cable under test (CUT). The problem often associated with thumpers is that different ground conditions, vehicle traffic patters and fault types can make the noise they generate difficult to discern. In addition, repeated thumping can have negative side effects to the CUT, including weakening of adjacent cables. Thumped cables also fail prematurely, therefore thumping should be used only as a last resort. Advancements in thumper systems have included better listening devices, and the integration of safety systems, self-discharge systems, grounding, manual discharge hot-sticks, key switch lockouts and other methods to minimize injury. Other advancements have included a visual pre-locator which made the thumper more like a high voltage TDR. Pre-locators usually indicate the fault with an accuracy of 10 to 15 per cent. The Secondary Impulse Method (SIM) is the latest development in thumper technology. It was developed mainly to enhance trace interpretation. 2 figs.

  4. Performances of super-long span prestressed cable-stayed bridge with CFRP cables and RPC girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhi; Fan Fenghong; Ren Liang

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the applicability of advanced composite carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and ultra-high performance concrete reactive powder concrete (RPC) in super-long span cable-stayed bridges , taking a 1 008 m cable-stayed bridge with steel girders and steel cables as an example,a new cable-stayed bridge in the same span with RPC girders and CFRP cables was designed,in which the cable’s cross section was determined by the principle of equivalent cable capacity and the girder’s cross section was determined in virtual of its stiffness, shear capacity and local stability. Based on the methods of finite element analysis,the comparative analysis of these two cable-stayed bridge schemes about static performances,dynamic performances,stability and wind resis-tance behavior were carried out. The results showed that it was feasible to form a highly efficient,durable concrete cable-stayed bridge with RPC girders and CFRP cables and made its applicable span range expand to 1 000 m long around.

  5. Copper Cable Recycling Technology. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  6. Reconsidering the Underground Railroad: Slavery and Racialization in the Making of the Canadian State

    OpenAIRE

    Abigail Bakan

    2008-01-01

    The Underground Railroad is commonly understood as a defining moment in the ideology of the Canadian state regarding the legacy of racism and anti-racism. This paper attempts to recast the narrative of the Underground Railroad through the lens of an anti-imperialist, anti-racist political economy, departing from the view of Canada’s anti-racist rescue of fugitive slaves from racist America. The Underground Railroad was in fact the product primarily of the struggle for self-emancipation of Ame...

  7. Kinetostatic Analysis of Cable-Driven Parallel Robots with Consideration of Sagging and Pulleys

    OpenAIRE

    Gouttefarde, Marc; Nguyen, Dinh Quan; Baradat, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Cable-driven parallel robots manipulating heavy payloads typically use cables having non-negligible diameters and mass. The associated cable guiding pulleys may then have non-negligible radii whose influence on the robot kinematics can hardly be neglected. This paper focuses on the output pulleys from which the cables extend to the robot mobile platform. A kinetostatic analysis of cable-driven parallel robots considering both cable mass and output pulleys is presented.

  8. An Analytical Study of Power Line Effect on UTP Cable using Lumped Circuit Components

    OpenAIRE

    Mitamoni Sarma; Shikhar Kr. Sarma

    2013-01-01

    The paper defines the term electrical noise with its types. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), which is one type of electrical noise, is also defined and general techniques used for controlling EMI are described. Networking cables are affected by the EMI effect caused by a nearby power cable and data transmission through Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable, which is the mostly effected cable by EMI, may be degraded for it. Today, UTP cable is the most popular networking cable supporting 10G ...

  9. Ageing research of cable insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research on cable degradation mechanisms were successfully proceeded by our group for 5 years in 2006 - 2010 as the project research of plant life management for nuclear power plant by NISA (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency) of METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry). At the finish of above research, the many reports on cable degradation were reviewed on the point of degradation mechanisms of the insulation materials by thermal and radiation ageing. Comparing the recent knowledge, the analysis and evaluation of the ported data were reconstructed, and proposed the new schema with the chemical reactions. The reports published after 1970 were mainly surveyed and the reliable facts, data which were described well in the experimental technique were selected. The verified facts, the reasonable interpretation of the facts, unresolved aspects were reviewed on the view point of recent techniques and knowledge. Especially, the review was focused to the oxidation mechanisms of polymer insulation materials by thermal and radiation ageing, and the interaction and contribution of antioxidant among the important stabilizers were discussed. (author)

  10. Tactical aircraft optical cable plant program plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Murdock, John K.; Ide, James R.

    1995-05-01

    A program was created with joint industry and government funding to apply fiber optic technologies to tactical aircraft. The technology offers many potential benefits, including increased electromagnetic interference immunity and the possibility of reduced weight, increased reliability, and enlarged capability from redesigning architectures to use the large bandwidth of fiber optics. Those benefits will only be realized if fiber optics meets the unique requirements of aircraft networks. The application of fiber optics to tactical aircraft presents challenges to physical components which can only be met by a methodical attention to what is required, what are the conditions of use, and how will the components be produced in the broad context of a fiber optics using economy. For this purpose, the FLASH program has outlined a plan, and developed a team to evaluate requirements, delineate environmental and use conditions, and design practical, low cost components for tactical aircraft fiber optic cable plants including cables, connectors, splices, backplanes, manufacturing and installation methods, and test and maintenance methods.

  11. Metal flame spray coating protects electrical cables in extreme environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, R. D.; Fox, H. A.

    1967-01-01

    Metal flame spray coating prevents EMF measurement error in sheathed instrumentation cables which are externally attached to cylinders which were cooled on the inside, but exposed to gamma radiation on the outside. The coating provides a thermoconductive path for radiation induced high temperatures within the cables.

  12. Improved Method for PD-Quantification in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Villefrance, Rasmus; Henriksen, Mogens

    n this paper, a method is described for improved quantification of partial discharges(PD) in power cables. The method is suitable for PD-detection and location systems in the MHz-range, where pulse attenuation and distortion along the cable cannot be neglected. The system transfer function was...

  13. Long-term monitoring FBG-based cable load sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    Stay cables are the main load-bearing components of stayed-cable bridges. The cables stress status is an important factor to the stayed-cable bridge structure safety evaluation. So it's very important not only to the bridge construction, but also to the long-term safety evaluation for the bridge structure in-service. The accurate measurement for cable load depends on an effective sensor, especially to meet the long time durability and measurement demand. FBG, for its great advantage of corrosion resistance, absolute measurement, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on, is the most promising sensor, which can cater for the cable force monitoring. In this paper, a load sensor has been developed, which is made up of a bushing elastic supporting body, 4 FBGs uniformly-spaced attached outside of the bushing supporting body, and a temperature compensation FBG for other four FBGs, moreover a cover for protection of FBGs. Firstly, the sensor measuring principle is analyzed, and relationship equation of FBG wavelength shifts and extrinsic load has also been gotten. And then the sensor calibration experiments of a steel cable stretching test with the FBG load sensor and a reference electric pressure sensor is finished, and the results shows excellent linearity of extrinsic load and FBG wavelength shifts, and good repeatability, which indicates that such kind of FBG-based load sensor is suitable for load measurement, especially for long-term, real time monitoring of stay-cables.

  14. Evaluation of cable aging degradation based on plant operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending the lifetime of nuclear power plant [(hereafter referred simply as ''NPP'')] is one of the most important concerns in the world nuclear industry. Cables are one of the long live items which have not been considered to be replaced during the design life of NPP. To extend the cable life beyond the design life, we need to prove that the design life is too conservative compared with the actual aging. Condition monitoring is one of the useful ways for evaluating the aging condition of cable. In order to simulate the natural aging in nuclear power plant, a study on accelerated aging needs to be conducted first. In this paper, evaluations of mechanical aging degradation for cable jacket were performed after accelerated aging under the continuous heating and intermittent heating. Contrary to general expectation, the intermittent heating to cable jacket showed low aging degradation, 50% break-elongation and 60% indenter modulus, compared with continuous heating. With the plant maintenance period of 1 month after every 12 or 18 months operation, we can easily deduce that the life time of cable jacket can be extended much longer than estimated through the general EQ (Environmental Qualification) test, which adopts continuous accelerated aging for determining cable life. Therefore, a systematic approach which considers the actual environment condition of nuclear power plant is required for determining the life of cables. (author)

  15. Environmental tests of electric cables for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of the materials for flame retardation of cables for nuclear power plants and the tests of their environmental resistivity are reported. Several cables to meet the severe requirements for these cables have been produced for trial, which have been subjected to the simulated environment test including Loss of Coolant Accident. The results are summarized as follows: (a) the ethylene-proylene rubber-insulated, chloroprene-sheathed cable has the sufficient properties to use in BWR containment vessels, such as radiation resistance and flame resistance. (b) It is the same in the chloroprene-sheathed cable, that has glass braids on the outermost layer and around each core, and the insulation layer of the silicone rubber electrically stable but mechanically low in radiation resistivity. (c) The flame-resistant cross-linking polyethylene-insulated, low hydrochloric acid vinyl-sheathed cable is usable near but outside BWR containment vessels. (d) The flame-resistant cross-linking polyethylene-insulated, chloroprene-sheathed cable having the insulating layer of polyethylene for each core can be used in PWR containment vessels. (e) Chloroprene and polyvinyl chloride, the flame-resistant sheath materials, deteriorate owing to heat aging alone. Only the insulating layers mainly contribute to the environmental resistivity of cables. (f) The environmental conditions are severer when heat aging is carried out prior to irradiation. The influence of dose rate is rather little. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. The AJ-conjecture and cabled knots over torus knots

    OpenAIRE

    Ruppe, Dennis; Zhang, Xingru

    2014-01-01

    We show that most cabled knots over torus knots in $S^3$ satisfy the AJ-conjecture, namely each $(r,s)$-cabled knot over each $(p,q)$-torus knot satisfies the $AJ$-conjecture if $r$ is not a number between $0$ and $pqs$.

  17. Optimal semi-active damping of cables with bending stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, C.; Weber, F.; Guzzella, L.

    2011-05-01

    The problem of optimal semi-active damping of cables with bending stiffness is investigated with an evolutionary algorithm. The developed damping strategy is validated on a single strand cable with a linear motor attached close to the anchor position. The motor is operated in force feedback mode during free decay of cable vibrations, during which time the decay ratios of the cable modes are measured. It is shown from these experiments that the damping ratios predicted in simulation are close to those measured. The semi-active damping strategy found by the evolutionary algorithm is very similar in character to that for a cable without bending stiffness, being the superposition of an amplitude-dependent friction and negative stiffness element. However, due to the bending stiffness of the cable, the tuning of the above elements as a function of the relevant cable parameters is greatly altered, especially for damper positions close to a fixed end anchor, where the mode shape depends strongly on bending stiffness. It is furthermore demonstrated that a semi-active damper is able to dissipate significantly more energy for a cable with simply supported ends compared to fixed ends due to larger damper strokes and thereby increased energy dissipation in the device.

  18. Optimized and practical electrical joints for CORC type HTS cables

    CERN Document Server

    Mulder, T; van der Laan, D C; Mentink, M G T; Dhallé, M; ten Kate, H H J

    2015-01-01

    Within CERN the development of REBCO-CORC (Conductor On Round Core) type cables is pursued in view of possible application in future detector and accelerator magnets. An important issue is the design and qualification of terminations for connecting CORC cables mutually or to bus-bars. A termination design is envisaged that combines a simple manufacturing process with a lowest possible joint terminal resistance in the few nΩ range at 4.2 K, first for a single CORC cable and subsequently for CORC based Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. The investigation concerns the effect of tapering the CORC cable within the joint to form a staircase like geometry, which allows current to pass more directly from the copper joint casing to the inner REBCO layers of the CORC cable. Simulations have shown a substantial decrease in joint resistance at operating current in the case both CORC cable and joint casing are tapered. The CORC cable and new joint were tested at CERN. In this paper, some details of the new joint design, fabric...

  19. The development of mineral insulated cable for nucleonic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and manufacture of high quality mineral insulated cable for reactor instrumentation use is described. Electrical specifications are set out. The possible conductivity mechanisms in cable MgO and the likelihood that ionic conductivity predominates in the temperature range 300-7000 is discussed. The oxidation of iron impurities is considered and the influence of water is identified. (U.K.)

  20. Transverse oscillations of an underwater beam-cable system

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Max; Wilson, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle refuel station is proposed. The power source is located on board a surface vessel, while the AUV is serviced at depth. The structure which connects the two craft is modelled as a cable-beam. Transverse oscillations of this cable-beam system are investigated through a fourth-order differential equation.

  1. Double Layered Sheath in Accurate HV XLPE Cable Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Silva, J. De; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses modelling of high voltage AC underground cables. For long cables, when crossbonding points are present, not only the coaxial mode of propagation is excited during transient phenomena, but also the intersheath mode. This causes inaccurate simulation results for high frequency...

  2. A Coaxial Cable Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Luo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a novel coaxial cable Fabry-Perot interferometer for sensing applications. The sensor is fabricated by drilling two holes half-way into a coaxial cable. The device physics was described. The temperature and strain responses of the sensor were tested. The measurement error was calculated and analyzed.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Instability of Iced Bridge Cable Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koss, Holger; Lund, Mia Schou Møller

    2013-01-01

    The accretion of ice on structural bridge cables changes the aerodynamic conditions of the surface and influences hence the acting wind load process. Full-scale monitoring indicates that light precipitation at moderate low temperatures between zero and -5°C may lead to large amplitude vibrations of...... load coefficients and experimental simulation on a 1DOF elastically suspended cable section....

  4. Cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring cable systems for experimental facilities in JAERI TANDEM ACCELERATOR BUILDING were completed recently. Measures are taken to prevent penetration of noises into the measuring systems. The cable systems are described in detail, including power supplies and grounding for the measuring systems. (author)

  5. Medium and high voltage power cables market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note gives an overview of the European market for medium and high voltage power cables. In this text, emphasis is placed on suppliers and important European clients; there is also a brief review of the different techniques for cable laying and utilization in Europe. This not has mainly been drafted from informations supplied by EUROPACABLE

  6. Heat resistant wire and cable and heat shrinkable tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processes have been used in industrial fields (e.g. wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubes) for about 30 years. In Japan, 60 electron beam accelerators were used in R and D, 54 in wire and cable, 24 in tire rubber, 16 in paint curing, 14 in PE foam and 9 accelerators were used in heat shrinkable tubes in 1993. Many properties (e.g. solder resistance, thermal deformation, and solven resistance) of wire and cable are improved by using radiation processes, and many kinds of radiation crosslinked wire and cable are used in the consumer market (TV sets, VTR's, audio disc players, etc.), automobiles (automobile wire harnesses, fusible link wires, sensor cables etc.), and the industrial market (computer cables, cables for keyboards, coaxial cables, etc.). Another important industrial application of Eβ radiation process is heat shrinkable tubes. Heat shinkable tubes, heated by a hot gun, shrink 1/2 ∼ 1/3 of their inner diameters. Heat shrinkable tubes are used for covers of distributing line terminals, joint covers of telecommunication lines, protection of fuel pipe lines and so on. In this seminar, actual applications and characteristic properties of radiation crosslinked materials are presented

  7. Eurodif plant 225-kV supply cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details are given about the characteristics of the low-density polyethylene insulated cables installed at Tricastin. The reasons for choosing this solution are analysed in particular as concerns fire hazards. The patterns adopted for the installation of these cables are described

  8. Levitation of Superconductive Cable in Earth Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohus Ulrych

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an introductory study about a superconductive cable levitating in Earth’s magnetic field. Built are two mathematical models of the problem providing both the shape of the arc of the cable and forces acting along it. The theoretical analysis is supplemented with an illustrative example.

  9. Levitation of superconductive cable in earth magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Karban; Ivo Dolezel; Bohus Ulrych

    2006-01-01

    The paper represents an introductory study about a superconductive cable levitating in Earth’s magnetic field. Built are two mathematical models of the problem providing both the shape of the arc of the cable and forces acting along it. The theoretical analysis is supplemented with an illustrative example.

  10. Critical Current Measurements of the Main LHC Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    2007-01-01

    For the main dipole and quadrupole magnets of the LHC, CERN has ordered from industry about 7000 km of superconducting Nb-Ti Rutherford type cables, delivered between 1999 and 2005. The strands of these cables are produced by six different companies, and cabled on five different machines. In the framework of the US contribution to the LHC, BNL has been testing and analyzing the electrical properties of samples of these cables. The main purpose of these tests was to qualify the critical current of the entire cable production in the frame of the quality assurance program implemented by CERN to assure the overall strand and cable performances. In total more than 2100 cable samples have been evaluated at 4.3 K in terms of critical current $I_{C}$, n-value and the residual resistance ratio, RRR. This paper will present an overview of the results, and show the correlations of the critical current and n-value between virgin strands, extracted strands, and cables. Also described are correlations of $I_{C}$ measured a...

  11. Super-Bridges Suspended Over Carbon Nanotube Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the new concept of super-bridges, i.e. kilometre-long bridges suspended over carbon nanotube cables, is introduced. The analysis shows that the use of realistic (thus defective) carbon nanotube bundles as suspension cables can enlarge the current limit main span by a factor of 3.

  12. Proposed Ordinance for the Regulation of Cable Television. Working Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago City Council, IL.

    A model ordinance is proposed for the regulation of cable television in the city of Chicago. It defines the language of the ordinance, sets forth the method of granting franchises, and describes the terms of the franchises. The duties of a commission to regulate cable television are listed and the method of selecting commission members is…

  13. 47 CFR 15.118 - Cable ready consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable ready consumer electronics equipment. 15... Unintentional Radiators § 15.118 Cable ready consumer electronics equipment. (a) All consumer electronics TV... provisions of this section. Consumer electronics TV receiving equipment that includes features intended...

  14. Radio wave guard device on a radiative cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudyus I. N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of development and research of radio wave guard device with the use of radiative cable and receiving aerial are shown. Two variants of their mutual location are considered. Theoretical and experimental researches of allocation of sensitivity on length of radiative cable are performed.

  15. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  16. Inductance and current distribution analysis of a prototype HTS cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is partly supported by NSFC Grant 51207146, RAEng Research Exchange scheme of UK and EPSRC EP/K01496X/1. Superconducting cable is an emerging technology for electricity power transmission. Since the high power capacity HTS transmission cables are manufactured using a multi-layer conductor structure, the current distribution among the multilayer structure would be nonuniform without proper optimization and hence lead to large transmission losses. Therefore a novel optimization method has been developed to achieve evenly distributed current among different layers considering the HTS cable structure parameters: radius, pitch angle and winding direction which determine the self and mutual inductance. A prototype HTS cable has been built using BSCCO tape and tested to validate the design the optimal design method. A superconductor characterization system has been developed using the Labview and NI data acquisition system. It can be used to measure the AC loss and current distribution of short HTS cables.

  17. Analytical Calculation of Current Distribution in Multistrand Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Fabbri, M G

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the problem of current distribution in multistrand superconducting cables has received increasing attention for large scale superconductivity applications due to its effect on the stability of fusion magnets and the field quality of accelerator magnets. A modelling approach based on distributed parameters has revealed to be very effective in dealing with long cables made of some tens or hundreds of strands. In this paper we present a fully analytical solution equation for a distributed parameters model in cables made of an arbitrary number of strands, whose validity is subjected to symmetry conditions generally satisfied in practical cables. We give in particular analytical formulae of practical use for the estimation of the maximum strand currents, time constants and redistribution lengths as a function of the cable properties and the external voltage source.

  18. Measurement of rock mass deformation with grouted coaxial antenna cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, C. H.; Su, M. B.; O'Connor, K.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques presented herein show how reflected voltage pulses from coaxial antenna cable grouted in rock masses can be employed to quantify the type and magnitude of rock mass deformation. This measurement is similar to that obtained from a combined full profile extensometer (to measure local extension) and inclinometer (to measure local shearing). Rock mass movements deform the grouted cable, which locally changes cable capacitance and thereby the reflected wave form of the voltage pulse. Thus, by monitoring changes in these reflection signatures, it is possible to monitor rock mass deformation. This paper presents laboratory measurements necessary to quantitatively interpret the reflected voltage signatures. Cables were sheared and extended to correlate measured cable deformation with reflected voltage signals. Laboratory testing included development of grout mixtures with optimum properties for field installation and performance of a TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) monitoring system. Finally, the interpretive techniques developed through laboratory measurements were applied to previously collected field data to extract hitherto unrealized information.

  19. System and method for sub-sea cable termination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qin; Yin, Weijun; Zhang, Lili

    2016-04-05

    An electrical connector includes a first cable termination chamber configured to receive a first power cable having at least a first conductor sheathed at least in part by a first insulating layer and a first insulation screen layer. Also, the electrical connector includes a first non-linear resistive layer configured to be coupled to a portion of the first conductor unsheathed by at least the first insulation screen layer and configured to control a direct current electric field generated in the first cable termination chamber. In addition, the electrical connector includes a first deflector configured to be coupled to the first power cable and control an alternating current electric field generated in the first cable termination chamber.

  20. Ground Loop Impedance of Long EHV Cable Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohno, Teruo; Bak, Claus Leth; Sørensen, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The distance protection scheme without communication is often applied to the backup protection of EHV cable lines. For a reliable operation of a ground distance relay, the ground loop impedance of EHV cable lines needs to have a linear relationship to the distance from the relay location to the...... literature. Through the calculation of the ground loop impedance for cable lines, it has been found that, for long EHV cable lines, the reliable operation of the ground distance relay is possible with a typical relay setting. Effects of parameters, such as substation grounding, cable layouts and...... fault location. The discontinuity of the ground loop impedance at cross-bonding points may have an ill effect on the reliable operation of the ground distance relay. However, the cause and parameters of the discontinuity and its effects on the ground distance relay protection have not been discussed in...

  1. FORCED WAVE PROPAGATION IN VISCOELASTIC CABLE WITH SMALL SAG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghui; Gao Qing; Jian Kailin; Yin Xuegang

    2001-01-01

    Based on the linear viscoelastic differential constitutive law and cable structural model, the coupled longitudinal-transverse waves that propagate along a viscoelastic cable with small curvature is investigated. A mathematical model is presented that describes the three-dimensional nonlinear response of a viscoelastic cable. An asymptotic form of this model is obtained for the linear response of cables having small equihbrium curvature. The spectral relation governing the propagating waves is derived using transform methods. The spectral relation is employed in deriving a Green's function that is then used to construct solutions for in-plane response under distributed harmonic excitation. Analysis of forced response reveals the existence of two types of periodic waves that propagate through the cable, one characterizing extension-comprehensive deformation and the other characteristic transverse deformation.

  2. First International Conference on Cable-Driven Parallel Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Pott, Andreas; Cable-Driven Parallel Robots

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents the outcome of the "First International Conference on Cable-Driven Parallel Robots" in 2012. This is the first conference to bring together the cable robot community and dedicate a forum for the international experts of this field. It contains the Know-how, ideas and experiences of active researchers developing cable-driven robots. The book presents the state of the art, including summarizing contributions and latest research results and, where relevant, the future outlook. The book covers the essential topics for cable-driven robots: classification and definition, kinematics, workspace analysis, cable modeling, control and calibration, design methodology, hardware/prototype development, experimental evaluation, application reports and new application concepts.

  3. Radio Coverage inside Tunnel Utilizing Leaky Coaxial Cable Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sayadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tunnels radio coverage utilizing leaky coaxial cable has been described. This cable can be deployed as a base station antenna for indoor wireless system such as tunnels. The older type of leaky cables is called coupled mode, while latest type is called radiation mode. These two modes can be distinguished by their radiation pattern, method of radiation (i.e., wave or energy and class of slot on outer conductor. To obtain the field radiation patterns, we use two models; diffuse and deterministic models. Then a modified ray tracing algorithm has been used and simulated to predict radio coverage in tunnels by leaky cable deployment. Simulations show that leaky cables achieve better RF coverage than distributed antennas in term of received signal level versus frequency for various lengths and cross section of tunnels.

  4. SIMULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC PICKUP ON CCTV COAXIAL CABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Boiprav

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of computer-aided design FEKO for simulation of electromagnetic interference on coaxial cables of different types, such as those used in CCTV (RG59/U, RG11/U, RG179/U is proposed. Item and parameters selection for this simulation rationale is given. The obtained results are described and analyzed. It was found that a cable RG179U is the most vulnerable to external electromagnetic radiation among of all coaxial cables used in the CCTV design. It was revealed that the electromagnetic interference levels on coaxial cable depends on this one length and takes maximum value when it is a multiple of the external electromagnetic radiation wavelength. A method for electromagnetic interference on the cable network CCTV reduction is proposed.

  5. Structural Basis for Autoinhibition of c-Abl Tyrosine Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Bhushan; Hantschel, Oliver; Young, Matthew A.; Scheffzek,Klaus; Veach, Darren; Bornmann, William; Clarkson, Bayard; Superti-Furga,Giulio; Kuriyan, John

    2003-03-21

    c-Abl is normally regulated by an autoinhibitory mechanism, the disruption of which leads to chronic myelogenous leukemia. The details of this mechanism have been elusive because c-Abl lacks aphosphotyrosine residue that triggers the assembly of the autoinhibited form of the closely related Src kinases by internally engaging the SH2 domain. Crystal structures of c-Abl show that the N-terminal myristoyl modification of c-Abl 1b binds to the kinase domain and induces conformational changes that allow the SH2 and SH3 domains to dock onto it. Autoinhibited c-Abl forms an assembly that is strikingly similar to that of inactive Src kinases but with specific differences that explain the differential ability of the drug STI-571/Gleevec/imatinib (STI-571)to inhibit the catalytic activity of Abl, but not that of c-Src.

  6. Dynamic Response Analysis of Towed Cable During Deployment/Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; HUANG Guo-liang; DENG De-heng

    2008-01-01

    A numerical approach was developed to analyze the transient behavior of towed cable during ac- tively controlled deployment/retrieval (DR). The cable motion is described by the lumped parameter method, its corresponding boundary conditions are presented. In view of its varying length during DR, two auxiliary arguments are introduced to describe its continuous varying length and discrete number of nodes(equations), the length is determined by the pay out(or reel-in) rate, which is then used to determine the node number by a logic relation. For the discrete mathematical model of towed cable, an algorithm was developed to deal with the discrete governing equations. The simulation results indicate that the cable experiences more com- plex motions due to its varying length, and tension fluctuates seriously in the startup and ending stage of deployment/retrieval. The effect of towing ship's motion in waves on cable during deployment/retrieval is also considered via numerical simulation.

  7. Wireless Power Transfer for High-precision Position Detection of Railroad Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Hyun-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Detection of vehicle position is critical for successful operation of intelligent transportation system. In case of railroad transportation systems, position information of railroad vehicles can be detected by GPS, track circuits, and so on. In this paper, position detection based on tags onto sleepers of the track is investigated. Position information stored in the tags is read by a reader placed at the bottom of running railroad vehicle. Due to limited capacity of battery or its alternative in the tags, power required for transmission of position information to the reader is harvested by the tags from the power wirelessly transferred from the reader. Basic mechanism in wireless power transfer is magnetic induction and power transfer efficiency according to the relative location of the reader to a tag is discussed with simulation results. Since power transfer efficiency is significantly affected by the ferromagnetic material (steel) at the bottom of the railroad vehicle and the track, magnetic beam shaping b...

  8. Railroad Lines, Published in unknown, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Stokes County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown. Data by this...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to... manufactured before May 7, 1958. 4. Griffin, three-riser cast steel wheel, ball rim design, 70-ton capacity....

  10. Railroad Lines, Published in 2005, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Garrett County Planning & Land Development.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2005. Data by this publisher...

  11. Field Plot Points for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. In this...

  12. Railroad Lines, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are...

  13. Railroad Lines, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Eau Claire County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Railroad Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. Data by this publisher...

  14. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  16. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... exemption in Docket No. FD 35410, Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company--Continuance in Control ] Exemption--Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company, in which Adrian & Blissfield Rail Road Company seeks to continue...

  17. Fire modeling for Building 221-T - T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by Hughes Associates, Inc. to document the results of fire models for building 221-T Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel. Backup data is contained in document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-010, Rev. 0

  18. The impact of the railroad on American society: a communication perspective of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusitz, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the railroad system as a combination of humans and machines that form a symbiosis, and explains how the railroad exerted a huge effect on American life when it made irrelevant the organic – following nature – time system that existed in cities and countries where clocks were set according to weather conditions. The author makes the point that the railroad is an organ of society, that it will evolve to serve the functions we demand, that it has molded and altered – but never replaced – contact between humans, and that it will continue to enhance and facilitate it. This manuscript analyzes the social, cross-cultural, psychological, and financial impact of the railroad on American society in the past two hundred years. The measure of progress in the United States is tantamount to the mass of things that had to be sacrificed to it.

  19. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  20. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  2. Evaluation of cable ageing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of power, control and instrumentation cables in nuclear power plants use polymers as their basic material for insulation and jacket. In many cases, these cables form part of safety-related circuits and should therefore be capable of operating correctly under both normal and accident conditions. Since polymeric materials are degraded by the long term action of the radiation and thermal environments found in the plant, it is important to be able to establish the cable condition during the plant lifetime. Nowadays there are a number of different methods to evaluate the remaining lifetime of cables. In the case of new plants, or new cables in old plants, accelerated ageing tests and predictive models can be used to establish the behaviour of the cable materials under operating conditions. There are verified techniques and considerable experience in the definition of predictive models. This type of approach is best carried out during the commissioning stage or in the early stages of operation. In older plants, particularly where there is a wide range of cable types in use, it is more appropriate to use condition monitoring methods to establish the state of degradation of cables in-plant. Over the last 10 years there have been considerable developments in methods for condition monitoring of cables and a tool-box of practical techniques are now available. There is no single technique which is suitable for all cable materials but the range of methods covers nearly all of the types currently in use, at present, the most established methods are the indented, thermal analysis (OIT, OITP and TGA) and dielectric loss measurements, All of these are either non-destructive methods or require only micro-samples of material. (Author) 15 refs

  3. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one level – railway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  4. Computer-Based Decision Support for Railroad Transportation Systems: an Investment Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the development of the economical and social life increased the complexity of transportation systems. In this context, the role of Decision Support Systems (DSS became more and more important. The paper presents the characteristics, necessity, and usage of DSS in transportation and describes a practical application in the railroad field. To compute the optimal transportation capacity and flow on a certain railroad, specialized decision-support software which is available on the market was used.

  5. Political-Legal Institutions and the Railroad Financing Mix, 1885-1929

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Schiffman

    2001-01-01

    During the 19th Century, U.S. railroads relied primarily on debt issues to finance their growth. This policy contributed to major financial crises, beginning in 1857, 1873 and 1893. Nevertheless, railroads failed to reduce their leverage over 1900-1929, and suffered severe consequences during the Great Depression. In order to explain this puzzle, I focus on several key political-legal developments that originated around 1885. These are: (a) Changes in the bankruptcy process; (b) the emergence...

  6. An extended force density method for form finding of constrained cable nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Aboul-Nasr

    2015-06-01

    This paper studied the prestressed cable nets and the loaded cable nets. For prestressed cable nets, coordinate constraints to all nodes of the cable net are introduced to modify the shape after graphically examining the preliminary shape. This preliminary shape resulted from linear analysis of assumed distribution of cable force densities. For analyzing cable nets under different load cases, the first load case is analyzed to achieve the coordinate constraints assigned to nodes. Analysis results are node coordinates, cable forces and lengths. Young’s modulus and areas of cables are used to calculate the unstressed length of all cables using materialization equations, those lengths are used as constraint in the analysis of other load cases. Forces in all cables under different load cases/combinations are calculated. By using this approach, design of cable net under static load is simplified.

  7. PCACE- PERSONAL COMPUTER AIDED CABLING ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    A computerized interactive harness engineering program has been developed to provide an inexpensive, interactive system which is designed for learning and using an engineering approach to interconnection systems. PCACE is basically a database system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records. This directly emulates the typical manual engineering methods of data handling, thus making the user interface to the program very natural. Data files can be created, viewed, manipulated, or printed in real time. The printed ouput is in a form ready for use by fabrication and engineering personnel. PCACE also contains a wide variety of error-checking routines including connector contact checks during hardcopy generation. The user may edit existing harness data files or create new files. In creating a new file, the user is given the opportunity to insert all the connector and harness boiler plate data which would be part of a normal connector wiring diagram. This data includes the following: 1) connector reference designator, 2) connector part number, 3) backshell part number, 4) cable reference designator, 5) cable part number, 6) drawing revision, 7) relevant notes, 8) standard wire gauge, and 9) maximum circuit count. Any item except the maximum circuit count may be left blank, and any item may be changed at a later time. Once a file is created and organized, the user is directed to the main menu and has access to the file boiler plate, the circuit wiring records, and the wiring records index list. The organization of a file is such that record zero contains the connector/cable boiler plate, and all other records contain circuit wiring data. Each wiring record will handle a circuit with as many as nine wires in the interface. The record stores the circuit name and wire count and the following data for each wire: 1) wire identifier, 2) contact, 3) splice, 4) wire gauge if different from standard

  8. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for Hydrothermal Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2012-04-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have, however, also confirmed that the uncertainty in the locations of the source and of the hydrophones could lower the quality of subsurface image. It is, therefore, strongly necessary to develop a total survey system that assures a accurate positioning and a deployment techniques

  9. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Marijn Pieter

    High-temperature superconductors are developed for use in power-transmission cables, transformers and motors. The alternating magnetic field in these devices causes AC loss, which is a critical factor in the design. The study focuses on multi-filament Bi-2223/Ag tapes exposed to a 50-Hz magnetic field at 77 K. The AC loss is measured with magnetic, electric and calorimetric methods. The results are compared to theoretical predictions based mainly on the Critical-State Model. The loss in high- temperature superconductors is affected by their characteristic properties: increased flux creep, high aspect ratio and inhomogeneties. Filament intergrowths and a low matrix resistivity cause a high coupling-current loss especially when the filaments are fully coupled. When the wide side of the tape is parallel to the external magnetic field, the filaments are decoupled by twisting. In a perpendicular field the filaments can be decoupled only by combining a short twist pitch with a transverse resistivity much higher than that of silver. The arrangement of the inner filaments determines the transverse resistivity. Ceramic barriers around the filaments cause partial decoupling in perpendicular magnetic fields at power frequencies. The resultant decrease in AC loss is greater than the accompanying decrease in critical current. With direct transport current in alternating magnetic field, the transport-current loss is well described with a new model for the dynamic resistance. The Critical- State Model describes well the magnetisation and total AC loss in parallel magnetic fields, at transport currents up to 0.7 times the critical current. When tapes are stacked face-to-face in a winding, the AC-loss density in perpendicular fields is greatly decreased due to the mutual shielding of the tapes. Coupling currents between the tapes in a cable cause an extra AC loss, which is reduced by a careful cable design. The total AC loss in complex devices with many tapes is generally well

  10. Steady State Analysis of Towed Marine Cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; HUANG Guo-liang; DENG De-heng

    2008-01-01

    Efficient numerical schemes were presented for the steady state solutions of towed marine cables. For most of towed systems, the steady state problem can be resolved into two-point boundary-value problem, or initial value problem in some special cases where the initial values are available directly. A new technique was proposed and attempted to solve the two-point boundary-value problem rather than the conventional shooting method due to its algorithm complexity and low efficiency. First, the boundary conditions are transformed into a set of nonlinear governing equations about the initial values, then bisection method is employed to solve these nonlinear equations with the aid of 4th order Runge-Kutta method. In common sense, non-uniform (sheared) current is assumed, which varies in magnitude and direction with depth. The schemes are validated through the DE Zoysa's example, then several numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the numerical schemes.

  11. Power laws from linear neuronal cable theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, Klas H; Lindén, Henrik Anders; Tetzlaff, Tom;

    2014-01-01

    Power laws, that is, power spectral densities (PSDs) exhibiting [Formula: see text] behavior for large frequencies f, have been observed both in microscopic (neural membrane potentials and currents) and macroscopic (electroencephalography; EEG) recordings. While complex network behavior has been ...... channels. The significance of this finding goes beyond neuroscience as it demonstrates how [Formula: see text] power laws with a wide range of values for the power-law exponent α may arise from a simple, linear partial differential equation....... suggested to be at the root of this phenomenon, we here demonstrate a possible origin of such power laws in the biophysical properties of single neurons described by the standard cable equation. Taking advantage of the analytical tractability of the so called ball and stick neuron model, we derive general...

  12. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  13. Dissipationless conductance in a topological coaxial cable

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio; Jackiw, Roman; Pi, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    We present a dynamical mechanism leading to dissipationless conductance, whose quantized value is controllable, in a (3+1)-dimensional electronic system. The mechanism is exemplified by a theory of Weyl fermions coupled to a Higgs field--also known as an axion insulator. We show that the insertion of an axial gauge flux can induce vortex lines in the Higgs field, similarly to the development of vortices in a superconductor upon the insertion of magnetic flux. We further show that the necessary axial gauge flux can be generated using Rashba spin-orbit coupling or a magnetic field. Vortex lines in the Higgs field are known to bind chiral fermionic modes, each of which serves as a one-way channel for electric charge with conductance $e^2/h$. Combining these elements, we present a physical picture, the "topological coaxial cable," illustrating how the value of the quantized conductance could be controlled in such an axion insulator.

  14. Surface Plasmons in Coaxial Metamaterial Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2013-07-01

    Thanks to Victor Veselago for his hypothesis of negative index of refraction, meta-materials — engineered composites — can be designed to have properties difficult or impossible to find in nature: they can have both electrical permittivity (ɛ) and magnetic permeability (μ) simultaneously negative. The metamaterials — henceforth negative-index materials (NIMs) — owe their properties to subwavelength structure rather than to their chemical composition. The tailored electromagnetic response of the NIMs has had a dramatic impact on classical optics: they are becoming known to have changed many basic notions related with electromagnetism. The present article is focused on gathering and reviewing fundamental characteristics of plasmon propagation in coaxial cables fabricated of the right-handed medium (RHM) (with ɛ > 0, μ > 0) and the left-handed medium (LHM) (with ɛ leaving the fiber environment, with precise control over the polarization rotation and pulse broadening. This review also covers briefly the nomenclature, classification, potential applications, and the limitations (related, for example, to the inherent losses) of the NIMs and their impact on classical electrodynamics in general, and in designing the cloaking devices in particular. A recent surge in efforts on invisibility and the cloaking devices seems to have spoiled the researchers worldwide: proposals include not only a way to hide an object without having to wrap the cloak around it, but also to replace a given object with another, thus adding to the deception even further! All this is attributed as much to the fundamental as to the practical advances made in the fabrication and characterization of NIMs. The article concludes briefly addressing the anticipated implications of plasmon observation in the multicoaxial cables and suggesting future dimensions worth adding to the problem. The background provided is believed to make less formidable the task of future writers of reviews in this

  15. Antenna Mechanism of Length Control of Actin Cables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishibanya Mohapatra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This "antenna mechanism" involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentration of myosin motors delivering Smy1. These results provide testable predictions of the antenna mechanism of actin-cable length control.

  16. Electrical Aging Phenomena of Power Cables Aged by Switching Impulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Cao; A.Zanwar; S.Grzybowski

    2013-01-01

    Due to the insufficient information regarding the aging phenomenon of cables caused by switching impulses,we aged 15 kV XLPE and EPR cable samples by 10000 switching impulses in experiments and tested them.Plus in order to compare the aging phenomenon under multi-stress conditions,additional EPR cable samples were aged by rated AC voltage and current with switching impulses superimposed.We used measurements of partial discharge parameters to monitor the cables' conditions during their aging process,and the AC breakdown voltages measurement to evaluate the cables after aging.Moreover,the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements revealed the changes of insulation materials after aging.The measurement results confirm that the accelerated aging of cable samples had taken place.The impacts of each individual aging factor are shown through the selected measurements and comparison.The study also helps to assess the reliability of the XLPE and EPR cables under similar condition while serving in power systems.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamic Reliability of Coupled Stay Cables and Bridge Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear vibration can cause serious problems in long span cable-stayed bridges. When the internal resonance threshold is reached between the excitation frequency and natural frequency,large amplitudes occur in the cable. Based on the current situation of lacking corresponding constraint criteria, a model was presented for analyzing the dynamic reliability of coupling oscillation between the cable and tower in a cable-stayed bridge. First of all, in the case of cable sag, the d'Alembert principle is applied to studying the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the structure, and resonance failure interval of parametric oscillation is calculated accordingly. Then the dynamic reliability model is set up using the JC method. An application of this model has been developed for the preliminary design of one cable-stayed bridge located on Hai River in Tianjin, and time histories analysis as well as reliability indexes have been obtained. When frequency ratio between the cable and tower is approaching 1∶2, the reliability index is 0.98, indicating high failure probability. And this is consistent with theoretical derivation and experimental results in reference. This model, which is capable of computing the reliability index of resonance failure, provides theoretical basis for the establishment of corresponding rule.

  18. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  19. Aerodynamic instability of cables in transmission power lines; Inestabilidad aerodinamica en cables de lineas de transmision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Lopez, Alberto; Vilar Rojas, Jorge Ivan; Munoz Black, Celso J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    One of the aerodynamic instabilities of transmission power lines cables is galloping, which consists in the appearance of important cable vibrations, mainly when the wind hits orthogonally the power line. In some cases the maximum amplitude that occurs reaches several meters, even when the wind velocities in a region are well below the value used for the mechanical design of the power lines. In general terms, galloping is associated with particular climatic conditions such as low temperatures and high humidities. In these conditions a coating of ice that adheres to the cable is formed, changing its transverse cross section, propitiating the galloping, although some authors have reported galloping without ice. These climatic conditions are presented mainly in the Northern part of our country and in the high regions of the mountain zones; nevertheless, the galloping phenomenon has been reported in few cases by Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The possible expansion of the power lines in these regions of the country leads to prevent the measures needed to diminish the appearance of this phenomenon. In this paper mention is made in particular of the solution adopted to the galloping problem that has appeared in the transmission power line of Salamayuca to Reforma, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua (CFE,1991). [Espanol] Una de las inestabilidades aerodinamicas que se presentan en los cables de lineas de transmision es el galopeo, el cual consiste en la aparicion de vibraciones importantes de los cables, sobre todo cuando el flujo del viento incide ortogonalmente a la linea. En algunos casos las amplitudes maximas que se presentan llegan a ser de varios metros, aun cuando las velocidades del viento en una region esten muy por debajo del valor empleado para el diseno mecanico de las lineas. Generalmente, el galopeo se asocia con condiciones climaticas particulares como son las bajas temperaturas y altas humedades. En estas condiciones se forma una cubierta de hielo que se

  20. A process to evaluate lead cable current responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-core flux detectors (ICFDs) create an electrical current from neutron or gamma irradiation. The generated current travels along a lead cable (LC) to a remote amplifier where the current is evaluated. These flux detectors are essential for reactor control and for initiating shutdown when local flux becomes too high. One disadvantage with the flux detector lead cables is that they generate their own current. This current is different for each lead cable and is not well understood. This creates an uncertainty in the net detector signal. (author)

  1. Cubierta de doble curvatura de cables pretensados (Finlandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergholt, K.

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available A new ice hockey stadium has been built in Tampere, Finland. It has a reinforced concrete structure and a light, double curvature, roof suspended from a network of prestressed cables. It has a rectangular planform, 63x92 m, and it can accommodate 10,000 spectators. The hockey rink is in the centre. After a brief comparison of various types of suspended roofs, the author describes his own design, and discusses the most delicate aspects of the project. The cables are anchored in lateral arched beams, whose stability is provided by external prestressed concrete ribs. The author emphasizes the importance of these beams for the overall efficiency of the project. Special care was taken to avoid curvature of the cables where these penetrate into the lateral beams, without, however, restricting the freedom of the cables to oscillate. The article describes the placing of the cables, the details of the cables themselves, and their stretching: all of which is a technology that is now well know and tried.El nuevo estadio para hockey sobre hielo, construido, en Tampere, Finlandia, a base de una estructura en hormigón armado y una cubierta ligera de doble curvatura formada por una red de cables pretensados, tiene forma rectangular con planta de 63,2 x 92 m; está previsto para 10.000 espectadores y lleva en el centro la cancha para hockey. Después de una ligera comparación de los distintos tipos de cubiertas suspendidas, el autor describe su obra y analiza las partes más sensibles de la cubierta suspendida por él proyectada. Los cables están anclados en vigas o arcos laterales cuya estabilidad está asegurada por tirantes exteriores de hormigón pretensado. El autor subraya la particular importancia que tiene la concepción de estas vigas o arcos laterales para la economía de la obra. Se tuvo especial cuidado en evitar codos en los cables donde éstos entran en las vigas o arcos laterales, sin por eso restringa la necesaria libertad de movimiento de

  2. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  3. Fiber Optic Cable Thermal Preparation to Ensure Stable Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoames Jr, William J.; Chuska, Rick F.; LaRocca, Frank V.; Switzer, Robert C.; Macmurphy, Shawn L.; Ott, Melanie N.

    2008-01-01

    Fiber optic cables are widely used in modern systems that must provide stable operation during exposure to changing environmental conditions. For example, a fiber optic cable on a satellite may have to reliably function over a temperature range of -50 C up to 125 C. While the system requirements for a particular application will dictate the exact method by which the fibers should be prepared, this work will examine multiple ruggedized fibers prepared in different fashions and subjected to thermal qualification testing. The data show that if properly conditioned the fiber cables can provide stable operation, but if done incorrectly, they will have large fluctuations in transmission.

  4. Comparison of several innovative bridge cable surface modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is installed for the protection of inner cable strands or wires. The modifications are based on research undertaken predominantly in Europe and......-span bridges can now produce more than 50% of the overall horizontal load on the bridge (Gimsing and Georgakis, 2012). Recently, the authors presented a comprehensive comparative study of the aerodynamic performance of these existing cable surface modifications (Kleissl and Georgakis, 2011, 2012). The...

  5. Impedance calculations for power cables to primary coolant pump motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LOFT primary system motor generator sets are located in Room B-239 and are connected to the primary coolant pumps by means of a power cable. The calculated average impedance of this cable is 0.005323 ohms per unit resistance and 0.006025 ohms per unit reactance based on 369.6 kVA and 480 volts. The report was written to show the development of power cable parameters that are to be used in the SICLOPS (Simulation of LOFT Reactor Coolant Loop Pumping System) digital computer program as written in LTR 1142-16 and also used in the pump coastdowns for the FSAR Analysis

  6. Applicability of cable theory to vascular conducted responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Jensen, Lars Jørn; Sørensen, Preben Graae;

    2012-01-01

    , the applicability of cable theory to blood vessels depends on assumptions that are not necessarily fulfilled in small arteries and arterioles. We have employed a morphologically and electrophysiologically detailed mathematical model of a rat mesenteric arteriole to investigate if the assumptions hold and whether...... be interpreted as a descriptive measure and not in light of cable theory. Determination of ¿ using cable theory assumes steady-state conditions. In contrast, using the model it is possible to probe how conduction behaves before steady state is achieved. As ion channels have time-dependent activation...

  7. Calibrator device for the extrusion of cable coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, Tomasz; Dulebová, Ľudmila; Spišák, Emil; Dulebová, Martina

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents selected results of theoretical and experimental research works on a new calibration device (calibrators) used to produce coatings of electric cables. The aim of this study is to present design solution calibration equipment and present a new calibration machine, which is an important element of the modernized technology extrusion lines for coating cables. As a result of the extrusion process of PVC modified with blowing agents, an extrudate in the form of an electrical cable was obtained. The conditions of the extrusion process were properly selected, which made it possible to obtain a product with solid external surface and cellular core.

  8. Superconducting cable development for future high energy physics detector magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the leadership of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) an international ad hoc collaboration for superconducting cables developed an aluminium stabilised superconducting cable for future detector magnets. With the financial support of the Swiss government, this R and D work was carried out for the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN).In this report the manufacturing process is described and results of the quality control measurements are summarised. These tests showed that the industrial manufacturing of an aluminium stabilised superconducting cable is feasible. (orig.)

  9. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model

  10. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Kotas, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension and...

  11. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model

  12. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined

  13. Conventional cable testing methods: strengths, weaknesses and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the major conventional methods that can be used to test power plant cables. It assesses their usefulness in diagnosing the condition of the insulation of the cable and then proposes some possible directions for innovation. The methods examined are dc insulation resistance measurement, ac signal injection for continuous monitoring and fault location, and the ac measurement of capacitance and loss angle. Specific subjects considered are the effects of temperature, cable construction and installation, and the validity of insulation resistance or loss angle measurement. The innovative proposals refer to the use of automation in the measurement and of computer-based Expert Systems for the evaluation of the results

  14. Experimental study of EMP coupling to long shielded cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments of EMP coupling to shielded cable have been done in the horizontally polarized dipole radiator. The test system of the experiment and the measurement method are both introduced. The tested coaxial cable is under different conditions--the cable is above the ground or on the ground, both terminals are open circuit, short circuit or one is open and the other is short. The core and the sheath are connected via a resistance of 50Ω. The results of the experiments are analysed based on double transmission lines theory and good agreement is obtained

  15. Field trail of fiber optic ocean bottom cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wentao; Huang, Wenzhu; Wang, Zhaogang; Luo, Yingbo; Li, Fang

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the field test of the fiber optic ocean bottom cable (FOOBC). The FOOBC are several ocean bottom seismic stations connected by optical fiber cables. In the ocean bottom seismic station, there are three orthogonal fiber optic accelerometers and one fiber optic hydrophone. The design of the sensors and stations are introduced. The field demonstration of an ocean bottom seismic station is carried out in Yunnan Province, China. The test results show that the three accelerometers has similar response to the seismic signal with traditional MEMS accelerometers. We believe that the fiber optic seismic cable is promising in the field of oil and gas exploration and earthquake monitoring.

  16. Low AC Loss in a 3 kA HTS Cable of the Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan; Willén, Dag; Lentge, Heidi; Thidemann, Carsten; Traeholt, Chresten; Melnik, Irina; Geschiere, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for a 6km long high temperature superconducting (HTS) AC power cable of the Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160mm, with two cooling stations at the cable ends only. Existing solutions for HTS cables would lead to excessively high coolant pressure drop in th...

  17. 47 CFR 76.950 - Complaints regarding cable programming service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Complaints regarding cable programming service... regarding cable programming service rates. (a) A franchising authority may file with the Commission a complaint challenging the reasonableness of its cable operator's rate for cable programming service, or...

  18. HEAT TESTS OF POWER CABLES WITH XLPE INSULATION AT DIRECT VOLTAGES UP TO 110 KV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Antonets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, experiment for determining the temperature difference between the elements of cable and in the open air is considered. The formation of a three cables laid in a plane with different spacing between adjacent cables. Tests to heat of cables for XLPE-polyethylene are used as a solid dielectric insulation. The line to XLPE-cables in group running horizontally, provided that the cables are of equal diameter and emit equal losses. It is limited to the following: the air flow around the cables may be necessary restricted by proximity to next cables. When single-core cables are installed in parallel the load current may not share equally between the parallel cables. This is because a significant proportion of the impedance of large conductors is due to self reactance and mutual reactance. Hence the spacing and relative location of each cable will have an effect on the current sharing. Calculation for each cable configuration is necessary. Possibility of using for determining the thermal properties of XLPE-cables a sheath applied over the cable surface with coefficient convection heat transfer between cable surface and the air region about it of equal zero. The work is devoted to creation of a method for calculation of the current rating of high-voltage cables in conditions function.

  19. Simple Program to Investigate Hysteresis Damping Effect of Cross-Ties on Cables Vibration of Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagis G. Papadopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A short computer program, fully documented, is presented, for the step-by-step dynamic analysis of isolated cables or couples of parallel cables of a cable-stayed bridge, connected to each other and possibly with the deck of the bridge, by very thin pretensioned wires (cross-ties and subjected to variation of their axial forces due to traffic or to successive pulses of a wind drag force. A simplified SDOF model, approximating the fundamental vibration mode, is adopted for every individual cable. The geometric nonlinearity of the cables is taken into account by their geometric stiffness, whereas the material nonlinearities of the cross-ties include compressive loosening, tensile yielding, and hysteresis stress-strain loops. Seven numerical experiments are performed. Based on them, it is observed that if two interconnected parallel cables have different dynamic characteristics, for example different lengths, thus different masses, weights, and geometric stiffnesses, too, or if one of them has a small additional mass, then a single pretensioned very thin wire, connecting them to each other and possibly with the deck of the bridge, proves effective in suppressing, by its hysteresis damping, the vibrations of the cables.

  20. A case–control study relating railroad worker mortality to diesel exhaust exposure using a threshold regression model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Whitmore, G. A.; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E.; Garshick, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A case–control study of lung cancer mortality in U.S. railroad workers in jobs with and without diesel exhaust exposure is reanalyzed using a new threshold regression methodology. The study included 1256 workers who died of lung cancer and 2385 controls who died primarily of circulatory system diseases. Diesel exhaust exposure was assessed using railroad job history from the US Railroad Retirement Board and an industrial hygiene survey. Smoking habits were available from next-of-kin and poten...

  1. Definition of data bases, codes, and technologies for cable life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substantial number of cables inside containment for a typical nuclear facility provides a strong motivation to extend cable life rather than replace cables. Hence, it is important to understand what information is necessary to accomplish life extension. This paper defines utility-specific as well as collective industry actions that would facilitate extending cable life. The focus of these recommendations is (1) to more realistically define the environmental profiles during which cables must function, (2) to better understand the validity of accelerated aging methodology through examination of naturally aged cables, (3) to better understand the validity of accelerated aging methodology via selected experimentation, (4) to support cable aging analysis by improving nonproprietary data bases, (5) to reduce the impact of the design basis accident assumptions on cable performance so additional cable aging can be accommodated during extended life, and (6) to complement life predictions with more powerful cable condition monitoring techniques than those currently available

  2. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Chip; Redfern, Mark S

    2007-11-01

    Locomotion over ballast surfaces provides a unique situation for investigating the biomechanics of gait. Although much research has focused on level and sloped walking on a smooth, firm surface in order to understand the common kinematic and kinetic variables associated with human locomotion, the literature currently provides few if any discussions regarding the dynamics of locomotion on surfaces that are either rocky or uneven. The purpose of this study was to investigate a method for using force plates to measure the ground reaction forces (GRFs) during gait on ballast. Ballast is a construction aggregate of unsymmetrical rock used in industry for the purpose of forming track bed on which railway ties are laid or in yards where railroad cars are stored. It is used to facilitate the drainage of water and to create even running surfaces. To construct the experimental ballast surfaces, 31.75 mm (1 1/4 in.) marble ballast at depths of approximately 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) or 101.6 mm (4 in.) were spread over a carpeted vinyl tile walkway specially designed for gait studies. GRF magnitudes and time histories from a force plate were collected under normal smooth surface and under both ballast surface conditions for five subjects. GRF magnitudes and time histories during smooth surface walking were similar to GRF magnitudes and time histories from the two ballast surface conditions. The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. PMID:18089931

  3. 9 CFR 325.17 - Loading or unloading products in sealed railroad cars, trucks, etc., en route prohibited; exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND...; exception. Unloading any product from an officially sealed railroad car, truck, or other means of...

  4. Effects of ice accretion on the aerodynamics of bridge cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demartino, C.; Koss, Holger; Georgakis, Christos T.;

    2015-01-01

    temperature, wind speed and yaw angle of accretion, were reproduced in a climatic wind tunnel, giving rise to different types of accretion. These were chosen such to generate the most common natural ice formations expected to produce bridge cable vibrations. A description of the geometric characteristics of......Undesirable wind induced vibrations of bridge cables can occur when atmospheric conditions are such to generate ice accretion. This paper contains the results of an extensive investigation of the effects of ice accretion due to in-cloud icing, on the aerodynamic characteristics of bridge hangers...... and stay cables. The aim of this paper is twofold; first, it was investigated the ice accretion process and the final shape of the ice accreted; then the aerodynamics of the ice accreted bridge cables was characterized, and related to the ice shape. Different climatic conditions, i.e. combinations of...

  5. Stability measurements on cored cables in normal and superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative stability of LHC type cables has been measured by the direct heating of one of the individual strands with a short duration current pulse. The minimum energy required to initiate a quench has been determined for a number of cables which have a central core to increase the effective inter-strand cross-over resistance. Experiments were performed in both normal helium at 4.4 K and superfluid at 1.9 K. Conductors in general are less stable at the lower temperature when measured at the same fraction of critical current. Results show that the cored-cables, even when partially filled with solder or with a porous-metal filler exhibit a relatively low stability at currents close to the critical current. It is speculated that the high inter-strand electrical and thermal resistance inherent in these cables may effect the stability at high currents

  6. Experimental investigation of a.c. losses in cabled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.c. losses in multifilamentary composite superconducting strands and cables have been measured in adiabatic conditions for transverse field sweep rates up to 50 T s-1. Measurements were performed on NbTi and Nb3Sn conductors of several configurations and surface preparations: single strands, soldered strands and cables of varying degrees of compaction composed of bare strands, with CuNi barriers and strands with chrome plating. The experimental data agree well with existing loss models. The data suggests that the total cable loss grows as approx.= 1/(void)3 below void fractions of 40%. This observed cable loss dependence on void fraction does not agree well with a previously proposed model. (author)

  7. Temperature Dependence of PMD of the Optical Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S.J. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This report is relevant to the project {sup K}EPCO All-Optical Network Project{sup w}hich is being carried out by Computer and Communication Group in Power System Laboratory. This report is planned to be used as a reference guide for the PMD strategy of the KEPCO optical networks. The PMD of the optical cable installed in the air as OPGW is greatly affected by the environmental temperature change, unlike that of the optical cable installed underground. The variance was turned out to be 70% larger compared with that of underground optical cable and the time scale of the PMD was less than 5 min, in the worst case. Hence, the compensation technology should be chosen taking into account the properties of the aerial optical cables. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Correlation of electrical reactor cable failure with materials degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete circuit failure (shortout) of electrical cables typically used in nuclear power plant containments is investigated. Failure modes are correlated with the mechanical deterioration of the elastomeric cable materials. It is found that for normal reactor operation, electrical cables are reliable and safe over very long periods. During high temperature excursions, however, cables pulled across corners under high stress may short out due to conductor creep. Severe cracking will occur in short times during high temperatures (>1500C) and in times of the order of years at elevated temperatures (1000C to 1400C). A theoretical treatment of stress distribution responsible for creep and for cracking by J.E. Reaugh of Science Applications, Inc. is contained in the Appendix. 29 refs., 32 figs

  9. Development of YBCO HTS cable with low AC loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables using YBCO tapes are expected to be more economical because AC losses will be much smaller than conventional cables. To reduce AC loss, 10 mm wide YBCO tapes were divided into five strips using a YAG laser. Using narrower strips and optimizing the space between the strips were effective in reducing AC loss. A 1 m conductor was fabricated, and AC loss was 0.048 W/m at 1 kA and 50 Hz. Based on the successful AC loss reduction in the 1 m conductor, we will fabricate a 10 m HTS cable with a three-layer HTS conductor, electrical insulation, and a one-layer HTS shield and cupper protection layer for overcurrent. In addition, we have developed a prototype of the HTS cable joint that can withstand an overcurrent condition of 31.5 kA for 2 s

  10. The Offshore Wind Farm Array Cable Layout Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Joanna; Lysgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In an offshore wind farm (OWF), the turbines are connected to a transformer by cable routes that cannot cross each other. Finding the minimum cost array cable layout thus amounts to a vehicle routing problem with the additional constraints that the routes must be embedded in the plane. For this...... problem, both exact and heuristic methods are of interest. We optimize cable layouts for real-world OWFs by a hop-indexed integer programming formulation, and develop a heuristic for computing layouts based on the Clarke and Wright savings heuristic for vehicle routing. Our heuristic computes layouts on...... average only 2% more expensive than the optimal layout. Finally, we present two problem extensions arising from real-world OWF cable layouts, and adapt the integer programming formulation to one of them. The thus obtained optimal layouts are up to 13% cheaper than the actually installed layouts....

  11. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  12. ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO): Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP): Velocity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of Hawaii's ALOHA ("A Long-term Oligotrophic Habitat Assessment") Cabled Observatory (ACO) is located 100 km north of the island of Oahu, Hawaii (22...

  13. A continuum model for current distribution in Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmedov, A I; Breschi, M

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of eddy currents induced in flat Rutherford-type cables by external time dependent magnetic fields has been performed. The induced currents generate in turn a secondary magnetic field which has a longitudinal periodicity (periodic pattern). The dependence of the amplitude of the pattern on the history of the cable excitation has been investigated. The study has been carried out with two different models for the simulation of current distribution in Rutherford cables, namely a network model, based on a lumped parameters circuit and a "continuum" model, based on a distributed parameters circuit. We show the results of simulations of the current distribution in the inner cable of a short LHC dipole model in different powering conditions and compare them to experimental data. (12 refs).

  14. Broadcast Service Areas, Cable, Published in Not Provided, US Army.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Broadcast Service Areas, Cable dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not Applicable coordinate system; in a Not Applicable...

  15. Crosslinking of wire and cable insulation using electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinking of wire and cable insulation is a well-established technology that is widely used in industry. The advantages of radiation crosslinking over chemical crosslinking have helped maintain its steady growth. Since successful utilization of electron beam processing relies on the formulation of compounds used in insulation, the radiation crosslinking of various polymers is reviewed. The handling technology for crosslinking wire and cable insulation and the throughput capacity of electron beam processors are also discussed. More than 30% of the industrial electron accelerators in the world are used for the radiation crosslinking of wire and cable insulation. Prospects of increased use of electron accelerators for crosslinking of wire and cable insulation are very good. (orig.)

  16. Screening attenuation of coaxial cables determined in GTEM-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Knobloch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the determination of the screening attenuation with a GTEM cell. An analytical part gives the link between the voltage at the cell port and the total radiated power. The next section investigates the optimal cable setup in the cell. With a measurement of the common mode current on the cable and a simulation of the radiation resistance the loop antenna characteristic of the cable setup could be verified. It is shown that the use of ferrit cores decrease the difference between the maximum and the minimum screening attenuation. The determination of great screening attenuation could be improved with the use of N-type measurement cables. A comparison between this GTEM cell method and the standard methods shows a good agreement.

  17. Stability of Superconducting Rutherford Cables For accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, GP; Verweij, A P

    2009-01-01

    The stability of superconducting magnets has a high priority for particle accelerators, since the operational time and operational collision energy depend strongly on it. Local heat dissipation due to beam loss and conductor movement is inevitable, causing local hot spots in the conductor, possibly leading to magnet quench. For stability against local and transient energy deposition, the cable is the most important unit to investigate. Most superconducting accelerator magnets are wound from Rutherford cables with a flat cable layout, consisting of twisted strands. The mechanisms of normal zone propagation in Rutherford cables have been described in detail with experimental and modeling data. The onset of a local normal zone forces current to redistribute in adjacent neighboring superconducting strands, reducing the longitudinal normal zone propagation. Transversal normal zone propagation in adjacent and crossing strands is caused by the redistribution of current and by heat exchange. The mechanism of normal z...

  18. DOE-sponsored cable aging research at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cables have been identified as critical components requiring detailed technical evaluation for extending the lifetime of Light Water Reactors beyond 40 years. This paper highlights some of the DOE-sponsored cable aging studies currently underway at Sandia. These studies are focused on two important issues: the validity of the often-used Arrhenius thermal aging prediction method and methods for predicting lifetimes in combined thermal-radiation environments. Accelerated thermal aging results are presented for three cable jacket and insulation materials, which indicate that hardening of the outside surface has an Arrhenius temperature dependence and correlates well with reductions in ultimate tensile elongation. This suggests that the indentor approach is a promising NDE technique for cable jacket and unjacketed insulation materials installed in thermally-dominated regions of nuclear power plants

  19. Calculating Parameters for a ReBCO Cable Joint Terminal

    CERN Document Server

    Vipp, Venno

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the effects of temperature and length on the design of a joint for a 6-around 1 CORC based conductor and optimize the terminal geometry for a single strand cable.

  20. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Ishikawa, K.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical cable seismic is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. This type of survey is generally called VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic). Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. Our first experiment of VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN in November 2009 for a feasibility study. Prestack depth migration is applied to the 3D VCS data to obtain a high quality 3D depth volume. Based on the results from the feasibility study, we have developed two autonomous recording VCS systems. After we carried out a trial experiment in the actual ocean at a water depth of about 400m and we carried out the second VCS survey at Iheya Knoll with a deep-towed source. In this survey, we could establish the procedures for the deployment/recovery of the system and could examine the locations and the fluctuations of the vertical cables at a water depth of around 1000m. The acquired VCS data clearly shows the reflections from the sub-seafloor. Through the experiment, we could confirm that our VCS system works well even in the severe circumstances around the locations of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. We have carried out two field surveys in 2011. One is a 3D survey with a boomer for a high-resolution surface source and the other one for an actual field survey in the Izena Cauldron an active hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough. Through these surveys, we have confirmed that the

  1. Research on Longitudinal Vibration Characteristic of the Six-Cable-Driven Parallel Manipulator in FAST

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Liu; Xiaoqiang Tang; Zhufeng Shao; Liping Wang; Lewei Tang

    2013-01-01

    The first adjustable feed support system in FAST is a six-cable-driven parallel manipulator. Due to flexibility of the cables, the cable-driven parallel manipulator bears a concern of possible vibration caused by wind disturbance or internal force from the fine drive system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze vibration characteristic of the six-cable-driven parallel manipulator in FAST. The tension equilibrium equation of the six-cable-driven parallel manipulator is set up regarding the ...

  2. INFLUENCE OF CONSTRUCTIVE AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEFECTS ON COAXIAL RADIO-FREQUENCY CABLE IMPEDANCE

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Bezprozvannych; A.M. Boyko; O.G. Kessaev

    2013-01-01

    Coaxial user's radio-frequency cables belong to a category of cable television network elements parameters of which essentially specify the system capabilities as a whole. The cable working frequency spectrum spreading to 1000 MHz along with digital television and soundtrack signals transmission and high-definition television introduction causes more rigid requirements for wave impedance and, consequently, for the cable design. The established norms on user's cable impedance deviations fail t...

  3. On Determining Instability Conditions for Stay Cables Subjected to Parametric Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Armando; Ahlin, Kjell; Kao-Walter, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Parametric Resonance Vibration in cables of cable-stayed bridges is mainly studied when the excitation frequency is close to or twice the cable natural frequency. It is, however, important to consider other cases for this frequency relationship, since among other factors, cable-parametric resonance vibrations are strongly depending on the displacement amplitude at the cable supports. Consequently, the present research work is focused on determining, by experimental and numerical analysis, the...

  4. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Sekino, Y.; Okamoto, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsukahara, H.; Shimura, T.

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) started the survey system development for Hydrothermal deposit. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS), the reflection seismic survey with vertical cable above seabottom. VCS has the following advantages for hydrothermal deposit survey. (1) VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey in limited area. (2) It achieves high-resolution image because the sensors are closely located to the target. (3) It avoids the coupling problems between sensor and seabottom that cause serious damage of seismic data quality. (4) Because of autonomous recording system on sea floor, various types of marine source are applicable with VCS such as sea-surface source (GI gun etc.) , deep-towed or ocean bottom source. Our first experiment of 2D/3D VCS surveys has been carried out in Lake Biwa, JAPAN, in November 2009. The 2D VCS data processing follows the walk-away VSP, including wave field separation and depth migration. Seismic Interferometry technique is also applied. The results give much clearer image than the conventional surface seismic. Prestack depth migration is applied to 3D data to obtain good quality 3D depth volume. Seismic Interferometry technique is applied to obtain the high resolution image in the very shallow zone. Based on the feasibility study, we have developed the autonomous recording VCS system and carried out the trial experiment in actual ocean at the water depth of about 400m to establish the procedures of deployment/recovery and to examine the VC position or fluctuation at seabottom. The result shows that the VC position is estimated with sufficient accuracy and very little fluctuation is observed. Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo took the research cruise NT11-02 on JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima in February, 2011. In the cruise NT11-02, JGI carried out the second VCS survey using the autonomous VCS recording system with the deep towed source provided by

  5. Long length HTS cable with integrated FCL property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past years have shown the growth of bottlenecks in electric power grids, among other reasons caused by the increasing demand of energy in the form of electricity and by the large-scaled integration of renewable sources. As solving of these challenges by means of traditional solutions appears to be more and more problematic, the need for new technology solutions has become apparent. The HTS cable technology demonstrates a great potential in solving of grid congestion issues. In addition to their large power transport capacity and low losses, modern-generation HTS cables also have an integrated fault-current limiting (FCL) property. Applications of such cables in power grids will help to solve fault-current issues when connecting new generators, and dispersed and large-scale renewable sources. As HTS cables, used in current projects, are limited to hundreds of meters in length, they have still not been used for energy transport over long distances. The Dutch DSO Alliander, together with Ultera, is working on the development of a 6 km FCL HTS cable for installation in the Alliander's HV grid. In order to get the low-loss benefits of the HTS technology, a cooling system with a high efficiency is needed. The FCL HTS cable will be cooled by one cooling station at each end of the cable, using a liquid nitrogen coolant. Alliander and Ultera have established and work to achieve technical performance targets believed to be required to realise a 6 km long, 50 kV retrofit system with a power rating of 250 MVA with cooling stations only at the two ends of the cable system. These targets aim to reduce the superconductor's AC loss at a nominal current, reduce the heat leak of the thermally insulating envelope, increase the voltage rating and reduce the friction coefficient of the coolant flow.

  6. Damage detection in acsr cables based on ultrasonic guided waves

    OpenAIRE

    Mijarez, Rito; Baltazar, Arturo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Joaquín; Ramírez-Niño, José

    2014-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic guided waves is growing as a non-destructive testing technique of multi-wire cables used in civil engineering structures. Wave propagation characteristics in these types of structures have been challenging to investigate owing to the load-dependent inter-wire contact and the helical geometry of the peripheral wires. In this work, experiments of guided waves propagated in a 0.9m Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable were conducted employing two longitudinal pie...

  7. Seismic Passive Control of Cable-Stayed Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hosam-Eddin M.; Abdel-Ghaffar, Ahmed M.

    1995-01-01

    A three-dimensional modeling procedure is proposed for cable-stayed bridges with rubber, steel, and lead energy dissipation devices. The passive control technique is investigated by considering the response of bridge models with and without energy dissipation devices. The impact of various design parameters on the seismic response of current and future bridge designs is studied. Appropriate locations and properties of the passive devices can achieve better performance for cable-stayed bridges...

  8. Distributed temperature monitoring of long distance submarine cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Martin; Christiansen, Willi; Kjær, Søren Valdemar; Hill, Wieland

    2011-05-01

    Distributed temperature sensing (DTS) of long distance power cables is shown to provide valuable information for cable design optimisation and proper operation of wind farms. The long range sensing is enabled by using the Raman-OFDR (optical frequency domain reflectometry) technology in single-mode fibres. Raman-OFDR uses a modulated continuous wave laser for detection. The low peak power minimizes stimulated Raman-scattering in single-mode fibres making accurate temperature sensing over long distances feasible.

  9. Stability analysis of the LHC cables for transient heat depositions

    OpenAIRE

    Granieri, Pier Paolo; Calvi, M.; Xydi, P.; Bocian, D.; Bottura, L.; Breschi, M.; Siemko, A.(CERN, CH-1211, Geneva-23, Switzerland)

    2008-01-01

    The commissioning and the exploitation of the LHC require a good knowledge of the stability margins of the superconducting magnets with respect to beam induced heat depositions. Previous studies showed that simple numerical models are suitable to carry out stability calculations of multi-strands cables, and highlighted the relevance of the heat transfer model with the surrounding helium. In this paper we present a systematic scan of the stability margin of all types of LHC cables working at 1...

  10. An Advanced Partial Discharge Recognition Strategy of Power Cable

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaotian Bi; Ang Ren; Simeng Li; Mingming Han; Qingquan Li

    2015-01-01

    Detection and localization of partial discharge are very important in condition monitoring of power cables, so it is necessary to build an accurate recognizer to recognize the discharge types. In this paper, firstly, a power cable model based on FDTD simulation is built to get the typical discharge signals as training samples. Secondly, because the extraction of discharge signal features is crucial, fractal characteristics of the training samples are extracted and inputted into the recognizer...

  11. Natural wet-snow shedding from overhead cables

    OpenAIRE

    Kollar, László E.; Olqma, Ossama; Farzaneh, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    The initiation of wet-snow shedding from overhead cables with negligible sag due to natural processes was modeled experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out in a cold chamber where wet-snow sleeves were prepared on a suspended cable, and then exposed to natural processes leading to snow shedding: air temperature above freezing point, wind effect, and heat radiation. The theoretical model is based on heat balance, and simulates water migration in the cross section at th...

  12. Cable Heating Effects due to Harmonic Distortion in Electrical Installations

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin O'Connell; Martin Barrett; Jonathan Blackledge; Anthony Sung

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of non-linear loads in electrical installations has exacerbated the problems of harmonic distortion in industrial and commercial electrical systems. In the UK the current practice to determine the cable size for an electric circuit is to use BS7671. However, previously the 16th edition IEE Wiring Regulations only dealt with situations where cables attain the conductor temperature generated by sinusoidal currents at the fundamental power frequency. This paper outlines the me...

  13. The Mathematical Modelling of Heat Transfer in Electrical Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Bugajev Andrej; Jankevičiūtė Gerda; Tumanova Natalija

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical modelling approach for heat transfer calculations in underground high voltage and middle voltage electrical power cables. First of the all typical layout of the cable in the sand or soil is described. Then numerical algorithms are targeted to the two-dimensional mathematical models of transient heat transfer. Finite Volume Method is suggested for calculations. Different strategies of nonorthogonality error elimination are considered. Acute triangles meshes ...

  14. THE RAILROAD CAPACITY CRISIS: After Cutting to the Bone and More, Trains Are Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Stone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Era of Railroad building (primarily the last half of the 19th century, it was far more profitable to lay track than to operate railroads due to the subsidiesfrom various levels ofgovernment and the competition between cities to be located on as many lines as possible, and the overcharging of the railroads by the construction companies. Railroads compensated for this glut by cross-subsidizing the unprofitable branch lines with revenues from the main lines. But as competition from other modes took hold, this was increasingly difficult to do. Therefore, by the early 20th century, railroads began to slowly shed some of the lightly trafficked lines. Regulatory changes in the 1980s made abandonment easier, and wholesale discarding of lines, including former mainlines, became common. But by the turn of the century,foreign imports put a greater demand on rail transportation, and lack of capacity caused many of the remaining lines to become very congested, in turn, causing extensive delays.

  15. Trend analysis of cables failure events at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 152 failure events related with cables at overseas nuclear power plants are selected from Nuclear Information Database, which is owned by The Institute of Nuclear Safety System, and these events are analyzed in view of occurrence, causal factor, and so on. And 15 failure events related with cables at domestic nuclear power plants are selected from Nuclear Information Archives, which is owned by JANTI, and these events are analyzed by the same manner. As a result of comparing both trends, it is revealed following; 1) A cable insulator failure rate is lower at domestic nuclear power plants than at foreign ones. It is thought that a deterioration diagnosis is performed broadly in Japan. 2) Many buried cables failure events have been occupied a significant portion of cables failure events during work activity at overseas plants, however none has been occurred at domestic plants. It is thought that sufficient survey is conducted before excavating activity in Japan. 3) A domestic age related cables failure rate in service is lower than the overseas one and domestic improper maintenance rate is higher than the overseas one. Maintenance worker' a skill improvement is expected in order to reduce improper maintenance. (author)

  16. Qualification of Fiber Optic Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Lindensmith, Christian A.; Roberts, William T.; Rainen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Means have been developed for enabling fiber optic cables of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer instrument to survive ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian conditions that include Martian summer and winter seasons. The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the rover external fiber optic cabling of ChemCam for space applications under the extreme thermal environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Flight-representative fiber optic cables were subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling of the same diurnal depth (or delta T) as expected in flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. The survivability of fiber optic cables was tested for 600 cumulative thermal cycles from -130 to +15 C to cover the winter season, and another 1,410 cumulative cycles from -105 to +40 C to cover the summer season. This test satisfies the required 3 times the design margin that is a total of 2,010 thermal cycles (670 x 3). This development test included functional optical transmission tests during the course of the test. Transmission of the fiber optic cables was performed prior to and after 1,288 thermal cycles and 2,010 thermal cycles. No significant changes in transmission were observed on either of the two representative fiber cables subject through the 3X MSL mission life that is 2,010 thermal cycles.

  17. Radiation Dose Testing on Juno High Voltage Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nelson W.; Kirkham, Harold; Kim, Wousik; McAlpine, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter will have a highly elliptical orbit taking the spacecraft through the radiation belts surrounding the planet. During these passes through the radiation belts, the spacecraft will be subject to high doses of radiation from energetic electrons and protons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 1 GeV. While shielding within the spacecraft main body will reduce the total absorbed dose to much of the spacecraft electronics, instruments and cables on the outside of the spacecraft will receive much higher levels of absorbed dose. In order to estimate the amount of degradation to two such cables, testing has been performed on two coaxial cables intended to provide high voltages to three of the instruments on Juno. Both cables were placed in a vacuum of 5x10(exp -6) torr and cooled to -50(deg)C prior to exposure to the radiation sources. Measurements of the coaxial capacitance per unit length and partial discharge noise floor indicate that increasing levels of radiation make measurable but acceptably small changes to the F EP Teflon utilized in the construction of these cables. In addition to the radiation dose testing, observations were made on the internal electrostatic charging characteristics of these cables and multiple discharges were recorded.

  18. A Simple Portable Cable Way for Agricultural Resource Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Krishnapillai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A signficant problem faced by the Indian farmer today is thedifficulty of obtaining labor for farm operations. The most labor intensiveoperation is the post-harvest resource collection. A simple, economical,compact cable way system has been designed, developed and fabricatedto haul sugarcane loads from the field. The cable way is made up ofsimple collapsible steel 'A' posts, which can be assembled on-site fromready-made frames. The sugarcane loads are slung on trolleys whichmove on a steel cable passing over the top of the frames, the cable beingtightened with a chain pulley block. The trolleys are pulled along by arecirculating rope operated by a winch. The empty trolley is pulled alongby the same rope along a cable way running near the bottom of the 'A'post,. Several trolleys can move simultaneously along the cable way.With a 2 HP motor the trolley speed was noticed to be about 0.3m/s andthe overall performance of the prototype was satisfactory. The entiresetup is fabricated from easy available and low cost components.

  19. Crosslinking of wire and cables with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first electron beam accelerator was established in a wire and cable manufacturer in Japan, about 25 years have elapsed. First, the wires for electronic appliances insulated with cross-linked polyvinyl chloride, cross-linked polyethylene and cross-linked flame retardant polyethylene were produced with electron beam machines. Nowadays, large quantities of electron beam cross-linked materials such a PVC, PE, FRPE and flame retardant polyolefine are used for the insulation and jacket of electronic wires and cables. In this paper, the reason why the electron beam cross-linking production in wire and cable industry has increased year by year is discussed. 38 electron beam accelerator machines are used by 13 wire and cable manufacturers. The market share and the sales of wire and cable manufacturers are shown. The advantageous properties brought about by cross-linking are solder resistance, heat resistance and good mechanical properties. The results of main tests are reported. Electron beam cross-linked products are listed, most of which were approved by UL and CSA. The electron beam processing system for wires and cables, the technical and economical comparison of electron beam process with other competitive processes and radiation control are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Stability and normal zone propagation in YBCO CORC cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoros, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.; van der Laan, D.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a two layer conductor on round core cable was tested for stability and normal zone propagation at 77 K in a liquid nitrogen bath. The cable was instrumented with voltage taps and wires on each strand over the cable’s central portion (i.e. excluding the end connections of the cable with the outside world). A heater was placed in the central zone on the surface of the cable, which allowed pulses of various powers and durations to be generated. Shrinking (recovering) and expanding (not recovering) normal zones have been detected, as well as stationary zones which were in thermal equilibrium. Such stationary thermal equilibrium zones did not expand or contract, and hit a constant upper temperature while the heater current persisted; they are essentially a form of Stekly stability. Overall, the cable showed a high degree of stability. Notably, it was able to carry a current of 0.45I c cable with maximum temperature of 123 K for one minute without damage.

  1. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two-...... the chord wise component of the support point motion relative to a safe domain determined from the harmonic analysis of the problem.......-degrees-of-freedom system with one modal coordinate for the in-plane displacement and one for the out-of-plane displacement. At first harmonic varying chord elongation at excitation frequencies close to the corresponding eigenfrequencies of the cable is considered in order to identify stable modes of vibration. Depending....... Next, the chord elongation is modelled as a narrow-banded Gaussian stochastic process, and it is shown that all the indicated harmonic solutions now become instable with probability one. Instead, the cable jumps randomly back and forth between the two in-plane and the whirling mode of vibration. A...

  2. Analysis of Harmonic Vibration of Cable-Stayed Footbridge under the Influence of Changes of the Cables Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakos, Wojciech

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents numerical analysis of harmonically excited vibration of a cable-stayed footbridge caused by a load function simulating crouching (squats) while changing the static tension in chosen cables. The intentional synchronized motion (e.g., squats) of a single person or group of persons on the footbridge with a frequency close to the natural frequency of the structure may lead to the resonant vibrations with large amplitudes. The appropriate tension changes in some cables cause detuning of resonance on account of stiffness changes of structures and hence detuning in the natural frequency that is close to the excitation frequency. The research was carried out on a 3D computer model of a real structure - a cable-stayed steel footbridge in Leśnica, a quarter of Wrocław, Poland, with the help of standard computer software based on FEM COSMOS/M System.

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Evaluation of Localized Cable Test Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-30

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test (NDE) methods focusing particularly on local measurements that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As NPPs consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal (SLR) to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years it important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs (AMPs) to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. Most utilities already have a program associated with their first life extension from 40 to 60 years. Regrettably there is neither a clear guideline nor a single NDE that can assure cable function and integrity for all cables. Thankfully, however, practical implementation of a broad range of tests allows utilities to develop a practical program that assures cable function to a high degree. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other NDE tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. These cable NDE programs vary in rigor and methodology. As the industry gains experience with the efficacy of these programs, it is expected that implementation practice will converge to a more common approach. This report addresses the range of local NDE cable tests that are or

  4. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Evaluation of Localized Cable Test Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Samuel W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hartman, Trenton S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-30

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test (NDE) methods focusing particularly on local measurements that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As NPPs consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal (SLR) to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs (AMPs) to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. Most utilities already have a program associated with their first life extension from 40 to 60 years. Regrettably, there is neither a clear guideline nor a single NDE that can assure cable function and integrity for all cables. Thankfully, however, practical implementation of a broad range of tests allows utilities to develop a practical program that assures cable function to a high degree. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other NDE tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. These cable NDE programs vary in rigor and methodology. As the industry gains experience with the efficacy of these programs, it is expected that implementation practice will converge to a more common approach. This report addresses the range of local NDE cable tests that are

  5. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities Jc in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2's bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high Jc at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices

  6. Sending more process data without additional cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The as-built data transmission capability in CANDU plants is fully employed. Long delays and high cost make it often not feasible to retrofit plant equipment with additional sensors and bring the data to the office. One of the reasons is the unavoidable addition of data transmission cables. This presentation describes the results of work performed in 1996/97 to network sensors using existing plant infrastructure. To provide an alternative solution, a general purpose data transmission system is being developed. It sends data over existing plant infrastructure such as power wiring and the telephone system. Its components are based on PC technology packaged in a 'black box', using special hardware and software to appear to the user as a very simple, low cost, device. Its drawback is its rather limited transmission speed. This design is in marked contrast to the complexity of present commercial data transmission systems. A point-to-point system has been demonstrated. A networked system is under development. (author)

  7. Design considerations for high-power VHF radar transceivers: Phase matching long coaxial cables using a cable radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. E.; Ecklund, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Poker Flat 49.92-MHz MST radar uses 64 phase-controlled transmitters in individual shelters distributed throughout the antenna array. Phase control is accomplished by sampling the transmitted pulse at the directional coupler of each transmitter and sending the sample pulse back to a phase-control unit. This method requires phase matching 64 long (256 meter) coaxial cables (RG-213) to within several electrical degrees. Tests with a time domain reflectometer showed that attenuation of high frequency components in the long RG-213 cable rounded the leading edge of the reflected pulse so that the cables could only be measured to within 50 cm (about 45 deg at 49.92 MHz). Another measurement technique using a vector voltmeter to compare forward and reflected phase required a directional coupler with unattainable directivity. Several other techniques were also found lacking, primarily because of loss in the long RG-213 cables. At this point it was realized that what was needed was a simple version of the phase-coherent clear-air radar, i.e., a cable radar. The design and operation of this cable are described.

  8. Free and forced convective cooling of pipe-type electric cables. Volume 1: forced cooling of cables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chato, J.C.; Crowley, J.M.

    1981-05-01

    A multi-faceted research program has been performed to investigate in detail several aspects of free and forced convective cooling of underground electric cable systems. There were two main areas of investigation. The first one reported in this volume dealt with the fluid dynamic and thermal aspects of various components of the cable system. In particular, friction factors for laminar flow in the cable pipes with various configurations were determined using a finite element technique; the temperature distributions and heat transfer in splices were examined using a combined analytical numerical technique; the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of cable pipes in the transitional and turbulent flow regime were determined experimentally in a model study; and full-scale model experimental work was carried out to determine the fluid dynamic and thermal characteristics of entrance and exit chambers for the cooling oil. The second major area of activity, reported in volume 2, involved a feasibility study of an electrohydrodynamic pump concept utilizing a traveling electric field generated by a pumping cable. Experimental studies in two different configurations as well as theoretical calculations showed that an electrohydrodynamic pump for the moving of dielectric oil in a cable system is feasible.

  9. New Passive Methodology for Power Cable Monitoring and Fault Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeug

    The utilization of power cables is increasing with the development of renewable energy and the maintenance replacement of old overhead power lines. Therefore, effective monitoring and accurate fault location for power cables are very important for the sake of a stable power supply. The recent technologies for power cable diagnosis and temperature monitoring system are described including their intrinsic limitations for cable health assessment. Power cable fault location methods are reviewed with two main categories: off-line and on-line data based methods. As a diagnostic and fault location approach, a new passive methodology is introduced. This methodology is based on analyzing the resonant frequencies of the transfer function between the input and output of the power cable system. The equivalent pi model is applied to the resonant frequency calculation for the selected underground power cable transmission system. The characteristics of the resonant frequencies are studied by analytical derivations and PSCAD simulations. It is found that the variation of load magnitudes and change of positive power factors (i.e., inductive loads) do not affect resonant frequencies significantly, but there is considerable movement of resonant frequencies under change of negative power factors (i.e., capacitive loads). Power cable fault conditions introduce new resonant frequencies in accordance with fault positions. Similar behaviors of the resonant frequencies are shown in a transformer (TR) connected power cable system with frequency shifts caused by the TR impedance. The resonant frequencies can be extracted by frequency analysis of power signals and the inherent noise in these signals plays a key role to measure the resonant frequencies. Window functions provide an effective tool for improving resonant frequency discernment. The frequency analysis is implemented on noise laden PSCAD simulation signals and it reveals identical resonant frequency characteristics with theoretical

  10. Seafloor geodetic reference station branched from submarine cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Ura, T.; Asakawa, K.; Yokobiki, T.; Iwase, R.; Goto, T.; Sato, M.; Nagahashi, K.; Tanaka, T.

    2008-12-01

    We launched a project supported by the Japan Society for the Science Promotion as the Grants in Aid for Scientific Research. In this project, we are aiming at developing new-generation seafloor geodetic observation system that conquers difficulties inherent with the current system. Central idea of this project is to utilize techniques of underwater robot (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and submarine cable to make measurements in place of using the research vessels. Combination of underwater robot and submarine cable make it possible to provide permanent seafloor reference point, to conduct the observation with selecting favorable condition of sea and GPS satellite distributions, to make much more frequent observations and to enable flexible planning of observation in response to sudden geodetic events. Prototype of the on-board system which should be installed on an AUV was finished. Several trials had been done with the system in the sea. The results from them showed that the new on-board system will reach to the higher level in performance than the current system in the near future. And then we started to dedicate ourselves mainly to developing new seafloor transponder. The current seafloor transponder system is stand-alone one which runs on internal batteries. We expect five to ten years for the lifetime of the current seafloor transponder, even though it depends on how often we perform measurements with the transponder. Replacement of the seafloor transponder will be needed when we target seafloor crustal deformation that has long time cycle more than several decades. Continuity of seafloor geodetic observation will be stopped. New seafloor transponder which we have been developing is one which can be connected to a submarine cable by wet-mate connectors. Power is supplied through submarine cable and then the new seafloor transponder will be a permanent reference station for seafloor geodetic survey. Submarine cable can supply accurate GPS time (1pps) and clock

  11. The Trade-Off between Road and Railroad Freight Transport – Cost Benefit Analysis for Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Erjavec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of transportation mode for freight transport has a profound effect on logistics companies, infrastructure providers and society as a whole. The efficiency of freight transport is important because it has a profound effect on several economic and environmental factors. The paper analyses the costs difference between railroad and road freight transport. The stakeholder analysis is used to enable the identification of the interests of various groups. The government is identified as the focal stakeholder. The governmental decision support model that focuses on the Slovenian case of road and railway freight transport is proposed. The proposed model can serve the government with its decision-making process when adopting policies that concern road and railroad transport such as subsidies or increased road tolls in order to promote railroad transport.

  12. An Analytical Study of Power Line Effect on UTP Cable using Lumped Circuit Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitamoni Sarma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper defines the term electrical noise with its types. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI, which is one type of electrical noise, is also defined and general techniques used for controlling EMI are described. Networking cables are affected by the EMI effect caused by a nearby power cable and data transmission through Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP cable, which is the mostly effected cable by EMI, may be degraded for it. Today, UTP cable is the most popular networking cable supporting 10G Ethernet. The most common effective methods for reduction of EMI effect on UTP cable, physical separation and use of shielding are described. EMI is caused by coupling mechanisms between source of interference and receptor. The two types of couplings are capacitive coupling and inductive coupling. The paper analyses and models the two couplings using lumped circuit components and electric circuit analysis considering power cable as the source of interference and networking cable as the receptor circuit of EMI.

  13. Forward Kinematics Analysis and Tension Distribution of a Cable-Driven Sinking Winches Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Xingguo; Chen, Peter C Y; Zhu, Zhencai; Zi, Bin

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the forward kinematics and tension distribution of sinking winches mechanism, which is a type of four-cable-driven partly constrained parallel robot. Conventional studies on forward kinematics of cable-driven parallel robot assumed that all cables are taut. Actually, given the lengths of four cables, some cables may be slack when the platform is in static equilibrium. Therefore, in this paper, the tension state (tautness or slackness) of cables is considered in the forward kinematics model. We propose Traversal-Solving-Algorithm, which can indicate the tension state of cables, and further determine the pose of the platform, if the lengths of four cables are given. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by four examples. The results of this paper can be used to control sinking winches mechanism to achieve the level and stable motion of the platform, and to make the tension distribution of cables as uniform as possible.

  14. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/task-force-sc). A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  15. Development of a power system for cabled ocean observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.; Kirkham, H.; El-Sharkawi, M.; Lancaster, P.; Liu, C.-C.; Lu, S.; McGinnis, T.; Schneider, K.; Upadhye, A.; Vorperian, V.

    2003-04-01

    Cabled Ocean Observatories offer the potential to deliver unprecedented amounts of power to remote instruments and sensors. The availability of sufficient power will enable new instrumentation and methods. Here we describe the present NEPTUNE power system design which will be capable of delivering an average of approximately 4 kW or a maximum of 10 kW to over 40 seafloor node locations spread over approximately 500 km x 1000 km area of seafloor. The system will have a backbone of 3500 km of standard, single conductor submarine telecommunications cable connecting the nodes and operating at 10 kV; the network will operate in a parallel mode with sea water returns at each node. A network of secondary extension cables will be developed that will allow the network to be extended up to 100 km from the backbone. The sub-sea backbone cable part of the power system includes circuit breakers so that cable faults can be isolated, and system operation can continue on unfaulted sections of the cable. A minimalist approach to the design of the backbone is essential to ensure adequate reliability. Here a configuration that places only the essential circuit breakers in the backbone is considered; a node’s science interface module (with the 10 kV-400/48 V dc/dc converter, communications electronics, and connectors) is on an easily serviceable spur cable. The percentage availability of the entire observatory is improved by segregating backbone attributes from science interface elements, making it easier to bring the full force of mission assurance techniques to bear on the backbone. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  16. Attachments for fire modeling for Building 221-T, T Plant canyon deck and railroad tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oar, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this attachment is to provide historical information and documentation for Document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-008 Rev 0, ``Fire Modeling for Building 221-T--T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel``, dated September 29, 1994. This data compilation contains the following: Resumes of the Technical Director, Senior Engineer and Junior Engineer; Review and Comment Record; Software Files; CFAST Input and Output Files; Calculation Control Sheets; and Estimating Sprinkler Actuation Time in the Canyon and Railroad Tunnel. The T Plant was originally a fuel reprocessing facility. It was modified later to decontaminate and repair PuRex process equipment.

  17. Transportation Technology and Economic Change: The Impact of Colonial Railroads on City Growth in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Remi Jedwab; Alexander Moradi

    2013-01-01

    What is the impact of modern transportation technology on long-run economic change in poor countries with high trade costs?  Rail construction in colonial Sub-Saharan Africa provides a natural experiment: 90% of African rail-road lines were built before independence, in a context where headloading was the dominant transportation technology.  Using new data on railroads and cities over one century within one country, Ghana, and Africa as a whole, we find large permanent effects of transportati...

  18. THE TRANS-MISSOURI CASE: DOES THE SHERMAN ACT APPLY TO THE RAILROADS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Landry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1887, in answer to railroad abuses of monopoly power, Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act, which created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC. In the next decade the Commission’s powers were considerably diminished by a series of Supreme Court decisions in cases in which the railroads appealed ICC rulings. In only one case during this period, the United States v. Trans-Missouri Freight Association, did the Court uphold an ICC decision. This case was primarily about collaborative ratemaking in rate bureaus but covered several larger issues, especially the possibly conflicting jurisdictions of the Sherman Act and the Interstate Commerce Act.

  19. Attachments for fire modeling for Building 221-T, T Plant canyon deck and railroad tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this attachment is to provide historical information and documentation for Document No. WHC-SD-CP-ANAL-008 Rev 0, ''Fire Modeling for Building 221-T--T Plant Canyon Deck and Railroad Tunnel'', dated September 29, 1994. This data compilation contains the following: Resumes of the Technical Director, Senior Engineer and Junior Engineer; Review and Comment Record; Software Files; CFAST Input and Output Files; Calculation Control Sheets; and Estimating Sprinkler Actuation Time in the Canyon and Railroad Tunnel. The T Plant was originally a fuel reprocessing facility. It was modified later to decontaminate and repair PuRex process equipment

  20. 26 CFR 31.6071(a)-1A - Time for filing returns with respect to the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time for filing returns with respect to the railroad unemployment repayment tax. 31.6071(a)-1A Section 31.6071(a)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... filing returns with respect to the railroad unemployment repayment tax. (a) In general. Each return...