Huang, Taoying; Shenoy, Pareen J; Sinha, Rajni; Graiser, Michael; Bumpers, Kevin W; Flowers, Christopher R
Lymphomas are the fifth most common cancer in United States with numerous histological subtypes. Integrating existing clinical information on lymphoma patients provides a platform for understanding biological variability in presentation and treatment response and aids development of novel therapies. We developed a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) Silver level compliant lymphoma database, called the Lymphoma Enterprise Architecture Data-system (LEAD), which integrates the pathology, pharmacy, laboratory, cancer registry, clinical trials, and clinical data from institutional databases. We utilized the Cancer Common Ontological Representation Environment Software Development Kit (caCORE SDK) provided by National Cancer Institute's Center for Bioinformatics to establish the LEAD platform for data management. The caCORE SDK generated system utilizes an n-tier architecture with open Application Programming Interfaces, controlled vocabularies, and registered metadata to achieve semantic integration across multiple cancer databases. We demonstrated that the data elements and structures within LEAD could be used to manage clinical research data from phase 1 clinical trials, cohort studies, and registry data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database. This work provides a clear example of how semantic technologies from caBIG can be applied to support a wide range of clinical and research tasks, and integrate data from disparate systems into a single architecture. This illustrates the central importance of caBIG to the management of clinical and biological data.
Full Text Available ... they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these clinical trials. The NIH may partner ... the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight for clinical trials that are testing ...
Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...
Full Text Available ... comparison groups by chance, rather than choice. This method helps ensure that any differences observed during a ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, ...
Full Text Available ... are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, ...
Full Text Available ... and Centers sponsor clinical trials. Many other groups, companies, and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include ... U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs; private companies; universities; and nonprofit organizations. NIH Institutes and Centers ( ...
Full Text Available ... treatment, or device is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research ... are required to have an IRB. Office for Human Research Protections The U.S. Department of Health and ...
Full Text Available ... and groups sponsor clinical trials that test the safety of products, such as medicines, and how well they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these clinical trials. ...
Full Text Available ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, ... lung, and blood disorders. By engaging the research community and a broad group of stakeholders and advisory ...
Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... care providers might be part of your treatment team. They will monitor your health closely. You may ...
Full Text Available ... harm. In later phases of clinical trials, researchers learn more about the new approach's risks and benefits. ... Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of ...
Full Text Available ... participants. Children and Clinical Studies Learn about the importance of children in clinical studies and get answers to common questions. NIH Clinical Research Trials and You Get additional guidance on participating ...
Full Text Available ... the same scientific safeguards as clinical trials for adults. For more information, go to "How Do Clinical ... based on what is known to work in adults. To improve clinical care of children, more studies ...
Full Text Available ... you to explore NIH Clinical Center for patient recruitment and clinical trial information. For more information, please email the NIH Clinical Center Office of Patient Recruitment at firstname.lastname@example.org or call ...
Full Text Available ... and devices specific to children. Resources for a Wide Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical Studies ... medical centers, and hospitals. ClinicalTrials.gov View a database of clinical studies (past and present) funded or ...
Full Text Available ... help produce reliable study results. Clinical trials are one of the final stages of a long and ... trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study explored whether the benefits of lowering ...
Full Text Available ... Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and ... drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a Wide Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical ...
Full Text Available ... you may get tests or treatments in a hospital, clinic, or doctor's office. In some ways, taking ... people will need to travel or stay in hospitals to take part in clinical trials. For example, ...
Full Text Available ... The results from other clinical trials show what doesn't work or may cause harm. For example, the NHLBI Women's Health Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT was already in common ...
Full Text Available ... review data from a clinical trial for safety problems or differences in results among different groups. The DSMB also reviews research results from other relevant studies. These results may ...
Full Text Available ... or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight for clinical trials that ...
Full Text Available ... treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight for clinical trials that are ...
Full Text Available ... always, parents must give legal consent for their child to take part in a clinical trial. When ... minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older ...
Full Text Available ... A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ... to fill an important gap in information and education for parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general ...
Full Text Available ... to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might be ... the new approach. You also will have the support of a team of health care providers, who ...
Full Text Available ... States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight for clinical trials that are testing new medicines or medical devices. The FDA reviews applications for new medicines ...
Full Text Available ... care providers might be part of your treatment team. They will monitor your health closely. You may ... taking part in a clinical trial. Your treatment team also may ask you to do other tasks. ...
Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders ...
Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... always, parents must give legal consent for their child to take part in a clinical trial. When ...
Full Text Available ... clinical trials are required to have an IRB. Office for Human Research Protections The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS’) Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) oversees all research ...
Full Text Available ... include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, and whether ... in a clinical trial, find out ahead of time about costs and coverage. You should learn about ...
Full Text Available ... This shows how the approach affects a living body and whether it's harmful. However, an approach that works well in the lab or animals doesn't always work well in people. Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety purposes, clinical trials start ...
Full Text Available ... educational programs and materials, and offer advice on research-related issues. Data Safety Monitoring Board Every National Institutes of Health ( ... III clinical trial is required to have a Data and Safety Monitoring Board ... of a group of research and study topic experts. The NIH also requires ...
Full Text Available ... examples of clinical trials that test principles or strategies include studies that explore whether surgery or other medical treatments ... board consists of a group of research and study topic experts. The NIH also ... alternative strategies for diagnosis or treatment. In addition, the NIH ...
... Contracts section of the NIH website. Find NICHD Clinical Trials NIH maintains the ClinicalTrials.gov website as the main database of publicly and privately funded clinical trials. Each trial has its own pre-defined research ...
Day, Simon; Machin, David; Green, Sylvan B
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 The Development of Clinical Trials Simon...
Full Text Available ... under way. For example, some trials are stopped early if benefits from a strategy or treatment are ... stop a trial, or part of a trial, early if the strategy or treatment is having harmful ...
Full Text Available ... criteria differ from trial to trial. They include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the ... bias. "Bias" means that human choices or other factors not related to the protocol affect the trial's ...
Full Text Available ... research—that is, who is eligible. Each trial must include only people who fit the patient traits ... to take part in the study. Each trial must include only people who fit the patient traits ...
Full Text Available ... also requires DSMBs for large trials comparing alternative strategies for diagnosis or treatment. In addition, the NIH requires DSMBs for some earlier phase trials that involve high-risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or ...
Full Text Available ... trial's potential risks are greater than minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older ... trial's potential risks are greater than minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older ...
Full Text Available ... for trials with cutting-edge approaches, such as gene therapy or new biological treatments. Health insurance and health ... trials that involve high-risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as children). A DSMB's ...
Full Text Available ... a laboratory (lab), where scientists first develop and test new ideas. If an approach seems promising, the ... Centers (including the NHLBI) usually sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study ...
Full Text Available ... get special protection as research subjects. Almost always, parents must give legal consent for their child to ... trial's potential risks are greater than minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. ...
Full Text Available ... scale phase III trials begin, the FDA provides input on how these studies should be done. Patient ... of stakeholders and advisory groups, NHLBI has received input and has established a multi-pronged approach to ...
Full Text Available ... long and careful research process. The process often begins in a laboratory (lab), where scientists first develop ... IRB reviews the trial's protocol before the study begins. An IRB will only approve research that deals ...
Full Text Available ... Masking, or "blinding," helps avoid bias. For this reason, researchers also may not be told which treatments ... from a study at any time, for any reason. Also, during the trial, you have the right ...
Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... the NHLBI's Children and Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and ...
Full Text Available ... taking the same treatment the same way. These patients are closely watched by Data and Safety Monitoring Boards. Even if you don't directly ... risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as ... trial for safety problems or differences in results among different groups. ...
Full Text Available ... preexisting differences between the patients. Usually, a computer program makes the group assignments. Masking The term "masking" ... Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical Studies Program has been successfully developed and evaluated to fill ...
Full Text Available ... the strategy or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight for clinical ...
Full Text Available ... and devices specific to children. Resources for a Wide Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical Studies ... have not only shaped medical practice around the world, but have improved the health of millions of ...
Full Text Available ... works well in the lab or animals doesn't always work well in people. Thus, research in ... Clinical research is done only if doctors don't know whether a new approach works well in ...
... and her initial results. Nueva Esperanza Para Las Enfermedades Del Corazón 09/23/2014 Milena tuvo un ... Story 09/23/2014 Nueva Esperanza Para Las Enfermedades Del Corazón 09/23/2014 Children and Clinical ...
... Back To Health Topics / About Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical ... is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether ...
Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng
"Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide...
... Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs ... Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer ...
Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.
... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...
Evans, Scott R.
Most errors in clinical trials are a result of poor planning. Fancy statistical methods cannot rescue design flaws. Thus careful planning with clear foresight is crucial. The selection of a clinical trial design structure requires logic and creativity. Common structural designs are discussed.
Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M
The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from...... both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials...... and their utility at five stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. As demonstrated by this summary, biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety...
Friedman, Lawrence M; DeMets, David L; Reboussin, David M; Granger, Christopher B
This is the fifth edition of a very successful textbook on clinical trials methodology, written by recognized leaders who have long and extensive experience in all areas of clinical trials. The three authors of the first four editions have been joined by two others who add great expertise. Most chapters have been revised considerably from the fourth edition. A chapter on regulatory issues has been included and the chapter on data monitoring has been split into two and expanded. Many contemporary clinical trial examples have been added. There is much new material on adverse events, adherence, issues in analysis, electronic data, data sharing, and international trials. This book is intended for the clinical researcher who is interested in designing a clinical trial and developing a protocol. It is also of value to researchers and practitioners who must critically evaluate the literature of published clinical trials and assess the merits of each trial and the implications for the care and treatment of ...
... clínicos: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Clinical Trials - English ... PDF American Cancer Society Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides patients, family members, health care professionals, and members of the public easy access to information on clinical trials for a wide range of diseases...
It is generally agreed that the first comparative clinical trial in history was done by James Lind in 1747, in the treatment of scurvy. The general bases of modern experimental medicine were published by Claude Bernard in 1865. However, it is the development of new drugs and the evolution of methodological concepts that led to the first randomized controlled clinical trial, in 1948, which showed that the effects of streptomycin on pulmonary tuberculosis were significantly different from those of a placebo. Today, "evidence-based" medicine aims to rationalize the medical decision-making process by taking into account, first and foremost, the results of controlled randomized clinical trials, which provide the highest level of evidence. In the second half of the 20th century it became clear that different kinds of clinical trials might not provide the same level of evidence. Practitioners' intimate convictions must be challenged by the results of controlled clinical trials. Take the CAST trial for example, which, in 1989, tested antiarrhythmic drugs versus placebo in patients with myocardial infarction. It was well known that ventricular arrhythmias were a factor of poor prognosis in coronary heart disease, and it was therefore considered self-evident that drug suppression of these ventricular arrhythmias would reduce the mortality rate. In the event, the CAST trial showed the exact opposite, with an almost 3-fold increase in total mortality among patients with coronary heart disease who were treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. These results had a profound impact on the use of antiarrythmic drugs, which became contraindicated after myocardial infarction. A clinical trial has to fulfill certain methodological standards to be accepted as evidence-based medicine. First, a working hypothesis has to be formulated, and then the primary outcome measure must be chosen before beginning the study. An appropriate major endpoint for efficacy must be selected, in keeping with the
Naccarelli, G V; Wolbrette, D L; Patel, H M; Luck, J C
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used in the treatment of supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. This article reviews the results and clinical implications of primary and secondary prevention trials in which amiodarone was used in one of the treatment arms. Key post-myocardial infarction primary prevention trials include the European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial (EMIAT) and the Canadian Amiodarone Myocardial Infarction Trial (CAMIAT), both of which demonstrated that amiodarone reduced arrhythmic but not overall mortality. In congestive heart failure patients, amiodarone was studied as a primary prevention strategy in two pivotal trials: Grupo de Estudio de la Sobrevida en la Insuficiencia Cardiac en Argentina (GESICA) and Amiodarone in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure and Asymptomatic Ventricular Arrhythmia (CHF-STAT). Amiodarone was associated with a neutral overall survival and a trend toward improved survival in nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients in CHF/STAT and improved survival in GESICA. In post-myocardial infarction patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and a depressed ejection fraction, the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT) demonstrated that implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) statistically improved survival compared to the antiarrhythmic drug arm, most of whose patients were taking amiodarone. In patients with histories of sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, the Cardiac Arrest Study in Seattle: Conventional Versus Amiodarone Drug Evaluation (CASCADE) trial demonstrated that empiric amiodarone lowered arrhythmic recurrence rates compared to other drugs guided by serial Holter or electrophysiologic studies. However, arrhythmic death rates were high in both treatment arms of the study. Several secondary prevention trials, including the Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators Study (AVID), the Canadian Implantable Defibrillator Study
Evans, Scott R.
Most errors in clinical trials are a result of poor planning. Fancy statistical methods cannot rescue design flaws. Thus careful planning with clear foresight is crucial. Issues in trial conduct and analyses should be anticipated during trial design and thoughtfully addressed. Fundamental clinical trial design issues are discussed.
McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.
the members voted we calculated the median score among the nine members of the working group who completed the score. The document includes 25 recommendations regarding randomization, blocking and stratification, blinding, enhancing accuracy of patient-reported outcomes (PRO), selecting a study population......The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...
Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.; ter Riet, G.
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether there is evidence of the efficacy of homoeopathy from controlled trials in humans. DESIGN: Criteria based meta-analysis. Assessment of the methodological quality of 107 controlled trials in 96 published reports found after an extensive search. Trials were scored using
... Clinical Trials in Vision Research Booklet for Nook, iPad and iPhone (EPUB - 1.6MB) Download the Clinical ... NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed ...
Østervig, R M; Sonne, A; Rasmussen, L S
starting enrolment before 2010 to 63.2% after 2010 (24/38, P clinical trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov. CONCLUSION: Many published randomized controlled trials from Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica were not adequately registered but the requirement of trial registration has...... the proportion of correctly registered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in Acta from 2009 to 2014. METHODS: We manually searched all Acta issues from 2009 to 2014 for RCTs. Information about timing of data collection and registration in trial registries was extracted. We classified RCTs as correctly...... registered when it could be verified that patient enrolment was started after registration in a trial registry. RESULTS: We identified 200 RCTs. Dates for patient enrolment were not specified in 51 (25.5%). The proportion of correctly registered trials increased significantly from 17.1% (19/111) for trials...
Holmes, Jonathan M
Randomized clinical trial (RCT) study design leads to one of the highest levels of evidence, and is a preferred study design over cohort studies, because randomization reduces bias and maximizes the chance that even unknown confounding factors will be balanced between treatment groups. Recent randomized clinical trials and observational studies in amblyopia can be taken together to formulate an evidence-based approach to amblyopia treatment, which is presented in this review. When designing future clinical studies of amblyopia treatment, issues such as regression to the mean, sample size and trial duration must be considered, since each may impact study results and conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katz, J N; Losina, E; Lohmander, L S
To highlight methodological challenges in the design and conduct of randomized trials of surgical interventions and to propose strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper focuses on three broad areas: enrollment; intervention; and assessment including implications for analysis. For each...... relating to obsolescence, fidelity of intervention delivery, and adherence and crossover. Assessment and analysis raise questions regarding blinding and clustering of observations. This paper describes methodological problems in the design and conduct of surgical randomized trials and proposes strategies...
B.A. Kirwan (Bridget Anne)
textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to show how clinical trial conduct can be managed while respecting the underlying scientific principles. Chapter 2 describes the main results of PICO (PImobendan in COngestive heart failure), a trial which investigated a positive inotropic agent in patients
Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.
The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...
Kjaergard, L L; Nikolova, D; Gluud, C
Evidence shows that the quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) affects estimates of intervention efficacy, which is significantly exaggerated in low-quality trials. The present study examines the quality of all 235 RCTs published in HEPATOLOGY from the initiation in 1981 through August 1998......-blinding. The median quality score of all trials was 3 points (range, 1-5 points). Multiple logistic regression analysis explored the association between quality and therapeutic areas, number of centers, external funding, year of publication, and country of origin. High-quality trials were most likely to investigate......, single-center trials, and trials with no external funding. Quality did not improve with time and was not associated with country of origin. The main conclusions are that the quality of RCTs in HEPATOLOGY needs improvement and that the probability of high quality increased with the number of centers...
Champion, Kim M; Jones, Gemma R
Clinical trials are performed to discover or verify the efficacy and safety of one or more investigational medicinal product (IMP). Biological medicinal products, including gene therapies, offer groundbreaking new opportunities for the treatment of disease and injury, but they are also highly regulated and trials with these products can be logistically challenging to set up and execute. To ensure a compliant and successful trial, it is important to know and understand the regulatory framework, and to be aware of available guidance documents published to advise the different stakeholders on how to develop, manufacture, handle, administer, or destroy these products safely and legally. This chapter summarizes the standard requirements and considerations applicable for clinical trials with IMPs and also describes additional requirements for trials with gene therapies or genetically modified microorganisms (GMM).This chapter has been written from the perspective of a UK noncommercial (academic) sponsor. As such, the discussion and guidance has its basis in gene therapy research as governed by UK law. Nevertheless, European legislation and guidance documents are also referenced; most of the following recommendations will be applicable to clinical trials with a gene therapy medicinal product in any European Member State, and the overriding principles would be applicable to any trial.
... Who will be in charge of my care? Personal issues How could being in this study affect ... iStock Only through clinical research can we gain insights and answers about the safety and effectiveness of ...
Gil-Extremera, B; Jiménez-López, P; Mediavilla-García, J D
Clinical trials are essential tools for the progress of clinical medicine in its diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Since the first trial in 1948, which related tobacco use with lung cancer, there have been more than 150,000 clinical trials to date in various areas (paediatrics, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, etc.). This article highlights the importance for all physicians to participate, over the course of their professional career, in a clinical trial, due to the inherent benefits for patients, the progress of medicine and for curricular prestige. The authors have created a synthesis of their experience with clinical trials on hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease over the course of almost 3 decades. Furthermore, a brief reference has been made to the characteristics of a phase I unit, as well as to a number of research studies currently underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Theede, Klaus; Mertz-Nielsen, Anette
remission rates and lower incidence of adverse events. AIM: To compare the rates of clinical remission and the rates of adverse events in IBD patients treated with either standard treatment with azathioprine or low-dose azathioprine in combination with allopurinol. METHODS: A prospective, open-label study...... to treat analysis and found a significant (69.6%) proportion of the patients treated with low-dose azathioprine in combination with allopurinol was in clinical remission without the need for steroid or biologic treatment at week 24 compared to 34.7% of the patients treated with azathioprine monotherapy (RR...
The procurement, transport, storage, manufacturing or compounding, the application, disposal, documentation, and the quality assurance of investigational medicinal products (IMPs) have to be done according to the pharmaceutical sciences. Medicines related to clinical trials in the European Union are regulated in volume 10 of the EudraLex. The rules for commercially manufactured medicines for human use are not valid for medicines which are individually compounded for a certain patient in the pharmacy. They are also not valid for medicines dedicated for experiments in research and development. The present article describes standards concerning the participation of the pharmacy in clinical trials, the pathway of the drug including the role of the study personnel, and its qualification and training. The issue of stability and compatibility of IMPs is an important topic which may influence the outcome of clinical trials. To avoid quality shifts Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) have to be established. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Žagar Zlatko A.
Full Text Available Prior the commencement of the clinical trial in Serbia the Sponsor is obliged to provide the insurance policy covering the patient's bodily injury and damaged health caused by the clinical trial. According to provisions of Serbian Insurance law insurance polices have to be issued by the insurance companies established in Serbia. Every insurance policy not issued by the insurance company established in Serbia shall be deemed as null and void. The only expectance, is when the foreign clinical trial liability policy is stipulated that the insurance contract acknowledges the jurisdiction of Serbian domestic courts and other Serbian authorities to decide on damage claims (that never happened in Serbian practice. The Sponsor will fulfill this obligation stipulated in Serbian law when provides the Clinical Trial Liability policy issued by the Serbian insurance company. Nowadays, few of Serbian insurance companies are issuing such polices. Under the clinical trial liability insurance cover the insured's are: Sponsor, Medical Centers in Serbia performing or controlling the clinical trial, Principal Investigators and their assistant staff performing or controlling the clinical trial. The beneficiaries of the insurance cover are patients and/or members of their families - inheritresses. The insurance company will indemnify the beneficiary mentioned in the policy when the insured event occurred i.e. when occurred bodily injury, psychic disease and alienation, psychic damages, illnesses and deaths caused by the clinical trial. The amount of indemnity by the insurance company to the beneficiaries is limited by the amount of sum insured per occurrence and/or by the total amount of the sum insured for the total period of the insurance cover. According to case-law in Serbia the total sum insured between EUR 500.000 and EUR 1.000.000 is considered as sufficient so far to indemnify the patients in case of the insured event. If an insurance event occurs the
Summers, Ron; Vyas, Hiten; Dudhal, Nilesh; Doherty, Neil F; Coombs, Crispin R; Hepworth, Mark
This paper will investigate innovations in information management for use in clinical trials. The application typifies a complex, adaptive, distributed and information-rich environment for which continuous innovation is necessary. Organisational innovation is highlighted as well as the technical innovations in workflow processes and their representation as an integrated set of web services. Benefits realization uncovers further innovations in the business strand of the work undertaken. Following the description of the development of this information management system, the semantic web is postulated as a possible solution to tame the complexity related to information management issues found within clinical trials support systems.
Full Text Available In addition to the expensive and lengthy process of developing a new medicine, the attrition rate in clinical research was on the rise, resulting in stagnation in the development of new compounds. As a consequence to this, the US Food and Drug Administration released a critical path initiative document in 2004, highlighting the need for developing innovative trial designs. One of the innovations suggested the use of adaptive designs for clinical trials. Thus, post critical path initiative, there is a growing interest in using adaptive designs for the development of pharmaceutical products. Adaptive designs are expected to have great potential to reduce the number of patients and duration of trial and to have relatively less exposure to new drug. Adaptive designs are not new in the sense that the task of interim analysis (IA/review of the accumulated data used in adaptive designs existed in the past too. However, such reviews/analyses of accumulated data were not necessarily planned at the stage of planning clinical trial and the methods used were not necessarily compliant with clinical trial process. The Bayesian approach commonly used in adaptive designs was developed by Thomas Bayes in the 18th century, about hundred years prior to the development of modern statistical methods by the father of modern statistics, Sir Ronald A. Fisher, but the complexity involved in Bayesian approach prevented its use in real life practice. The advances in the field of computer and information technology over the last three to four decades has changed the scenario and the Bayesian techniques are being used in adaptive designs in addition to other sequential methods used in IA. This paper attempts to describe the various adaptive designs in clinical trial and views of stakeholders about feasibility of using them, without going into mathematical complexities.
In addition to the expensive and lengthy process of developing a new medicine, the attrition rate in clinical research was on the rise, resulting in stagnation in the development of new compounds. As a consequence to this, the US Food and Drug Administration released a critical path initiative document in 2004, highlighting the need for developing innovative trial designs. One of the innovations suggested the use of adaptive designs for clinical trials. Thus, post critical path initiative, there is a growing interest in using adaptive designs for the development of pharmaceutical products. Adaptive designs are expected to have great potential to reduce the number of patients and duration of trial and to have relatively less exposure to new drug. Adaptive designs are not new in the sense that the task of interim analysis (IA)/review of the accumulated data used in adaptive designs existed in the past too. However, such reviews/analyses of accumulated data were not necessarily planned at the stage of planning clinical trial and the methods used were not necessarily compliant with clinical trial process. The Bayesian approach commonly used in adaptive designs was developed by Thomas Bayes in the 18th century, about hundred years prior to the development of modern statistical methods by the father of modern statistics, Sir Ronald A. Fisher, but the complexity involved in Bayesian approach prevented its use in real life practice. The advances in the field of computer and information technology over the last three to four decades has changed the scenario and the Bayesian techniques are being used in adaptive designs in addition to other sequential methods used in IA. This paper attempts to describe the various adaptive designs in clinical trial and views of stakeholders about feasibility of using them, without going into mathematical complexities.
Aug 27, 2009 ... ondersteuning ontvang en dat daar beter oor hulle toesig gehou word. INFORMED CONSENT IN CLINICAL TRIALS: PERCEPTIONS AND. EXPERIENCES OF A SAMPLE OF SOUTH AFRICAN RESEARCHERS. INTRODUCTION. First articulated in the Nuremberg Code in 1947, informed consent (IC) has ...
The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of investigators, cancer care providers, academic institutions, and other organizations. NCORP conducts multi-site cancer clinical trials and studies in diverse populations in community-based healthcare systems across the United States and Puerto Rico.
... Clinical Trials: Information and Options for People with Mood Disorders What are clinical trials? Clinical trials are research ... during a clinical trial? Clinical trials that test mood disorder treatments are usually conducted on an outpatient basis, ...
Kim, Jane S.; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Sen, H. Nida
The treatment of noninfectious uveitis continues to remain a challenge for many ophthalmologists. Historically, clinical trials in uveitis have been sparse, and thus, most treatment decisions have largely been based on clinical experience and consensus guidelines. The current treatment paradigm favors initiation then tapering of corticosteroids with addition of steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents for persistence or recurrence of disease. Unfortunately, in spite of a multitude of highly unfavorable systemic effects, corticosteroids are still regarded as the mainstay of treatment for many patients with chronic and refractory noninfectious uveitis. However, with the success of other conventional and biologic immunomodulatory agents in treating systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, interest in targeted treatment strategies for uveitis has been renewed. Multiple clinical trials on steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents, biologic agents, intraocular corticosteroid implants, and topical ophthalmic solutions have already been completed, and many more are ongoing. This review discusses the results and implications of these clinical trials investigating both alternative and novel treatment options for noninfectious uveitis. PMID:26035763
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Pihlstrom, B L; Barnett, M L
Randomized controlled clinical trials offer the best evidence for changing clinical practice and informing public health policy. Using examples from the literature, this paper reviews clinical trials for those who may be unfamiliar with their design, operation, and interpretation. In the design of a clinical trial, the question to be answered and a clinically meaningful outcome must be clearly defined. Ethics must be considered, sample size carefully estimated, and use of biomarkers and surrogate outcomes understood. Prominent issues in trial implementation include developing a manual of operations, trial registration, subject recruitment and retention, use of a data coordinating center, and data and safety monitoring. Interpretation of clinical trials requires understanding differences between efficacy and effectiveness; superiority, equivalence, and non-inferiority; intent-to-treat; primary and secondary analyses; and limitations of unregistered small clinical trials compared with large multi-center Phase III trials that are more likely to be representative of a population and change clinical practice or public health policy.
.... Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases...
Refolo, P; Sacchini, D; Minacori, R; Spagnolo, A G
Recruiting patients is a critical point of today's clinical research and, along the years, several solutions have been proposed, even if their efficacy seems to be doubtful. On the other hand, nowadays, Internet represents a great opportunity for improving clinical trial recruitments. Nevertheless, on-line recruitment services (e-recruitment) could ensure some advantages (such as facilitating interaction between supply and demand of clinical research, time and money savings/optimizations, data entry errors reduction), but also raise some issues (such as those related to sampling, information, consent, real identity of participants and risks for data breaches). The article debates on the difficulties to recruit patients for clinical research, in general, and e-recruitment particularly, discussing some ethical issues raised by internet enrolment.
Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.
Cosín Aguilar, J; Hernándiz Martínez, A
n 1987 the results of the Consensus study were published, and showed that enalapril, an angiotensin convertor enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), was able to modify the clinical course of the heart failure syndrome thereby reducing mortality. Other ACEI later demonstrated the same effect on the different degrees of symptomatic heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, myocardial infarction and more recently in diabetic patients. In 1996 studies on the betablockers carvedilol, bisoprolol and metoprolol showed their efficacy in reducing deaths due to progressive heart impairment and sudden death in chronic heart failure. The RALES study showed that small doses of spironolactone also improved the prognosis on this disease. Digital improves the quality of life but not the survival rate. Only amiodarone (among the antiarrhythmics) reduces sudden death. Other drugs and groups of drugs can not be considered for chronic outpatient treatment of heart failure. Multicenter trials make it possible to obtain scientific evidence for establishing rational treatments. Many groups of patients such as women, elderly people and the more severe cases of the disease are often not included in these trials. Occasionally, multicenter trials are badly designed (CIBIS and MCD), which in the case of betablockers, led to a substantial delay in their administration. Other times, as in the ELITE study, the results were badly interpreted. The knowledge obtained from these studies is slow in reaching patients, with few patients taking betablockers. It is known that most patients do not take the doses found to be effective in multicenter trials.
Califf, R.M.; Zarin, D.A.; Kramer, J.M.; Sherman, R.E.; Aberle, L.H.; Tasneem, A.
CONTEXT: Recent reports highlight gaps between guidelines-based treatment recommendations and evidence from clinical trials that supports those recommendations. Strengthened reporting requirements for studies registered with ClinicalTrials.gov enable a comprehensive evaluation of the national trials
Cihoric, Nikola; Tsikkinis, Alexandros; van Rhoon, Gerard; Crezee, Hans; Aebersold, Daniel M.; Bodis, Stephan; Beck, Marcus; Nadobny, Jacek; Budach, Volker; Wust, Peter; Ghadjar, Pirus
Hyperthermia has been shown to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer. This paper summarises all recent clinical trials registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov registry. The records of 175,538 clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were
Accrual to cancer clinical trials (CCT) is imperative to safeguard continued improvement in cancer outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients (n=140) starting a new anti-cancer agent in a north Dublin cancer centre. This review was performed over a four-month period, beginning in November 2015. Only 29% (n=41) had a CCT option. The overall accrual rate to CCT was 5% (n=7), which is comparable to internationally reported figures. The main reasons for failure to recruit to CCT included the lack of a CCT option for cancer type (n=30, 23%), stage (n=25, 19%), and line of treatment (n=23, 17%). Over the last decade, the rate of accrual to CCTs has in fact doubled and the number of trials open to recruitment has tripled. Ongoing governmental and philanthropic support is necessary to continue this trend to further expand CCT patient options with a target accrual rate of 10%.
Raptis, Dimitri Aristotle; Mettler, Tobias; Fischer, Michael Alexander; Patak, Michael; Lesurtel, Mickael; Eshmuminov, Dilmurodjon; de Rougemont, Olivier; Graf, Rolf; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Breitenstein, Stefan
Multicentre clinical trials are challenged by high administrative burden, data management pitfalls and costs. This leads to a reduced enthusiasm and commitment of the physicians involved and thus to a reluctance in conducting multicentre clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to develop a web-based open source platform to support a multi-centre clinical trial. We developed on Drupal, an open source software distributed under the terms of the General Public License, a web-based, multi-centre clinical trial management system with the design science research approach. This system was evaluated by user-testing and well supported several completed and on-going clinical trials and is available for free download. Open source clinical trial management systems are capable in supporting multi-centre clinical trials by enhancing efficiency, quality of data management and collaboration.
Full Text Available Women use more medicines than men because they fall ill more often and suffer more from chronic diseases, but also because women pay more attention to their health and have more consciousness and care about themselves. Although medicines can have different effects on women and men, women still represent a small percentage in the first phases of trials (22% which are essential to verify drugs dosage, side effects, and safety. Even though women are more present in trials, studies results are not presented with a gender approach. This situation is due to educational, social, ethical and economical factors. The scientific research must increase feminine presence in clinical trials in order to be equal and correct, and all the key stakeholder should be involved in this process. We still have a long way to cover and it doesn't concern only women but also children and old people. The aim is to have a medicine not only illness-focused but patient-focused: a medicine able to take into consideration all the patient characteristics and so to produce a really personalized therapy. What above described is part of the reasons why in 2005 was founded the National Observatory for Women's Health (Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Salute della Donna, ONDa which promotes a gender health awareness and culture in Italy, at all the levels of the civil and scientific society.
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...
Berry, Scott M; Muller, Peter
Already popular in the analysis of medical device trials, adaptive Bayesian designs are increasingly being used in drug development for a wide variety of diseases and conditions, from Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis to obesity, diabetes, hepatitis C, and HIV. Written by leading pioneers of Bayesian clinical trial designs, Bayesian Adaptive Methods for Clinical Trials explores the growing role of Bayesian thinking in the rapidly changing world of clinical trial analysis. The book first summarizes the current state of clinical trial design and analysis and introduces the main ideas and potential benefits of a Bayesian alternative. It then gives an overview of basic Bayesian methodological and computational tools needed for Bayesian clinical trials. With a focus on Bayesian designs that achieve good power and Type I error, the next chapters present Bayesian tools useful in early (Phase I) and middle (Phase II) clinical trials as well as two recent Bayesian adaptive Phase II studies: the BATTLE and ISP...
Ahn, Chul; Ahn, Daniel
A randomized clinical trial (RCT) is widely regarded as the most rigorous study design to determine the efficacy of intervention since spurious causality and bias associated with other experimental designs can be avoided. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians and clinical researchers with the types of randomized clinical trials used in stroke studies and to discuss the advantages and limitations in each type of randomized stroke clinical trials.
Watters, Julie T; Pitzen, Jason H; Sanders, Linda J; Bruce, Virginia Nickie M; Cornell, Alissa R; Cseko, Gary C; Grace, Janice S; Kwon, Pamela S; Kukla, Andrea K; Lee, Michael S; Monosmith, Michelle D; Myren, John D; Kottschade, Rebecca S; Shaft, Marc N; Weis, Jennifer Jenny A; Welter, Jane C; Bharucha, Adil E
The Institute of Medicine and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognize that activating clinical trials in the United States is lengthy and inefficient. Downstream consequences include increased expense, suboptimal accrual, move of clinical trials overseas, and delayed availability of treatments for patients. An in-tandem processing initiative is here highlighted that transformed the activation of clinical trials (TACT), reduced the activation time by 70%, and offers a paradigm for enhanced translational readiness. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Balevic, Stephen J; Becker, Mara L; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Schanberg, Laura E
Randomized clinical trials provide the gold standard evidence base to guide clinical practice. Despite major advances in trial design, pediatric clinical trials are still difficult to perform and pose unique challenges, including the need to consider the impact of developmental changes in trial design. Advances within pediatric rheumatology combined with the need to comply with legislative requirements have driven new approaches to performing pediatric clinical trials such as utilization of large research networks, incorporation of patient and family stakeholders in the planning and implementation of clinical trials, and the development of novel trial designs. The expansion of available biological therapeutics that now includes biosimilar drugs highlights the important and difficult balance of providing new and cost-effective drugs to children while ensuring safety in a vulnerable population. Future advances in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) clinical trials will likely be the application of precision medicine based on biologic, rather than phenotypic, classification of JIA, with improved understanding of pediatric clinical pharmacology. Clinical trial simulations and comparative effectiveness studies are important supplements to traditional clinical trials, permitting efficient studies and results that are more generalizable.
Conclusion: The number of clinical trials in dentistry are low in India, and more focus should be placed by dental investigators regarding the reporting standards. Furthermore, researchers and trial sponsors should aim at publication of the research findings so that it is made publically available for use. A clear-cut need exists for an increase in both the quantity and quality of clinical trials in dentistry.
Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna
This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.
Gowri, S; Kannan, Sridharan
Evidence-based practice requires clinical trials to be performed. In India, if any clinical trial has to be performed, it has to be registered with clinical trial registry of India. Studies have shown that the report of clinical trials is poor in dentistry. Hence, the present study has been conducted to assess the type and trends of clinical trials being undertaken in dentistry in India over a span of 6 years. All the clinical trials which were registered with the Central Trial Registry of India (CTRI) (www.ctri.nic.in) from January 1, 2007 to March 3, 2014 were evaluated using the keyword "dental." Following information were collected for each of the clinical trials obtained from the search; number of centres (single center/multicentric), type of the institution undertaking the research (government/private/combined), study (observational/interventional), study design (randomized/single blinded/double-blinded), type of health condition, type of participants (healthy/patients), sponsors (academia/commercial), phase of clinical trial (Phase 1/2/3/4), publication details (published/not published), whether it was a postgraduate thesis or not and prospective or retrospective registration of clinical trials, methodological quality (method of randomization, allocation concealment). Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of various categories. Trend analysis was done to assess the changes over a period of time. The search yielded a total of 84 trials of which majority of them were single centered. Considering the study design more than half of the registered clinical trials were double-blinded (47/84 [56%]). With regard to the place of conducting a trial, most of the trials were planned to be performed in private hospitals (56/84 [66.7%]). Most (79/84, 94.1%) of the clinical trials were interventional while only 5/84 (5.9%) were observational. Majority (65/84, 77.4%) of the registered clinical trials were recruiting patients while the rest were being done in healthy
Dijkstra, B.A.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Wensing, M.J.P.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Staak, C.P. van der
Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results
Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Wensing, M.J.P.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der
Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results
Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F
Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results
Fekadu, Abebaw; Teferra, Solomon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Addissie, Adamu; Deressa, Wakgari; Yimer, Getnet; Reja, Ahmed
Low income countries like Ethiopia are underrepresented in clinical research. As a major public commitment to clinical research, Ethiopia celebrated the International Clinical Trial Day (ICTD) for the first time on 20 May 2014 under the auspices of Addis Ababa University. The motto for the day was 'Clinical Trials for Excellence in Patient Care'. The celebration offered an opportunity to inform academic staff, researchers, students and the leadership about clinical trials being conducted and to discuss the future of clinical trials in the country. Although clear challenges to the conduct of trials abound, clinical trials registered from Ethiopia in trial registration databases is increasing. Cross-country collaborations, international funding support, motivation of academic staff to conduct clinical trials and the commitment and engagement of the leadership in research are all improving. The overall impact of clinical trials is also encouraging. For example, some of the trials conducted in Ethiopia have informed treatment guidelines. However, administrative capacity, research infrastructure as well as financial support remain weak. There is a need for enhanced university-industry linkage and translation of research findings into locally relevant evidence. Ethiopia, as well as the whole of Africa, has an unparalleled opportunity to lead the way in clinical trials, given its prospect of development and the need to have locally relevant evidence for its growing population. In this commentary we reflect on the celebration of ICTD, the status and opportunities for conducting clinical trials and the way forward for facilitating clinical trials in Ethiopia and Africa.
Ellenberg, Susan S; Culbertson, Richard; Gillen, Daniel L; Goodman, Steven; Schrandt, Suzanne; Zirkle, Maryan
In any clinical trial, it is essential to monitor the accumulating data to be sure that the trial continues to be safe for participants and that the trial is being conducted properly. Data monitoring committees, independent expert panels who undertake regular reviews of the data as the trial progresses, serve an important role in safeguarding the interests of research participants and ensuring trial integrity in many trials. Many pragmatic clinical trials, which aim to inform healthcare decisions by comparing alternate interventions in heterogeneous healthcare delivery settings, will warrant review by an independent data monitoring committee due to their potential impact on clinical practice. However, the very features that make a trial "pragmatic" may pose challenges in terms of which aspects of a trial to monitor and when it is appropriate for a data monitoring committee to intervene. Using the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary tool that draws distinctions between pragmatic and explanatory clinical trials, we review characteristics of pragmatic clinical trials that may have implications for data monitoring committees and interim monitoring plans. These include broad eligibility criteria, a focus on subjective patient-centered outcomes, and in some cases a lack of standardized follow-up procedures across study sites. Additionally, protocol adherence is often purposefully not addressed in pragmatic trials in order to accurately represent the clinical practice setting and maintain practicability of implementation; there are differing viewpoints as to whether adherence should be assessed and acted upon by data monitoring committees in these trials. Some other issues not specifically related to the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary criteria may also merit special consideration in pragmatic trials. Thresholds for early termination of a pragmatic clinical trial might be controversial. The distinguishing features of pragmatic clinical
Full Text Available Clinical trials are emerging as an important activity in India as it is an essential component of the drug discovery and development program to which India is committed. The only robust way to evaluate a new medicine is by doing properly designed clinical trials. In addition to advancing science, clinical trials offer myriad benefits to the participants. The recent hue that created in India about clinical trials is probably an exaggeration of facts. However, these points to the need for ensuring proper compliance with the regulatory norms and proper training of concerned personnel in good clinical practice (GCP. This will ensure that India continues to reap the benefits of clinical trials and also become a world leader in this field.
Okonta, Patrick I
The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.
C. A. Caramori
Full Text Available Scientific development that has been achieved through decades finds in clinical research a great possibility of translating findings to human health application. Evidence given by clinical trials allows everyone to have access to the best health services. However, the millionaire world of pharmaceutical industries has stained clinical research with doubt and improbability. Study results (fruits of controlled clinical trials and scientific publications (selective, manipulated and with wrong conclusions led to an inappropriate clinical practice, favoring the involved economic aspect. In 2005, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, supported by the World Association of Medical Editors, started demanding as a requisite for publication that all clinical trials be registered at the database ClinicalTrials.gov. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO created the International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP, which gathers several registry centers from all over the world, and required that all researchers and pharmaceutical industries register clinical trials. Such obligatory registration has progressed and will extend to all scientific journals indexed in all worldwide databases. Registration of clinical trials means another step of clinical research towards transparency, ethics and impartiality, resulting in real evidence to the forthcoming changes in clinical practice as well as in the health situation.
Klimt, C R
The subject of varied acceptance of clinical trial results is discussed in the context of review of trials with which I have been involved and my subjective evaluation of their impact on the practice of clinical medicine. My experience goes back to 1949 and a World Health Organization trial of hyperimmune gamma globulin against rabies. This was followed by a large trial of secondary prevention of poliomyelitis. I participated in the planning and initiation of the first chronic disease trial, the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP). The latter lasted for 15 years and its ramifications continue to this day. My next trial was the Coronary Drug Project (CDP), a complex trial with more than 8,000 patients. The trials of aspirin and aspirin combined with persantine (the CDPA, AMIS, PARIS I, and PARIS II) followed. My last three trials were a trial of photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy (DRS), a six-country trial of the antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine (IMPACT), and a study involving two diagnostic procedures for pulmonary embolism (PIOPED). When one considers, in retrospect, the plethora of trials one is struck by the uniform absence of a priori considerations of the impact on medical practice, or likely lack thereof, of possible outcomes.
Klimt, C R
Long-term clinical trials often include more than one active treatment group. These may be discontinued independently if found to be ineffective or possibly harmful. Certain subgroups of patients may be discovered, in the course of a clinical trial, who do not respond satisfactorily and are, therefore, excluded during the course of a trial. Yet another kind of termination comes when we have a therapeutic breakthrough or when hope has to be abandoned for demonstrating beneficial effects for one, several, or all treatments included in a trial. Examples from the authors' experience are presented, as are successful and unsuccessful techniques in managing terminations of various types.
Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena
After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.
Full Text Available After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1 Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2 Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3 Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4 Partner influence on use, (5 Retention and continuation and (6 Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.
Seow, Hsien-Yeang; Whelan, Patrick; Levine, Mark N; Cowan, Kathryn; Lysakowski, Barbara; Kowaleski, Brenda; Snider, Anne; Xu, Rebecca Y; Arnold, Andrew
Many oncology clinical trials departments (CTDs) are in serious fiscal deficit and their sustainability is in jeopardy. This study investigates whether the payment models used to fund industry versus cooperative group trials contribute to the fiscal deficit of a CTD. We examined the lifetime costs of all cooperative group and industry trials activated in the CTD of a cancer center between 2007 and 2011. A trial's lifetime is defined as being from the date the first patient was accrued until the last patient's actual or projected final follow-up visit. For each trial, we calculated the lifetime monthly net income, which was defined as monthly revenue minus monthly costs. Data sources included study protocols, trial budgets, and accrual data. Of the 97 trials analyzed, 64 (66%) were cooperative group trials. The pattern of lifetime net income for cooperative group trials has a positive peak during patient accrual followed by a negative trough during follow-up. In contrast, the pattern for industry trials resembled an "l" shape. The patterns reflect the differing payment models: upfront lump-sum payments (cooperative group) versus milestone payments (industry). The negative trough in the lifetime net income of a cooperative group trial occurs because follow-up costs are typically not funded or are underfunded. CTDs accrue more patients in new trials to offset that deficit. The CTD uses revenue from accrual to existing trials to cross-subsidize past trials in follow-up. As the number of patients on follow-up increases, the fiscal deficit grows larger each year, perpetuating the cycle.
Ness, Elizabeth A; Royce, Cheryl
Clinical trials are paramount to improving human health. New trial designs and informed consent issues are emerging as a result of genomic profiling and the development of molecularly targeted agents. Many groups and individuals are responsible for ensuring the protection of research participants and the quality of the data produced. The specialty role of the clinical trials nurse (CTN) is critical to clinical trials. Oncology CTNs have competencies that can help guide their practice; however, not all oncology clinical trials are supervised by a nurse. Using the process of engagement, one organization has restructured oncology CTNs under a nurse-supervised model. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K
Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in - hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.
H.M. James Hung
Full Text Available The concept of adaptation of trial design during the course of a clinical trial has recently drawn much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. The interest arises partly because statistical decision trees employed to address multiple complex clinical hypotheses within a clinical trial are increasingly complex, and the statistical information generated from learning data prior to designing the trial is often insufficient to provide informative guidance for planning a pivotal trial. While the conventional fixed designs, which usually permit no modification influenced by the internal trial data of key design specifications, often cannot cover the range of complex statistical decision trees that must be prespecified in the study protocol, it seems natural to consider modifications of trial design at some point in the trial. In regulatory practice, some adjustments to study protocols are mostly made known to regulatory agencies in the form of so-called protocol amendments. However, such design modifications may demand careful consideration in dealing with any biases that may be caused by the adaptation, and may impede the interpretability of trial results.
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I
Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...
Scientific review ensures that studies are based on sound science, which contributes to the safety of clinical trial participants. Learn about the role of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), Data and Safety Monitoring Boards (DSMBs), and government agenci
Nanoformulations and Clinical Trial Candidates as Probably Effective and Safe Therapy for Tuberculosis. Madeeha Laghari, Yusrida Darwis, Abdul Hakeem Memon, Arshad Ali Khan, Ibrahim Mohammed Tayeb Abdulbaqi, Reem Abou Assi ...
Molloy, Síle F; Henley, Patricia
This article describes the processes and procedures involved in planning, conducting and reporting monitoring activities for large Clinical Trials of Investigational Medicinal Products (CTIMPs), focusing on those conducted in resource-limited settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chen, Ding-Geng; Peace, Karl E
.... Case studies demonstrate how to select the appropriate clinical trial data. The authors introduce the corresponding biostatistical analysis methods, followed by the step-by-step data analysis using R...
Riley, Isaretta L; Boulware, L Ebony; Sun, Jie-Lena; Chiswell, Karen; Que, Loretta G; Kraft, Monica; Todd, Jamie L; Palmer, Scott M; Anderson, Monique L
Background/aims The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act mandates that applicable clinical trials report basic summary results to the ClinicalTrials.gov database within 1 year of trial completion or termination. We aimed to determine the proportion of pulmonary trials reporting basic summary results to ClinicalTrials.gov and assess factors associated with reporting. Methods We identified pulmonary clinical trials subject to the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (called highly likely applicable clinical trials) that were completed or terminated between 2008 and 2012 and reported results by September 2013. We estimated the cumulative percentage of applicable clinical trials reporting results by pulmonary disease category. Multivariable Cox regression modeling identified characteristics independently associated with results reporting. Results Of 1450 pulmonary highly likely applicable clinical trials, 380 (26%) examined respiratory neoplasms, 238 (16%) asthma, 175 (12%) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 657 (45%) other respiratory diseases. Most (75%) were pharmaceutical highly likely applicable clinical trials and 71% were industry-funded. Approximately 15% of highly likely applicable clinical trials reported results within 1 year of trial completion, while 55% reported results over the 5-year study period. Earlier phase highly likely applicable clinical trials were less likely to report results compared to phase 4 highly likely applicable clinical trials (phases 1/2 and 2 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.54)), phases 2/3 and 3 (adjusted hazard ratio 0.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.72)) and phase not applicable (adjusted hazard ratio 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.63)). Pulmonary highly likely applicable clinical trials without Food and Drug Administration oversight were less likely to report results compared with those with oversight (adjusted hazard ratio 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0
Reekie, J; Mocroft, A; J, Neaton
and knowledge of HIV led to short-term trials using surrogate outcomes such as viral load and CD4 count. This established a faster drug approval process that complimented the rapid need to evaluate and provide access to drugs based on short-term trials. However, no treatment has yet been found that eradicates......Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, there has been a decrease in both AIDS-defining illnesses and deaths. This decrease meant that performing clinical trials with clinical outcomes in HIV infection became more time consuming and hence costly. Improved understanding...... the infection, so when treatment is started it is currently a lifelong commitment. Is it reasonable then that guidelines are based almost completely on short-term randomized trials and observational studies of surrogate markers, or is there still a need for trials with clinical outcomes?...
Reekie, J; Mocroft, A; J, Neaton
Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, there has been a decrease in both AIDS-defining illnesses and deaths. This decrease meant that performing clinical trials with clinical outcomes in HIV infection became more time consuming and hence costly. Improved understanding...... the infection, so when treatment is started it is currently a lifelong commitment. Is it reasonable then that guidelines are based almost completely on short-term randomized trials and observational studies of surrogate markers, or is there still a need for trials with clinical outcomes?...... and knowledge of HIV led to short-term trials using surrogate outcomes such as viral load and CD4 count. This established a faster drug approval process that complimented the rapid need to evaluate and provide access to drugs based on short-term trials. However, no treatment has yet been found that eradicates...
Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Dobre, Daniela; Hillege, Hans L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; de Zeeuw, Dick
AIMS To facilitate and improve clinical research within Europe, the European Union (EU) adopted in 2001 the Clinical Trials Directive (EUCTD). The aim of this study was to compare duration between submission of a clinical drug trial application and approval by regulatory authorities in EU countries
Aug 27, 2009 ... recommended that more recognition be given to the important role of trial ... Founded upon the principle of respect for the autonomy of persons, IC seeks to protect the individual's .... section of the population and the multicultural population all ... perceived difficulties, challenges and solutions, regarding the.
Oud, Johan; Ghidey, Wendimagegn
This book describes various ways of approaching and interpreting the data produced by clinical trial studies, with a special emphasis on the essential role that biostatistics plays in clinical trials. Over the past few decades the role of statistics in the evaluation and interpretation of clinical data has become of paramount importance. As a result the standards of clinical study design, conduct and interpretation have undergone substantial improvement. The book includes 18 carefully reviewed chapters on recent developments in clinical trials and their statistical evaluation, with each chapter providing one or more examples involving typical data sets, enabling readers to apply the proposed procedures. The chapters employ a uniform style to enhance comparability between the approaches.
Kaplan, Celia P
.... While inroads to increasing minority inclusion in breast cancer clinical trials have been made, recent reports continue to demonstrate lower enrollment among African Americans, Asian Americans...
Full Text Available Conduction of the clinical trials on human subjects in order to gain data about efficiency and safety of the new drugs, medical devices and behavioral interventions is the essential part of the process of improvement in medical science. Yet, there are many potential risks of mistreat or abuse of the subject's legal rights and safety once they are involved in these trials. Determinations of generally accepted demands of ethical justification for clinical trials provide decrease of risks for subjects that undergo the clinical trials. After analyzing the content of the international and regional declarations, ethical guidelines and local legal regulations, author finds that basic ethical requirements for conduction of the clinical trials are: scientific and social values and scientific validity, risk benefit ratio, fair subject selection, voluntary informed consent, respect of the subject's personal rights and independent ethical comity review. In this work, author explains the purpose of these demands, determines their correlation and conclude that all of them stand in mutual connection and interrelation. Only cumulative fulfillment of all of the named requirements allows ethically acceptable approach to conduction of clinical trials with avoiding the exploitation and providing the fair and dissent environment for subjects with full respect to their legal rights and safety.
Witsell, David L; Schulz, Kristine A; Lee, Walter T; Chiswell, Karen
To describe the conditions studied, interventions used, study characteristics, and funding sources of otolaryngology clinical trials from the ClinicalTrials.gov database; compare this otolaryngology cohort of interventional studies to clinical visits in a health care system; and assess agreement between clinical trials and clinical activity. Database analysis. Trial registration data downloaded from ClinicalTrials.gov and administrative data from the Duke University Medical Center from October 1, 2007 to September 27, 2010. Data extraction from ClinicalTrials.gov was done using MeSH and non-MeSH disease condition terms. Studies were subcategorized to create the following groupings for descriptive analysis: ear, nose, allergy, voice, sleep, head and neck cancer, thyroid, and throat. Duke Health System visits were queried by using selected ICD-9 codes for otolaryngology and non-otolaryngology providers. Visits were grouped similarly to ClinicalTrials.gov for further analysis. Chi-square tests were used to explore differences between groups. A total of 1115 of 40,970 registered interventional trials were assigned to otolaryngology. Head and neck cancer trials predominated. Study models most frequently incorporated parallel design (54.6%), 2 study groups (46.6%), and randomization (69.1%). Phase 2 or 3 studies constituted 46.4% of the cohort. Comparison of the ClinicalTrials.gov database with administrative health system visit data by disease condition showed discordance between national research activity and clinical visit volume for patients with otolaryngology complaints. Analysis of otolaryngology-related clinical research as listed in ClinicalTrials.gov can inform patients, physicians, and policy makers about research focus areas. The relative burden of otolaryngology-associated conditions in our tertiary health system exceeds research activity within the field.
Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P
To investigate how South Asian patients conceptualise the notion of clinical trials and to identify key processes that impact on trial participation and the extent to which communication difficulties, perceptions of risk and attitudes to authority influence these decisions. Also to identify whether 'South Asian' patients are homogeneous in these issues, and which factors differ between different South Asian subgroups and finally how professionals regard the involvement of South Asian patients and their views on strategies to increase participation. A review of the literature on minority ethnic participation in clinical trials was followed by three qualitative interview studies. Interviews were taped and transcribed (and translated if required) and subjected to framework analysis. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals; 60 South Asian lay people who had not taken part in a trial and 15 South Asian trial participants. Motivations for trial participation were identified as follows: to help society, to improve own health or that of family and friends, out of obligation to the doctor and to increase scientific knowledge. Deterrents were concerns about drug side-effects, busy lifestyles, language, previous bad experiences, mistrust and feelings of not belonging to British society. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials and, overall, the younger respondents were more knowledgeable than the older ones. Problems are more likely to be associated with service delivery. Lack of being approached was a common response. Lay-reported factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials include age, language, social class, feeling of not belonging/mistrust, culture and religion. Awareness of clinical trials varied between each group. There are more similarities than differences in attitudes towards clinical trial participation between the South Asian and the general population
Schott, Anne F.; Welch, John J.; Verschraegen, Claire F.; Kurzrock, Razelle
Rare cancers account for 27% of neoplasms diagnosed each year, and 25% of cancer-related deaths in the United States. However, rare cancers show some of the highest response rates to targeted therapies, probably due to identification of oncogenic drivers with little inter-patient variability. Although the low incidence of rare cancers make large scale randomized trials involving single histologies difficult to perform, drugs have been successfully developed in rare cancers utilizing clinical trial designs that combine microscopic anatomies. Such trials are being pursued within the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN), which possesses unique qualifications to perform widespread molecular screening of tumors for patient enrollment onto therapeutic clinical trials. When larger clinical trials are needed to determine optimum treatment strategies in rare cancers, the NCTN's broad reach in North America and internationally, and ability to partner with both US-based and international research organizations, can make these challenging studies feasible. PMID:26433554
Mazzetti, Pilar; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario
The regulation of clinical trials by the Government is a process of continuous change and adaptation, current challenge is to ensure the safety of participants and get balance of administrative procedures. Development and regulation of clinical trials in different countries vary according to the situation, context national or international execution, determining the insufficiency of national regulation requiring review of international regulation. The aim of this publication is to present a comprehensive overview of the role of Government in the regulation of clinical trials in different realities. It includes a review of the regulation in The European Union, The United States and some Latin American countries and finally the regulation in Peru. Contemporary trends in the regulation of clinical trials, are characterized by increasing standards of quality, ensuring the safety of the participants, promote transparency, lower bureaucratic processes and strengthening ethics IRB committees in the framework of open democratic processes, involving all stakeholders in dynamic processes based on current knowledge and changing tendencies. The challenge is to promote the development of clinical trials from the government institutions (universities, research centers, institutes, hospitals, etc.) priorizing local needs including orphan drugs, prevalent and neglected diseases, and therapeutic use of active components of local native plants.
Full Text Available Quality of clinical trials depends on data integrity and subject protection. Globalization, outsourcing and increasing complexicity of clinical trials have made the target of achieving global quality challenging. The quality, as judged by regulatory inspections of the investigator sites, sponsors/contract research organizations and Institutional Review Board, has been of concern to the US Food and Drug Administration, as there has been hardly any change in frequency and nature of common deficiencies. To meet the regulatory expectations, the sponsors need to improve quality by developing systems with specific standards for each clinical trial process. The quality systems include: personnel roles and responsibilities, training, policies and procedures, quality assurance and auditing, document management, record retention, and reporting and corrective and preventive action. With an objective to improve quality, the FDA has planned new inspection approaches such as risk-based inspections, surveillance inspections, real-time oversight, and audit of sponsor quality systems. The FDA has partnered with Duke University for Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative, which will conduct research projects on design principles, data quality and quantity including monitoring, study start-up, and adverse event reporting. These recent initiatives will go a long way in improving quality of clinical trials.
Truong, Tony H; Weeks, Jane C; Cook, E Francis; Joffe, Steven
Patients' motivations for participation in cancer clinical trials are incompletely understood. Even less is known about the factors that influence participants' motivations for enrolling in trials. We studied the reasons why adult patients and parents of pediatric patients agree to participate in cancer trials. We focused on the role of altruism across all phases of trial. We surveyed adult patients and parents of pediatric patients participating in phase I, II, or III cancer clinical trials. We asked respondents why they agreed to enroll, and examined correlates of altruistic motivation using univariate and multivariate analyses. Among 205 adults and 48 parents of children participating in cancer trials, 47% reported that altruistic motivations were 'very important' to their decisions to enroll. In multivariate analysis with phase III trial participants as the reference group, phase I trial participants least often identified altruism as a 'very important' motivation for enrolling (phase I OR 0.4, 95% CI (confidence interval) 0.2-0.8; phase II OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.5, overall P = 0.017). Thirty-three respondents (13%) reported being motivated primarily by altruism. In multivariate analysis, participants with poor prognoses-defined as an expected 5-year disease-free survival of ≤ 10%-reported altruism as their primary motivation less often than those with better prognoses (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5, P = 0.001). Altruistic motivations did not differ between adult patients and parents of pediatric participants. The data are derived from related academic medical centers in one city, and the study sample reflects limited sociodemographic diversity, thereby limiting generalizability to other settings. Although cancer trial participants commonly report that altruism contributed to their decision to enroll, it is rarely their primary motivation for study participation. Participants in early phase trials and those with poor prognoses are least often motivated by altruism.
A herbalist from Strand, Mr X, calls the plant unwele. (hair) and sells it to local traditional healers (isangoma) ... being contested and very fragile. In the making of an African medicine through clinical .... In a small number of cases ARVs can cause Immune. Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome, a life threatening condition.
APPLICATION FORM. Although a clinical research associate. (CRA) usually completes the applica- tion, it is incumbent upon the investigators (usually represented by the. 'principal' investigators) to ensure that the study is both scientifically and ethically sound, and that the application is logically completed. Many CRAs do.
Kieburtz, Karl; Olanow, C Warren
In the past several years, there have been several innovations in the design of clinical trials assessing new therapies for patients with movement disorders. These include attempts to address difficulties in conducting clinical trials in treated patients in the advanced stages of their illness, demonstrating disease-modifying effects or a reduction in the development of cumulative disability, and assessing the effects of interventions in patients in the premanifest state of their disease. In addition, there have been advances in clinical trial methodologies and changes in regulatory guidelines that permit the performance of more efficient studies, with a reduction in the cost and duration of the development period. These will be reviewed in the present article. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Sheldon, R; Rose, S
The time is ripe for adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials in vasovagal syncope. Vasovagal syncope is a common syndrome, the symptoms of which can be troublesomely frequent. It is usually diagnosed by tilt-table testing, although this has persistent problems with both sensitivity and specificity. Patients with syncope and positive tilt tests have been the subjects of numerous studies of natural history, risk stratification, and treatment. This paper discusses studies of treatments for vasovagal syncope in the context of a classification of the levels of evidence that can be gleaned from clinical studies. The reasons for placebo-controlled trials are reviewed, as is the evidence for various methods of risk stratification. Data for power calculations are presented for the primary outcome, the time to the first syncope recurrence. Strengths and weakness of the four main types of outcomes for clinical trials are compared.
González-Moreno, María; Saborido, Cristian; Teira, David
Our goal in this paper is to articulate a precise concept of at least a certain kind of disease-mongering, showing how pharmaceutical marketing can commercially exploit certain diseases when their best definition is given through the success of a treatment in a clinical trial. We distinguish two types of disease-mongering according to the way they exploit the definition of the trial population for marketing purposes. We argue that behind these two forms of disease-mongering there are two well-known problems in the statistical methodology of clinical trials (the reference class problem and the distinction between statistical and clinical significance). Overcoming them is far from simple. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McShane, Lisa M.; Korn, Edward L.
Clinical biomarker tests that aid in making treatment decisions will play an important role in achieving personalized medicine for cancer patients. Definitive evaluation of the clinical utility of these biomarkers requires conducting large randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Efficient RCT design is therefore crucial for timely introduction of these medical advances into clinical practice, and a variety of designs have been proposed for this purpose. To guide design and interpretation of RCTs evaluating biomarkers, we present an in-depth comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used designs. Key aspects of the discussion include efficiency comparisons and special interim monitoring issues that arise because of the complexity of these RCTs. Important ongoing and completed trials are used as examples. We conclude that, in most settings, randomized biomarker-stratified designs (ie, designs that use the biomarker to guide analysis but not treatment assignment) should be used to obtain a rigorous assessment of biomarker clinical utility. PMID:20075367
Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: To illustrate an approach to evidence-based medical practice by reporting the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS randomised clinical trials and cohort studies of choroidal melanoma. Methods: COMS randomised clinical trials of Iodine-125 (I-125 brachytherapy, adjunctive cohort study of visual acuity in eyes treated with brachytherapy and adjunctive natural history study. COMS randomised clinical trial of pre-enucleation radiation. Results: The COMS I-125 brachytherapy trial (N = 1,317 patients of medium-sized choroidal melanoma showed 5-year all-cause mortality of 18% [95% Confidence Interval (CI, 16-20%] and no statistically significant difference in mortality following 1-125 brachytherapy or enucleation. Adjunctive cohort natural history study (N-42 patients of patients eligible for the I-125 brachytherapy trial who deferred treatment or had no melanoma treatment had a 5-year all-cause mortality of 30% (95% CI, 18-47%. The COMS pre-enucleation radiation trial (N = 1,003 patients of large-sized choroidal melanoma showed 5-year all-cause mortality of 40% (95% CI, 37-44%. Conclusions: Evidence derived from randomised clinical trials and cohort studies shows the need for longterm ( 5 years follow-up to determine the efficacy of treatment for choroidal melanoma by any modality. The rather similar 5-year mortality for treated and untreated medium melanoma patients suggests that metastatic dissemination may occur at an early stage of choroidal melanoma. To increase longterm survival, ocular treatment of choroidal melanoma must strive for diagnosis and treatment of melanoma at an early stage when metastasis is less likely and be combined with measures to detect and treat micrometastasis
Lo, Albert C
Rehabilitation robots are increasingly being tested and promoted for clinical neurorehabilitation. Compared with conventional and manual methods, robots allow for a variety of advantages, particularly in the areas of interventional control and the ability to provide a high volume of facilitated movement. Since 1997, there have been more than 60 clinical trials reporting the use of two dozen different robots for neurorehabilitation. Although there are a number of smaller pilot studies, there are only few larger clinical trials. There may be a number of reasons why pilot robot studies do not materialize into larger studies. Beyond devices that failed to perform as intended, what are the clinical design issues that have limited these studies? Some basic considerations include randomization, inclusion of a control group, power calculation based on a clinically meaningful outcome, and finally, reproducible descriptions of the intervention being tested. Although many of these issues are general challenges presented for all rehabilitation studies, there are clinical design features that would likely greatly improve interpretation of results and better position robot devices toward the next clinical trial step. On the other hand, the absence of these elements, even in the setting of a pilot study, may significantly hamper the interpretation of results and not yield sufficient information on treatment effects, adverse event rates, dropout rate, and so on, to allow further testing to proceed to follow-up Food and Drug Administration phase II and III studies. Development of rehabilitation robots for clinical use needs to occur hand in hand with well-conducted clinical trials to provide evidence of efficacy while also taking into account costs.
Abbas, Ismail; Rovira, Joan; Casanovas, Josep
The patient recruitment process of clinical trials is an essential element which needs to be designed properly. In this paper we describe different simulation models under continuous and discrete time assumptions for the design of recruitment in clinical trials. The results of hypothetical examples of clinical trial recruitments are presented. The recruitment time is calculated and the number of recruited patients is quantified for a given time and probability of recruitment. The expected delay and the effective recruitment durations are estimated using both continuous and discrete time modeling. The proposed type of Monte Carlo simulation Markov models will enable optimization of the recruitment process and the estimation and the calibration of its parameters to aid the proposed clinical trials. A continuous time simulation may minimize the duration of the recruitment and, consequently, the total duration of the trial.
Full Text Available Abstract T cell therapy represents an emerging and promising modality for the treatment of both infectious disease and cancer. Data from recent clinical trials have highlighted the potential for this therapeutic modality to effect potent anti-tumor activity. Biomarkers, operationally defined as biological parameters measured from patients that provide information about treatment impact, play a central role in the development of novel therapeutic agents. In the absence of information about primary clinical endpoints, biomarkers can provide critical insights that allow investigators to guide the clinical development of the candidate product. In the context of cell therapy trials, the definition of biomarkers can be extended to include a description of parameters of the cell product that are important for product bioactivity. This review will focus on biomarker studies as they relate to T cell therapy trials, and more specifically: i. An overview and description of categories and classes of biomarkers that are specifically relevant to T cell therapy trials, and ii. Insights into future directions and challenges for the appropriate development of biomarkers to evaluate both product bioactivity and treatment efficacy of T cell therapy trials.
Full Text Available There is a growing awareness that research in primary care is needed to provide excellent clinical and population-based care, to develop effective health systems and policies, and to educate future primary care professionals and researchers. The relevance of research undertaken in primary care is unquestionable: the results of researches conducted in other settings has limited relevance because primary care encounters health problems rarely managed in other sectors of health care (i.e. low probability of major acute disease and high prevalence of comorbidity. From legislative aspects to limits and difficulties of application, the article underlines the importance of research in primary care in the Italian context, where this kind of activity is almost absent. An example, concerning the Genova ASL 3, is reported to suggest strategies to promote and improve research as an integral component of family doctors skills.
Full Text Available June Chen1, Stephen A Runyan1, Michael R Robinson21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Ophthalmology Clinical Research, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USAIntroduction: Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease characterized by progressive optic nerve injury and visual field defects. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the most widely recognized risk factor for the onset and progression of open-angle glaucoma, and IOP-lowering medications comprise the primary treatment strategy. IOP elevation in glaucoma is associated with diminished or obstructed aqueous humor outflow. Pharmacotherapy reduces IOP by suppressing aqueous inflow and/or increasing aqueous outflow.Purpose: This review focuses on novel non-FDA approved ocular antihypertensive compounds being investigated for IOP reduction in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients in active clinical trials within approximately the past 2 years.Methods: The mode of IOP reduction, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these new agents were assessed. Relevant drug efficacy and safety trials were identified from searches of various scientific literature databases and clinical trial registries. Compounds with no specified drug class, insufficient background information, reformulations, and fixed-combinations of marketed drugs were not considered.Results: The investigational agents identified comprise those that act on the same targets of established drug classes approved by the FDA (ie, prostaglandin analogs and β-adrenergic blockers as well as agents belonging to novel drug classes with unique mechanisms of action. Novel targets and compounds evaluated in clinical trials include an actin polymerization inhibitor (ie, latrunculin, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitors, adenosine receptor analogs, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a serotonin receptor antagonist.Conclusion: The clinical value of novel compounds for the treatment of glaucoma will depend
Walraven, I.; Aaronson, N.; Sonke, J.-J.; Verheij, M.; Belderbos, J.
Gita Thanarajasingam and colleagues' Article1 in The Lancet Oncology reports on a novel longitudinal approach for adverse event analysis and reporting. Comprehensive adverse event reporting in clinical oncology trials is essential to monitor tolerability of new cancer treatments. In view of the
Clinical therapeutic trials, or human experimentation with drugs, are abso- lutely necessary, because data gained from experiments on animals cannot always be directly extrapolated onto man as being applicable. Variations are also found in the different animal species. Tt is impossible to obtain data in animals regarding.
Baigent, Colin; Herrington, William G; Coresh, Josef
to detect treatment effects of a magnitude that would be realistic to achieve with a single intervention. Therefore, KDIGO convened an international, multidisciplinary controversies conference titled "Challenges in the Conduct of Clinical Trials in Nephrology" to identify the key barriers to conducting...
Geller, Nancy L; Kim, Dong-Yun; Tian, Xin
This article describes the use of smart technology by investigators and patients to facilitate lung disease clinical trials and make them less costly and more efficient. By "smart technology" we include various electronic media, such as computer databases, the Internet, and mobile devices. We first describe the use of electronic health records for identifying potential subjects and then discuss electronic informed consent. We give several examples of using the Internet and mobile technology in clinical trials. Interventions have been delivered via the World Wide Web or via mobile devices, and both have been used to collect outcome data. We discuss examples of new electronic devices that recently have been introduced to collect health data. While use of smart technology in clinical trials is an exciting development, comparison with similar interventions applied in a conventional manner is still in its infancy. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of using this omnipresent, powerful tool in clinical trials, as well as directions for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.
New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.
Gutmann, David H; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Korf, Bruce R; Packer, Roger J
Introduction The neurofibromatoses (neurofibromatosis type 1, NF1 and neurofibromatosis type 2, NF2) comprise the most common inherited conditions in which affected children and adults develop tumors of the central and peripheral nervous system. In this review, the authors discuss how the establishment of the Neurofibromatosis Clinical Trials Consortium (NFCTC) has positively impacted on the design and execution of treatment studies for individuals with NF1 and NF2. Areas covered Using an extensive PUBMED search in collaboration with select NFCTC members expert in distinct NF topics, the authors discuss the clinical features of NF1 and NF2, the molecular biology of the NF1 and NF2 genes, the development and application of clinically relevant Nf1 and Nf2 genetically engineered mouse models and the formation of the NFCTC to enable efficient clinical trial design and execution. Expert opinion The NFCTC has resulted in a more seamless integration of mouse preclinical and human clinical trials efforts. Leveraging emerging enabling resources, current research is focused on identifying subtypes of tumors in NF1 and NF2 to deliver the most active compounds to the patients most likely to respond to the targeted therapy. PMID:23425047
Schmal, Hagen; Bernstein, Anke; Feucht, Matthias J
Background. Intra-articular infections can rapidly lead to osteoarthritic degradation. The aim of this clinical biomarker analysis was to investigate the influence of inflammation on cartilage destruction and metabolism. Methods. Patients with acute joint infections were enrolled in a prospective...... clinical trial and the cytokine composition of effusions (n = 76) was analyzed. Characteristics of epidemiology and disease severity were correlated with levels of cytokines with known roles in cartilage turnover and degradation. Results. Higher synovial IL-1β concentrations were associated with clinical...
Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I
Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...... and empirical analyses support the blinding of patients, health-care providers, and outcome assessors as to the trial intervention to which patients have been allocated. We encourage extensive pretrial testing of blinding procedures and explicit reporting of who was in the blinded condition and the methods used...
McGraw, Deven; Greene, Sarah M; Miner, Caroline S; Staman, Karen L; Welch, Mary Jane; Rubel, Alan
With pragmatic clinical trials, an opportunity exists to answer important questions about the relative risks, burdens, and benefits of therapeutic interventions. However, concerns about protecting the privacy of this information are significant and must be balanced with the imperative to learn from the data gathered in routine clinical practice. Traditional privacy protections for research uses of identifiable information rely disproportionately on informed consent or authorizations, based on a presumption that this is necessary to fulfill ethical principles of respect for persons. But frequently, the ideal of informed consent is not realized in its implementation. Moreover, the principle of respect for persons—which encompasses their interests in health information privacy—can be honored through other mechanisms. Data anonymization also plays a role in protecting privacy but is not suitable for all research, particularly pragmatic clinical trials. In this article, we explore both the ethical foundation and regulatory framework intended to protect privacy in pragmatic clinical trials. We then review examples of novel approaches to respecting persons in research that may have the added benefit of honoring patient privacy considerations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Martinez, Diego A; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Yalcin, Ali; Zayas-Castro, José L; Djulbegovic, Benjamin
The administrative process associated with clinical trial activation has been criticized as costly, complex, and time-consuming. Prior research has concentrated on identifying administrative barriers and proposing various solutions to reduce activation time, and consequently associated costs. Here, we expand on previous research by incorporating social network analysis and discrete-event simulation to support process improvement decision-making. We searched for all operational data associated with the administrative process of activating industry-sponsored clinical trials at the Office of Clinical Research of the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. We limited the search to those trials initiated and activated between July 2011 and June 2012. We described the process using value stream mapping, studied the interactions of the various process participants using social network analysis, and modeled potential process modifications using discrete-event simulation. The administrative process comprised 5 sub-processes, 30 activities, 11 decision points, 5 loops, and 8 participants. The mean activation time was 76.6 days. Rate-limiting sub-processes were those of contract and budget development. Key participants during contract and budget development were the Office of Clinical Research, sponsors, and the principal investigator. Simulation results indicate that slight increments on the number of trials, arriving to the Office of Clinical Research, would increase activation time by 11 %. Also, incrementing the efficiency of contract and budget development would reduce the activation time by 28 %. Finally, better synchronization between contract and budget development would reduce time spent on batching documentation; however, no improvements would be attained in total activation time. The presented process improvement analytic framework not only identifies administrative barriers, but also helps to devise and evaluate potential improvement scenarios. The strength
Dal-Ré, Rafael; Moher, David; Gluud, Christian
Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends.......Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends....
Huang, Grant D; Bull, Jonca; Johnston McKee, Kelly; Mahon, Elizabeth; Harper, Beth; Roberts, Jamie N
Patient recruitment is widely recognized as a key determinant of success for clinical trials. Yet a substantial number of trials fail to reach recruitment goals-a situation that has important scientific, financial, ethical, and policy implications. Further, there are important effects on stakeholders who directly contribute to the trial including investigators, sponsors, and study participants. Despite efforts over multiple decades to identify and address barriers, recruitment challenges persist. To advance a more comprehensive approach to trial recruitment, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) convened a project team to examine the challenges and to issue actionable, evidence-based recommendations for improving recruitment planning that extend beyond common study-specific strategies. We describe our multi-stakeholder effort to develop a framework that delineates three areas essential to strategic recruitment planning efforts: (1) trial design and protocol development, (2) trial feasibility and site selection, and (3) communication. Our recommendations propose an upstream approach to recruitment planning that has the potential to produce greater impact and reduce downstream barriers. Additionally, we offer tools to help facilitate adoption of the recommendations. We hope that our framework and recommendations will serve as a guide for initial efforts in clinical trial recruitment planning irrespective of disease or intervention focus, provide a common basis for discussions in this area and generate targets for further analysis and continual improvement. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patrick I Okonta
The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of c...
diseases and dry AMD; • Established patient databases at the University of Utah and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey CTECs, classified...clinical trial, 2) as many as 50% affected are missed if you don’t include those under the age of 18, and 3) while Stargardt’s lends itself to a pediatric ...population study, the risk should be assessed in an adult population prior to treating the pediatric population. Final Discussions: Suggestions
... Immunotherapy Shown Safe in Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Trial Next step is to see if it works ... Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A small clinical trial showed an immune system therapy was safe for ...
Sekeres, Melanie; Gold, Jennifer L; Chan, An-Wen; Lexchin, Joel; Moher, David; Van Laethem, Marleen L P; Maskalyk, James; Ferris, Lorraine; Taback, Nathan; Rochon, Paula A
In September 2004, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) issued a Statement requiring that all clinical trials be registered at inception in a public register in order to be considered for publication. The World Health Organization (WHO) and ICMJE have identified 20 items that should be provided before a trial is considered registered, including contact information. Identifying those scientifically responsible for trial conduct increases accountability. The objective is to examine the proportion of registered clinical trials providing valid scientific leadership information. We reviewed clinical trial entries listing Canadian investigators in the two largest international and public trial registers, the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) register, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The main outcome measures were the proportion of clinical trials reporting valid contact information for the trials' Principal Investigator (PI)/Co-ordinating Investigator/Study Chair/Site PI, and trial e-mail contact address, stratified by funding source, recruiting status, and register. A total of 1388 entries (142 from ISRCTN and 1246 from ClinicalTrials.gov) comprised our sample. We found non-compliance with mandatory registration requirements regarding scientific leadership and trial contact information. Non-industry and partial industry funded trials were significantly more likely to identify the individual responsible for scientific leadership (OR = 259, 95% CI: 95-701) and to provide a contact e-mail address (OR = 9.6, 95% CI: 6.6-14) than were solely industry funded trials. Despite the requirements set by WHO and ICMJE, data on scientific leadership and contact e-mail addresses are frequently omitted from clinical trials registered in the two leading public clinical trial registers. To promote accountability and transparency in clinical trials research, public clinical trials registers should ensure adequate monitoring of trial
Bartoli, E; Sorrentino, D; Trevisi, A
Randomized clinical trials represent the final, essential link between basic medical research and human health. However, their conduction presents very complex ethical problems, since the patient is the actual target of the experiment. Proper randomization, informed consent, and preliminary disclosure of results create deep ethical conflicts between the role of caretaker and that of impartial observer, both played by the same doctor. The dilemma reproduces the conflict between two different ethics. One is based on the inalienable individual rights stemming from the concept of man as an end in himself and not a means to an end. The other, derived from utilitarian philosophies, is based on the benefit for society as a whole. If we agree that randomized clinical trials represent the best method to test the validity of a new treatment, there is no easy solution. The dilemma could be solved by separating the role of the family doctor, committed to the best treatment possible for his patient, from the role of the scientist, committed to the progress of science and humanity. The former is involved in the treatment of individual patients, the latter in clinical and scientific experiments of a therapeutic nature. The patient may trade his rights to the best possible cure for the safety and the efficiency guaranteed by the scientific institution conducting the trial. Trials on relevant issues--expected to produce important results and impeccably designed scientifically--could be endowed with the ethics of science per se and this could be considered equivalent to the individual rights waived by the patient.
Santen, Gijs Willem Eduard
To fail or not to fail – Clinical trials in depression investigates the causes of the high failure rate of clinical trials in depression research. Apart from the difficulties in the search for new antidepressants during drug discovery, faulty clinical trial designs hinder their evaluation during
Henry, James A; Loovis, Carl; Montero, Melissa; Kaelin, Christine; Anselmi, Kathryn-Anne; Coombs, Rebecca; Hensley, June; James, Kenneth E
.... We conducted a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that group educational counseling based on TRT principles would effectively treat veterans who have clinically significant tinnitus...
Smuck, Bobbi; Bettello, Phyllis; Berghout, Koralee; Hanna, Tracie; Kowaleski, Brenda; Phippard, Lynda; Au, Diana; Friel, Kay
The Ontario Institute for Cancer Research supported the creation of a working group with the objective of developing a standard rating scale to evaluate clinical trial complexity and applying the scale to facilitate workload measurement for Ontario cancer research sites. The lack of a mechanism to measure the workload involved in a clinical trials protocol was identified and confirmed by a literature review. To collect information on how Ontario sites were assessing workload, a survey was distributed and evaluated. As a result, the working group developed the Ontario Protocol Assessment Level (OPAL), a protocol complexity rating scale designed to capture the workload involved in a clinical trial. After a training workshop on the application, OPAL was evaluated by 17 Ontario cancer centers to demonstrate its reliability and consistency during a 3-month pilot study. Twenty-seven protocols were reviewed by multiple sites, and the majority of the sites reported OPAL score differences between 0 and 1.5. OPAL provides clinical trials departments with an objective method of quantifying clinical trials activity on the basis of study protocol complexity. With consistent application of OPAL, sites can manage staffing objectively. The working group is continuing to monitor the application of OPAL in Ontario.
Full Text Available ATL is a distinct peripheral T-lymphocytic malignancy associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1. The diversity in clinical features and prognosis of patients with this disease has led to its subtype-classification into four categories, acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering types, defined by organ involvement, and LDH and calcium values. In case of acute, lymphoma, or unfavorable chronic subtypes (aggressive ATL, intensive chemotherapy like the LSG15 regimen (VCAP-AMP-VECP is usually recommended if outside of clinical trials, based on the results of a phase 3 trial. In case of favorable chronic or smoldering ATL (indolent ATL, watchful waiting until disease progression has been recommended, although the long-term prognosis was inferior to those of, for instance, chronic lymphoid leukemia. Retrospective analysis suggested that the combination of interferon alpha and zidovudine was apparently promising for the treatment of ATL, especially for types with leukemic manifestation. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is also promising for the treatment of aggressive ATL possibly reflecting graft versus ATL effect. Several new agent trials for ATL are ongoing and in preparation, including a defucosylated humanized anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody, IL2-fused with diphtheria toxin, histone deacetylase inhibitors, a purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor, a proteasome inhibitor, and lenalidomide.
Kurbel, Sven; Mihaljević, Slobodan
Clinical trial results are often interpreted by inductive reasoning, in a trial design-limited manner, directed toward modifications of the current clinical practice. Deductive reasoning is an alternative in which results of relevant trials are combined in indisputable premises that lead to a conclusion easily testable in future trials. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
It is necessary for us to reform the infrastructure for clinical trials in Japan in this new GCP era. Medical institutions for clinical trials should prepare to implement monitoring and auditing procedures for quality control and quality assurance of clinical trials. It is also necessary to ease the burden and improve the benefits of participating in clinical trials by subjects. Although there has been no effort to educate and train CRC/SC staff at all in Japan, future improvement in this area is needed to bring the quality of Japan's clinical trials up to international standards.
Farquhar, Cynthia M; Showell, Marian G; Showell, Emily A E; Beetham, Penny; Baak, Nora; Mourad, Selma; Jordan, Vanessa M B
What is the prevalence and source of prospectively and retrospectively registered and unregistered trials in fertility treatments? Trial registration is low and does not appear to be changing over the 5 years studied. Trial registration is associated with lower risk of bias than in unregistered trials. The Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group's specialised register was searched on 5 November 2015 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published from January 2010 to December 2014. Eligible trials included randomised women or men for fertility treatments, were published in full text, and written in English. Two reviewers independently assessed trial registration status for each trial, by searching the publication, trial registries, and by contacting the original authors. Of 693 eligible RCTS, only 44% were registered trials. Of 309 registered trials, 21.7% were prospectively registered, 15.8% were registered within 6 months of first patient enrolment and 62.5% were retrospectively registered trials. Prospective trial registration by country varied from 0% to 100%. The highest frequency of prospective trial registration amongst the top 10 publishing countries was 31% in the Netherlands. Only English language trials were included in this review. Prospective trial registration is still low. Journals, funders and ethics committees could have a greater role to increase trial registration. University of Auckland. No competing interests.
DerSimonian, Rebecca; Laird, Nan
In this paper, we revisit a 1986 article we published in this Journal, Meta-Analysis in Clinical Trials, where we introduced a random-effects model to summarize the evidence about treatment efficacy from a number of related clinical trials. Because of its simplicity and ease of implementation, our approach has been widely used (with more than 12,000 citations to date) and the "DerSimonian and Laird method" is now often referred to as the 'standard approach' or a 'popular' method for meta-analysis in medical and clinical research. The method is especially useful for providing an overall effect estimate and for characterizing the heterogeneity of effects across a series of studies. Here, we review the background that led to the original 1986 article, briefly describe the random-effects approach for meta-analysis, explore its use in various settings and trends over time and recommend a refinement to the method using a robust variance estimator for testing overall effect. We conclude with a discussion of repurposing the method for Big Data meta-analysis and Genome Wide Association Studies for studying the importance of genetic variants in complex diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Studies knowledge area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and devlopment protal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: AAV-CF, adalimumab, ademetionine, afeletecan hydrochloride, agomelatine, alemtuzumab, almotriptan, amdoxovir, aplidine, aranose, arsenic sulfide, atazanavir, atlizumab; Bimatoprost, BMS-181176, BMS-188667, bortezomib, bryostatin 1; Combretastatin A-4 phosphate; Darbepoetin alfa, darusentan, deferasirox, desloratadine, DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib-vaccine, DTI-0009; Eculizumab, edodekin alfa, emtricitabine, enfuvirtide, epoetin, esomeprazole magnesium etoricoxib; Fampridine, fenretinide, FR-146687; Galiximab, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate sodium, ganirelix acetate, gefitinib, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, gimatecan; HEA125xOKT3, hIL-13-PE38QQR, HSV-2 theracine, Hu14.18-IL-2, human gammaglobulin; Idraparinux sodium, imatinib mesylate, IMiD3, insulin detemir, interleukin-4, irofulven, ISAtx-247; JT-1001; Levetiracetam, levosimendan, liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal vincristine sulfate, lixivaptan, lopinavir, lumiracoxib; Maxacalcitol, melatonin, midostaurin, MLN-518; Neridronic acid, nesiritide, nitronaproxen; Oblimersen sodium, oregovomab; PEG-filgrastim polyglutamate paclitaxel, prasterone, pregabalin; Rosuvastatin calcium, rotigotine hydrochloride; SGN-30; T-1249, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, teriparatide, tiotropium bromide, tipranavir, TMC-114, trabectedin, transdermal selegiline; UK-427857; Valdecoxib, valganciclovir hydrochloride, vardenafil, vatalanib succinate, vincristine sulfate TCS; Zofenopril calcium.
Ramsey, Tam; Lai, Wanda; Guo, Eric; Svider, Peter F; Zuliani, Giancarlo; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Folbe, Adam J
To characterize trends in rhinosinusitis clinical trials to provide recommendations for therapeutic directions, highlight possible redundancy, and provide a framework for prioritization of future clinical trials. Database analysis. Data were collected from ClinicalTrials.gov including all clinical trials that focused on rhinosinusitis with the exclusion of trials withdrawn prior to enrollment. Variables recorded included study design, study population, pharmaceutical involvement, publication, and whether a trial was a medical or surgical intervention. Associated publications were identified using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. There were 269 rhinosinusitis clinical trials, dating from 1993 to 2017, that met inclusion reauirements. Of the studies included in this analysis, 51.7% had at least one scientific publication, and of those with publications, 80.6% had positive results and 19.3% had negative results. Twenty-three clinical trials (8.5%) studied drugs already approved for rhinosinusitis, 113 (42.0%) trials studied drugs that were approved for other uses, 42 (15.6%) trials studied experimental drugs, and 102 (39.4%) studied surgical intervention. Of the trials studying drugs, the data showed many clinical trials that studied the same drug. The data demonstrate a steady decline in clinical trials with medical intervention and a rise in clinical trials with surgical intervention. This analysis is the first to characterize rhinosinusitis clinical trials, highlighting the over-representation of certain drugs and demonstrating an increased focus on clinical trials employing surgical intervention. We provide a framework to discuss prioritization of future studies to guide clinical and research practice. 4. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Van Laethem Marleen; Kalkar Sunila R; Wu Wei; Moher David; Ferris Lorraine E; Lexchin Joel; Hoey John; Sekeres Melanie; Rochon Paula A; Gruneir Andrea; Gold Jennifer; Maskalyk James; Streiner David L; Taback Nathan; Chan An-Wen
Abstract Background Financial conflicts of interest (fCOI) can introduce actions that bias clinical trial results and reduce their objectivity. We obtained information from investigators about adherence to practices that minimize the introduction of such bias in their clinical trials experience. Methods Email survey of clinical trial investigators from Canadian sites to learn about adherence to practices that help maintain research independence across all stages of trial preparation, conduct,...
Cummings, J; Aisen, P; Barton, R; Bork, J; Doody, R; Dwyer, J; Egan, J C; Feldman, H; Lappin, D; Truyen, L; Salloway, S; Sperling, R; Vradenburg, G
Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development is costly, time-consuming, and inefficient. Trial site functions, trial design, and patient recruitment for trials all require improvement. The Global Alzheimer Platform (GAP) was initiated in response to these challenges. Four GAP work streams evolved in the US to address different trial challenges: 1) registry-to-cohort web-based recruitment; 2) clinical trial site activation and site network construction (GAP-NET); 3) adaptive proof-of-concept clinical trial design; and 4) finance and fund raising. GAP-NET proposes to establish a standardized network of continuously funded trial sites that are highly qualified to perform trials (with established clinical, biomarker, imaging capability; certified raters; sophisticated management system. GAP-NET will conduct trials for academic and biopharma industry partners using standardized instrument versions and administration. Collaboration with the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) European Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease (EPAD) program, the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) and other similar international initiatives will allow conduct of global trials. GAP-NET aims to increase trial efficiency and quality, decrease trial redundancy, accelerate cohort development and trial recruitment, and decrease trial costs. The value proposition for sites includes stable funding and uniform training and trial execution; the value to trial sponsors is decreased trial costs, reduced time to execute trials, and enhanced data quality. The value for patients and society is the more rapid availability of new treatments for AD.
Andres E. Morales La Madrid
Full Text Available In spite of major recent advances in DIPG molecular characterization, this body of knowledge has not yet translated into better treatments.To date,more than 250 clinical trials evaluating radiotherapy along with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy as well as newer biologic agents,have failed to improve the dismal outcome when compared to palliative radiation alone.The biology of DIPG remained unknown until recently when the neurosurgical expertise along with the recognition by the scientific and clinical community of the importance of tissue sampling at diagnosis;ideally in the context of a clinical trial and by trained neurosurgical teams to maximize patient safety.These pre-treatment tumor samples,and others coming from tissue obtained post-mortem,have yielded new insights into DIPG molecular biology.We now know that DIPG comprises a heterogeneous disease with variable molecular phenotypes, different from adult high grade glioma,other non-pontine pediatric high grade gliomas and even between pontine gliomas.The discovery of histone H3.3 or H3.1 mutations has been an important step forward in understanding tumor formation,maintenance and progression.Pharmacologic reversal of DIPG histone demethylation therefore offers an important potential intervention strategy for the treatment of DIPG.To date,clinical trials of newly diagnosed or progressive DIPG with epigenetic modifiers have been unsuccessful.Whether this failure represents limited activity of the agents used,their CNS penetration,redundant pathways within the tumor,or the possibility that histone mutations are necessary only to initiate DIPGs but not maintain their growth,suggest that a great deal still needs to be elucidated in both the underlying biology of these pathways,and the drugs designed to target them.In this review, we discuss the role of both epigenetic and genetic mutations within DIPG and the development of treatment strategies directed against the unique abnormalities
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In an effort to understand how results of human clinical trials are made public, we analyze a large set of clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, the world's largest clinical trial registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We considered two trial result artifacts: (1 existence of a trial result journal article that is formally linked to a registered trial or (2 the deposition of a trial's basic summary results within the registry. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 8907 completed, interventional, phase 2-or-higher clinical trials that were completed in 2006-2009. The majority of trials (72.2% had no structured trial-article link present. A total of 2367 trials (26.6% deposited basic summary results within the registry. Of those, 969 trials (10.9% were classified as trials with extended results and 1398 trials (15.7% were classified as trials with only required basic results. The majority of the trials (54.8% had no evidence of results, based on either linked result articles or basic summary results (silent trials, while a minimal number (9.2% report results through both registry deposition and publication. DISCUSSION: Our study analyzes the body of linked knowledge around clinical trials (which we refer to as the "trialome". Our results show that most trials do not report results and, for those that do, there is minimal overlap in the types of reporting. We identify several mechanisms by which the linkages between trials and their published results can be increased. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that even when combining publications and registry results, and despite availability of several information channels, trial sponsors do not sufficiently meet the mandate to inform the public either via a linked result publication or basic results submission.
George, Melvin; Selvarajan, Sandhiya; S, Suresh-Kumar; Dkhar, Steven A; Chandrasekaran, Adithan
The last decade has witnessed a greater transparency in clinical research with the advent of clinical trial registries. The aim of the study was to describe the trends in the globalization of clinical trials in the last five years. We performed an internet search using the WHO International clinical trials registry platform (WHO ICTRP) to identify the clinical trials conducted from January 2007 to December 31, 2011 among 25 countries. Among the 25 countries, the United States, Japan and Germany occupy the top positions in the total number of clinical trials conducted. Clinical trials in the US (36312) constituted 31.5% of the total number of trials performed during this period. However over a period of five years both US and Western Europe appear to show a decline, while the emerging countries show a rise in clinical trials registered. Among the emerging countries China, India and Republic of Korea are most active regions involved in clinical trials. Cancer, diabetes and respiratory diseases were most widely researched areas overall. Although the study confirms the transition in the clinical trials research towards emerging countries, the developed regions of the world still contribute to more than 70% of the trials registered worldwide.
Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Yonghui; Wang, Jingqi; Dong, Xiao; Xu, Hua
In scientific writing, positive credits and negative criticisms can often be seen in the text mentioning the cited papers, providing useful information about whether a study can be reproduced or not. In this study, we focus on citation sentiment analysis, which aims to determine the sentiment polarity that the citation context carries towards the cited paper. A citation sentiment corpus was annotated first on clinical trial papers. The effectiveness of n-gram and sentiment lexicon features, and problem-specified structure features for citation sentiment analysis were then examined using the annotated corpus. The combined features from the word n-grams, the sentiment lexicons and the structure information achieved the highest Micro F-score of 0.860 and Macro-F score of 0.719, indicating that it is feasible to use machine learning methods for citation sentiment analysis in biomedical publications. A comprehensive comparison between citation sentiment analysis of clinical trial papers and other general domains were conducted, which additionally highlights the unique challenges within this domain.
In individually randomized controlled trials, in addition to the primary outcome, information is often available on a number of covariates prior to randomization. This information is frequently utilized to undertake adjustment for baseline characteristics in order to increase precision of the estimation of average treatment effects; such adjustment is usually performed via covariate adjustment in outcome regression models. Although the use of covariate adjustment is widely seen as desirable for making treatment effect estimates more precise and the corresponding hypothesis tests more powerful, there are considerable concerns that objective inference in randomized clinical trials can potentially be compromised. In this paper, we study an empirical likelihood approach to covariate adjustment and propose two unbiased estimating functions that automatically decouple evaluation of average treatment effects from regression modeling of covariate-outcome relationships. The resulting empirical likelihood estimator of the average treatment effect is as efficient as the existing efficient adjusted estimators(1) when separate treatment-specific working regression models are correctly specified, yet are at least as efficient as the existing efficient adjusted estimators(1) for any given treatment-specific working regression models whether or not they coincide with the true treatment-specific covariate-outcome relationships. We present a simulation study to compare the finite sample performance of various methods along with some results on analysis of a data set from an HIV clinical trial. The simulation results indicate that the proposed empirical likelihood approach is more efficient and powerful than its competitors when the working covariate-outcome relationships by treatment status are misspecified.
Stuart J Pocock; Bernard J Gersh
.... Topics covered include the inadequacy of trial research on medical devices, problems with industry-sponsored trials, the lack of head-to-head trials of new effective treatments, the need for wiser...
Šolić, Ivana; Stipčić, Ana; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušić, Ana
Despite increased visibility of clinical trials through international trial registries, patients often remain uninformed of their existence, especially if they do not have access to adequate information about clinical research, including the language of the information. The aim of this study was to describe the context for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia in relation to countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and to assess how informed Croatian patients are about clinical trials and their accessibility. We assessed the transparency of clinical trials from the data available in the public domain. We also conducted an anonymous survey on a convenience sample of 257 patients visiting two family medicine offices or an oncology department in south Croatia, and members of national patients' associations. Despite legal provisions for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, they are still not sufficiently visible in the public domain. Among countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has the fewest number of registered trials in the EU Clinical Trials Registry. 66% of the patients in the survey were aware of the existence of clinical trials but only 15% were informed about possibilities of participating in a trial. Although 58% of the respondents were willing to try new treatments, only 6% actually participated in a clinical trial. Only 2% of the respondents were aware of publicly available trial registries. Our study demonstrates that there is low transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, and that Croatian patients are not fully aware of clinical trials and the possibilities of participating in them, despite reported availability of Internet resources and good communication with their physicians. There is a need for active policy measures to increase the awareness of and access to clinical trials to patients in Croatia, particularly in their own language.
Luís, H S; Morgado, I; Assunção, V; Bernardo, M F; Leroux, B; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T A; Leitão, J
Dental hygiene activities were developed as part of a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the safety of low-level mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Along with dental-hygiene clinical work, a community programme was implemented after investigators noticed the poor oral hygiene habits of participants, and the need for urgent action to minimize oral health problems in the study population. Clinical and community activity goal was to promote oral health and prevent new disease. Community activities involved participants and their fellow students and were aimed at providing education on oral health in a school environment. Dental hygienists developed clinical work with prophylaxis, sealants application and topical fluoride and implemented the community programme with in-class sessions on oral health themes. Twice a month fluoride mouthrinses and bi-annual tooth brushing instructional activity took place. Participation at dental-hygiene activities, sealed teeth with no need of restoration and dental-plaque-index were measures used to evaluate success of the programme for the participants. Improvement in dental hygiene is shown by the decrease in dental plaque index scores (P teeth. 888 (13.7%) teeth with sealants had to be restored or were lost. Children participated actively on dental hygiene activities. Teachers became aware of the problem and included oral-health in school curricula. Dental hygiene activities have shown to be helpful to promote dental hygiene, promote oral health and to provide school-age children with education on habits that will be important for their future good health.
Full Text Available Clinical trial planning of candidate drugs is an important task for pharmaceutical companies. In this paper, we propose two new multistage stochastic programming formulations (CM1 and CM2 to determine the optimal clinical trial plan under uncertainty. Decisions of a clinical trial plan include which clinical trials to start and their start times. Its objective is to maximize expected net present value of the entire clinical trial plan. Outcome of a clinical trial is uncertain, i.e., whether a potential drug successfully completes a clinical trial is not known until the clinical trial is completed. This uncertainty is modeled using an endogenous uncertain parameter in CM1 and CM2. The main difference between CM1 and CM2 is an additional binary variable, which tracks both start and end time points of clinical trials in CM2. We compare the sizes and solution times of CM1 and CM2 with each other and with a previously developed formulation (CM3 using different instances of clinical trial planning problem. The results reveal that the solution times of CM1 and CM2 are similar to each other and are up to two orders of magnitude shorter compared to CM3 for all instances considered. In general, the root relaxation problems of CM1 and CM2 took shorter to solve, CM1 and CM2 yielded tight initial gaps, and the solver required fewer branches for convergence to the optimum for CM1 and CM2.
Liu, Katherine A; Mager, Natalie A Dipietro
The importance of considering the differences between the male and female sex in clinical decision-making is crucial. However, it has been acknowledged in recent decades that clinical trials have not always adequately enrolled women or analyzed sex-specific differences in the data. As these deficiencies have hindered the progress of understanding women's response to medications, agencies in the United States have worked towards the inclusion of women in clinical trials and appropriate analysis of sex-specific data from clinical trials. This review outlines the history and progress of women's inclusion in clinical trials for prescription drugs and presents considerations for researchers, clinicians, and academicians on this issue.
Dear, Rachel; Barratt, Alexandra; Askie, Lisa; McGeechan, Kevin; Arora, Sheena; Crossing, Sally; Currow, David; Tattersall, Martin
Clinical trials registries are now operating in the USA, Europe, Australia, China, and India and more are planned. Trial registries could be an excellent source of information about clinical trials for patients and others affected by cancer as well as health care professionals, but may be difficult for patients to navigate and use. An opportunity arose in Australia to develop a consumer friendly cancer clinical trials website (Australian Cancer Trials Online (ACTO), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au) using an automated data feed from two large clinical trial registries. In this article, we describe aspects of this new website, and explore ways in which such a website may add value to clinical trial data which are already collected and held by trial registries. The development of ACTO was completed by a Web company working in close association with staff at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), and with consumer representatives. Data for the website were sourced directly and only from clinical trial registries, thus avoiding the creation of an additional trials database. It receives an automated, daily data feed of newly registered cancer clinical trials from both the ANZCTR and Clinical Trials.gov. The development of ACTO exemplifies the advantage of a local clinical trial registry working with consumers to provide accessible information about cancer clinical trials to meet consumers' information needs. We found that the inclusion of a lay summary added substantial value for consumers, and recommend that consideration be given to adding a lay summary to the mandatory data items collected by all trial registries. Furthermore, improved navigation, decision support tools, and consistency in data collection between clinical trial registries will also enable consumer websites to provide additional value for users. Clinical trial registration is not compulsory in Australia. If the additional cancer items (including a lay summary) are not provided
Unger, Joseph M; Hershman, Dawn L; Albain, Kathy S; Moinpour, Carol M; Petersen, Judith A; Burg, Kenda; Crowley, John J
Studies have shown an association between socioeconomic status (SES) and quality of oncology care, but less is known about the impact of patient SES on clinical trial participation. We assessed clinical trial participation patterns according to important SES (income, education) and demographic factors in a large sample of patients surveyed via an Internet-based treatment decision tool. Logistic regression, conditioning on type of cancer, was used. Attitudes toward clinical trials were assessed using prespecified items about treatment, treatment tolerability, convenience, and cost. From 2007 to 2011, 5,499 patients were successfully surveyed. Forty percent discussed clinical trials with their physician, 45% of discussions led to physician offers of clinical trial participation, and 51% of offers led to clinical trial participation. The overall clinical trial participation rate was 9%. In univariate models, older patients (P = .002) and patients with lower income (P = .001) and education (P = .02) were less likely to participate in clinical trials. In a multivariable model, income remained a statistically significant predictor of clinical trial participation (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.94; P = .01). Even in patients age ≥ 65 years, who have universal access to Medicare, lower income predicted lower trial participation. Cost concerns were much more evident among lower-income patients (P income patients were less likely to participate in clinical trials, even when considering age group. A better understanding of why income is a barrier may help identify ways to make clinical trials better available to all patients and would increase the generalizability of clinical trial results across all income levels.
Gadde, Kishore M; Pritham Raj, Y
This review provides an overview of the current state of drug therapy for obesity, with a focus on four new drug therapies-lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg-which have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for long-term management of obesity since 2012. Topics discussed in this paper include rationale for pharmacotherapy, history of antiobesity drugs, and efficacy and safety data from randomized controlled trials with implications for clinical practice. Weight loss achieved by currently approved drugs ranges from approximately 3 to 9%, above and beyond weight loss with lifestyle counseling alone, after a year. Response and attrition rates in clinical trials indicate that the benefits of pharmacotherapy range from substantial for some patients, modest for others, and no benefits for others still. Decisions regarding selection of a suitable drug from the available pharmacotherapy options and duration of treatment should be based on the expected and observed benefit-to-risk balance and tailored to the needs of each individual patient using the principles of shared decision-making.
Li, Ting-qian; Wang, Gang; Wang, Lei
To explore the problems and the strategies in clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), including the method and concealment of randomizing, equipoise of baseline, blindness and outcome measures, adverse reaction observation, statistical method and publication bias. The consolidated standard of reporting trials (CONSORT) is recommended to be applied in order to improve the quality of design and report of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM, and in case of human is taken as the subject of trial, according to the fundamental ethical principle, the clinical trial design should be censored by institutional review board (IRB), and the informed consent should be signed to protect the rights and interests of the trial participator.
Van Laethem Marleen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial conflicts of interest (fCOI can introduce actions that bias clinical trial results and reduce their objectivity. We obtained information from investigators about adherence to practices that minimize the introduction of such bias in their clinical trials experience. Methods Email survey of clinical trial investigators from Canadian sites to learn about adherence to practices that help maintain research independence across all stages of trial preparation, conduct, and dissemination. The main outcome was the proportion of investigators that reported full adherence to preferred trial practices for all of their trials conducted from 2001-2006, stratified by funding source. Results 844 investigators responded (76% and 732 (66% provided useful information. Full adherence to preferred clinical trial practices was highest for institutional review of signed contracts and budgets (82% and 75% of investigators respectively. Lower rates of full adherence were reported for the other two practices in the trial preparation stage (avoidance of confidentiality clauses, 12%; trial registration after 2005, 39%. Lower rates of full adherence were reported for 7 practices in the trial conduct (35% to 43% and dissemination (53% to 64% stages, particularly in industry funded trials. 269 investigators personally experienced (n = 85 or witnessed (n = 236 a fCOI; over 70% of these situations related to industry trials. Conclusion Full adherence to practices designed to promote the objectivity of research varied across trial stages and was low overall, particularly for industry funded trials.
Rochon, Paula A; Sekeres, Melanie; Hoey, John; Lexchin, Joel; Ferris, Lorraine E; Moher, David; Wu, Wei; Kalkar, Sunila R; Van Laethem, Marleen; Gruneir, Andrea; Gold, Jennifer; Maskalyk, James; Streiner, David L; Taback, Nathan; Chan, An-Wen
Financial conflicts of interest (fCOI) can introduce actions that bias clinical trial results and reduce their objectivity. We obtained information from investigators about adherence to practices that minimize the introduction of such bias in their clinical trials experience. Email survey of clinical trial investigators from Canadian sites to learn about adherence to practices that help maintain research independence across all stages of trial preparation, conduct, and dissemination. The main outcome was the proportion of investigators that reported full adherence to preferred trial practices for all of their trials conducted from 2001-2006, stratified by funding source. 844 investigators responded (76%) and 732 (66%) provided useful information. Full adherence to preferred clinical trial practices was highest for institutional review of signed contracts and budgets (82% and 75% of investigators respectively). Lower rates of full adherence were reported for the other two practices in the trial preparation stage (avoidance of confidentiality clauses, 12%; trial registration after 2005, 39%). Lower rates of full adherence were reported for 7 practices in the trial conduct (35% to 43%) and dissemination (53% to 64%) stages, particularly in industry funded trials. 269 investigators personally experienced (n = 85) or witnessed (n = 236) a fCOI; over 70% of these situations related to industry trials. Full adherence to practices designed to promote the objectivity of research varied across trial stages and was low overall, particularly for industry funded trials.
Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Lavigne, Rob; Brüssow, Harald
Recently, a number of phage therapy phase I and II safety trials have been concluded, showing no notable safety concerns associated with the use of phage. Though hurdles for efficient treatment remain, these trials hold promise for future phase III clinical trials. Interestingly, most phage formulations used in these clinical trials are straightforward phage suspensions, and not much research has focused on the processing of phage cocktails in specific pharmaceutical dosage forms. Additional research on formulation strategies and the stability of phage-based drugs will be of key importance, especially with phage therapy advancing toward phase III clinical trials.
Conclusion: The number of clinical trials done in allied fields of medicine other than the allopathic system has lowered down, and furthermore focus is required regarding the methodological quality of these trials and more support from various organizations.
Bjørndal, Lars; Fransson, Helena; Bruun, Gitte
nonselective carious removal to hard dentin with or without pulp exposure. The aim of this article was to report the 5-y outcome on these previously treated patients having radiographically well-defined carious lesions extending into the pulpal quarter of the dentin but with a well-defined radiodense zone...... between the carious lesion and the pulp. In this long-term study, 239 of 314 (76.2%) patients were analyzed. The stepwise removal group had a significantly higher proportion of success (60.2%) at 5-y follow-up compared with the nonselective carious removal to hard dentin group (46.3%) (P = 0.031) when......) in deep carious lesions in adults. In conclusion, the stepwise carious removal group had a significantly higher proportion of pulps with sustained vitality without apical radiolucency versus nonselective carious removal of deep carious lesions in adult teeth at 5-y follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT...
Bardach, Shoshana H; Holmes, Sarah D; Jicha, Gregory A
Alzheimer's disease (AD) research progress is impeded due to participant recruitment challenges. This study seeks to better understand, from the perspective of individuals engaged in clinical trials (CTs), research motivations. Participants, or their caregivers, from AD treatment and prevention CTs were surveyed about research motivators. The 87 respondents had a mean age of 72.2, were predominantly Caucasian, 55.2% were male, and 56.3% had cognitive impairment. An overwhelming majority rated the potential to help themselves or a loved one and the potential to help others in the future as important motivators. Relatively few respondents were motivated by free healthcare, monetary rewards, or to make others happy. Recruitment efforts should focus on the potential benefit for the individual, their loved ones, and others in the future rather than free healthcare or monetary rewards.
Elkum, Naser B; Myles, James D; Kumar, Pranesh
The human body exhibits a variety of biological rhythms. There are patterns that correspond, among others, to the daily wake / sleep cycle, a yearly seasonal cycle and, in women, the menstrual cycle. Sine/cosine functions are often used to model biological patterns for continuous data, but this model is not appropriate for analysis of biological rhythms in failure time data. We consider a method appropriate for analysis of biological rhythms in clinical trials. We present a method to provide an estimate and confidence interval of the time when the minimum hazard is achieved. A motivating example from a clinical trial of adjuvant of pre-menopausal breast cancer patients provides an important illustration of the methodology in practice. Adapting the Cosinor method to the Weibull proportional hazards model is proposed as useful way of modeling the biological rhythm data. It presents a method to estimate the time that achieves the minimum hazard along with its associated confidence interval. The application of this technique to the breast cancer data revealed that the optimal day for pre-resection incisional or excisional biopsy of 28-day cycle (i.e. the day associated with the lowest recurrence rate) is day 8 with 95% CI 5-10. We found that older age, fewer positive nodes, smaller tumor size, and experimental treatment are important prognostic factors of longer relapse-free survival. The analysis of biological/circadian rhythms is usually handled by Cosinor rhythmometry method. However, in FTD this is simply not possible. In this case, we propose to adapt the Cosinor method to the Weibull proportional hazard model. The advantage of the proposed method is its ability to model survival data. This method is not limited to breast cancer data, and may be applied to any biological rhythms linked to right censored data.
Vawdrey, David K; Hripcsak, George
To measure the rate of non-publication and assess possible publication bias in clinical trials of electronic health records. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov to identify registered clinical trials of electronic health records and searched the biomedical literature and contacted trial investigators to determine whether the results of the trials were published. Publications were judged as positive, negative, or neutral according to the primary outcome. Seventy-six percent of trials had publications describing trial results; of these, 74% were positive, 21% were neutral, and 4% were negative (harmful). Of unpublished studies for which the investigator responded, 43% were positive, 57% were neutral, and none were negative; the lower rate of positive results was significant (pelectronic health record studies is similar to that in other biomedical studies. There appears to be a bias toward publication of positive trials in this domain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pocock, Stuart J; Clayton, Tim C; Stone, Gregg W
As a sequel to last week's paper on the fundamentals of clinical trial design, this paper tackles related controversial issues: noninferiority trials, the value of factorial designs, the importance and challenges of strategy trials, Data Monitoring Committees (including when to stop a trial early), and the role of adaptive designs. All topics are illustrated by relevant examples from cardiology trials. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László
To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.
Pariera, Katrina L; Murphy, Sheila T; Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret L
African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans are disproportionately affected by cancer, yet underrepresented in cancer clinical trials. Because of this, it is important to understand how attitudes and beliefs about clinical trials vary by ethnicity. A national, random sample of 860 adults was given an online survey about attitudes toward clinical trials. We examined willingness to participate in clinical trials, attitudes toward clinical trials, trust in doctors, attitudes toward alternative and complementary medicine, and preferred information channels. Results indicate that African-American and Hispanic-American participants have more negative attitudes about clinical trials, more distrust toward doctors, more interest in complementary and alternative medicine, and less willingness to participate in clinical trials than white/non-Hispanics, although specific factors affecting willingness to participate vary. The channels people turn to for information on clinical trials also varied by ethnicity. These results help explain the ethnic disparities in cancer clinical trial enrollment by highlighting some potential underlying causes and drawing attention to areas of importance to these groups.
Biedrzycki, Barbara A
To describe what is known about the factors that influence cancer clinical trial decision making. PubMed database and reference lists of identified articles. Variations in research design and methods, including sample characteristics, instrumentation, time between decision made and measurement of decision making, and response rates, have effects on what is known about decision making for cancer clinical trial participation. Communication, whether in the form of education about a cancer clinical trial or as a personal invitation to join, is an important factor influencing decision making. Personal and system factors influence the outcomes of decision making for cancer clinical trials. The process of decision making for cancer clinical trials is understudied. Nevertheless, the currently available cancer clinical trial decision-making literature suggests a multitude of factors that influence the outcomes of the decision to accept or decline clinical trial participation, as well as the psychosocial consequences of decisional regret, pressures, and satisfaction. The decision-making process of cancer clinical trials is a fertile area for research and, subsequently, evidence-based interventions. Oncology nurses are in a position to facilitate the process and to relieve the pressures patients perceive regarding decision making for cancer clinical trials that will benefit individuals and, ultimately, society.
Diefenbach, Catherine S; Connors, Joseph M; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Leonard, John P; Kahl, Brad S; Little, Richard F; Baizer, Lawrence; Evens, Andrew M; Hoppe, Richard T; Kelly, Kara M; Persky, Daniel O; Younes, Anas; Kostakaglu, Lale; Bartlett, Nancy L
The National Clinical Trials Network lymphoid malignancies Clinical Trials Planning Meeting (CTPM) occurred in November of 2014. The scope of the CTPM was to prioritize across the lymphoid tumors clinically significant questions and to foster strategies leading to biologically informed and potentially practice changing clinical trials. This review from the Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) subcommittee of the CTPM discusses the ongoing clinical challenges in HL, outlines the current standard of care for HL patients from early to advanced stage, and surveys the current science with respect to biomarkers and the landscape of ongoing clinical trials. Finally, we suggest areas of unmet need in HL and elucidate promising therapeutic strategies to guide future HL clinical trials planning across the NCTN. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Hu, Min; Liu, Jian-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Ke
Acupuncture clinical trials are designed to provide reliable evidence of clinical efficacy, and SCI papers is one of the high-quality clinical efficacy of acupuncture research. To analyze these papers published in high impact factor journals on acupuncture clinical trials, we can study clinical trials from design to implementation, the efficacy of prevention and cure, combined with international standard practices to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture. That is the core of acupuncture clinical trials, as well as a prerequisite for outstanding academic output. A scientific and complete acupuncture clinical trial should be topically novel, designed innovative, logically clear, linguistically refining, and the most important point lies in a great discovery and solving the pragmatic problem. All of these are critical points of papers to be published in high impact factor journal, and directly affect international evaluation and promotion of acupuncture.
Luntz, S P; Gorbauch, T; Schröder, B; Seibert-Grafe, M
Coordination Centres for Clinical Trials (Koordinierungszentren für Klinische Studien, KKS) were set up to increase the quality and number of clinical trials in Germany as well as to establish clinical trial training programs in order to improve international recognition of German clinical research. Over the past 6 years, 12 KKS have been set up at the respective universities with a public grant from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Many non-clinical services have been established to ensure successful co-operation in clinical trials with clinical scientists and industry. KKS help researchers to efficiently conduct commercial and non-commercial clinical trials in various disease areas. Their expertise and infrastructure allow the university to assume sponsor responsibility in non-commercial drug trials. Because of their professional work and education activities KKS are well accepted by industry and the scientific community. Central professional trial organisations such as the KKS have been shown to be the pre-requisite for meeting the growing, manifold and complex requirements for clinical trials. Therefore they are considered essential for progress and success in clinical research.
offered complimentary or valet parking to prostate cancer clinical trial participants, followed by 21% offering complimentary food or beverages ...Help with transportation (e.g. bus tickets or taxi vouchers) 1 2 3 c. Cash or gift cards/certificates 1 2 3 d. Complimentary food or beverages ...prostate in an operation.] 1 0 77 99 c. Internal Radiation Therapy or Brachytherapy? [PROBE: This is when a doctor places radioactive ‗ seeds ‘ or other
Joseph S Ross
Full Text Available ClinicalTrials.gov is a publicly accessible, Internet-based registry of clinical trials managed by the US National Library of Medicine that has the potential to address selective trial publication. Our objectives were to examine completeness of registration within ClinicalTrials.gov and to determine the extent and correlates of selective publication.We examined reporting of registration information among a cross-section of trials that had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov after December 31, 1999 and updated as having been completed by June 8, 2007, excluding phase I trials. We then determined publication status among a random 10% subsample by searching MEDLINE using a systematic protocol, after excluding trials completed after December 31, 2005 to allow at least 2 y for publication following completion. Among the full sample of completed trials (n = 7,515, nearly 100% reported all data elements mandated by ClinicalTrials.gov, such as intervention and sponsorship. Optional data element reporting varied, with 53% reporting trial end date, 66% reporting primary outcome, and 87% reporting trial start date. Among the 10% subsample, less than half (311 of 677, 46% of trials were published, among which 96 (31% provided a citation within ClinicalTrials.gov of a publication describing trial results. Trials primarily sponsored by industry (40%, 144 of 357 were less likely to be published when compared with nonindustry/nongovernment sponsored trials (56%, 110 of 198; p<0.001, but there was no significant difference when compared with government sponsored trials (47%, 57 of 122; p = 0.22. Among trials that reported an end date, 75 of 123 (61% completed prior to 2004, 50 of 96 (52% completed during 2004, and 62 of 149 (42% completed during 2005 were published (p = 0.006.Reporting of optional data elements varied and publication rates among completed trials registered within ClinicalTrials.gov were low. Without greater attention to reporting of all data
Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida
: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HighWire Press, and Google Scholar. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised clinical trials with blinded and non-blinded assessment of the same binary outcome. RESULTS: We included 21 trials in the main...
Fors, Martha Maria; Viada, Carmen Elena; Gonzalez, Paloma
Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) is a very flexible non parametric algorithm that allows classification of individuals according to certain criteria, particularly in clinical trials, the method is used to predict response to treatment or classify individuals according to prognostic factors. In this paper we examine how often RPA is used in clinical trials and in meta-analysis. We reviewed abstracts published between 1990 and 2016, and extracted data regarding clinical trial phase, year of publication, type of treatment, medical indication and main evaluated endpoints. One hundred and eighty three studies were identified; of these 43 were meta-analyses and 23 were clinical trials. Most of the studies were published between 2011 and 2016, for both clinical trials and meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. The prediction of overall survival and progression free survival were the outcomes most evaluated, at 43.5% and 51.2% respectively. Regarding the use of RPA in clinical trials, the brain was the most common site studied, while for meta-analytic studies, other cancer sites were also studied. The combination of chemotherapy and radiation was seen frequently in clinical trials. Recursive partitioning analysis is a very easy technique to use, and it could be a very powerful tool to predict response in different subgroups of patients, although it is not widely used in clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Tudur Smith, Catrin; Williamson, Paula; Jones, Ashley; Smyth, Alan; Hewer, Simon Langton; Gamble, Carrol
Some level of monitoring is usually required during a clinical trial to protect the rights and safety of trial participants and to safeguard the quality and reliability of trial results. Although there is increasing support for the use of risk-proportionate approaches to achieve these aims, the variety of methods and lack of an empirical evidence base can present challenges for clinical trial practitioners. This paper describes the monitoring methods and procedures that are utilised by a non-commercial clinical trials unit which coordinates a range of clinical trials across a variety of clinical areas with different associated risks. Monitoring activities and approaches should be selected to be proportionate to the risks identified within a trial. A risk-proportionate approach to monitoring is described giving details of methods that may be considered by clinical trial practitioners during the development of a trial monitoring plan. An example risk assessment and corresponding monitoring plan for a low risk (type A in the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) classification system) pediatric trial is provided for illustration. We present ideas for developing a monitoring plan for a clinical trial of an investigational medicinal product based on our experience. Alternative approaches may be relevant or preferable in other settings based on inherent risk.
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...
Mandel, Jacob J; Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Patel, Akash J; Cachia, David; Liu, Diane; Park, Minjeong; Yuan, Ying; Kent, Thomas A; de Groot, John F
Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, but effective therapies are lacking. With the scarcity of positive phase III trials, which are increasing in cost, we examined the ability of positive phase II trials to predict statistically significant improvement in clinical outcomes of phase III trials. A PubMed search was conducted to identify phase III clinical trials performed in the past 25 years for patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent glioblastoma. Trials were excluded if they did not examine an investigational chemotherapy or agent, if they were stopped early owing to toxicity, if they lacked prior phase II studies, or if a prior phase II study was negative. Seven phase III clinical trials in newly diagnosed glioblastoma and 4 phase III clinical trials in recurrent glioblastoma met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 (9%) phase III study documented an improvement in overall survival and changed the standard of care. The high failure rate of phase III trials demonstrates the urgent need to increase the reliability of phase II trials of treatments for glioblastoma. Strategies such as the use of adaptive trial designs, Bayesian statistics, biomarkers, volumetric imaging, and mathematical modeling warrant testing. Additionally, it is critical to increase our expectations of phase II trials so that positive findings increase the probability that a phase III trial will be successful.
The implementation of informed consent (IC) in clinical trials presents many challenges, especially in developing countries. This study explored the experiences and reported practices regarding the implementation of IC in clinical trials in South Africa. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with a range of ...
Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida
To evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes.......To evaluate the impact of non-blinded outcome assessment on estimated treatment effects in randomised clinical trials with binary outcomes....
Objectives: To identify possible existence of therapeutic misconception and its effects on clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa. Data source: Original research findings and reviews published in the English literature and author's professional experience with clinical trials in some East, Central and West African countries.
Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo Jan
Large scale randomized clinical trials are needed to detect small but meaningful effects of new drugs. However, large scale randomized clinical trials are expensive undertakings and they are in imbalance with the scientific output. As a consequence there is a strong voice for more efficacious
Objective: To identify and highlight challenges related to informed consent process for clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa. Data sources: Published original research findings and reviews in the English literature, together with anecdotal information from our current professional experiences with clinical trials. Design: Review ...
Grønbech, Bettina Ellen; Aagaard, Jørgen; Jensen, Svend Eggert
People with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease. We have established a clinical trial named “Coronary artery disease and schizophrenia”. However, patients with schizophrenia have cognitive disturbances, which make re...... recruitment of patients challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand which type of recruitment strategy is needed in clinical trials....
Marinakis, Yorgos; Harms, Rainer; Walsh, Steven Thomas
Under U.S. federal regulation 31 CFR §312, medical interventions must report on a series of clinical trials phases before being submitted for approval for release to the U.S. market. Clinical trials are now being performed on medical interventions that were constructed through additive
Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A.
in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract...
Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor of the serosal surfaces with a poor prognosis. Advances in the understanding of tumor biology have led to the development of several targeted treatments, which have been evaluated in clinical trials. This article is a comprehensive review of all...... clinical trials evaluating the effect of targeted treatments in MM....
Barnard, Kayla; Klimberg, V Suzanne
Numerous clinical trials reveal new innovations and therapies that continually change the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Earlier trials have changed the standard of care from radical mastectomy to breast conservation therapy and individualized treatment based on tumor-specific biology. As research continues and long-term follow-up results become available, updated reviews on randomized clinics trials become exceedingly important in discerning the most effective and oncologically safe therapies to provide optimal outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background What constitutes a "clinical trial" is inconsistently defined in the medical literature. With an initiative by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO to report institutional clinical trials activity across the province of Ontario, Canada, we sought to investigate the variability in the interpretation of the term by local oncology professionals. Methods A survey amongst the physicians and nurses at the Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, Ontario was conducted. The survey included 12 summaries of local clinical research studies, and respondents were asked which they believed represented a clinical trial. Subsequently, they were asked which of the same 12 studies they believed should be labeled as clinical trials when considering separate definitions provided by CCO and by the Ontario Cancer Research Network (OCRN. Results A total of 66 (54% of 123 surveys were completed; 32/46 (70% by physicians, 21/59 (36% by primary care nurses, and 13/18 (72% by clinical trial nurses. Without a standardized definition, all studies, 12/12, were considered to be clinical trials by at least 50% of respondents. When provided with the CCO definition only 6/12 studies were considered to be clinical trials by the majority of respondents, while with the OCRN definition it was 9/12 studies. Studies evaluating natural health products, non-traditional medical interventions, and non-randomized studies with standard interventions consistently ranked the lowest, regardless of the definition used. Conclusion Oncology professionals appear to have a broadly inclusive baseline definition of what constitutes a clinical trial. Establishing rigor and consistency in the definition of a clinical trial is important for any program, institutional or jurisdictional based comparisons of clinical trials activity, especially when used as a quality indicator of patient care.
Wright, James R; Kowaleski, Brenda; Sussman, Jonathan
What constitutes a "clinical trial" is inconsistently defined in the medical literature. With an initiative by Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) to report institutional clinical trials activity across the province of Ontario, Canada, we sought to investigate the variability in the interpretation of the term by local oncology professionals. A survey amongst the physicians and nurses at the Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences, Ontario was conducted. The survey included 12 summaries of local clinical research studies, and respondents were asked which they believed represented a clinical trial. Subsequently, they were asked which of the same 12 studies they believed should be labeled as clinical trials when considering separate definitions provided by CCO and by the Ontario Cancer Research Network (OCRN). A total of 66 (54%) of 123 surveys were completed; 32/46 (70%) by physicians, 21/59 (36%) by primary care nurses, and 13/18 (72%) by clinical trial nurses. Without a standardized definition, all studies, 12/12, were considered to be clinical trials by at least 50% of respondents. When provided with the CCO definition only 6/12 studies were considered to be clinical trials by the majority of respondents, while with the OCRN definition it was 9/12 studies. Studies evaluating natural health products, non-traditional medical interventions, and non-randomized studies with standard interventions consistently ranked the lowest, regardless of the definition used. Oncology professionals appear to have a broadly inclusive baseline definition of what constitutes a clinical trial. Establishing rigor and consistency in the definition of a clinical trial is important for any program, institutional or jurisdictional based comparisons of clinical trials activity, especially when used as a quality indicator of patient care.
...: A Video Game About Clinical Trials SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2... Collection: Title: Clinical Mythteries: A Video Game About Clinical Trials. Type of Information Collection... video game'' for adolescents about clinical studies which: (1) Incorporates core learning objectives...
Weisskopf, Michael; Bucklar, Guido; Blaser, Jürg
Issues concerning inadequate source data of clinical trials rank second in the most common findings by regulatory authorities. The increasing use of electronic clinical information systems by healthcare providers offers an opportunity to facilitate and improve the conduct of clinical trials and the source documentation. We report on a number of tools implemented into the clinical information system of a university hospital to support clinical research. In 2011/2012, a set of tools was developed in the clinical information system of the University Hospital Zurich to support clinical research, including (1) a trial registry for documenting metadata on the clinical trials conducted at the hospital, (2) a patient-trial-assignment-tool to tag patients in the electronic medical charts as participants of specific trials, (3) medical record templates for the documentation of study visits and trial-related procedures, (4) online queries on trials and trial participants, (5) access to the electronic medical records for clinical monitors, (6) an alerting tool to notify of hospital admissions of trial participants, (7) queries to identify potentially eligible patients in the planning phase as trial feasibility checks and during the trial as recruitment support, and (8) order sets to facilitate the complete and accurate performance of study visit procedures. The number of approximately 100 new registrations per year in the voluntary trial registry in the clinical information system now matches the numbers of the existing mandatory trial registry of the hospital. Likewise, the yearly numbers of patients tagged as trial participants as well as the use of the standardized trial record templates increased to 2408 documented trial enrolments and 190 reports generated/month in the year 2013. Accounts for 32 clinical monitors have been established in the first 2 years monitoring a total of 49 trials in 16 clinical departments. A total of 15 months after adding the optional feature of
Buonansegna, Erika; Salomo, Søren; Maier, Anja
Clinical trials in the pharmaceutical industry are the most critical part of the drug development process with respect to obtaining the market approval from the authorities. Clinical trials are highly expensive, time-consuming and often unsuccessful. While new product development (NPD) literature...... has extensively investigated success factors in R&D projects, it has not directly addressed success factors in clinical trials, as the late testing stage of a NPD yet. The aim of this paper is to enhance our understanding of the clinical trial management by creating a new conceptual framework...... of success factors. This paper creates the new framework by combining success factors from NPD literature and from empirical evidence collected through 11 semi-structured interviews with experts in clinical trials. The framework of success factors provides managerial guidelines for practitioners to optimize...
Moustgaard, Helene; Bello, Segun; Miller, Franklin G
OBJECTIVES: The degree of bias in randomized clinical trials varies depending on whether the outcome is subjective or objective. Assessment of the risk of bias in a clinical trial will therefore often involve categorization of the type of outcome. Our primary aim was to examine how the concepts...... "subjective outcome" and "objective outcome" are defined in methodological publications and clinical trial reports. To put this examination into perspective, we also provide an overview of how outcomes are classified more broadly. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of methodological publications...... provided for subjective outcome: (1) dependent on assessor judgment, (2) patient-reported outcome, or (3) private phenomena (ie, phenomena only assessable by the patient). Of the 200 clinical trial reports, 12 used the term "subjective" and/or "objective" about outcomes, but no clinical trial reports...
Drye, Lea T; Meinert, Jill L; Meinert, Curtis L
In 1993 Congress passed the NIH Revitalization Act, which instructed the Director of the NIH to ensure that phase III clinical trials are 'designed and carried out in a manner sufficient to provide for a valid analysis of whether the variables being studied in the trial affect females or members of minority groups, as the case may be, differently than other subjects in the trial.' The purpose of this article is to track the PubMed indexing of gender in clinical trial publications since 1991 with a view toward assessing the impact of the legislation on the number of gender specific trials. We searched PubMed for full-length publications from years 1991 to 2008 of research on humans indexed as publication type 'clinical trial', 'randomized clinical trial' and multicenter randomized trial ('multicenter study' AND 'randomized clinical trial'), and counted the number of trials indexed as male-only, female-only, male and female, and gender unknown in PubMed. The majority of trial publications were indexed in PubMed as including both genders. The proportion of publications indexed as including both genders has increased while the number of publications not indexed with respect to gender and the number of publications indexed as male-only have decreased. In 2005, approximately 13% of NIH expenditures were for female specific or related research compared to 6% for male specific or related research. The proportion of clinical trial publications that were indexed in PubMed as including females began to increase before the legislation so it is difficult to conclude that changes in the number of female-only or male-only trials are due to the legislation. PubMed listings do not include gender enrollment, so female and male enrollment totals could not be compared. The NIH policy should be rewritten to be made gender neutral to bring it in line with the principle of justice as embodied in the Belmont Report.
There is dynamic opportunity to advance medical research and clinical trial innovation in the USA and throughout the world. Identified problems and solutions in the clinical research and clinical trial enterprise have emerged over recent years. Strategic plans, public reports, expertise panels and international agreements have been produced, and now is the time to move forward collectively. Recommendations should be reviewed, especially because global healthcare can take them. A robust and future medical research enterprise hinges on maximized clinical trial efficiency, both in the USA and abroad.
Shergis Johannah L
Full Text Available Abstract Conducting clinical trials of Chinese medicines (CM in hospitals presents challenges for researchers. The success of hospital-based CM clinical trials may be influenced by the protocol design, including the maintenance of CM theory in compliance with scientific rigour and hospital guidelines and justified treatment approaches with results that can translate into clinical practice. Other influences include personnel and resources such as a dedicated team open to CM with an established research culture and the ability to maximise participant recruitment. This article identifies the key challenges and limitations of conducting CM clinical trials in Australian hospitals.
Lindblad, Robert; Hu, Lian; Oden, Neal; Wakim, Paul; Rosa, Carmen; VanVeldhuisen, Paul
Most substance use disorders (SUD) treatment clinical trials are too short and small to reliably estimate the incidence of rare events like death. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall mortality rates among a SUD treatment-seeking population by pooling participants from multiple clinical trials conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-sponsored National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Drug and or alcohol users (N=9866) who sought treatment and participated in one of the twenty-two CTN trials. Data were collected through randomized clinical trials in national community treatment programs for SUD. Pooled analysis was performed to assess age- and gender-standardized mortality rate(s) (SM rate(s)), and mortality ratio(s) (SM ratio(s)) of CTN trial participants compared to the U.S. general population. The age- and gender-SM rate among CTN trials participants was 1403 (95% CI: 862-2074) per 100,000 person years (PY) compared to 542 (95% CI: 541-543) per 100,000 PY among the U.S. general population in 2005. By gender, age-adjusted SM ratio for female CTN trial participants was over five times (SM ratio=5.35, 95% CI: 3.31-8.19)), and for male CTN trial participants, it was over three times (SM ratio=3.39, 95% CI: 2.25-4.90) higher than their gender comparable peers in the U.S. general population. Age and gender-standardized mortality rates and ratios among NIDA CTN SUD treatment-seeking clinical trial participants are higher than the age and gender comparable U.S. general population. The overall mortality rates of CTN trial participants are similar to in-treatment mortality reported in large U.S. and non-U.S. cohorts of opioid users. Future analysis with additional CTN trial participants and risk times will improve the stability of estimates, especially within subgroups based on primary substance of abuse. These SUD mortality rates can be used to facilitate safety monitoring within SUD clinical trials. Copyright © 2016
Kannan, S; Gowri, S
Clinical trials are mandatory for evidence-based practice. Hardly, any data are available regarding the number of clinical trials and their methodological quality that are conducted in allied fields of medicine. The present study was envisaged to assess methodological quality of trials in allied medical fields. Registered clinical trials in World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/AdvSearch.aspx) in the following fields were extracted: Acupuncture; Ayurveda; biofeedback; complementary and alternate medicine; herbal; homeopathy; massage; naturopathy; Reiki; Siddha; Unani; and yoga. The eligible studies were assessed for the following key details: Type of sponsors; health condition in which the trial has been conducted; recruitment status; study design; if randomization was present, method of randomization and allocation concealment; single or multi-centric; retrospective or prospective registration; and publication status in case of completed studies. A total of 276 clinical trials were registered majority of which have been proposed to be conducted in the field of oncology and psychiatry. Most of the clinical trials were done in single centers (87.75%), and almost all the clinical trials were investigator-initiated with pharmaceutical company sponsored studies contributing to a maximum extent of 24.5%. A large majority of the study designs were interventional where almost 85% of the studies were randomized controlled trials. However, an appropriate method of randomization was mentioned only in 27.4%, and the rate of allocation concealment was found to be just 5.5%. Only 1-2% of the completed studies were published, and the average rate of retrospective registration was found to be 23.6% in various fields. The number of clinical trials done in allied fields of medicine other than the allopathic system has lowered down, and furthermore focus is required regarding the methodological quality of these
Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira
To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pcountries when compared to Brazil. Trials involving subjects with less than 15 years of age, those with targeted recruitment of at least 1,000 subjects, and seven sponsors were identified as significant predictors of trial placement in Brazil. No clear direct competition between Brazil and other emerging countries was detected. South Korea showed the higher proportion of sites and ranked third in total number of trials, appearing as a major player in attractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.
Most phase III clinical trials today are explanatory. Because explanatory, or efficacy, trials test hypotheses under "ideal" conditions, they are not well suited to providing guidance on decisions made in most clinical care contexts. Pragmatic trials, which test hypotheses under "usual" conditions, are often better suited to this task. Yet, pragmatic, or effectiveness, trials are infrequently carried out. This mismatch between the design of clinical trials and the needs of health care professionals is frustrating for everyone involved, and explains some of the challenges inherent in attempts to enhance knowledge translation and encourage evidence-based practice. The situation is more than simply frustrating, however; it is potentially unethical. Clinical trials must be socially valuable in order to (1) warrant the risks they impose on human research subjects and (2) fairly and efficiently assess new clinical interventions. Most bioethicists would agree that trials that have no social value, for instance, because their results do not have the potential to advance clinical care, should not be performed. What is less widely appreciated is that given limited research resources, trials that are more socially valuable should be preferred to trials that are less socially valuable when all else is equal. With respect to clinical trial design, I argue that while explanatory trials often have some social value, many have less social value than their pragmatic counterparts. On the basis of this general ethical assessment, I provide a preliminary defense of the position that clinical researchers should aim to conduct pragmatic trials, that is, that researchers face a burden of justification related to any idealizing elements added to trial designs.
Mentz, Robert J; Hernandez, Adrian F; Berdan, Lisa G; Rorick, Tyrus; O'Brien, Emily C; Ibarra, Jenny C; Curtis, Lesley H; Peterson, Eric D
Randomized, clinical trials are commonly regarded as the highest level of evidence to support clinical decisions. Good Clinical Practice guidelines have been constructed to provide an ethical and scientific quality standard for trials that involve human subjects in a manner aligned with the Declaration of Helsinki. Originally designed to provide a unified standard of trial data to support submission to regulatory authorities, the principles may also be applied to other studies of human subjects. Although the application of Good Clinical Practice principles generally led to improvements in the quality and consistency of trial operations, these principles have also contributed to increasing trial complexity and costs. Alternatively, the growing availability of electronic health record data has facilitated the possibility for streamlined pragmatic clinical trials. The central tenets of Good Clinical Practice and pragmatic clinical trials represent potential tensions in trial design (stringent quality and highly efficient operations). In the present article, we highlight potential areas of discordance between Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the principles of pragmatic clinical trials and suggest strategies to streamline study conduct in an ethical manner to optimally perform clinical trials in the electronic age. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Shimizu, Reiko; Ogata, Katsuhisa; Tamaura, Akemi; Kimura, En; Ohata, Maki; Takeshita, Eri; Nakamura, Harumasa; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Komaki, Hirofumi
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most commonly inherited neuromuscular disease. Therapeutic agents for the treatment of rare disease, namely "orphan drugs", have recently drawn the attention of researchers and pharmaceutical companies. To ensure the successful conduction of clinical trials to evaluate novel treatments for patients with rare diseases, an appropriate infrastructure is needed. One of the effective solutions for the lack of infrastructure is to establish a network of rare diseases. To accomplish the conduction of clinical trials in Japan, the Muscular dystrophy clinical trial network (MDCTN) was established by the clinical research group for muscular dystrophy, including the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, as well as national and university hospitals, all which have a long-standing history of research cooperation. Thirty-one medical institutions (17 national hospital organizations, 10 university hospitals, 1 national center, 2 public hospitals, and 1 private hospital) belong to this network and collaborate to facilitate clinical trials. The Care and Treatment Site Registry (CTSR) calculates and reports the proportion of patients with neuromuscular diseases in the cooperating sites. In total, there are 5,589 patients with neuromuscular diseases in Japan and the proportion of patients with each disease is as follows: DMD, 29 %; myotonic dystrophy type 1, 23 %; limb girdle muscular dystrophy, 11 %; Becker muscular dystrophy, 10 %. We work jointly to share updated health care information and standardized evaluations of clinical outcomes as well. The collaboration with the patient registry (CTSR), allows the MDCTN to recruit DMD participants with specific mutations and conditions, in a remarkably short period of time. Counting with a network that operates at a national level is important to address the corresponding national issues. Thus, our network will be able to contribute with international research activity, which can lead to
Sozu, Takashi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Evans, Scott R
This book integrates recent methodological developments for calculating the sample size and power in trials with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, offering an important reference work for statisticians working in this area. The determination of sample size and the evaluation of power are fundamental and critical elements in the design of clinical trials. If the sample size is too small, important effects may go unnoticed; if the sample size is too large, it represents a waste of resources and unethically puts more participants at risk than necessary. Recently many clinical trials have been designed with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, creating a need for new approaches to the design and analysis of these clinical trials. The book focuses on the evaluation of power and sample size determination when comparing the effects of two interventions in superiority clinical trials with multiple endpoints. Methods for sample size calculation in clin...
Klimt, C R
Some of the guiding principles as well as the pitfall of long-term randomized clinical trials are presented. Examples have been chosen from trials in the cardiovascular field. A typical long-term clinical trial is divided into five phases: planning, preparation, recruitment, clinical follow-up and termination, and finally analysis. Administrative, legal, and ethical aspects of a trial are discussed, as well as the cost of clinical trials. Organization patterns are described and some prevalent ones are criticized. Further, practical matters such as recruitment techniques, obtaining informed consent from the patients, determining drug dosage and formulation as well as the problem of interaction with nonstudy drugs are referred to. Adherence testing remains a problem, because of our inability to test for placebo adherence.
Dunn, Adam G; Day, Richard O; Mandl, Kenneth D; Coiera, Enrico
Open sharing of clinical trial data has been proposed as a way to address the gap between the production of clinical evidence and the decision-making of physicians. A similar gap was addressed in the software industry by their open-source software movement. Here, we examine how the social and technical principles of the movement can guide the growth of an open-source clinical trial community.
DeBruin, Debra A; Liaschenko, Joan; Fisher, Anastasia
Despite prevalent concerns about the ethical conduct of clinical trials, little is known about the day-to-day work of trials and the ethical challenges arising in them. This paper reports on a study designed to fill this gap and demonstrates a need to refine the oversight system for trials to reflect an understanding of this day-to-day work. It also illuminates ethical challenges that cannot be addressed by the oversight system and so necessitate a rethinking of the ethics of clinical trials.
Ranawaka, Udaya K; de Abrew, Ashwini; Wimalachandra, Manu; Samaranayake, Nithushi; Goonaratna, Colvin
We describe our experience of the first 10 years at the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR). We analyzed all trial records of the SLCTR over the study period. We collected information regarding trial characteristics and completeness of data entry in the SLCTR data set. During the study period, 210 trials (63% of all applications) were registered with the SLCTR. The number of registered trials showed an increasing trend over the years. All trial registrations had complete entries for all the data fields studied. Only 17.6% of the trials were registered retrospectively. All the registered trials were interventional studies, and the majority (87.6%) were randomized controlled trials. A significant proportion of trials (28.6%) were on noncommunicable diseases, and 12.4% were on pregnancy and its outcomes. Several trials (9.5%) were international collaborative studies. A majority of the Principal Investigators (70.9%) were affiliated to a university. Most of the studies (41.9%) were self-funded by the investigators. Details of ethics review committee approval were available for 96.7% of registered trials. Over a third of the registered trials (37.1%) had completed recruitment at the time of analysis. A majority of the trials (72.8%) had updated trial data since registration. There is a steady increase in the number of trials registered at the SLCTR. Complete entries for all the data fields were seen in all trial registrations. The SLCTR has made a positive contribution to the emergence of a healthy clinical research environment in Sri Lanka. © 2018 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Utami, Dina; Bickmore, Timothy W; Barry, Barbara; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K
Several web-based search engines have been developed to assist individuals to find clinical trials for which they may be interested in volunteering. However, these search engines may be difficult for individuals with low health and computer literacy to navigate. The authors present findings from a usability evaluation of clinical trial search tools with 41 participants across the health and computer literacy spectrum. The study consisted of 3 parts: (a) a usability study of an existing web-based clinical trial search tool; (b) a usability study of a keyword-based clinical trial search tool; and (c) an exploratory study investigating users' information needs when deciding among 2 or more candidate clinical trials. From the first 2 studies, the authors found that users with low health literacy have difficulty forming queries using keywords and have significantly more difficulty using a standard web-based clinical trial search tool compared with users with adequate health literacy. From the third study, the authors identified the search factors most important to individuals searching for clinical trials and how these varied by health literacy level.
Smaïl-Faugeron, V; Fron-Chabouis, H; Durieux, P
Prospective registration of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represents the best solution to reporting bias. The extent to which oral health journals have endorsed and complied with RCT registration is unknown. We identified journals publishing RCTs in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine in the Journal Citation Reports. We classified journals into 3 groups: journals requiring or recommending trial registration, journals referring indirectly to registration, and journals providing no reference to registration. For the 5 journals with the highest 2012 impact factors in each group, we assessed whether RCTs with results published in 2013 had been registered. Of 78 journals examined, 32 (41%) required or recommended trial registration, 19 (24%) referred indirectly to registration, and 27 (35%) provided no reference to registration. We identified 317 RCTs with results published in the 15 selected journals in 2013. Overall, 73 (23%) were registered in a trial registry. Among those, 91% were registered retrospectively and 32% did not report trial registration in the published article. The proportion of trials registered was not significantly associated with editorial policies: 29% with results in journals that required or recommended registration, 15% in those that referred indirectly to registration, and 21% in those providing no reference to registration (P = 0.05). Less than one-quarter of RCTs with results published in a sample of oral health journals were registered with a public registry. Improvements are needed with respect to how journals inform and require their authors to register their trials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.
Kerr, Kathleen F; Roth, Jeremy; Zhu, Kehao; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Meisner, Allison; Wilson, Francis Perry; Coca, Steven; Parikh, Chirag R
A potential use of biomarkers is to assist in prognostic enrichment of clinical trials, where only patients at relatively higher risk for an outcome of interest are eligible for the trial. We investigated methods for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment. We identified five key considerations when considering a biomarker and a screening threshold for prognostic enrichment: (1) clinical trial sample size, (2) calendar time to enroll the trial, (3) total patient screening costs and the total per-patient trial costs, (4) generalizability of trial results, and (5) ethical evaluation of trial eligibility criteria. Items (1)-(3) are amenable to quantitative analysis. We developed the Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment at varying levels of screening stringency. We demonstrate that both modestly prognostic and strongly prognostic biomarkers can improve trial metrics using Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool. Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool is available as a webtool at http://prognosticenrichment.com and as a package for the R statistical computing platform. In some clinical settings, even biomarkers with modest prognostic performance can be useful for prognostic enrichment. In addition to the quantitative analysis provided by Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool, investigators must consider the generalizability of trial results and evaluate the ethics of trial eligibility criteria.
Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A; Goodacre, Steve
Adaptive design clinical trials use preplanned interim analyses to determine whether studies should be stopped or modified before recruitment is complete. Emergency medicine trials are well suited to these designs as many have a short time to primary outcome relative to the length of recruitment. We hypothesised that the majority of published emergency medicine trials have the potential to use a simple adaptive trial design. We reviewed clinical trials published in three emergency medicine journals between January 2003 and December 2013. We determined the proportion that used an adaptive design as well as the proportion that could have used a simple adaptive design based on the time to primary outcome and length of recruitment. Only 19 of 188 trials included in the review were considered to have used an adaptive trial design. A total of 154/165 trials that were fixed in design had the potential to use an adaptive design. Currently, there seems to be limited uptake in the use of adaptive trial designs in emergency medicine despite their potential benefits to save time and resources. Failing to take advantage of adaptive designs could be costly to patients and research. It is recommended that where practical and logistical considerations allow, adaptive designs should be used for all emergency medicine clinical trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Dear, R F; Barratt, A L; Askie, L M; Butow, P N; McGeechan, K; Crossing, S; Currow, D C; Tattersall, M H N
Cancer patients want access to reliable information about currently recruiting clinical trials. Oncologists and their patients were randomly assigned to access a consumer-friendly cancer clinical trials web site [Australian Cancer Trials (ACT), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au] or to usual care in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome, measured from audio recordings of oncologist-patient consultations, was the proportion of patients with whom participation in any clinical trial was discussed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat accounting for clustering and stratification. Thirty medical oncologists and 493 patients were recruited. Overall, 46% of consultations in the intervention group compared with 34% in the control group contained a discussion about clinical trials (P=0.08). The mean consultation length in both groups was 29 min (P=0.69). The proportion consenting to a trial was 10% in both groups (P=0.65). Patients' knowledge about randomized trials was lower in the intervention than the control group (mean score 3.0 versus 3.3, P=0.03) but decisional conflict scores were similar (mean score 42 versus 43, P=0.83). Good communication between patients and physicians is essential. Within this context, a web site such as Australian Cancer Trials may be an important tool to encourage discussion about clinical trial participation.
Bylund, Carma L; Weiss, Elisa S; Michaels, Margo; Patel, Shilpa; D'Agostino, Thomas A; Peterson, Emily B; Binz-Scharf, Maria Christina; Blakeney, Natasha; McKee, M Diane
Cancer clinical trials give patients access to state-of-the-art treatments and facilitate the translation of findings into mainstream clinical care. However, patients from racial and ethnic minority groups remain underrepresented in clinical trials. Primary care physicians are a trusted source of information for patients, yet their role in decision-making about cancer treatment and referrals to trial participation has received little attention. The aim of this study was to determine physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer clinical trials, their experience with trials, and their interest in appropriate training about trials. A total of 613 physicians in the New York City area primarily serving patients from ethnic and racial minority groups were invited via email to participate in a 20-min online survey. Physicians were asked about their patient population, trial knowledge and attitudes, interest in training, and personal demographics. Using calculated scale variables, we used descriptive statistical analyses to better understand physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about trials. A total of 127 physicians completed the survey. Overall, they had low knowledge about and little experience with trials. However, they generally had positive attitudes toward trials, with 41.4% indicating a strong interest in learning more about their role in trials, and 35.7% indicating that they might be interested. Results suggest that Black and Latino physicians and those with more positive attitudes and beliefs were more likely to be interested in future training opportunities. Primary care physicians may be an important group to target in trying to improve cancer clinical trial participation among minority patients. Future work should explore methods of educational intervention for such interested providers.
Conclusions: Clinical research coordinators were insightful about the needs of patients and took a meticulous approach to the phase I cancer clinical trial process, allowing time to connect with patients and to coordinate the inter-professional research team. Additionally, education in advanced oncology care was valuable for comforting participants in cancer clinical trials.
Leiter, Amanda; Sablinski, Tomasz; Diefenbach, Michael; Foster, Marc; Greenberg, Alex; Holland, John; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D
Patient and physician awareness and acceptance of trials and patient ineligibility are major cancer clinical trial accrual barriers. Yet, trials are typically conceived and designed by small teams of researchers with limited patient input. We hypothesized that through crowdsourcing, the intellectual and creative capacity of a large number of researchers, clinicians, and patients could be harnessed to improve the clinical trial design process. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and utility of using an internet-based crowdsourcing platform to inform the design of a clinical trial exploring an antidiabetic drug, metformin, in prostate cancer. Over a six-week period, crowd-sourced input was collected from 60 physicians/researchers and 42 patients/advocates leading to several major (eg, eligibility) and minor modifications to the clinical trial protocol as originally designed. Crowdsourcing clinical trial design is feasible, adds value to the protocol development process, and may ultimately improve the efficiency of trial conduct. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ohmann, Christian; Canham, Steve; Danielyan, Edgar; Robertshaw, Steve; Legré, Yannick; Clivio, Luca; Demotes, Jacques
Growing use of cloud computing in clinical trials prompted the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network, a European non-profit organisation established to support multinational clinical research, to organise a one-day workshop on the topic to clarify potential benefits and risks. The issues that arose in that workshop are summarised and include the following: the nature of cloud computing and the cloud computing industry; the risks in using cloud computing services now; the lack of explicit guidance on this subject, both generally and with reference to clinical trials; and some possible ways of reducing risks. There was particular interest in developing and using a European 'community cloud' specifically for academic clinical trial data. It was recognised that the day-long workshop was only the start of an ongoing process. Future discussion needs to include clarification of trial-specific regulatory requirements for cloud computing and involve representatives from the relevant regulatory bodies.
Fazi, P; Grifoni, P; Luzi, D; Ricci, F L; Vignetti, M
The clinical trial has to be rigidly followed because it identifies a uniform clinical behaviour, which has to be adopted by the different physicians carrying out the test. The life cycle of the clinical trial is therefore based on a planning and definition phase, a next experimental phase connected with its diffusion to the involved centres and finally an evaluation phase of the results. An information system, which supports the users in the different phases of the clinical trial life cycle, has to take into account the different characteristics of each phase. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the role of WF technology as a component of an information system which supports the life cycle of a clinical trial also on the basis of the experience of the Italian Group for Haematological Disease of Adults (GIMEMA).
Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Kissel, John T.; Crawford, Thomas O.; Bromberg, Mark B.; Acsadi, Gyula; D'Anjou, Guy; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Reyna, Sandra P.; Schroth, Mary K.; Scott, Charles B.; Simard, Louise R.
Spinal muscular atrophy is one of the most heterogeneous of the single-gene neuromuscular disorders. The broad spectrum of severity, with onset from the prenatal period to adulthood, presents unique challenges in the design and implementation of clinical trials. The clinical classification of subjects into severe (type 1), intermediate (type 2), and mild (type 3) subtypes has proved useful both in enhancing communication among clinicians internationally and in forging the collaborative development of outcome measures for clinical trials. Ideally, clinical trial design in spinal muscular atrophy must take into account the spinal muscular atrophy type, patient age, severity-of-affection status, nature of the therapeutic approach, timing of the proposed intervention relative to disease progression, and relative homogeneity of the cohort to be studied. Following is an overview of the challenges and opportunities, current and future therapeutic strategies, and progress to date in clinical trials in spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:17761650
Full Text Available Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.
Eisenstein, Eric L; Nordo, Amy Harris; Zozus, Meredith Nahm
The continued escalation of clinical trial costs is becoming a public health concern. During the past decade, medical research funding peaked and there is growing concern that there may be insufficient resources to test many promising medical products. Recent changes in the regulatory environment create opportunities for the use of medical informatics to improve clinical trial operations and reduce costs. We report on a Medical Informatics Europe 2016 workshop conducted during the Health - Exploring Complexity (HEC) 2016 conference. We review presentation given on Secondary Data Use, eSource, and Data Quality in Clinical Trials and report on the workshop's discussions.
Embi, Peter J; Jain, Anil; Clark, Jeffrey; Bizjack, Susan; Hornung, Richard; Harris, C Martin
Failure to recruit a sufficient number of eligible subjects in a timely manner represents a major impediment to the success of clinical trials. Physician participation is vital to trial recruitment but is often limited. After 12 months of traditional recruitment to a clinical trial, we activated our electronic health record (EHR)-based clinical trial alert (CTA) system in selected outpatient clinics of a large, US academic health care system. When a patient's EHR data met selected trial criteria during the subsequent 4-month intervention period, the CTA prompted physician consideration of the patient's eligibility and facilitated secure messaging to the trial's coordinator. Subjects were the 114 physicians practicing at selected EHR-equipped clinics throughout our study. We compared differences in the number of physicians participating in recruitment and their recruitment rates before and after CTA activation. The CTA intervention was associated with significant increases in the number of physicians generating referrals (5 before and 42 after; P based CTA led to significant increases in physicians' participation in and recruitment rates to an ongoing clinical trial. Given the trend toward the EHR implementation in health care centers engaged in clinical research, this approach may represent a much-needed solution to the common problem of inadequate trial recruitment.
Hernandez, Maria-Elena; Carini, Simona; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Sim, Ida
Clinical questions are often studied by randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of heterogeneous design. Systematic reviewers and trial designers need to compare the design and results across these trials. If trial information is available in computer processable form, computer-based visualization techniques can provide cognitive support for such comparisons. CTeXplorer offers systematic reviewers and trial designers a tool to better and more quickly understand design heterogeneity in RCTs. CTeXplorer supports dynamic queries on eligibility criteria, interventions, and outcomes in three linked views. We tested CTeXplorer for displaying 12 RCTs on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Three target users found the representation and organization of information intuitive and easy to learn. They were able to use CTeXplorer to achieve a quick cognitive overview of a heterogeneous group of RCTs. This work shows the benefit of capturing trial information in computable form. Future work includes leveraging ontologies to enhance CTeXplorer visualizations.
Mentz, Robert J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Berdan, Lisa G.; Rorick, Tyrus; O?Brien, Emily C.; Ibarra, Jenny C.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Peterson, Eric D.
Randomized clinical trials are commonly regarded as the highest level of evidence to support clinical decisions. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines have been constructed to provide an ethical and scientific quality standard for trials that involve human subjects in a manner aligned with the Declaration of Helsinki. Originally designed to provide a unified standard of trial data to support submission to regulatory authorities, the principles may also be applied to other studies of human s...
Ruopp, Marcus; Chiswell, Karen; Thaden, Joshua T; Merchant, Kunal; Tsalik, Ephraim L
Respiratory tract infections are highly prevalent and variable, and confer considerable morbidity and mortality. There is a growing need for new treatments for such infections, particularly in the setting of worsening antibacterial resistance. We analyzed data from ClinicalTrials.gov to summarize activity in respiratory infection trials, identify gaps in research activity, and inform efforts to address disparities between antimicrobial resistance and development of new antibacterial drugs. We examined 69,779 interventional trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov from 2007 to 2012, focusing on study conditions and interventions to identify respiratory infection-related trials. Programmatic identification with manual confirmation yielded 6,253 infectious disease trials, 1,377 respiratory infection trials, and 270 lower respiratory tract infection trials for analysis. The 1,377 respiratory infection trials accounted for 2% of all trials and 22% of infectious diseases trials. Such trials (54.8%) were more likely than either nonrespiratory infectious diseases trials (48.1%) or noninfectious disease trials (42.8%) to receive industry funding. Stratification of respiratory infection trials by registration year demonstrated declining industry funding: 181 (64.9%) in 2007-2008 to 110 (46.0%) in 2011-2012. Respiratory infection trials more frequently evaluated vaccines (52.7 vs. 15.5% of nonrespiratory tract infection trials). Lower respiratory tract infection trials (excluding tuberculosis) focused primarily on bacterial pathogens (78.5%) followed by viral (12.6%), fungal (5.6%), and nontuberculous mycobacterial (3.0%) pathogens. Approximately 40% of 120 lower respiratory tract infection trials that were completed or terminated published results in the literature. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, a treatment focus was associated with decreased odds of publishing results (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.82; P = 0.02). There were also
The World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki states that the use of a placebo in a clinical trial can only be justified ethically when no proven active treatment is available as a comparison. Despite this, placebos remain a popular choice as controls in clinical trials. Recent literature reviews have suggested that reliance on placebos may, in part, be because of methodological misconceptions about the need for placebos to control for the 'placebo effect'. This study aimed to assess doctors' understanding of the requirements for placebo use in clinical trials. Two hundred doctors working in tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia were surveyed in regards to their understanding of the role of the placebo and placebo effects in clinical trials. There was a 72% response rate. Doctors were specifically asked if a placebo was required in a randomised clinical trial, in preference to another form of control, to control for the 'placebo effect'. The majority of respondents (62%) incorrectly believed that placebos are essential to control for the 'placebo effect' in a randomised clinical trial. Misconceptions about the methodological requirement for placebos in randomised controlled trials may influence researcher decisions to use placebo controls in unethical situations. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza
A well-structured protocol for a clinical trial may be able to answer clinical questions, but it cannot be deemed enough to ensure success in the face of incompetent management of time as well as human and economic resources. To address this problem, in this article, we present our literature review on evidence as to how a good knowledge of proper management among researchers can enhance the likelihood of the success of clinical trial projects. Using multiple search strategies, we conducted a literature review on published studies in the English language from 2002 to 2012 by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and EMBASE. Our review suggests that a successful trial requires a work plan or work scope as well as a timeline. The trial manager should subsequently manage the study in accordance with the plan and the timeline. Many research units have called for a clinical project manager with scientific background and regulatory skills to effect coordination among various aspects of a clinical trial. Project management may benefit both the managerial and scientific aspects of medical projects and reduce fund waste. However, little has been written to date on project management in the context of clinical research. The suggestions represent the views of the individual authors. To provide a high level of evidence in this regard, we recommend that a randomized controlled trial be performed to compare trial projects progressed with and without the use of project management.
de Bruijn, Berry; Carini, Simona; Kiritchenko, Svetlana; Martin, Joel; Sim, Ida
Clinical trials are one of the most valuable sources of scientific evidence for improving the practice of medicine. The Trial Bank project aims to improve structured access to trial findings by including formalized trial information into a knowledge base. Manually extracting trial information from published articles is costly, but automated information extraction techniques can assist. The current study highlights a single architecture to extract a wide array of information elements from full-text publications of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). This architecture combines a text classifier with a weak regular expression matcher. We tested this two-stage architecture on 88 RCT reports from 5 leading medical journals, extracting 23 elements of key trial information such as eligibility rules, sample size, intervention, and outcome names. Results prove this to be a promising avenue to help critical appraisers, systematic reviewers, and curators quickly identify key information elements in published RCT articles.
Claire Elizabeth Tacon
Full Text Available Clinical research bridges patients’ unmet medical need with innovative medicines, increases knowledge acquisition by clinicians, and creates solutions to improve the sustainability and quality of the Canadian health care system and economy. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canadian Lung Association have recently raised concerns over declining research activities within the Canadian respiratory community. While there are currently >3000 ongoing clinical trials in Canada, the number of trials investigating common respiratory diseases is unknown. The objective of the present study was to monitor the trends in industry- and non-industry-sponsored respiratory clinical trials in Canada from 2001 to 2011. Trialtrove 2012 (Citeline, an Informa UK business, a database containing summarized clinical trial information regarding pharmaceutical products, was searched using common chronic respiratory disease terms: “allergic rhinitis”, “asthma”, “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD”, “cystic fibrosis”, “respiratory infections”, “pulmonary fibrosis” and “smoking cessation”. Over the past 10 years, the number of respiratory clinical trials conducted in Canada has increased (4.49 per year; P=0.004. From 2001 to 2011, the majority of trials were performed in asthma, followed closely by respiratory infections and COPD. Over the past decade, the number of trials investigating COPD and respiratory infections increased (P<0.05, while asthma trials showed a declining trend since 2007. Of the clinical trials performed during this 10-year period, the majority were in phase III, with a significant increase in the number of phase II trials (2.49 per year; P=0.008. However, certain trends observed are concerning and warrant further monitoring in the coming years.
Lee Su Jin
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, the number of clinical trials has increased rapidly in East Asia, especially for gastric and hepatobiliary cancer that are prevalent in Asian populations. However, the actual degree of understanding or perceptions of clinical trials by cancer patients in East Asian countries have seldom been studied. Methods Between July 1st and November 30th of 2011, we conducted a prospective study to survey cancer patients regarding their awareness of, and willingness to participate in, a clinical trial. Patients with gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary cancer who visited the Hematology-Oncology outpatient clinic at Samsung Medical Center (SMC were enrolled. A total of 21 questions were asked including four questions which used the Visual analogue scale (VAS score. Results In this survey study, 1,000 patients were asked to participate and 675 patients consented to participate (67.5%. The awareness of clinical trials was substantially higher in patients who had a higher level of education (pp=0.004, and had a higher economic status (p=0.001. However, the willingness to participate in a clinical trial was not affected by the level of education or economic status of patients. The most influential factors for patient willingness to participate were a physician recommendation (n=181, 26.8%, limited treatment options (n=178, 26.4%, and expectations of effectiveness of new anti-cancer drugs (n=142, 21.0%. Patients with previous experience in clinical trials had a greater willingness to participate in clinical trials compared to patients without previous experience (p Conclusions This large patient cohort survey study showed that Korean cancer patients are more aware of clinical trials, but awareness did not translate into willingness to participate.
Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Emanuelsson, Frida
conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials with both blinded and nonblinded assessment of the same measurement scale outcome. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HighWire Press and Google Scholar for relevant studies. Two...
Current Open Clinical Trials If you are interested in learning more about the eligibility requirements for any of open studies listed below, please contact the nearest participating University or Christina Mazcko. To search studies being conducted by other groups please visit Vet Cancer Trials. This will allow you to search by location and tumor type.
Boland, M R; Miotto, R; Gao, J; Weng, C
When standard therapies fail, clinical trials provide experimental treatment opportunities for patients with drug-resistant illnesses or terminal diseases. Clinical Trials can also provide free treatment and education for individuals who otherwise may not have access to such care. To find relevant clinical trials, patients often search online; however, they often encounter a significant barrier due to the large number of trials and in-effective indexing methods for reducing the trial search space. This study explores the feasibility of feature-based indexing, clustering, and search of clinical trials and informs designs to automate these processes. We decomposed 80 randomly selected stage III breast cancer clinical trials into a vector of eligibility features, which were organized into a hierarchy. We clustered trials based on their eligibility feature similarities. In a simulated search process, manually selected features were used to generate specific eligibility questions to filter trials iteratively. We extracted 1,437 distinct eligibility features and achieved an inter-rater agreement of 0.73 for feature extraction for 37 frequent features occurring in more than 20 trials. Using all the 1,437 features we stratified the 80 trials into six clusters containing trials recruiting similar patients by patient-characteristic features, five clusters by disease-characteristic features, and two clusters by mixed features. Most of the features were mapped to one or more Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, demonstrating the utility of named entity recognition prior to mapping with the UMLS for automatic feature extraction. It is feasible to develop feature-based indexing and clustering methods for clinical trials to identify trials with similar target populations and to improve trial search efficiency.
Gluud, C; Sørensen, T I
The urgent need for the performance of more, better designed, and better conducted randomised clinical trials is increasingly recognised. Based on structured interviews with leading persons of 43 outstanding organisations and units involved in clinical trials in Europe and North America during 1993......, ways of organising and staffing clinical trial units were investigated. The present proposal is based on this experience from which an attempt to extract a composite set of minimal requirements has been made regarding pertinent objectives and aims, organisational aspects, staffing, and estimated costs...... of establishing a clinical trial unit. The core staff is suggested to consist of two chief physicians, one statistician, one data manager, one project coordinator, and two secretaries. In order to fulfil the minimal requirements for running such a unit, it is calculated that about GBP 450,000 per year is needed...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Database for Clinical Trials Related to Mental Illness (NDCT) is an extensible informatics platform for relevant data at all levels of biological and...
Pedersen, Allan Gorm; Petersen, O B; Wara, P
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy in patients with a clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis has not gained wide acceptance, and its use remains controversial. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic versus open appendicectomy, 583 of 828 consecutive patients consented to participate...
The mathematical formulations of Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing and the Fisherian concept of significance tests are examined as alternative ways of applying statistical models to data from clinical trials.
Mathura, Venkatarajan S; Rangareddy, Mahendiranath; Gupta, Pankaj; Mullan, Michael
Clinical trials involve multi-site heterogeneous data generation with complex data input-formats and forms. The data should be captured and queried in an integrated fashion to facilitate further analysis. Electronic case-report forms (eCRF) are gaining popularity since it allows capture of clinical information in a rapid manner. We have designed and developed an XML based flexible clinical trials data management framework in .NET environment that can be used for efficient design and deployment of eCRFs to efficiently collate data and analyze information from multi-site clinical trials. The main components of our system include an XML form designer, a Patient registration eForm, reusable eForms, multiple-visit data capture and consolidated reports. A unique id is used for tracking the trial, site of occurrence, the patient and the year of recruitment. Availability http://www.rfdn.org/bioinfo/CTMS/ctms.html. PMID:21670796
BACKGROUND Arrhythmia is a cardiovascular disorder which can lead to several complications. Over the past decade the introduction of many new drugs has raised concerns about their questionable benefits and cost-effectiveness. Classification of antiarrhythmic drugs has not been fully resolved. Although numerous clinical trials have been conducted, the value of antiarrhythmic drugs in many indications remains controversial. Two meta-analyses of clinical trials addressing the indication of q...
Marrie, R. A.; Miller, A.; Sormani, M. P.; Thompson, A.; Waubant, E.; Trojano, M.; O Connor, P.; Reingold, S.; Cohen, J. A.
Objective: We aimed to provide recommendations for addressing comorbidity in clinical trial design and conduct in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: We held an international workshop, informed by a systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of comorbidity in MS and an international survey about research priorities for studying comorbidity including their relation to clinical trials in MS. Results: We recommend establishing age- and sex-specific incidence estimates for comorbidities in t...
Osborne, J P; O'Callaghan, F J K
The current regulations for conducting non-commercial clinical trials in Europe are many and complex. These are explored from the perspective of a UK based non-commercial international clinical trial. The reasons for the difficulties encountered are discussed and suggestions made as to how best to overcome them. Improvements are suggested for our law makers and competent authorities. It is argued that the current regulatory environment could be considered unethical as it inhibits and delays research.
Roumiantseva, Dina; Carini, Simona; Sim, Ida; Wagner, Todd H
We examine the extent to which ClinicalTrials.gov is meeting its goal of providing oversight and transparency of clinical trials with human subjects. We analyzed the ClinicalTrials.gov database contents as of June 2011, comparing interventions, medical conditions, and trial characteristics by sponsor type. We also conducted a detailed analysis of incomplete data. Among trials with only government sponsorship (N=9252), 36% were observational and 64% interventional; in contrast, almost all (90%) industry-only sponsored trials were interventional. Industry-only sponsored interventional trials (N=30,036) were most likely to report a drug intervention (81%), followed by biologics (9%) and devices (8%). Government-only interventional trials (N=5886) were significantly more likely to test behavioral interventions (28%) and procedures (13%) than industry-only trials (p<0.001). Medical conditions most frequently studied in industry-only trials were cancer (19%), cardiovascular conditions (12%) and endocrine/metabolic disorders (11%). Government-only funded trials were more likely to study mental health (19% vs. 7% for industry, p<.001), and viral infections, including HIV (15% vs 7% for industry, p<.001). Government-funded studies are significantly more likely to be missing data about study design and intervention arms in the registry. For all studies, we report ambiguous and contradictory data entries. Industry-sponsored studies differ systematically from government-sponsored studies in study type, choice of interventions, conditions studied, and completeness of submitted information. Imprecise study design information, incomplete coding of conditions, out-of-date or unspecified enrollment numbers, and other missing data continue to hinder robust analyses of trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Conroy, Elizabeth J; Harman, Nicola L; Lane, J Athene; Lewis, Steff C; Murray, Gordon; Norrie, John; Sydes, Matt R; Gamble, Carrol
The Medical Research Council Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice outlines a three-committee trial oversight structure--the day-to-day Trial Management Group, the Data Monitoring Committee and the Trial Steering Committee. In this model, the Trial Steering Committee is the executive committee that oversees the trial and considers the recommendations from the Data Monitoring Committee. There is yet to be in-depth consideration establishing the Trial Steering Committee's role and functionality. A survey to establish Trial Steering Committee's current practices, role and the use and opinion on the Medical Research Council guidelines was undertaken within UK Clinical Research Collaborative registered Clinical Trials Units. Completed surveys were obtained from 38 of 47 fully and partially registered Units. Individual items in the survey were analysed and reported spanning current Trial Steering Committee practices including its role, requirement and experience required for membership; methods to identify members; and meeting frequency. Terms (a document describing the committee's remit, objectives and functionality) were obtained and analysed from 21 of 33 Units with documents in place at their Unit. A total of 20 responders suggested aspects of the current Medical Research Council Guidelines that need improvement. We present the first survey reporting on practices within UK Clinical Research Collaborative registered Clinical Trials Units on the experience and remits of Trial Steering Committees. We have identified a widespread adoption of Medical Research Council Guidelines for Trial Steering Committees in the United Kingdom, but limitations in this existing provision have been identified that need to be addressed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gonçalves, Giulliano Peixoto; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Barbosa, Luciano Timbó; Duarte, José Lira
A randomized clinical trial is a prospective study that compares the effect and value of interventions in human beings, of one or more groups vs. a control group. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of published randomized clinical trials in Intensive care in Brazil. All randomized clinical trials in intensive care found by manual search in Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva from January 2001 to March 2008 were assessed to evaluate their description by the quality scale. Descriptive statistics and a 95 % confidence interval were used for the primary outcome. Our primary outcome was the randomized clinical trial quality. Our search found 185 original articles, of which 14 were randomized clinical trials. Only one original article (7.1%) showed good quality. There was no statistical significance between the collected data and the data shown in the hypothesis of this search. It can be concluded that in the sample of assessed articles 7% of the randomized clinical trials in intensive care published in a single intensive care journal in Brazil, present good methodological quality.
Andersen, Roger C.; Loebel, Nicolas G.; Andersen, Dane M.
Photodynamic therapy(PDT) has been demonstrated to effectively kill human periopathogens in vitro. To evaluate the efficacy of PDT in vivo a series of clinical trials was carried out in multiple centers and populations. Clinical parameters including clinical attachment level, pocket probing depth and bleeding on probing were all evaluated. All groups received the standard of care, scaling and root planing, and the treatment group additionally received a single treatment of PDT. Of the total 309 patients and over 40,000 pockets treated in these 5 trials it was determined that photodynamic therapy provided a statistically significant improvement in clinical parameters over scaling and root planing alone.
Landewé, R. B. M.; van der Heijde, D.
The assessment of disease in rheumatological diseases is rather complicated, because it may involve different contexts (clinical practice, clinical trials, observational studies, registries, etc.) as well as different domains (disease activity, physical function, radiographic damage, quality of
Feagan, Brian G
Although the randomized controlled trial has become the standard for regulatory approval of new drugs and devices in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the components of effective trial design and implementation are still evolving. While induction and maintenance of remission are the ultimate goals in the treatment of IBD, the conduct of trials intended to measure these outcomes has varied substantially over time, as have the definitions of disease remission. Significant progress has been made in recent years towards understanding patient- and disease-related factors that are essential considerations in clinical trial design. However, questions remain regarding the best methods for assessing disease activity, and importantly for establishing trial end points that are clinically relevant and likely to affect meaningful long-term improvements in disease outcomes. This chapter will discuss the current 'best methods' in IBD trial design and introduce potential future concepts for improving the efficiency of clinical trials as well as their utility to inform clinical practice management. 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Concannon, Thomas W; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Dolor, Rowena J; Meissner, Paul; Tunis, Sean; Krishnan, Jerry A; Pace, Wilson D; Saltz, Joel; Hersh, William R; Michener, Lloyd; Carey, Timothy S
An important challenge in comparative effectiveness research is the lack of infrastructure to support pragmatic clinical trials, which compare interventions in usual practice settings and subjects. These trials present challenges that differ from those of classical efficacy trials, which are conducted under ideal circumstances, in patients selected for their suitability, and with highly controlled protocols. In 2012, we launched a 1-year learning network to identify high-priority pragmatic clinical trials and to deploy research infrastructure through the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium that could be used to launch and sustain them. The network and infrastructure were initiated as a learning ground and shared resource for investigators and communities interested in developing pragmatic clinical trials. We followed a three-stage process of developing the network, prioritizing proposed trials, and implementing learning exercises that culminated in a 1-day network meeting at the end of the year. The year-long project resulted in five recommendations related to developing the network, enhancing community engagement, addressing regulatory challenges, advancing information technology, and developing research methods. The recommendations can be implemented within 24 months and are designed to lead toward a sustained national infrastructure for pragmatic trials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Guise, Jeanne‐Marie; Dolor, Rowena J.; Meissner, Paul; Tunis, Sean; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Pace, Wilson D.; Saltz, Joel; Hersh, William R.; Michener, Lloyd; Carey, Timothy S.
Abstract An important challenge in comparative effectiveness research is the lack of infrastructure to support pragmatic clinical trials, which compare interventions in usual practice settings and subjects. These trials present challenges that differ from those of classical efficacy trials, which are conducted under ideal circumstances, in patients selected for their suitability, and with highly controlled protocols. In 2012, we launched a 1‐year learning network to identify high‐priority pragmatic clinical trials and to deploy research infrastructure through the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium that could be used to launch and sustain them. The network and infrastructure were initiated as a learning ground and shared resource for investigators and communities interested in developing pragmatic clinical trials. We followed a three‐stage process of developing the network, prioritizing proposed trials, and implementing learning exercises that culminated in a 1‐day network meeting at the end of the year. The year‐long project resulted in five recommendations related to developing the network, enhancing community engagement, addressing regulatory challenges, advancing information technology, and developing research methods. The recommendations can be implemented within 24 months and are designed to lead toward a sustained national infrastructure for pragmatic trials. PMID:24472114
Kjaergard, Lise L; Gluud, Christian
The objective of this study was to assess whether trials with a positive (i.e., statistically significant) outcome are cited more often than negative trials. We reviewed 530 randomized clinical trials on hepato-biliary diseases published in 11 English-language journals indexed in MEDLINE from 1985......-1996. From each trial, we extracted the statistical significance of the primary study outcome (positive or negative), the disease area, and methodological quality (randomization and double blinding). The number of citations during two calendar years after publication was obtained from Science Citation Index...... that positive trials are cited significantly more often than negative trials. The association was not explained by disease area or methodological quality....
Condo, Jeanine; Kateera, Brenda; Mutimura, Eugene; Birungi, Francine; Ndagijimana, Albert; Jansen, Stefan; Kamwesiga, Julius; Forrest, Jamie I; Mills, Edward J; Binagwaho, Agnes
After the genocide in Rwanda, the country's healthcare system collapsed. Remarkable gains have since been made by the state to provide greater clinical service capacity and expand health policies that are grounded on locally relevant evidence. This commentary explores the challenges faced by Rwanda in building an infrastructure for clinical trials. Through local examples, we discuss how a clinical trial infrastructure can be constructed by (1) building educational capacity; (2) encouraging the testing of relevant interventions using appropriate and cost-effective designs; and, (3) promoting ethical and regulatory standards. The future is bright for clinical research in Rwanda and with a renewed appetite for locally generated evidence it is necessary that we discuss the challenges and opportunities in drawing up a clinical trials agenda.
Saijo, Hajime; Kasai, Hiroi; Takahashi, Hiromitu; Harigai, Masayoshi; Takase, Kozo
Along with continued efforts to improve data quality in clinical trials, it is imperative to make critical assessments about the recognition, traceability, and validation of the data on final outputs of clinical trials. The present study investigated protocols in 36 clinical trials and case report forms (CRFs) for 141 patients. CRFs were categorized as Book Type (BT), Visit Type (VT), and Separate binding Type (ST). The achievement of recognition, traceability, and validation of the data in CRFs was assessed using arbitrary grading scales. There were significant differences between the VT and BT conditions in terms of traceability and validation 1 (the integrity of clinical laboratory test data). No significant differences were observed among the three types of CRFs in terms of recognition and validation 2 (verification of test drug compliance). These findings indicate that the traceability and the integrity of clinical laboratory test data depend on the structure of the CRFs used, whereas recognition and verification of test drug compliance were more matters of protocol design. Therefore, of the three CRFs, the VT CRF is considered to be the best choice of format for collecting clinical trial data as it maximizes the quality of clinical trials until electronic document systems are adopted.
Lifson, A; Rahme, FS; Belloso, WH
PURPOSE: The processes for reporting and review of progression of HIV disease clinical endpoints are described for two large phase III international clinical trials. METHOD: SILCAAT and ESPRIT are multicenter randomized HIV trials evaluating the impact of interleukin-2 on disease progression...
Ni, Yizhao; Kennebeck, Stephanie; Dexheimer, Judith W; McAneney, Constance M; Tang, Huaxiu; Lingren, Todd; Li, Qi; Zhai, Haijun; Solti, Imre
(1) To develop an automated eligibility screening (ES) approach for clinical trials in an urban tertiary care pediatric emergency department (ED); (2) to assess the effectiveness of natural language processing (NLP), information extraction (IE), and machine learning (ML) techniques on real-world clinical data and trials. We collected eligibility criteria for 13 randomly selected, disease-specific clinical trials actively enrolling patients between January 1, 2010 and August 31, 2012. In parallel, we retrospectively selected data fields including demographics, laboratory data, and clinical notes from the electronic health record (EHR) to represent profiles of all 202795 patients visiting the ED during the same period. Leveraging NLP, IE, and ML technologies, the automated ES algorithms identified patients whose profiles matched the trial criteria to reduce the pool of candidates for staff screening. The performance was validated on both a physician-generated gold standard of trial-patient matches and a reference standard of historical trial-patient enrollment decisions, where workload, mean average precision (MAP), and recall were assessed. Compared with the case without automation, the workload with automated ES was reduced by 92% on the gold standard set, with a MAP of 62.9%. The automated ES achieved a 450% increase in trial screening efficiency. The findings on the gold standard set were confirmed by large-scale evaluation on the reference set of trial-patient matches. By exploiting the text of trial criteria and the content of EHRs, we demonstrated that NLP-, IE-, and ML-based automated ES could successfully identify patients for clinical trials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.
Nugent, Timothy; Upton, David; Cimpoesu, Mihai
The scientific credibility of findings from clinical trials can be undermined by a range of problems including missing data, endpoint switching, data dredging, and selective publication. Together, these issues have contributed to systematically distorted perceptions regarding the benefits and risks of treatments. While these issues have been well documented and widely discussed within the profession, legislative intervention has seen limited success. Recently, a method was described for using a blockchain to prove the existence of documents describing pre-specified endpoints in clinical trials. Here, we extend the idea by using smart contracts - code, and data, that resides at a specific address in a blockchain, and whose execution is cryptographically validated by the network - to demonstrate how trust in clinical trials can be enforced and data manipulation eliminated. We show that blockchain smart contracts provide a novel technological solution to the data manipulation problem, by acting as trusted administrators and providing an immutable record of trial history.
Hindryckx, Pieter; Baert, Filip; Hart, Ailsa; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Panès, Julian; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent
It goes back to 1932 when Dr. Burrill Bernard Crohn and co-workers published their landmark paper, describing regional ileitis as a disease entity. However, clinical trial research has been developing rather slowly in luminal Crohn's disease. It took until the early seventies before the first randomized clinical trial was set up by the National Co-operative Crohn's Disease Study (NCCDS) group. Although the efforts of this group triggered a first wave of clinical trials in Crohn's disease, the lack of guidelines for conducting a clinical trial in this research area resulted in a variety of study designs and much criticism. Besides having a rather small sample size and a short follow-up time, they were often characterized by vague and subjective assessment of disease activity and treatment response. Following the advent of a new and very potent drug class in the late nineties, the anti-TNF agents, investigators started to re-think their study protocols and the first guidelines were set up by the regulatory authorities. Over the last 15years, clinical trials in luminal Crohn's disease have been evolving significantly. Inclusion criteria have been shifting from clinical scores such as Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) to more objective disease activity parameters such as biomarkers (C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin) and endoscopic lesions. Primary endpoints have been developing from clinical response to corticosteroid-free remission and more ambitious end-points such as mucosal healing. In this paper, we will give a historical overview on clinical trials in luminal Crohn's disease, before and within the biologic era, and provide insight into how they have shaped our current understanding of trial designs in Crohn's disease. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Aerts, J; Semler, S C; Ohmann, C
Our objectives were to develop, based on the analysis of archived clinical trial documents and data and on the requirements of GCP-compliant electronic archiving, a concept for legally secure and technically feasible archiving of the entire clinical trial, including the essential documents of the trial master file and the study database. Based on own experiences with CDISC, existing implementations and future developments, CDISC standards were evaluated concerning requirements for archiving clinical studies. Trial master files of a small, medium and large clinical study were analyzed to collect specifications for electronic archiving of records. Two different ways of long-term storage exist for the clinical trial archive: document-oriented archival and data archiving of the study database. The trial master file has a highly complex structure; its different parts can vary greatly in size, depending of the working style of investigators, number of patients recruited, the number of adverse event reports and the number of queries. The CDISC standard ODM is especially suited for archiving clinical trials, because among other features it contains the entire clinical trial data and full audit trail information. On the other hand SDTM is a content standard suited for data warehouses. Two recent developments in CDISC will affect the archival of studies: the further development of ODM in the area of "eCRF submission" and the use of "Electronic Source Data". The complexity and size of the trial master file requires new solutions. Though ODM provides effective means to archive the study database, it shows still deficiencies, especially for the joint archiving of data and the complex documentation of the trial master file. A concept was developed in which the ODM standard is part of an integrated archiving of the trial data and documents. ODM archiving of the study database enables long-term storage which is GCP-compliant. Archiving of documents of the trial master file in PDF
Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra; Miranda, Charmaine; Watson, Roger
Over the past two decades, the number of clinical trials conducted globally has increased thereby increasing demand for nurses working as Clinical Trial Nurses (CTNs), sometimes known as Clinical Research Nurses. The role and professional issues for these nurses in Australia has not been empirically formulated. Sixty-seven clinical trial nurses were surveyed nationally using a modified version of the Clinical Trials Nursing Questionnaire (CTNQ). Findings revealed the complex CTN role can include the coordination of the trials on one or more sites. This involves all domains listed in the questionnaire from protocol development, ethics approval applications, recruitment and consenting of participants in trials, to administering or assisting with treatments within the bounds of their practice code and the evaluation of protocols. Professional issues documented were: being undervalued in the nursing workforce, having no formal educational preparation for the role and minimal recognition in publications emanating from research in which they were involved. These nurses bring their practice knowledge to benefit research outcomes that may contribute to improving patient/client care.
Marshall, Deborah A; Hux, Margaret
Clinical trials can offer a valuable and efficient opportunity to collect the health resource use and outcomes data for economic evaluation. However, economic and clinical studies differ fundamentally in the question they seek to answer. The design and analysis of trial-based cost-effectiveness studies require special consideration, which are reviewed in this article. Traditional randomized controlled trials, using an experimental design with a controlled protocol, are designed to measure safety and efficacy for product registration. Cost-effectiveness analysis seeks to measure effectiveness in the context of routine clinical practice, and requires collection of health care resources to allow estimation of cost over an equal timeframe for each treatment alternative. In assessing suitability of a trial for economic data collection, the comparator treatment and other protocol factors need to reflect current clinical practice and the trial follow-up must be sufficiently long to capture important costs and effects. The broadest available population and a measure of effectiveness reflecting important benefits for patients are preferred for economic analyses. Special analytical issues include dealing with missing and censored cost data, assessing uncertainty of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, and accounting for the underlying heterogeneity in patient subgroups. Careful consideration also needs to be given to data from multinational studies since practice patterns can differ across countries. Although clinical trials can be an efficient opportunity to collect data for economic evaluation, careful consideration of the suitability of the study design, and appropriate analytical methods must be applied to obtain rigorous results.
Clausen, J; Albrecht, H; Mathie, R T
Veterinary homeopathy has led a somewhat shadowy existence since its first introduction. Only in the last three decades has the number of clinical trials increased considerably. This literature is generally not well perceived, which may be partly a consequence of the diffuse and somewhat inaccessible nature of some of the relevant research publications. The Veterinary Clinical Research Database for Homeopathy (VetCR) was launched in 2006 to provide information on existing clinical research in veterinary homeopathy and to facilitate the preparation of systematic reviews. The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of this first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy, with a special focus on its content of placebo controlled clinical trials and summarising what is known about placebo effects in animals. In April 2012, the VetCR database contained 302 data records. Among these, 203 controlled trials were identified: 146 randomised and 57 non-randomised. In 97 of those 203 trials, the homeopathic medical intervention was compared to placebo. A program of formal systematic reviews of peer-reviewed randomised controlled trials in veterinary homeopathy is now underway; detailed findings from the program's data extraction and appraisal approach, including the assessment of trial quality (risk of bias), will be reported in due course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341
A unique public-private collaboration today announced the initiation of the Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) trial, a multi-drug, multi-arm, biomarker-driven clinical trial for patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinom
The argument for 'evidence based medical practice' is compelling and the ideal protocol of randomized controlled studies to obtain higher level evidence is equally sound. However, some peculiarities of African countries make the conduct of standard control trials difficult and raise some serious ethical questions over ...
In German and American law, clinical trials require a positive benefit-risk evaluation, free and informed consent, medical and scientific qualification of the doctor, and a written research protocol. American law requires a written consent, which is free of undue influence, the subject being instructed that he is free to withdraw from the trial. In German law, an orally given consent is sufficient for therapeutic trials. With minor or incompetent research subjects, informed consent to therapeutic clinical experimentation has to be given by their parents or guardians, the permissibility of which, in other trials, is controversial. In non-therapeutic trials, blind studies, double-bind studies, and trials involving placebos, special attention has to be paid to the risk-benefit analysis and to informed consent, which in these cases, even in Germany, must be written. The most outstanding feature of American law of clinical trial is that the experimentation is subject to previous control and approval by institutional review boards. The most interesting difference in German law is the investigator's duty to effect an insurance against the risks of the research subject's death or invalidity.
Politi, Mary C; Kuzemchak, Marie D; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Perkins, Hannah; Liu, Jingxia; Byrne, Margaret M
Cancer patients often do not make informed decisions regarding clinical trial participation. This study evaluated whether a web-based decision aid (DA) could support trial decisions compared with our cancer center's website. Adults diagnosed with cancer in the past 6 months who had not previously participated in a cancer clinical trial were eligible. Participants were randomized to view the DA or our cancer center's website (enhanced usual care [UC]). Controlling for whether participants had heard of cancer clinical trials and educational attainment, multivariable linear regression examined group on knowledge, self-efficacy for finding trial information, decisional conflict (values clarity and uncertainty), intent to participate, decision readiness, and trial perceptions. Two hundred patients (86%) consented between May 2014 and April 2015. One hundred were randomized to each group. Surveys were completed by 87 in the DA group and 90 in the UC group. DA group participants reported clearer values regarding trial participation than UC group participants reported (least squares [LS] mean = 15.8 vs. 32, p trial participation among cancer patients facing this preference-sensitive choice. Although better informing patients before trial participation could improve retention, more work is needed to examine DA impact on enrollment and retention. This paper describes evidence regarding a decision tool to support patients' decisions about trial participation. By improving knowledge, helping patients clarify preferences for participation, and facilitating conversations about trials, decision aids could lead to decisions about participation that better match patients' preferences, promoting patient-centered care and the ethical conduct of clinical research. ©AlphaMed Press.
Zannad, Faiez; Pfeffer, Marc A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Bonds, Denise E; Borer, Jeffrey S; Calvo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Fiore, Louis; Lund, Lars H; Madigan, David; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Meyers, Catherine M; Rosenberg, Yves; Simon, Tabassome; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Zalewski, Andrew; Zariffa, Nevine; Temple, Robert
Controlled trials provide the most valid determination of the efficacy and safety of an intervention, but large cardiovascular clinical trials have become extremely costly and complex, making it difficult to study many important clinical questions. A critical question, and the main objective of this review, is how trials might be simplified while maintaining randomisation to preserve scientific integrity and unbiased efficacy assessments. Experience with alternative approaches is accumulating, specifically with registry-based randomised controlled trials that make use of data already collected. This approach addresses bias concerns while still capitalising on the benefits and efficiencies of a registry. Several completed or ongoing trials illustrate the feasibility of using registry-based controlled trials to answer important questions relevant to daily clinical practice. Randomised trials within healthcare organisation databases may also represent streamlined solutions for some types of investigations, although data quality (endpoint assessment) is likely to be a greater concern in those settings. These approaches are not without challenges, and issues pertaining to informed consent, blinding, data quality and regulatory standards remain to be fully explored. Collaboration among stakeholders is necessary to achieve standards for data management and analysis, to validate large data sources for use in randomised trials, and to re-evaluate ethical standards to encourage research while also ensuring that patients are protected. The rapidly evolving efforts to streamline cardiovascular clinical trials have the potential to lead to major advances in promoting better care and outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Mackiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Andrzej
Advances in molecular and cellular biology as well as biotechnology led to definition of a group of drugs referred to as medicinal products of advanced technologies. It includes gene therapy products, somatic cell therapeutics and tissue engineering. Therapeutic cancer vaccines including whole cell tumor cells vaccines or gene modified whole cells belong to somatic therapeutics and/or gene therapy products category. The drug development is a multistep complex process. It comprises of two phases: preclinical and clinical. Guidelines on preclinical testing of cell based immunotherapy medicinal products have been defined by regulatory agencies and are available. However, clinical testing of therapeutic cancer vaccines is still under debate. It presents a serious problem since recently clinical efficacy of the number of cancer vaccines has been demonstrated that focused a lot of public attention. In general clinical testing in the current form is very expensive, time consuming and poorly designed what may lead to overlooking of products clinically beneficial for patients. Accordingly regulatory authorities and researches including Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trial Working Group proposed three regulatory solutions to facilitate clinical development of cancer vaccines: cost-recovery program, conditional marketing authorization, and a new development paradigm. Paradigm includes a model in which cancer vaccines are investigated in two types of clinical trials: proof-of-principle and efficacy. The proof-of-principle trial objectives are: safety; dose selection and schedule of vaccination; and demonstration of proof-of-principle. Efficacy trials are randomized clinical trials with objectives of demonstrating clinical benefit either directly or through a surrogate. The clinical end points are still under debate.
Gluud, C; Nikolova, D
Electronic searches on databases for randomised clinical trials and controlled clinical trials do not identify as many trials as handsearches, and trial reporting may be flawed. The aims were to identify all fully reported randomised clinical trials in the Journal of Hepatology and to make a qual...
Full Text Available Background: India continues to contribute disproportionately to the global burden of disease and public health research output from India is also known to be not commensurate with her healthcare needs. We carried out the present study to assess if clinical trials were in line with the health care needs of the country by auditing the clinical trials registry of India. Materials and Methods: All the clinical studies registered in CTRI between July 20, 2007 and December 31, 2015 were searched in the “Trial Search” section. The total number of studies, their phases of development, and therapeutic areas were assessed. Trials in each therapeutic area was compared with the disease burden (DALYs in that area taken from Global Health Estimates  Summary Tables of the WHO. The number of trials conducted per state in India was also compared with the population of that state [Census 2011]. Results: A total of 6474 studies were registered of which 3325 (51.4% were clinical trials. The state of Maharashtra had the highest number trials [16.4%] followed by Karnataka ( 11.6% and Tamil Nadu (10%. Populous states like Uttar Pradesh (5.3% and Bihar (1.4% had far fewer trials. The largest number of trials was in the area of cancer (16.4%, followed by diabetes (12.1% and cardiovascular diseases (10.1%. Infectious and parasitic diseases had the highest DALYs (82,681 and ranked first in disease burden but accounted for only 5% of the total trials and ranked 7th according to number of trials. Cancer ranked first in the number of trials (16.4%, but ranked 6th based on DALYs. Conclusion: Clinical trials conducted in India are not in consonance with her health care needs. Strengthening the capacity for conducting trials in the populous states and the north-eastern part of the country is necessary to allow a more equitable selection of participants. The government should introduce policies to encourage new drug development in areas where needed the most.
Starren, Justin B; Payne, Philip R O; Kaufman, David R
Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system.
Gluud, Christian; Nikolova, Dimitrinka
The number of publications on clinical trials is unknown as well as the countries publishing most trial reports. To try to examine these questions we performed an ecological study.......The number of publications on clinical trials is unknown as well as the countries publishing most trial reports. To try to examine these questions we performed an ecological study....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised controlled clinical trials are performed to resolve uncertainty concerning comparator interventions. Appropriate acknowledgment of uncertainty enables the concurrent achievement of two goals : the acquisition of valuable scientific knowledge and an optimum treatment choice for the patient-participant. The ethical recruitment of patients requires the presence of clinical equipoise. This involves the appropriate choice of a control intervention, particularly when unapproved drugs or innovative interventions are being evaluated. Discussion We argue that the choice of a control intervention should be supported by a systematic review of the relevant literature and, where necessary, solicitation of the informed beliefs of clinical experts through formal surveys and publication of the proposed trial's protocol. Summary When clinical equipoise is present, physicians may confidently propose trial enrollment to their eligible patients as an act of therapeutic beneficence.
Gordon, Jessica K; Domsic, Robyn T
Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma, SSc) is a multisystem disease characterized by vasculopathy, autoimmunity, and fibrosis. SSc has the highest disease-related mortality rate among the rheumatologic illnesses. In the USA, there remains no FDA-approved therapy. As our understanding of SSc pathogenesis improves, targeted therapies interrupting key pathways and mediators will be studied in clinical trials. However, clinical trials in SSc are fraught with challenges. Validated clinical outcome measures do not exist for all disease manifestations. It can be difficult to discern disease activity from damage. SSc is highly heterogeneous, with multiple different phenotypes, and predicting who will have progressive disease is not currently well understood. Biomarkers are in early stages of development and do not represent surrogate outcomes at this time. Given that SSc is uncommon, studies of similar disease aspects or populations can lead to competition for patients. This review will focus on current issues in SSc clinical trial design.
Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Nijsten, Maarten W
Today's clinical research faces challenges such as a lack of clinical equipoise between treatment arms, reluctance in randomizing for multiple treatments simultaneously, inability to address interactions and increasingly restricted resources. Furthermore, many trials are biased by extensive exclusion criteria, relatively small sample size and less appropriate outcome measures. We propose a 'Multiplex' trial design that preserves clinical equipoise with a continuous and factorial trial design that will also result in more efficient use of resources. This multiplex design accommodates subtrials with appropriate choice of treatment arms within each subtrial. Clinical equipoise should increase consent rates while the factorial design is the best way to identify interactions. The multiplex design may evolve naturally from today's research limitations and challenges, while principal objections seem absent. However this new design poses important infrastructural, organisational and psychological challenges that need in depth consideration.
Karsh, Lawrence I
The structure of modern clinical trials is designed to protect patient safety while generating safety and efficacy data. Safety is the primary concern, and United States regulations are shaped by a series of responses to incidents, including notable safety lapses and unethical trials. These regulations focus on 3 essential components, defined by the 1979 Belmont Report: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. Further, the international community has formally outlined good clinical practice (GCP), which mandates that trials are designed to produce meaningful data, conform to international ethics regulations, and provide assurances that data are reported in a credible and reliable manner. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and federal government have outlined the necessary components of clinical trials in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). These include institutional review boards (IRBs), standard operating procedures (SOPs), sites, sponsors, investigators, and patients. The investigator is the center of the trial and is required to sign an agreement with the federal government to uphold the CFR. Investigator duties include making sure that investigator and support staff having appropriate qualifications, delegating duties, monitoring the study for compliance and record keeping, providing care, and accepting accountability for the trial, among other duties. Physicians, who already have significant time demands, need a well-trained staff, including clinical coordinators, to adequately meet these duties. Despite these requirements, trials can have significant benefits for investigators, practices, and patients, foremost of which is the ability to provide cutting edge care. However, the clinical trial process requires routine evaluation and continual performance improvement in order to ensure that patients not only receive excellent care, but also do so in the safest possible manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arjona, A; Nuskey, B; Rabasseda, X; Arias, E
As the pharmaceutical industry strives to meet the ever-increasing complexity of drug development, new technology in clinical trials has become a beacon of hope. With big data comes the promise of accelerated patient recruitment, real-time monitoring of clinical trials, bioinformatics empowerment of quicker phase progression, and the overwhelming benefits of precision medicine for select trials. Risk-based monitoring stands to benefit as well. With a strengthening focus on centralized data by the FDA and industry's transformative initiative, TransCelerate, a new era in trial risk mitigation has begun. The traditional method of intensive on-site monitoring is becoming a thing of the past as statistical, real-time analysis of site and trial-wide data provides the means to monitor with greater efficiency and effectiveness from afar. However, when it comes to big data, there are challenges that lie ahead. Patient privacy, commercial investment protection, technology woes and data variability are all limitations to be met with considerable thought. At the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology this year, clinical trials on psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases were discussed in detail. This review of clinical research reports on novel therapies for psoriasis and atopic dermatitis reveals the impact of these diseases and the drug candidates that have been successful in phase II and III studies. Data-focused highlights of novel dermatological trials, as well as real-life big data approaches and an insight on the new methodology of risk-based monitoring, are all discussed in this edition of Developments in Clinical Trials. Copyright 2014 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy
The need for high-quality evidence to support decision making about health and health care by patients, physicians, care providers, and policy-makers is well documented. However, serious shortcomings in evidence persist. Pragmatic clinical trials that use novel techniques including emerging information and communication technologies to explore important research questions rapidly and at a fraction of the cost incurred by more "traditional" research methods promise to help close this gap. Nevertheless, while pragmatic clinical trials can bridge clinical practice and research, they may also raise difficult ethical and regulatory challenges. In this article, the authors briefly survey the current state of evidence that is available to inform clinical care and other health-related decisions and discuss the potential for pragmatic clinical trials to improve this state of affairs. They then propose a new working definition for pragmatic research that centers upon fitness for informing decisions about health and health care. Finally, they introduce a project, jointly undertaken by the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory and the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), which addresses 11 key aspects of current systems for regulatory and ethical oversight of clinical research that pose challenges to conducting pragmatic clinical trials. In the series of articles commissioned on this topic published in this issue of Clinical Trials, each of these aspects is addressed in a dedicated article, with a special focus on the interplay between ethical and regulatory considerations and pragmatic clinical research aimed at informing "real-world" choices about health and health care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hollis, Sally; Fletcher, Christine; Lynn, Frances; Urban, Hans-Joerg; Branson, Janice; Burger, Hans-Ulrich; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Sydes, Matthew R; Gerlinger, Christoph
Greater transparency, including sharing of patient-level data for further research, is an increasingly important topic for organisations who sponsor, fund and conduct clinical trials. This is a major paradigm shift with the aim of maximising the value of patient-level data from clinical trials for the benefit of future patients and society. We consider the analysis of shared clinical trial data in three broad categories: (1) reanalysis - further investigation of the efficacy and safety of the randomized intervention, (2) meta-analysis, and (3) supplemental analysis for a research question that is not directly assessing the randomized intervention. In order to support appropriate interpretation and limit the risk of misleading findings, analysis of shared clinical trial data should have a pre-specified analysis plan. However, it is not generally possible to limit bias and control multiplicity to the extent that is possible in the original trial design, conduct and analysis, and this should be acknowledged and taken into account when interpreting results. We highlight a number of areas where specific considerations arise in planning, conducting, interpreting and reporting analyses of shared clinical trial data. A key issue is that that these analyses essentially share many of the limitations of any post hoc analyses beyond the original specified analyses. The use of individual patient data in meta-analysis can provide increased precision and reduce bias. Supplemental analyses are subject to many of the same issues that arise in broader epidemiological analyses. Specific discussion topics are addressed within each of these areas. Increased provision of patient-level data from industry and academic-led clinical trials for secondary research can benefit future patients and society. Responsible data sharing, including transparency of the research objectives, analysis plans and of the results will support appropriate interpretation and help to address the risk of
Friberg, S; Taube, A; Sylvester, R; Oesterling, J E
To present guidelines for the analysis and presentation of clinical trials on prostate cancer. Textbooks in statistics and oncology were searched for information, as were separate articles on the topic. Previously published advice was fused with own experience. Minimum key points are given for the sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Summary. The importance of 1 primary question in any clinical trial is stressed. The value of a detailed presentation of the trial design, the patient population and the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the characterization of the disease, the treatment schedules, and toxicity is underlined. Application of various statistical methods for different endpoints is suggested. Maturity of data, time for publication, and avoidance of publication bias are discussed. Some common pitfalls in the statistical analyses of clinical results are indicated. The impact of prognostic factors, proper staging procedures, and secondary treatments on the interpretation of survival analysis is pointed out. A shift from the (mis-)use of the P value in favor of confidence intervals is strongly encouraged. The use of comparing the survival of responders versus nonresponders is to be abandoned. A few practical hints concerning the presentation are offered. The minimum of data that should be presented in absolute numbers is indicated. Also, the data that should be provided in both graphic and numeric format are exemplified. Examples of essential graphic illustrations are provided. The need for improvements in the design analysis, and presentation of clinical trials is reemphasized. Finally, numerous references are listed. The article is addressed not only to authors and readers of clinical trials, but also to editors of medical journals. The suggested guidelines may be useful in the analysis, presentation, and interpretation of clinical trials on prostate cancer. Moreover, compliance with these guidelines may facilitate comparisons
Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual
This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower cost. PMID:21347102
Vučinić Zorica M.
Full Text Available Introduction: Modern trends in drug production and traffic of drugs as a primary marketing resource of high quality efficient and safe drugs have an important task to provide safe, effective and quality medicines through clinical trials. Topic: Overview of current regulations established in the field of clinical trials of drugs and the importance of carrying out clinical trials is pointed herein. Methods: Pursuant to the applicable regulations in the Republic of Serbia and those established at the level of the European Agency (EMA is provided an overview of the key elements essential for the objective procedures carried out in clinical trials of drugs in Serbia. Conclusion: Modern drug therapy today is exposed to serious challenges given the numerous studies in the field of medicine and pharmacy carried out in the world today. Clinical trials are particularly vulnerable segment in this area and require the participants in these processes to be highly educated and to have the serious ethical approach to all stages of the process.
Charles S. Mayo
Full Text Available Emergence of big data analytics resource systems (BDARSs as a part of routine practice in Radiation Oncology is on the horizon. Gradually, individual researchers, vendors, and professional societies are leading initiatives to create and demonstrate use of automated systems. What are the implications for design of clinical trials, as these systems emerge? Gold standard, randomized controlled trials (RCTs have high internal validity for the patients and settings fitting constraints of the trial, but also have limitations including: reproducibility, generalizability to routine practice, infrequent external validation, selection bias, characterization of confounding factors, ethics, and use for rare events. BDARS present opportunities to augment and extend RCTs. Preliminary modeling using single- and muti-institutional BDARS may lead to better design and less cost. Standardizations in data elements, clinical processes, and nomenclatures used to decrease variability and increase veracity needed for automation and multi-institutional data pooling in BDARS also support ability to add clinical validation phases to clinical trial design and increase participation. However, volume and variety in BDARS present other technical, policy, and conceptual challenges including applicable statistical concepts, cloud-based technologies. In this summary, we will examine both the opportunities and the challenges for use of big data in design of clinical trials.
Kraus, Virginia Byers; Blanco, Francisco J; Englund, Martin; Henrotin, Yves; Lohmander, L Stefan; Losina, Elena; Önnerfjord, Patrik; Persiani, Stefano
Objective To describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. Methods The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. Results This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials and their utility at 5 stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. Conclusions Biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety of reasons but in particular, to determine whether biomarkers are useful in identifying those individuals most likely to receive clinically important benefits from an intervention; and to determine whether biomarkers are useful for identifying individuals at earlier stages of OA in order to institute treatment at a time more amenable to disease modification. PMID:25952342
Dombi, Eva; Ardern-Holmes, Simone L; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Barker, Fred G; Connor, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Fisher, Michael J; Goutagny, Stephane; Harris, Gordon J; Jaramillo, Diego; Karajannis, Matthias A; Korf, Bruce R; Mautner, Victor; Plotkin, Scott R; Poussaint, Tina Y; Robertson, Kent; Shih, Chie-Schin; Widemann, Brigitte C
Neurofibromatosis (NF)-related benign tumors such as plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and vestibular schwannomas (VS) can cause substantial morbidity. Clinical trials directed at these tumors have become available. Due to differences in disease manifestations and the natural history of NF-related tumors, response criteria used for solid cancers (1-dimensional/RECIST [Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors] and bidimensional/World Health Organization) have limited applicability. No standardized response criteria for benign NF tumors exist. The goal of the Tumor Measurement Working Group of the REiNS (Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis) committee is to propose consensus guidelines for the evaluation of imaging response in clinical trials for NF tumors. Currently used imaging endpoints, designs of NF clinical trials, and knowledge of the natural history of NF-related tumors, in particular PN and VS, were reviewed. Consensus recommendations for response evaluation for future studies were developed based on this review and the expertise of group members. MRI with volumetric analysis is recommended to sensitively and reproducibly evaluate changes in tumor size in clinical trials. Volumetric analysis requires adherence to specific imaging recommendations. A 20% volume change was chosen to indicate a decrease or increase in tumor size. Use of these criteria in future trials will enable meaningful comparison of results across studies. The proposed imaging response evaluation guidelines, along with validated clinical outcome measures, will maximize the ability to identify potentially active agents for patients with NF and benign tumors.
Full Text Available Statistics is an integral part of Clinical Trials. Elements of statistics span Clinical Trial design, data monitoring, analyses and reporting. A solid understanding of statistical concepts by clinicians improves the comprehension and the resulting quality of Clinical Trials. In biomedical research it has been seen that researcher frequently use t-test and ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest irrespective of the nature of the data. In Clinical Trials we record the data on the patients more than two times. In such a situation using the standard ANOVA procedures is not appropriate as it does not consider dependencies between observations within subjects in the analysis. To deal with such types of study data Repeated Measure ANOVA should be used. In this article the application of One-way Repeated Measure ANOVA has been demonstrated by using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0 on the data collected at four time points 0 day, 15 th day, 30 th day, and 45 th day of multicentre clinical trial conducted on Pandu Roga (~Iron Deficiency Anemia with an Ayurvedic formulation Dhatrilauha.
Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Moseley, Anne M; Sherrington, Catherine; Maher, Christopher G; Herbert, Robert D; Elkins, Mark R
The objective of this study was to identify core journals in physical therapy by identifying those that publish the most randomized controlled trials of physical therapy interventions, provide the highest-quality reports of randomized controlled trials, and have the highest journal impact factors. This study was an audit of a bibliographic database. All trials indexed in the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were analyzed. Journals that had published at least 80 trials were selected. The journals were ranked in 4 ways: number of trials published; mean total PEDro score of the trials published in the journal, regardless of publication year; mean total PEDro score of the trials published in the journal from 2000 to 2009; and 2008 journal impact factor. The top 5 core journals in physical therapy, ranked by the total number of trials published, were Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Rehabilitation, Spine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), and Chest. When the mean total PEDro score was used as the ranking criterion, the top 5 journals were Journal of Physiotherapy, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Stroke, Spine, and Clinical Rehabilitation. When the mean total PEDro score of the trials published from 2000 to 2009 was used as the ranking criterion, the top 5 journals were Journal of Physiotherapy, JAMA, Lancet, BMJ, and Pain. The most highly ranked physical therapy-specific journals were Physical Therapy (ranked eighth on the basis of the number of trials published) and Journal of Physiotherapy (ranked first on the basis of the quality of trials). Finally, when the 2008 impact factor was used for ranking, the top 5 journals were JAMA, Lancet, BMJ, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, and Thorax. There were no significant relationships among the rankings on the basis of trial quality, number of trials, or journal impact factor. Physical therapists who are trying to keep up-to-date by reading the best
Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T
Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful.......Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....
Bernstein, Steven L; Feldman, James
Clinical trials often offer incentives to encourage individuals to enroll and to enhance follow-up. The scope and nature of incentives used in emergency department (ED)-based trials are unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the quantity and quality of incentives and other forms of compensation used in clinical trials of human subjects recruited in US EDs. A secondary goal is to provide an historical and ethical analysis of the use of incentives in clinical trials. We reviewed English-language randomized clinical trials conducted in US EDs from 2009 to 2013. Full text of the studies was reviewed to identify whether incentives were used, their value, and timing. Funding source was noted as well. Data are presented with descriptive statistics. Of 1151 articles identified, 76 (6.6%) fit criteria for review. Of these, 7 (9.2%) provided incentive payments. A recently published eighth trial was included as well. The total cash value of incentives offered ranged from $10 to $195. Four studies offered payment at enrollment only. Incentives included cash, debit cards, and gift cards. The use of financial incentives in ED-based trials is uncommon. Studies that use incentives are generally extramurally funded, usually by a federal agency, and include waves of follow-up that continue after discharge from the ED. Payment size is modest. Incentives may improve recruitment and retention in ED-based trials, but authoritative data are lacking. Investigators need to take care to avoid incentives that may be coercive or unduly influence research participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morrish, Alicia T; Hawley, Carmel M; Johnson, David W; Badve, Sunil V; Perkovic, Vlado; Reidlinger, Donna M; Cass, Alan
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem globally. Despite this, there are fewer high-quality, high-impact clinical trials in nephrology than other internal medicine specialties, which has led to large gaps in evidence. To address this deficiency, the Australasian Kidney Trials Network, a Collaborative Research Group, was formed in 2005. Since then, the Network has provided infrastructure and expertise to conduct patient-focused high-quality, investigator-initiated clinical trials in nephrology. The Network has not only been successful in engaging the nephrology community in Australia and New Zealand but also in forming collaborations with leading researchers from other countries. This article describes the establishment, development, and functions of the Network. The article also discusses the current and future funding strategies to ensure uninterrupted conduct of much needed clinical trials in nephrology to improve the outcomes of patients affected by kidney diseases with cost-effective interventions.
Full Text Available Helene Nørrelund, Wiktor Mazin, Lars Pedersen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Abstract: Denmark is facing a reduction in clinical trial activity as the pharmaceutical industry has moved trials to low-cost emerging economies. Competitiveness in industry-sponsored clinical research depends on speed, quality, and cost. Because Denmark is widely recognized as a region that generates high quality data, an enhanced ability to attract future trials could be achieved if speed can be improved by taking advantage of the comprehensive national and regional registries. A "single point-of-entry" system has been established to support collaboration between hospitals and industry. When assisting industry in early-stage feasibility assessments, potential trial participants are identified by use of registries to shorten the clinical trial startup times. The Aarhus University Clinical Trial Candidate Database consists of encrypted data from the Danish National Registry of Patients allowing an immediate estimation of the number of patients with a specific discharge diagnosis in each hospital department or outpatient specialist clinic in the Central Denmark Region. The free access to health care, thorough monitoring of patients who are in contact with the health service, completeness of registration at the hospital level, and ability to link all databases are competitive advantages in an increasingly complex clinical trial environment. Keywords: Denmark, single point-of-entry, patient registration
... Diversifying Clinical Trials: Successful Strategies for Engaging Women and Minorities in Clinical Trials. The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dialogues in Diversifying Clinical Trials: Successful Strategies for Engaging Women and Minorities in Clinical Trials AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...
Macbeth, W A
Twenty-one patients with a variety of clinical infections were treated with Piperacillin Sodium intravenously. One case was considered to be a therapeutic failure. Two further cases were incapable of scientific assessment with respect to their response as no satisfactory pathogen could be identified in spite of a significant febrile illness. In all the other patients in the study a good clinical response was deemed to have been achieved. In nine of these patients, a microbiological cure was also achieved. In the remainder, because of the nature of their clinical problem, no final microbiological sample was available for culture due to the absence of any infective material. Only one adverse incident was encountered (a thrombo-phlebitis, in relation to the intravenous avenue of administration.
Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian
Discussions about authorship often arise in multi-centre clinical trials. Such trials may involve up to hundreds of contributors of whom some will eventually co-author the final publication. It is, however, often impossible to involve all contributors in the manuscript process sufficiently for them...... to qualify for authorship as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Therefore, rules for authorship in multi-centre trials are strongly recommended. We propose two contracts to prevent conflicts regarding authorship; both are freely available for use without pay but with reference...
Stewart, David J; Kurzrock, Razelle
Randomized controlled trials with a survival endpoint are the gold standard for clinical research, but have failed to achieve cures for most advanced malignancies. The high costs of randomized clinical trials slow progress (thereby causing avoidable loss of life) and increase health care costs. A malignancy may be caused by several different mutations. Therapies effective vs one mutation may be discarded due to lack of statistical significance across the entire population. Conversely, expensive large randomized trials may have sufficient statistical power to demonstrate benefit despite the therapy only working in subgroups. Non-cost-effective therapy is then applied to all patients (including subgroups it cannot help). Randomized trials comparing therapies with different mechanisms of action are misleading since they may conclude the therapies are "equivalent" despite benefitting different subpopulations, or may erroneously conclude that one therapy is superior simply because it targets a larger subpopulation. Furthermore, minor variances in patient selection may determine study outcome, a therapy may be discarded as ineffective despite substantial benefit in one subpopulation if harmful in another, randomized trials may more effectively detect therapies with minor benefit in most patients vs marked benefit in subpopulations, and randomized trials in unselected patients may erroneously conclude that "shot-gun" combinations are superior to single agents when sequential administration of personalized single agents might work better and spare patients treatment with drugs that cannot help them. We must identify predictive biomarkers early by comparing responding to progressing patients in phase I-II trials. Enriching randomized trials for biomarker-positive patients can markedly reduce required patient numbers and costs despite expensive screening for biomarker-positive patients. Available data support approval of new drugs without randomized trials if they yield
Lepola, Pirkko; Needham, Allison; Mendum, Jo; Sallabank, Peter; Neubauer, David; de Wildt, Saskia
Paediatric clinical trials are often conducted as multinational trials. Informed consent or assent is part of the ethics committee approval for clinical trials. The consent requirements vary between countries due to national laws and regulations, which are not harmonised in Europe. These discrepancies can present challenges for paediatric clinical trials. The aim of this study was to assemble these consent and assent requirements across the European Economic Area. The collated national requirements have not been publicly available before, despite a real need for this data. National consent and assent requirements for paediatric clinical trials were analysed and collated for 25 European Union Member States and 2 European Free Trade Association countries until the end of 2014. The data were retrieved from existing databases and through communication with the competent authorities and selected ethics committees. Results from a literature search for international or national guidelines, declarations and conventions and academic societies' publications served as comparison material. Consent and assent requirements are heterogeneous across these countries. We compiled our findings in 'The Informed Consent and Assent Tool Kit', a table including 27 national consent and assent requirements listed by individual country. Wide variation in paediatric consents and assents presents challenges for multinational paediatric trials in Europe. The toolkit is available for all those involved in paediatric clinical trials and ethics committees, providing a new platform for proactive feedback on informed consent requirements, and may finally lead to a needed harmonisation process, including uniform standards accepted across Europe. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Califf, Robert M
As randomized controlled trials have become the 'gold standard' for medical research, a complex regulatory structure for the conduct of clinical trials has emerged. However, this structure has not been adequately assessed to ensure that regulations governing human subjects research actually produce the desired effects. Our purpose is to identify some of the major shortcomings in the current regulatory system of human clinical trials oversight, and to propose some potential solutions to these problems. We discuss the evolution of the current US regulatory environment and its application in the context of several widely-used drug therapies. Despite numerous randomized controlled trials, performed within a structure of extensive documentation and data collection, serious shortcomings in a number of pharmaceutical therapies were not detected until after the drugs were approved and widely adopted by clinicians. The current system of regulatory bureaucracy in clinical trials has led to an extremely expensive research paradigm that, in spite of complex systems of oversight and exhaustive data collection, cannot be shown to adequately ensure the integrity of the research process and the protection of human research subjects. Some parts of the system, including Research Ethics Review Boards, may not be well-suited to carrying out their core mission of overseeing research conduct, and other aspects of clinical trials regulatory structure, such as monitoring/auditing review and adverse event reporting, may constitute a waste of money and resources. Misdirected data collection and adverse events reporting divert valuable resources and hamper development of large, simple clinical trials powered to definitively answer important research questions. Careful scrutiny of the utility of current or proposed regulatory schemes is required to ensure the integrity of human subjects research and to enhance the effectiveness of research dollars.
... Medicine (NLM), which manages the Web site. "With patients taking an increasingly active role in their own health care, they now have a chance to learn more about clinical studies on everything from Alzheimer's disease to zinc supplements. Without question, it has ...
sites. Review of Potential Grant submissions: Treatment of early cardiac systolic dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy with lisinopril or...revamped and implemented for two studies in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). CINRG’s public website has been revamped. One measurement clinical...SUBJECT TERMS Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy , CINRG, CQMS, coordinating center, electronic data capture 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION
Morgan, Susan E; Mouton, Ashton; Occa, Aurora; Potter, Jonell
The lack of accrual to research studies and clinical trials is a persistent problem with serious consequences: Advances in medical science depend on the participation of large numbers of people, including members of minority and underserved populations. The current study examines a critical determinant of accrual: the approach of patients by professional recruiters who request participation in research studies and clinical trials. Findings indicate that recruiters use a number of verbal strategies in the communication process, including translating study information (such as simplifying, using examples, and substituting specific difficult or problematic words), using linguistic reframing or metaphors, balancing discussions of research participation risks with benefits, and encouraging potential participants to ask questions. The identification of these verbal strategies can form the basis of new communication protocols that will help medical and nonmedical professionals communicate more clearly and effectively with patients and other potential participants about research studies and clinical trials, which should lead to increased accrual in the future.
Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon
Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rStO2) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rStO2 can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises that the bur......Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rStO2) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rStO2 can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises....... The treatment guideline is presented to assist neonatologists in making decisions in relation to cerebral oximetry readings in preterm infants within the SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial. The evidence grades were relatively low and the guideline cannot be recommended outside a research setting....... © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....
Joseph, Anne M; Rothman, Alexander J; Almirall, Daniel; Begnaud, Abbie; Chiles, Caroline; Cinciripini, Paul M; Fu, Steven S; Graham, Amanda L; Lindgren, Bruce R; Melzer, Anne C; Ostroff, Jamie S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Taylor, Kathryn L; Toll, Benjamin A; Zeliadt, Steven B; Vock, David M
National recommendations for lung cancer screening for former and current smokers aged 55-80 years with a 30-pack year smoking history create demand to implement efficient and effective systems to offer smoking cessation on a large scale. These older, high-risk smokers differ from participants in past clinical trials of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for tobacco dependence. There is a gap in knowledge about how to best design systems to extend reach and treatments to maximize smoking cessation in the context of lung cancer screening. Eight clinical trials, seven funded by the National Cancer Institute and one by the VHA, address this gap and form the Smoking Cessation within the Context of Lung Cancer Screening (SCALE) collaboration. This paper describes methodological issues related to the design of these clinical trials: clinical workflow, participant eligibility criteria, screening indication (baseline or annual repeat screen), assessment content, interest in stopping smoking, and treatment delivery method and dose, all of which will affect tobacco treatment outcomes. Tobacco interventions consider the "teachable moment" offered by lung cancer screening, how to incorporate positive and negative screening results, and coordination of smoking cessation treatment with clinical events associated with lung cancer screening. Unique data elements, such as perceived risk of lung cancer and costs of tobacco treatment are of interest. Lung cancer screening presents a new and promising opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality from lung cancer that can be amplified by effective smoking cessation treatment. SCALE teamwork and collaboration promises to maximize knowledge gained from the clinical trials.
Von Hoff, D D; Clark, G M; Stogdill, B J; Sarosdy, M F; O'Brien, M T; Casper, J T; Mattox, D E; Page, C P; Cruz, A B; Sandbach, J F
A prospective clinical trial was performed to evaluate the usefulness of a human tumor cloning system for selecting single-agent chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancers. Six hundred four single-agent trials were performed in the 470 patients whose tumors were submitted for drug sensitivity testing. Only 246 of these 604 trials (41%) could be directed by the cloning system results because of inadequate tumor growth and other difficulties. In these 246 prospective trials, there was a 60% true positive and an 85% true negative rate for predicting for response or lack of response of an individual patient's tumor to the single agent. There was also a relationship between the percentage of decrease in survival of tumor colony-forming units and the probability of a clinical response of the patient's tumor to the same drug used in vivo. Despite these encouraging findings, work to improve tumor growth and additional prospective clinical trials of the system are needed before the system can be recommended for routine clinical use.
Minisman, Greg; Bhanushali, Minal; Conwit, Robin; Wolfe, Gil I; Aban, Inmaculada; Kaminski, Henry J; Cutter, Gary
The importance of conducting medical research on a global or international platform cannot be overemphasized in current times. Sponsors are encouraging international clinical trials for a number of reasons. Globally, clinical trials are under increasing pressure to meet patient recruitment goals quickly and efficiently, at times with very limited resources. Conducting clinical trials in multiple countries increases access to potentially eligible study subjects. It is reasonable to believe that international trials will be completed more quickly and efficiently, leading to more rapid advancement in science and conservation of research-specific resources. Rapid advancement in science can reduce the burden of disease, promote health, and extend longevity for all people. In addition, generalizability, one of the major goals of translational medicine, will increase when recruiting patients from multiple countries and multiple ethnicities. Further, improvement of global health may be possible when certain types of clinical trials are conducted in countries that would not otherwise have access to an innovative drug or intervention. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Background Following the successful introduction of five topic-specific research networks in the UK, the Comprehensive Local Research Network (CLRN) was established in 2008 in order to provide a blanket level of support across the whole country regardless of the clinical discipline. The role of the CLRN was to facilitate recruitment into clinical trials, and to encourage greater engagement in research throughout the National Health Service (NHS). Methods This report evaluates the impact of clinical research networks in supporting clinical trials in the UK, with particular reference to our experiences from two non-commercial dermatology trials. It covers our experience of engaging with the CLRN (and other research networks) using two non-commercial dermatology trials as case studies. We present the circumstances that led to our approach to the research networks for support, and the impact that this support had on the delivery of these trials. Results In both cases, recruitment was boosted considerably following the provision of additional support, although other factors such as the availability of experienced personnel, and the role of advertising and media coverage in promoting the trials were also important in translating this additional resource into increased recruitment. Conclusions Recruitment into clinical trials is a complex task that can be influenced by many factors. A world-class clinical research infrastructure is now in place in England (with similar support available in Scotland and Wales), and it is the responsibility of the research community to ensure that this unique resource is used effectively and responsibly. PMID:21679433
Full Text Available The key components while planning a clinical study are the study design, study duration, and sample size. These features are an integral part of planning a clinical trial efficiently, ethically, and cost-effectively. This article describes some of the prerequisites for sample size calculation. It also explains that sample size calculation is different for different study designs. The article in detail describes the sample size calculation for a randomized controlled trial when the primary outcome is a continuous variable and when it is a proportion or a qualitative variable.
Eskes, Anne M; Brölmann, Fleur E; Sumpio, Bauer E
acknowledged as the study design of choice for comparing treatment effects, as they eliminate several sources of bias. We propose a framework for the design and conduct of future randomized clinical trials that will offer strong scientific evidence for the effectiveness of wound care interventions. While......The care for chronic and acute wounds is a substantial problem around the world. This has led to a plethora of products to accelerate healing. Unfortunately, the quality of studies evaluating the efficacy of such wound care products is frequently low. Randomized clinical trials are universally....... This article proposes strategies for improving the evidence base for wound care decision making....
Lassman, Scott M; Shopshear, Olivia M; Jazic, Ina; Ulrich, Jocelyn; Francer, Jeffrey
To evaluate the accuracy of a 2015 cross-sectional analysis published in the BMJ Open which reported that pharmaceutical industry compliance with clinical trial registration and results reporting requirements under US law was suboptimal and varied widely among companies. We performed a reassessment of the data reported in Miller et al to evaluate whether statutory compliance analyses and conclusions were valid. Information from the Dryad Digital Repository, ClinicalTrials.gov, Drugs@FDA and direct communications with sponsors. Compliance with the clinical trial registration and results reporting requirements under the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA). Industry compliance with FDAAA disclosure requirements was notably higher than reported by Miller et al. Among trials subject to FDAAA, Miller et al reported that, per drug, a median of 67% (middle 50% range: 0%-100%) of trials fully complied with registration and results reporting requirements. On reanalysis of the data, we found that a median of 100% (middle 50% range: 93%-100%) of clinical trials for a particular drug fully complied with the law. When looking at overall compliance at the trial level, our reassessment yields 94% timely registration and 90% timely results reporting among the 49 eligible trials, and an overall FDAAA compliance rate of 86%. The claim by Miller et al that industry compliance is below legal standards is based on an analysis that relies on an incomplete dataset and an interpretation of FDAAA that requires disclosure of study results for drugs that have not yet been approved for any indication. On reanalysis using a different interpretation of FDAAA that focuses on whether results were disclosed within 30 days of drug approval, we found that industry compliance with US statutory disclosure requirements for the 15 reviewed drugs was consistently high. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved
Chahal, Jaskarndip; Tomescu, S Sebastian; Ravi, Bheeshma; Bach, Bernard R; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell; Mohamed, Nizar N; Gandhi, Rajiv
There is increasing evidence that a significant proportion of randomized trials in medicine, and recently in orthopaedics, do not go on to publication. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine publication rates of randomized controlled trials in sports medicine that have been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (CTG) and (2) to compare the registration summaries of randomized trials on CTG with final published manuscripts on pertinent methodological variables. Systematic review. Two independent investigators searched ClinicalTrials.gov for all closed and completed trials related to sports medicine until June 2009 using a text search strategy. The authors then searched for publications resulting from these registered trials in peer-reviewed journals that are indexed with MEDLINE and/or EMBASE as of February 2012 based on study authors and key words provided in the study protocol. Details of primary outcomes and secondary outcomes, study sponsors, and sample size were extracted and compared between registrations and publications. Of 34 closed and completed trials registered on CTG, there were 20 resultant publications in peer-reviewed journals (58.8%). There was no significant relationship between source of funding and rate of publication (P > .05). The authors found a discrepancy between the CTG registration summary and the manuscript in at least one methodological variable (primary/secondary outcomes, inclusion/exclusion criteria, sample size) in 16 of 20 (80.0%) articles and a discrepancy in the primary outcome in 8 of 20 (40.0%) published trials. Although registration of sports medicine trials in CTG does not consistently result in publication or disclosure of results at 32 months from the time of study completion, observed publication rates are higher than in other orthopaedic subspecialties. Changes are also frequently made to the final presentation of eligibility criteria and primary and secondary outcomes that are not reflected in the registered
Full Text Available Shourav Yathindranath,1 Amar Kureishi,2 Simranjit Singh,3 Spencer Yeow,3 Grace Geng,4 Karen Wai,1 Audrey Ho,1 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Ken J Lee5 1Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, 2Drug Development Asia, 3Strategic Planning Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 4People’s Republic of China Site Services, Quintiles, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore Introduction: Asia Pacific has and continues to be one of the fastest-growing pharmaceutical markets in the world. This growth has a carry-over effect of driving pharmaceutical research and development investment in the region. Coupled with this, there have been multiple initiatives conducted by governments and other research focused organizations and societies in the region to help support this growth in research. In this report, we discuss the latest developments in pharmaceutical research and development in Asia Pacific and how these various initiatives have made an impact. Methods: An extensive search of the major clinical trial registries, along with the literature and Internet review of the recent developments in clinical trials, was performed comparing two time periods – 2009–2010 and 2011–2012. Results: In overall numbers, the clinical trial industry in Asia Pacific has remained stable when comparing the two time periods, with stable volumes of clinical trial numbers and site numbers. However, on closer inspection, a dynamic change in geography, nature, and therapeutic areas of the trials being conducted is observed. Japan, South Korea, People’s Republic of China, and Taiwan continue to be major clinical trial destinations. Developing countries, such as Indonesia, Vietnam, and Philippines, have seen rising standards of living and medical care; this is starting to impact their contribution to trials. Also, there are an increasing number of local trials in Asia Pacific with a bigger role
Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Placebo response rates in clinical trials vary considerably and are observed frequently. For new drugs it can be difficult to prove effectiveness superior to placebo. It is unclear what contributes to improvement in the placebo groups. We wanted to clarify, what elements of clinical trials determine placebo variability. Methods We analysed a representative sample of 141 published long-term trials (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; duration > 12 weeks to find out what study characteristics predict placebo response rates in various diseases. Correlational and regression analyses with study characteristics and placebo response rates were carried out. Results We found a high and significant correlation between placebo and treatment response rate across diseases (r = .78; p Conclusion Medication response rates and placebo response rates in clinical trials are highly correlated. Trial characteristics can explain some portion of the variance in placebo healing rates in RCTs. Placebo response in trials is only partially due to methodological artefacts and only partially dependent on the diagnoses treated.
Partnering around cancer clinical trials (PACCT): study protocol for a randomized trial of a patient and physician communication intervention to increase minority accrual to prostate cancer clinical trials.
Eggly, Susan; Hamel, Lauren M; Heath, Elisabeth; Manning, Mark A; Albrecht, Terrance L; Barton, Ellen; Wojda, Mark; Foster, Tanina; Carducci, Michael; Lansey, Dina; Wang, Ting; Abdallah, Rehab; Abrahamian, Narineh; Kim, Seongho; Senft, Nicole; Penner, Louis A
Cancer clinical trials are essential for testing new treatments and represent state-of-the-art cancer treatment, but only a small percentage of patients ever enroll in a trial. Under-enrollment is an even greater problem among minorities, particularly African Americans, representing a racial/ethnic disparity in cancer care. One understudied cause is patient-physician communication, which is often of poor quality during clinical interactions between African-American patients and non-African-American physicians. Partnering Around Cancer Clinical Trials (PACCT) involves a transdisciplinary theoretical model proposing that patient and physician individual attitudes and beliefs and their interpersonal communication during racially discordant clinical interactions influence outcomes related to patients' decisions to participate in a trial. The overall goal of the study is to test a multilevel intervention designed to increase rates at which African-American and White men with prostate cancer make an informed decision to participate in a clinical trial. Data collection will occur at two NCI-designated comprehensive cancer centers. Participants include physicians who treat men with prostate cancer and their African-American and White patients who are potentially eligible for a clinical trial. The study uses two distinct research designs to evaluate the effects of two behavioral interventions, one focused on patients and the other on physicians. The primary goal is to increase the number of patients who decide to enroll in a trial; secondary goals include increasing rates of physician trial offers, improving the quality of patient-physician communication during video recorded clinical interactions in which trials may be discussed, improving patients' understanding of trials offered, and increasing the number of patients who actually enroll. Aims are to 1) determine the independent and combined effects of the two interventions on outcomes; 2) compare the effects of the
Chen, Zhao-hua; Huang, Qin; Deng, Ya-zhong; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Yu; Yu, Hao; Liu, Zong-fan
Data quality management system is essential to ensure accurate, complete, consistent, and reliable data collection in clinical research. This paper is devoted to various choices of data quality metrics. They are categorized by study status, e.g. study start up, conduct, and close-out. In each category, metrics for different purposes are listed according to ALCOA+ principles such us completeness, accuracy, timeliness, traceability, etc. Some general quality metrics frequently used are also introduced. This paper contains detail information as much as possible to each metric by providing definition, purpose, evaluation, referenced benchmark, and recommended targets in favor of real practice. It is important that sponsors and data management service providers establish a robust integrated clinical trial data quality management system to ensure sustainable high quality of clinical trial deliverables. It will also support enterprise level of data evaluation and bench marking the quality of data across projects, sponsors, data management service providers by using objective metrics from the real clinical trials. We hope this will be a significant input to accelerate the improvement of clinical trial data quality in the industry.
Díaz Gómez, L; García Villar, C; Seguro Fernández, Á
A clinical trial is an experimental study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a treatment or diagnostic technique in human beings. To ensure the methodological quality of a clinical trial and the validity of its results, various checklists have been elaborated to identify biases that could invalidate its conclusions. This article focuses on the points we need to consider in the critical evaluation of a clinical trial. We can usually find this information in the "materials and methods" and "results" sections of articles. Randomization, follow-up (or analysis of losses), blinding, and equivalence between groups (apart from the intervention itself) are some key aspects related to design. In the "results" section, we need to consider what measures of clinical efficacy were used (relative risk, odds ratio, or number needed to treat, among others) and the precision of the results (confidence intervals). Once we have confirmed that the clinical trial fulfills these criteria, we need to determine whether the results can be applied in our environment and whether the benefits obtained justify the risks and costs involved. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kossack, Christoph K.-H.
Material and method: The (A) manual interX short brush-head toothbrush (elmex), the (B) Sonic Speed SR-100E sonic toothbrush (Water Pik), the (C) Sonic Speed toothbrush in conjunction with the electric interdental cleaning device Flosser FL-110 (Water Pik) and (D) the Sonic Speed toothbrush in conjunction with multi-floss three-phase dental floss (elmex) were tested in the present clinical single-blind four-way crossover study over a period of six months for their e...
Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel
Cervical cancer (CC) is a public health problem among women worldwide, especially in emerging nations. To improve CC control, new adjuvant therapeutic strategies are required. Advances in immunology, genomics and proteomics have accelerated our understanding of the genetic and cellular basis of many cancer types. CC is a member of virus-related neoplasms and its initiation and promotion is associated with persistent infection of oncogenic human papillomavirus. During viral infection and associated-transforming developing lesions, the HPVs co-express non-structural and structural proteins. These early or late proteins are the antigenic target of the immune response. The intervention to stimulate the humoral or cellular immune anti-HPV response is the objective of the immunoprevention and immunotherapy against CC. Recently in a controlled phase III trial of HPV type 16 vaccine using virus-like particles of L1 capsid of HPV-16, the incidence was reduced of both HPV-16 infection and HPV-16-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Although preliminary results of immunotherapy clinical trials against CC did not modify the clinical status, they occasionally show improvement of lymphocyte response against HPV. A recent immunotherapy trial using dendritic cells pulsed with HPV-18 E7 oncoprotein as adjuvant resulted in temporal remission and improved performance status in a patient with metastatic CC. New and different vaccine preventive trials against HPV are being put into practice and clinically tested. It is hoped that in the future it may be possible to eradicate cervical cancer. The success of immunotherapy anti-HPV clinical trials in CC patients will be determined at a future time. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against persistent infection and preinvasive-invasive associated cervical lesions along with the present status of immunopreventive and immunotherapy clinical trials against cervical cancer
Naccarelli, G V; Wolbrette, D L; Dell'Orfano, J T; Patel, H M; Luck, J C
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used in the treatment of supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. This paper reviews clinical trials in which amiodarone was used in one of the treatment arms. Key post-myocardial infarction trials include EMIAT and CAMIAT, both of which demonstrated that amiodarone reduced arrhythmic but not overall mortality. In patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), amiodarone was associated with a neutral survival in CHF/STAT and improvement in survival in GESICA. In patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, the MADIT trial demonstrated that therapy with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) improved survival compared with the antiarrhythmic drug arm in such patients, most of whom were taking amiodarone. In sustained VT/VF patients, the CASCADE trial demonstrated that empiric amiodarone lowered arrhythmic recurrence rates compared with other drugs guided by serial Holter or electrophysiologic studies. Several trials including AVID, CIDS, and CASH have demonstrated the superiority of ICD therapy compared with empiric amiodarone in improving overall survival. Clinical implications of these trials are discussed.
Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy
The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... doctors, nurses and care specialists who specialize in carrying out clinical trials that are testing new treatments. ... as an outpatient . However, you are responsible for costs related to your initial screening. Even though most ...
Greenway, F L; Shanahan, W; Fain, R; Ma, T; Rubino, D
Lorcaserin is a novel selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for chronic weight management in adults with obesity or overweight with ≥1 comorbidity. The safety and efficacy of lorcaserin were established during two Phase III clinical trials in patients without diabetes (BLOOM and BLOSSOM) and one Phase III clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes (BLOOM-DM). Headache was the most common adverse event experienced by patients during all Phase III trials. Additional adverse events occurring in >5% of patients receiving lorcaserin included dizziness, fatigue, nausea, dry mouth and constipation in patients without diabetes, and hypoglycaemia, back pain, cough and fatigue in patients with diabetes. In a pooled analysis of echocardiographic data collected during the three lorcaserin Phase III trials, the incidence of FDA-defined valvulopathy was similar in patients taking lorcaserin and the placebo. Here, the safety profile of lorcaserin at the FDA-approved dose of 10 mg twice daily is reviewed using data from the lorcaserin Phase III programme, with a focus on theoretical adverse events commonly associated with agonists of the serotonin receptor family. Based on the lorcaserin Phase III clinical trial data, lorcaserin is safe and well tolerated in the indicated patient populations. © 2016 World Obesity.
Jiang, Silis Y.; Weng, Chunhua
Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities. PMID:25954590
Jiang, Silis Y; Weng, Chunhua
Clinical trials are fundamental to the advancement of medicine but constantly face recruitment difficulties. Various clinical trial search engines have been designed to help health consumers identify trials for which they may be eligible. Unfortunately, knowledge of the usefulness and usability of their designs remains scarce. In this study, we used mixed methods, including time-motion analysis, think-aloud protocol, and survey, to evaluate five popular clinical trial search engines with 11 users. Differences in user preferences and time spent on each system were observed and correlated with user characteristics. In general, searching for applicable trials using these systems is a cognitively demanding task. Our results show that user perceptions of these systems are multifactorial. The survey indicated eTACTS being the generally preferred system, but this finding did not persist among all mixed methods. This study confirms the value of mixed-methods for a comprehensive system evaluation. Future system designers must be aware that different users groups expect different functionalities.
Full Text Available Sarcoma tumors are rare and heterogeneous, yet they possess many characteristics that may facilitate immunotherapeutic responses. Both active strategies including vaccines and passive strategies involving cellular adoptive immunotherapy have been applied clinically. Results of these clinical trials indicate a distinct benefit for select patients. The recent breakthrough of immunologic checkpoint inhibition is being rapidly introduced to a variety of tumor types including sarcoma. It is anticipated that these emerging immunotherapies will exhibit clinical efficacy for a variety of sarcomas. The increasing ability to tailor immunologic therapies to sarcoma patients will undoubtedly generate further enthusiasm and clinical research for this treatment modality.
Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Simon, Richard
Clinical trial design strategies have evolved over the past few years as a means to accelerate the drug development process so that the right therapies can be delivered to the right patients. Basket, umbrella, and adaptive enrichment strategies represent a class of novel designs for testing targeted therapeutics in oncology. Umbrella trials include a central infrastructure for screening and identification of patients, and focus on a single tumor type or histology with multiple subtrials, each testing a targeted therapy within a molecularly defined subset. Basket trial designs offer the possibility to include multiple molecularly defined subpopulations, often across histology or tumor types, but included in one cohesive design to evaluate the targeted therapy in question. Adaptive enrichment designs offer the potential to enrich for patients with a particular molecular feature that is predictive of benefit for the test treatment based on accumulating evidence from the trial. This review will aim to discuss the fundamentals of these design strategies, the underlying statistical framework, the logistical barriers of implementation, and, ultimately, the interpretation of the trial results. New statistical approaches, extensive multidisciplinary collaboration, and state of the art data capture technologies are needed to implement these strategies in practice. Logistical challenges to implementation arising from centralized assay testing, requirement of multiple specimens, multidisciplinary collaboration, and infrastructure requirements will also be discussed. This review will present these concepts in the context of the National Cancer Institute's precision medicine initiative trials: MATCH, ALCHEMIST, Lung MAP, as well as other trials such as FOCUS4.
Ellenberg, Susan S; Keusch, Gerald T; Babiker, Abdel G
were in fact approved by local ethics boards and initiated, demonstrating that randomized trials, even in such difficult circumstances, are feasible. Improved planning and collaboration among research and humanitarian organizations, and affected communities, in the interepidemic periods are needed......Randomized clinical trials are the most reliable approaches to evaluating the effects of new treatments and vaccines. During the 2014-15 West African Ebola epidemic, many argued that such trials were neither ethical nor feasible in an environment of limited health infrastructure and severe disease...... with a high fatality rate. Consensus among the numerous organizations providing help to the affected areas was never achieved, resulting in fragmented collaboration, delayed study initiation, and ultimately failure to provide definitive evidence on the efficacy of treatments and vaccines. Randomized trials...
Christopher, Paul P; Appelbaum, Paul S; Truong, Debbie; Albert, Karen; Maranda, Louise; Lidz, Charles
Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials. This prospective randomized trial was conducted from 2015 to 2016 to test the efficacy of an informed consent intervention based on scientific reframing compared to a traditional informed consent procedure (control) in reducing therapeutic misconception among patients considering enrollment in hypothetical clinical trials modeled on real-world studies for one of five disease categories. Patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, head/neck cancer, breast cancer, and major depression were recruited from medical clinics and a clinical research volunteer database. The primary outcomes were therapeutic misconception, as measured by a validated, ten-item Therapeutic Misconception Scale (range = 10-50), and willingness to participate in the clinical trial. 154 participants completed the study (age range, 23-87 years; 92.3% white, 56.5% female); 74 (48.1%) had been randomized to receive the experimental intervention. Therapeutic misconception was significantly lower (p = 0.004) in the scientific reframing group (26.4, 95% CI [23.7 to 29.1] compared to the control group (30.9, 95% CI [28.4 to 33.5], and remained so after controlling for education (p = 0.017). Willingness to participate in the hypothetical trial was not significantly different (p = 0.603) between intervention (52.1%, 95% CI [40.2% to 62.4%]) and control (56.3%, 95% CI [45.3% to 66.6%] groups. An enhanced educational intervention augmenting
Norenberg, Jeffrey P; Petry, Neil A; Schwarz, Sally
Clinical investigations of radiopharmaceuticals are undertaken to advance promising compounds toward approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as "legend drugs." This FDA approval requires that the safety and efficacy of the investigational drug (ID) be demonstrated through clinical trials. The investigational radiopharmaceutical drug service (IRDS) is a pharmacy service that plays a critical role in the acquisition, preparation, accountability, and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals used in clinical research. Due to their radioactive and other unique properties, and their potential role as biomarkers or tools in clinical trials of other therapeutic drugs, radiopharmaceutical drugs must be managed by a qualified IRDS rather than by a typical pharmacy-based investigational drug service (IDS). The IRDS is responsible for establishing study-specific procedures for appropriate radiopharmaceutical drug accountability, billing, procurement, storage, preparation, dispensing and destruction of investigational drugs within the hospital. All drugs, and particularly parenteral drug products, must be safe for administration to human subjects enrolled in clinical trials regardless of their FDA regulatory status as approved or investigational new drug products. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sterile compounding requirements provides enforceable minimum practice and quality standards for compounded sterile preparations of drug products based on current scientific information and best sterile compounding practices. Consequently, they apply equally to facilities dedicated to IDS and IRDS operations. The FDA also regulates drug manufacturing through current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). This rule (21CFR Part 212) establishes cGMP regulations specific to positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals, separate from the regular drug cGMP rule (Parts 210 and 211). Compliance with regulatory, statutory, and sponsor requirements is a major consideration in the
Hallgren, Kevin A; Witkiewitz, Katie
The rate of participant attrition in alcohol clinical trials is often substantial and can cause significant issues with regard to the handling of missing data in statistical analyses of treatment effects. It is common for researchers to assume that missing data is indicative of participant relapse, and under that assumption, many researchers have relied on setting all missing values to the worst-case scenario for the outcome (e.g., missing = heavy drinking). This sort of single-imputation method has been criticized for producing biased results in other areas of clinical research, but has not been evaluated within the context of alcohol clinical trials, and many alcohol researchers continue to use the missing = heavy drinking assumption. Data from the COMBINE study, a multisite randomized clinical trial, were used to generate simulated situations of missing data under a variety of conditions and assumptions. We manipulated the sample size (n = 200, 500, and 1,000) and dropout rate (5, 10, 25, 30%) under 3 missing data assumptions (missing completely at random, missing at random, and missing not at random). We then examined the association between receiving naltrexone and heavy drinking during the first 10 weeks following treatment using 5 methods for treating missing data (complete case analysis [CCA], last observation carried forward [LOCF], missing = heavy drinking, multiple imputation [MI], and full information maximum likelihood [FIML]). CCA, LOCF, and missing = heavy drinking produced the most biased naltrexone effect estimates and standard errors under conditions that are likely to exist in randomized clinical trials. MI and FIML produced the least biased naltrexone effect estimates and standard errors. Assuming that missing = heavy drinking produces biased results of the treatment effect and should not be used to evaluate treatment effects in alcohol clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Evans, Scott R; Ochiai, Toshimitsu
This book focuses on group sequential methods for clinical trials with co-primary endpoints based on the decision-making frameworks for: (1) rejecting the null hypothesis (stopping for efficacy), (2) rejecting the alternative hypothesis (stopping for futility), and (3) rejecting the null or alternative hypothesis (stopping for either futility or efficacy), where the trial is designed to evaluate whether the intervention is superior to the control on all endpoints. For assessing futility, there are two fundamental approaches, i.e., the decision to stop for futility based on the conditional probability of rejecting the null hypothesis, and the other based on stopping boundaries using group sequential methods. In this book, the latter approach is discussed. The book also briefly deals with the group sequential methods for clinical trials designed to evaluate whether the intervention is superior to the control on at least one endpoint. In addition, the book describes sample size recalculation and the resulting ef...
Esbensen, Anna J; Hooper, Stephen R; Fidler, Deborah; Hartley, Sigan L; Edgin, Jamie; d'Ardhuy, Xavier Liogier; Capone, George; Conners, Frances A; Mervis, Carolyn B; Abbeduto, Leonard; Rafii, Michael; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Urv, Tiina; Group, Outcome Measures Working
Increasingly individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including Down syndrome, are being targeted for clinical trials. However, a challenge exists in effectively evaluating the outcomes of these new pharmacological interventions. Few empirically evaluated, psychometrically sound outcome measures appropriate for use in clinical trials with individuals with Down syndrome have been identified. To address this challenge, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) assembled leading clinicians and scientists to review existing measures and identify those that currently are appropriate for trials; those that may be appropriate after expansion of age range addition of easier items, and/or downward extension of psychometric norms; and areas where new measures need to be developed. This article focuses on measures in the areas of cognition and behavior.
Moreno, Alberto; Joyner, Chester
Significant progress towards a malaria vaccine, specifically for Plasmodium falciparum, has been made in the past few years with the completion of numerous clinical trials. Each trial has utilized a unique combination of antigens, delivery platforms, and adjuvants, and the data that has been obtained provides critical information that has poises the research community for the development of next generation malaria vaccines. Despite the progress towards a P. falciparum vaccine, P. vivax vaccine research requires more momentum and additional investigations to identify novel vaccine candidates. In this review, recently completed and ongoing malaria vaccine clinical trials as well as vaccine candidates that are in the development pipeline are reviewed. Perspectives for future research using post-genomic mining, nonhuman primate models, and systems biology are also discussed. PMID:26172291
Claire Elizabeth Tacon; Hina Abbas; Shiyuan Zhang; Barbara Nicholls; Glenn Crater; Zhen Su
Clinical research bridges patients’ unmet medical need with innovative medicines, increases knowledge acquisition by clinicians, and creates solutions to improve the sustainability and quality of the Canadian health care system and economy. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canadian Lung Association have recently raised concerns over declining research activities within the Canadian respiratory community. While there are currently >3000 ongoing clinical trials in Canada, the ...
Kaufman, Kenneth R.
Summary Ethical considerations in standard medical care and clinical research are underpinnings to quality medicine. Similarly, the placebo-controlled double-blind randomised clinical trial is the gold standard for medical research and fundamental to the development of evidence-based medicine. Researchers and clinicians are challenged by ethical concerns in the informed consent with a need to maximise understanding and minimise therapeutic misconception. This editorial expands on themes raise...
Kao, Chi-Yin; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Pai, Ya-Ying; Hu, Wen-Yu
Clinical research nurses (CRNs) play an important role in improving the quality of clinical trials. In Taiwan, the increasing number of clinical trials has increased the number of practicing CRNs. Understanding the role responsibilities of CRNs is necessary to promote professionalism in this nursing category. This study investigates the role responsibilities of CRNs in conducting clinical trials / research. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a medical center in Taipei City, Taiwan. Eighty CRNs that were registered to facilitate and conduct clinical trials at this research site completed the survey. "Subject protection" was the CRN role responsibility most recognized by participants, followed by "research coordination and management", "subject clinical care", and "advanced professional nursing". Higher recognition scores were associated with higher importance scores and lower difficulty scores. Participants with trial training had significantly higher difficulty scores for "subject clinical care" and "research coordination and management" than their peers without this training (p role responsibilities" (p management" (p role responsibilities, explaining 21.9% of the total variance. To further promote CRN as a professional career in Taiwan, the findings of this study recommend identifying the core competences of CRNs and adding CRN-related study materials into the advanced nursing curriculum. Long-term and systematic educational training may help CRNs understand the importance of their role responsibilities, better recognize their professional role, and reflect these responsibilities in clinical practice.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products... ``Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products.'' This workshop will provide a forum to discuss trial design of clinical trials intended to support registration of intravenous fat emulsion...
One of the more worrying trends in globalization today is the growing practice of western companies relocating clinical trials to impoverished countries. This paper starts by providing a comprehensive description of the practice and its current regulatory oversight. It argues that this regulatory
Among the most contested aspects of medical research is the randomized clinical trial (RCT). While the majority of arguments justifying the RCT and its use in medical research rest within a utilitarian framework, many Kantians claim that a deontological ethical framework is prohibitive of the use RCTs in medical research. This paper argues that, in fact, the RCT is permissible within a deontological framework.
Objective: The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of Glimepiride against Glibenclamide in the management of patients with type 2 DM in Jos, Nigeria. Study design: An open, randomised controlled trial. Setting: Diabetes Clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Subjects: Seventy four ...
Barnes, P J; Casale, T B; Dahl, Ronald
these component endpoints; however, there is no consensus on the optimal instrument for use in clinical trials. The Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) has been shown to be a valid, reliable instrument that allows accurate and reproducible assessment of asthma control that compares favourably with other commonly...
Background. Studies investigating symptoms associated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use among adolescents in resource-limited settings are rare beyond clinical trials. Identifying adolescents at risk of non-adherence is imperative for HIV/AIDS programming and controlling the epidemic in this key ...
Annals of African Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Clinical trials in Surgery. P Mwachaka, JWM Kigera. Abstract.
Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Maund, Emma; Gøtzsche, Peter C
Misclassification of adverse events in clinical trials can sometimes have serious consequences. Therefore, each of the many steps involved, from a patient's adverse experience to presentation in tables in publications, should be as standardised as possible, minimising the scope for interpretation...
This initiative supports phases 2 and 3 clinical trials of an experimental Ebola vaccine. The experimental vaccine is based on an attenuated recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus vector (VSV-EBOV). The Public Health Agency of Canada developed the vaccine and licensed it to NewLink Genetics and Merck. Early vaccine ...
The workshops used role-playing simulations, to demonstrate how to effectively obtain fuller IC, to members of several Japanese research groups preparing for clinical stem cell trials. Workshop results were correlated with the results of a 2013 workshop on what information patients want when considering participation in ...
Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.
Optimal treatment of adolescent depression requires the use of antidepressants such as fluoxetine, and the addition of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) offers better potential. Second-step pharmacological treatment of the disorder offers a success rate of around 50%. Clinical trial for the use of sertraline and CBT in treating…
Crittenden, Marka; Kohrt, Holbrook; Levy, Ronald; Jones, Jennifer; Camphausen, Kevin; Dicker, Adam; Demaria, Sandra; Formenti, Silvia
Preclinical evidence of successful combinations of ionizing radiation with immunotherapy has inspired testing the translation of these results to the clinic. Interestingly, the preclinical work has consistently predicted the responses encountered in clinical trials. The first example came from a proof-of-principle trial started in 2001 that tested the concept that growth factors acting on antigen-presenting cells improve presentation of tumor antigens released by radiation and induce an abscopal effect. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered during radiotherapy to a metastatic site in patients with metastatic solid tumors to translate evidence obtained in a murine model of syngeneic mammary carcinoma treated with cytokine FLT-3L and radiation. Subsequent clinical availability of vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has triggered a wave of enthusiasm for testing them in combination with radiotherapy. Examples of ongoing clinical trials are described in this report. Importantly, most of these trials include careful immune monitoring of the patients enrolled and will generate important data about the proimmunogenic effects of radiation in combination with a variety of immune modulators, in different disease settings. Results of these studies are building a platform of evidence for radiotherapy as an adjuvant to immunotherapy and encourage the growth of this novel field of radiation oncology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor of the serosal surfaces with a poor prognosis. Advances in the understanding of tumor biology have led to the development of several targeted treatments, which have been evaluated in clinical trials. This article is a comprehensive review of all...
Oude Rengerink, K.
This thesis presents a number of research projects centred on ‘evidence-based medicine’. It consists of two parts. Part 1 focuses on improving recruitment of the necessary number of patients in clinical trials, as this is the major problem while evaluating the effectiveness of interventions in
provide training in the ethics of the International Conference on the Harmonisation of Good Clinical Practice (ICHGCP) ... the training in ICHGCP include: the principles of ICHGCP, informed consent, ethics – IRB review boards, ..... and Mpemba, a randomised control trial (RCT) testing scheduled intermittent screening ...
context of low back pain and post knee replacement surgery pain as compared to standard therapies. As per profile of lornoxicam, if it is better than diclofenac sodium then it will be helpful in managing the patients of osteoarthritis more effectively. Till date no comparative clinical trial has been done to compare these two ...
... Contact Us Share Clinical Research Trials and You: Questions and Answers Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... along for support and for help in asking questions or recording answers. Plan ahead what to ask, but don’t ...
Tang, Wentao; Fukuzawa, Manabu; Ishikawa, Hirono; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Kiuchi, Takahiro
Established on 1 June 2005, the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) is the largest clinical trial registry in Japan, and joined the World Health Organization (WHO) registry network in October 2008. Our aim was to understand the registration trend and overall characteristics of Japan domestic, academic (non-industry-funded) clinical trials, which constitute the main body of registrations in UMIN-CTR. In addition, we aimed to investigate the accessibility of clinical trials in UMIN-CTR to people worldwide, as well as the accessibility of clinical trials conducted in Japan but registered abroad to Japanese people in the Japanese language. We obtained the data for registrations in UMIN-CTR from the UMIN Center, and extracted Japan domestic, academic clinical trials to analyze their registration trend and overall characteristics. We also investigated how many of the trials registered in UMIN-CTR could be accessed from the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Finally, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov for all clinical trials conducted in Japan and investigated how many of them were also registered in Japanese registries. All of the above analyses included clinical trials registered from 2 June 2005 to 1 June 2010. During the period examined, the registration trend showed an obvious peak around September 2005 and rapid growth from April 2009. Of the registered trials, 46.4% adopted a single-arm design, 34.5% used an active control, only 10.9% were disclosed before trial commencement, and 90.0% did not publish any results. Overall, 3,063 of 3,064 clinical trials registered in UMIN-CTR could be accessed from ICTRP. Only 8.7% of all clinical trials conducted in Japan and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov were also registered in Japanese registries. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) announcements about clinical trial registration and the Ethical Guidelines for Clinical Research
Hosseini, Seyed Ali Reza; Darbooy, Shadan; Salimi, Akram
Clinical Trial Committee (CTC) has been established in Food and Drug Organization (FDO), in 2003 to assure efficacy and safety of all types of medicinal products which are meant to be registered in Iran Drug List and/or obtain market authorization. All clinical trial files, meeting minutes and databases in CTC secretariat in FDO were reviewed. Relevant information and data extracted, analyzed and reported. Total number of clinical trial (CT) files received by CTC, in 2011, was 76 cases: 21 CT protocols, 45 CT reports and 10 requests for importation of investigational new medicinal products (IMPs). Number of CT files received for herbal and natural products was 8 cases while CT files reviewed for vaccines and biological products was 50; 66% of all CT files received. Local industries sponsored 28 CT studies while 47 studies were supported by multinational/foreign companies. Of all CT files reviewed, 54 cases accounted for phase III CTs and 20 cases for phase IV and periodic safety updated reports (PSUR). With respect to the decisions made by CTC in 2011, 23 out of 45 CT reports were approved and the number of clinical trial authorizations (CTA) issued were 11; 52% of all CT protocols reviewed. Results presented in this report are indicative of a positive trend in compliance of pharmaceutical industries and clinical research groups to national regulations of CTs and IR-GCP. Effective communication with different parties involved in regulatory and industry sides of CTs will further enhance conducting quality CTs.
Nagase, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideaki
Since 1952, when Gates determined the stereo structure of morphine, numerous groups have focused on discovering a nonnarcotic opioid drug . Although several natural, semisynthetic, and synthetic opioid ligands (alkaloids and peptides) have been developed in clinical studies, very few were nonnarcotic opioid drugs . One of the most important studies in the opioid field appeared in 1976, when Martin and colleagues  established types of opioid receptors (these are now classified into μ, δ, and κ types). Later, Portoghese discovered a highly selective μ type opioid receptor antagonist, β-funaltrexamine . This led to the finding that the μ type opioid receptor was correlated to drug dependence . Consequently, δ, and particularly κ, opioid agonists were expected to lead to ideal opioid drugs. Moreover, opioid antagonists were evaluated for the treatment of symptoms related to undesirable opioid system activation. In this chapter, we provide a short survey of opioid ligands in development and describe the discovery of the two most promising drugs, TRK-851  and TRK-820 (nalfurafine hydrochloride) .
Chen, Yu-Pei; Lv, Jia-Wei; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Ma, Jun
In the war on cancer marked by personalized medicine, positron emission tomography (PET)-based theranostic strategy is playing an increasingly important role. Well-designed clinical trials are of great significance for validating the PET applications and ensuring evidence-based cancer care. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive landscape of the characteristics of PET clinical trials using the substantial resource of ClinicalTrials.gov database. We identified 25,599 oncology trials regis...
Olanow, C Warren; Wunderle, Kathryn B; Kieburtz, Karl
Over the past 25 years clinical trials testing in movement disorders has evolved in order to more effectively and efficiently analyze the safety and efficacy of new interventions. Studies today regularly incorporate methods to decrease placebo and bias effects and to ensure more rigorous statistical analyses. Newer, standardized, and validated rating scales such as the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale are routinely employed in an effort to produce results that are comparable across different sites and studies. Several landmark studies in movement disorder research highlight these and other prominent procedural advances. The Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism trial pioneered the use of functional clinical end points, utilized a 2 × 2 factorial design to more efficiently analyze multiple interventions, and employed a washout design to assist in sorting putative neuroprotective from symptomatic effects. PRECEPT included neuroimaging as an outcome measure and highlighted the importance of futility studies in more efficiently directing resources. TEMPO and ADAGIO introduced the use of delayed-start (or 2-period) trials to try to identify disease-modifying interventions. NET-PD used futility studies to streamline the evaluation of potentially valuable treatments, followed by a large, long-term simple study design to assess the clinical significance of a new intervention. There have also been advances in clinical trials testing new surgical interventions, with the introduction of blinded outcome assessments and sham-surgery control groups. Collectively, methodological advances in clinical trials have permitted the safety and efficacy of new interventions to be tested more efficiently and economically and with a higher level of certainty that the potential benefits and adverse effects of interventions recommended for general use are well understood. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder
Benchoufi, Mehdi; Porcher, Raphael; Ravaud, Philippe
Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients' informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient's consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again. We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security, transparency and could be a
Wildt, Signe; Krag, Aleksander; Gluud, Liselotte
Objectives To evaluate the adequacy of reporting of protocols for randomised trials on diseases of the digestive system registered in http://ClinicalTrials.gov and the consistency between primary outcomes, secondary outcomes and sample size specified in http://ClinicalTrials.gov and published...
Stamm, J W
The history of clinical trials would include events in 1747 on board the Salisbury, a British Navy vessel at sea with 12 seamen critically ill with scurvy. Involving these 12 sailors in a study, an officer on board by the name of Lind evaluated six potential treatments for scurvy, and rapidly reached the conclusion that daily consumption of citrus fruits returned the men fit for duty in approximately six days (Bull, 1959). The concept of experimental randomization was first developed by Sir R.A. Fisher (1925, 1926), and the method was introduced to medical research via a study of tuberculosis treatment by Amberson and co-workers (1931), who randomized 24 TB patients into two groups, one to receive the experimental therapy, the other serving as the control. Amberson et al. also incorporated the concept of blinding into their study. Sir Austin Bradford Hill codified and built on the principles of scientific experimentation developed by Fisher, and introduced the use of random numbers in the allocation of patients in the British Medical Research Council (1948) study of the effect of streptomycin in the treatment of tuberculosis (Daniels and Hill, 1952; Hill, 1952). The first applications of clinical trial methodology for testing interventions on dental, oral, and maxillofacial diseases and conditions are more difficult to determine. For dental caries prevention, however, Chilton and Fertig (1958) and Slack and Martin (1964) were certainly among the early caries clinical trial pioneers. As clinical trials have come into the mainstream of clinical research in medicine and dentistry, a great deal of developmental work has focused on their methodological enhancement. The most successful of these efforts have come from fruitful, ongoing collaborations among clinician investigators, biostatisticians, data management specialists, biomedical ethicists, and others with an academic interest in clinical trial design and utilization. During the past 25 years, the emergence of
Travison Thomas G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most clinical trial publications include figures, but there is little guidance on what results should be displayed as figures and how. Purpose To evaluate the current use of figures in Trial reports, and to make constructive suggestions for future practice. Methods We surveyed all 77 reports of randomised controlled trials in five general medical journals during November 2006 to January 2007. The numbers and types of figures were determined, and then each Figure was assessed for its style, content, clarity and suitability. As a consequence, guidelines are developed for presenting figures, both in general and for each specific common type of Figure. Results Most trial reports contained one to three figures, mean 2.3 per article. The four main types were flow diagram, Kaplan Meier plot, Forest plot (for subgroup analyses and repeated measures over time: these accounted for 92% of all figures published. For each type of figure there is a considerable diversity of practice in both style and content which we illustrate with selected examples of both good and bad practice. Some pointers on what to do, and what to avoid, are derived from our critical evaluation of these articles' use of figures. Conclusion There is considerable scope for authors to improve their use of figures in clinical trial reports, as regards which figures to choose, their style of presentation and labelling, and their specific content. Particular improvements are needed for the four main types of figures commonly used.
Full Text Available World Health Organization (WHO has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality
Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed
World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug
Barisoni, Laura; Hodgin, Jeffrey B
In this review, we will discuss (i) how the recent advancements in digital technology and computational engineering are currently applied to nephropathology in the setting of clinical research, trials, and practice; (ii) the benefits of the new digital environment; (iii) how recognizing its challenges provides opportunities for transformation; and (iv) nephropathology in the upcoming era of kidney precision and predictive medicine. Recent studies highlighted how new standardized protocols facilitate the harmonization of digital pathology database infrastructure and morphologic, morphometric, and computer-aided quantitative analyses. Digital pathology enables robust protocols for clinical trials and research, with the potential to identify previously underused or unrecognized clinically useful parameters. The integration of digital pathology with molecular signatures is leading the way to establishing clinically relevant morpho-omic taxonomies of renal diseases. The introduction of digital pathology in clinical research and trials, and the progressive implementation of the modern software ecosystem, opens opportunities for the development of new predictive diagnostic paradigms and computer-aided algorithms, transforming the practice of renal disease into a modern computational science.
Umesh Chandra Gupta
Full Text Available Research focus of pharmaceutical industry has expanded to a larger extent in last few decades putting many more new molecules, particularly targeted agents, for the clinical development. On the other hand, researchers are facing serious challenges due to high failure rates of new molecules in clinical studies. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA in combination with academia and industry experts identified many factors responsible for failures of new molecules, and with a vision of taking traditional drug development model toward an innovative paradigm shift, issued regulatory guidance on conduct of exploratory investigational new drug (exploratory IND studies, often called as phase 0 clinical trials, requiring reduced preclinical testing, which has special relevance to life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Phase 0 trials, utilizing much lower drug doses, provide an opportunity to explore the clinical behavior of new molecules very early in the drug development pathway, helping to identify the promising candidates and eliminating non-promising molecules, thus improving the efficiency of overall drug development with significant savings of resources. Being non-therapeutic in nature, these studies, however, pose certain ethical challenges requiring careful study designing and informed consent process. This article reviews the insights and perspectives for the feasibility, utility, planning, designing and conduct of phase 0 clinical trials, in addition to ethical issues and industrial perspective focused at oncology new drug development.
Puopolo, Maria; Pocchiari, Maurizio
Rare neurodegenerative diseases are fatal and no therapy is available to cure or slow down the progression of disease. We report possibly weaknesses in the management of clinical studies in these diseases, ranging from poor preclinical studies, difficulties in the recruitment of patients, delay in the onset of treatment because of lack in early disease-specific biomarkers, and suboptimal design of Phase II clinical trials. The adoption of innovative statistical approaches in early Phase II trials might improve the screening of drugs in rare neurodegenerative disorders, but this implicates efforts from clinical researchers, statisticians, and regulatory people to the development of new strategies that should maintain rigorous scientific integrity together with a more ethical approach to human experimentations.
Full Text Available Rare neurodegenerative diseases are fatal and no therapy is available to cure or slow down the progression of disease. We report possibly weaknesses in the management of clinical studies in these diseases, ranging from poor preclinical studies, difficulties in the recruitment of patients, delay in the onset of treatment because of lack in early disease-specific biomarkers, and suboptimal design of Phase II clinical trials. The adoption of innovative statistical approaches in early Phase II trials might improve the screening of drugs in rare neurodegenerative disorders, but this implicates efforts from clinical researchers, statisticians, and regulatory people to the development of new strategies that should maintain rigorous scientific integrity together with a more ethical approach to human experimentations.
Full Text Available Drug development has been globalized, and multi-regional clinical trial (MRCT for regulatory submission has widely been conducted by many discovery based global pharmaceutical companies with the objective of reducing the time lag of launch in key markets and improve patient access to new and innovative treatments. Sponsors are facing several challenges while conducting multiregional clinical trials. Challenges under the heads statistics, clinical, regulatory operational, and ethics have been discussed. Regulators in different countries such as USA, EU-Japan, and China have issued guidance documents in respect of MRCT's. Lack of harmonization in the design and planning of MRCT is perceived to create a difficult situation to sponsors adversely affecting progressing MRCT in more and more discoveries. International conference on hormonisation (ICH has initiated the process for having a harmonized guidance document on MRCT. This document is likely to be issued in early 2017.
Saps, M.; van Tilburg, M. A. L.; Lavigne, J. V.; Miranda, A.; Benninga, M. A.; Taminiau, J. A.; Di Lorenzo, C.
BackgroundThere is little published evidence of efficacy for the most commonly used treatments. Thus, there is an urgent need to conduct clinical trials on existing and novel therapies. PurposeIn order to address these issues the Rome Foundation and members of the Pediatric Committee of the European
Gray, Alastair; McQuillan, Conor; Menown, Ian B A
The findings of many new cardiology clinical trials over the last year have been published or presented at major international meetings. This paper aims to describe and place in context a summary of the key clinical trials in cardiology presented between January and December 2016. The authors reviewed clinical trials presented at major cardiology conferences during 2016 including the American College of Cardiology (ACC), European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EuroPCR), European Society of Cardiology (ESC), European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT), and the American Heart Association (AHA). Selection criteria were trials with a broad relevance to the cardiology community and those with potential to change current practice. A total of 57 key cardiology clinical trials were identified for inclusion. Here we describe and place in clinical context the key findings of new data relating to interventional and structural cardiology including delayed stenting following primary angioplasty, contrast-induced nephropathy, management of jailed wires, optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), stenting vs bypass for left main disease, new generation stents (BioFreedom, Orsiro, Absorb), transcatheter aortic valve implantation (Edwards Sapien XT, transcatheter embolic protection), and closure devices (Watchman, Amplatzer). New preventative cardiology data include trials of bariatric surgery, empagliflozin, liraglutide, semaglutide, PCSK9 inhibitors (evolocumab and alirocumab), and inclisiran. Antiplatelet therapy trials include platelet function monitoring and ticagrelor vs clopidogrel for peripheral vascular disease. New data are also presented in fields of heart failure (sacubitril/valsartan, aliskiren, spironolactone), atrial fibrillation (rivaroxaban in patients undergoing coronary intervention, edoxaban in DC cardioversion), cardiac devices (implantable cardioverter
LeBlanc, Thomas W; Lodato, Jordan E; Currow, David C; Abernethy, Amy P
Palliative care is increasingly viewed as a necessary component of cancer care, especially for patients with advanced disease. Rigorous clinical trials are thus needed to build the palliative care evidence base, but clinical research-especially participant recruitment-is difficult. Major barriers include (1) patient factors, (2) "gatekeeping," and (3) ethical concerns. Here we discuss an approach to overcoming these barriers, using the Palliative Care Trial (PCT) as a case study. The PCT was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) of different service delivery models to improve pain control in the palliative setting. It used a recruitment protocol that fused evidence-based strategies with principles of "social marketing," an approach involving the systematic application of marketing techniques. Main components included (1) an inclusive triage algorithm, (2) information booklets targeting particular stakeholders, (3) a specialized recruitment nurse, and (4) standardization of wording across all study communications. From an eligible pool of 607 patients, the PCT enrolled 461 patients over 26 months. Twenty percent of patients referred to the palliative care service were enrolled (76% of those eligible after screening). Several common barriers were minimized; among those who declined participation, family disinterest was uncommon (5%), as was the perception of burden imposed (4%). Challenges to clinical trial recruitment in palliative care are significant but not insurmountable. A carefully crafted recruitment and retention protocol can be effective. Our experience with designing and deploying a social-marketing-based protocol shows the benefits of such an approach.
Mckane, Alexandra; Sima, Chao; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Jameson, Gayle; Mast, Cathy; White, Erica; Fleck, Sharon; Downhour, Molly; Von Hoff, Daniel D; Weiss, Glen J
Certain eligibility criteria for Phase 1 cancer clinical trials may impede successful patient enrollment onto a study. We evaluated patient-specific or study-specific reasons for screen failures on Phase 1 oncology clinical trials and discuss factors which may inhibit subject enrollment. Thirty-eight Phase 1 clinical trials for solid tumors meeting eligibility criteria and opened for enrollment between February 2006 and February 2011 at one oncology Phase 1 program were examined. Categorical reasons for screen failures and patients' demographics were examined and compared to characteristics of patients that successfully enrolled on a Phase 1 trial. There were a total of 583 successful Phase 1 enrollment and dose administration events out of 773 Phase 1 consent events (75.4 % dose success rate). The three most common reasons for screen failure were: out of protocol-specified range for chemistry, development of an interval medical issue that precluded proceeding with study participation, and subject declining participation after signing consent. Living further away from the Phase 1 program and receipt of fewer prior lines of systemic chemotherapy were significantly associated with increased screen failures. Screen failures for Phase 1 studies are not uncommon (24.6 %). When a protocol required tumor or host analyte is not required, most screen failures are due to out of protocol-specified range for chemistry or the development of an interval medical issue. Screen failure rates were increased when patients had longer travel distances and fewer prior lines of systemic chemotherapy.
Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Imamura, Marta; Fregni, Felipe
Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are considered to be the gold standard for evidence-based medicine nowadays, and are important for directing medical practice through consistent scientific observations. Steps such as patient selection, randomization and blinding are fundamental for conducting a RCT, but some additional difficulties are presented in trials that involve surgical procedures, as is common in orthopedics. The aim of this article was to highlight and discuss some difficulties and possible limitations on RCTs within the field of surgery. PMID:27027037
Gold, Garry E.; Cicuttini, Flavia; Crema, Michel D.; Eckstein, Felix; Guermazi, Ali; Kijowski, Richard; Link, Thomas M.; Maheu, Emmanuel; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Miller, Colin G.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Peterfy, Charles G.; Potter, Hollis G.; Roemer, Frank W.; Hunter, David. J
Imaging of hip in osteoarthritis (OA) has seen considerable progress in the past decade, with the introduction of new techniques that may be more sensitive to structural disease changes. The purpose of this expert opinion, consensus driven recommendation is to provide detail on how to apply hip imaging in disease modifying clinical trials. It includes information on acquisition methods/ techniques (including guidance on positioning for radiography, sequence/protocol recommendations/ hardware for MRI); commonly encountered problems (including positioning, hardware and coil failures, artifacts associated with various MRI sequences); quality assurance/ control procedures; measurement methods; measurement performance (reliability, responsiveness, and validity); recommendations for trials; and research recommendations. PMID:25952344
Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina
BACKGROUND: Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed...... of future simplified and more attractive informed consent forms. CONCLUSIONS: The emotional and cognitive responses to written patient information reported by patient representatives provides a basis for revised formats in future trials and add to the body of information that support use of plain language...
Merlini, Luciano; Sabatelli, Patrizia
Currently, the most promising therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are exon skipping and stop codon read-through, two strategies aimed at restoring the expression of dystrophin. A phase 3 clinical trial with drisapersen, a drug designed to induce exon 51-skipping, has failed to show significant improvement of the primary outcome measure, the six-minute walk test. Here, we review some key points that should be considered when designing clinical trials for these new therapies. First, younger patients have more functional abilities and more muscle fibers to preserve than older patients and therefore are better subjects for trials designed to demonstrate the success of new treatments. Second, the inclusion of patients on corticosteroids both in the treatment and placebo groups is of concern because the positive effect of corticosteroids might mask the effect of the treatment being tested. Additionally, the reasonable expectation from these therapies is the slowing of disease progression rather than improvement. Therefore, the appropriate clinical endpoints are the prolongation of the ability to stand from the floor, climb stairs, and walk, not an increase in muscle strength or function. Hence, the time frames for the detection of new dystrophin, which occurs within months, and the ability to demonstrate a slowing of disease progression, which requires years, are strikingly different. Finally, placebo-controlled trials are difficult to manage if years of blindness are required to demonstrate a slowing of disease progression. Thus, accelerated/conditional approval for new therapies should be based on surrogate biochemical outcomes: the demonstration of de novo dystrophin production and of its beneficial effect on the functional recovery of muscle fiber. These data suggest that clinical trials for DMD patients must be adapted to the particular characteristics of the disease in order to demonstrate the expected positive effect of new treatments.
Aryanto, Kadek Y. E.; Broekema, Andre; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.
To present an adapted Clinical Trial Processor (CTP) test set-up for receiving, anonymising and saving Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data using external input from the original database of an existing clinical study information system to guide the anonymisation process. Two
Laguardia, Josué; Piolli, Alessandro Luís; Prevot, Margareth; Ramalho, Luciano; Gamarski, Ricardo; Nishizawa, Claudio
Over the past five years, efforts to set up a Brazilian clinical trials registry have progressed from early discussions in academic forums through to the establishment of the registry as a web-based computer platform. This article describes the process of developing and introducing the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC), and its relationship with the authorities that regulate clinical research in Brazil. The Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry and the multilingual, free and open source, internet-based software developed to manage it are outcomes of partnerships among Brazilian federal and international health agencies. Information for describing the technical and operational dimensions of Rebec was drawn from technical documents and the records of the OpenTrials software development team and the ReBEC executive and advisory committees, which are available in free-access repositories. The Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry was launched in December 2010, and approved as a primary registry of the WHO ICTRP network in April 2011. ReBEC's arrival on-line and its acceptance as an ICTRP primary registry is a significant step in consolidating a policy of free access to information on clinical research in Brazil. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Requirements, Compliance, and Good Clinical Practice; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Baltimore District Office, in...
Raghavan, Preethi; Chen, James L; Fosler-Lussier, Eric; Lai, Albert M
Electronic health records capture patient information using structured controlled vocabularies and unstructured narrative text. While structured data typically encodes lab values, encounters and medication lists, unstructured data captures the physician's interpretation of the patient's condition, prognosis, and response to therapeutic intervention. In this paper, we demonstrate that information extraction from unstructured clinical narratives is essential to most clinical applications. We perform an empirical study to validate the argument and show that structured data alone is insufficient in resolving eligibility criteria for recruiting patients onto clinical trials for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and prostate cancer. Unstructured data is essential to solving 59% of the CLL trial criteria and 77% of the prostate cancer trial criteria. More specifically, for resolving eligibility criteria with temporal constraints, we show the need for temporal reasoning and information integration with medical events within and across unstructured clinical narratives and structured data.
Full Text Available Barbara P Yawn,1 Suzanne Madison,1 Susan Bertram,1 Wilson D Pace,2 Anne Fuhlbrigge,3 Elliot Israel,3 Dawn Littlefield,1 Margary Kurland,1 Michael E Wechsler41Olmsted Medical Center, Department of Research, Rochester, MN, 2UCDHSC, Department of Family Medicine, University of Colorado Health Science Centre, Aurora, CO, 3Brigham and Women's Hospital, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Boston, MA, 4National Jewish Medical Center, Division of Pulmonology, Denver, CO, USABackground: Published reports and studies related to patient compensation for clinical trials focus primarily on the ethical issues related to appropriate amounts to reimburse for patient's time and risk burden. Little has been published regarding the method of payment for patient participation. As clinical trials move into widely dispersed community practices and more complex designs, the method of payment also becomes more complex. Here we review the decision process and payment method selected for a primary care-based randomized clinical trial of asthma management in Black Americans.Methods: The method selected is a credit card system designed specifically for clinical trials that allows both fixed and variable real-time payments. We operationalized the study design by providing each patient with two cards, one for reimbursement for study visits and one for payment of medication costs directly to the pharmacies.Results: Of the 1015 patients enrolled, only two refused use of the ClinCard, requesting cash payments for visits and only rarely a weekend or fill-in pharmacist refused to use the card system for payment directly to the pharmacy. Overall, the system has been well accepted by patients and local study teams. The ClinCard administrative system facilitates the fiscal accounting and medication adherence record-keeping by the central teams. Monthly fees are modest, and all 12 study institutional review boards approved use of the system without concern for patient
Paludan-Müller, Asger; Teindl Laursen, David Ruben; Hróbjartsson, A.
clinical trials. Methods: Two systematic reviews and a theoretical analysis. We conducted one systematic review of empirical studies of motives/methods for deciphering patient allocation sequences; and another review of methods publications commenting on allocation bias. We theoretically analysed......Background: Selective allocation of patients into the compared groups of a randomised trial may cause allocation bias, but the mechanisms behind the bias and its directionality are incompletely understood. We therefore analysed the mechanisms and directionality of allocation bias in randomised...... the mechanisms of allocation bias and hypothesised which main factors predicts its direction. Results: Three empirical studies addressed motives/methods for deciphering allocation sequences. Main motives included ensuring best care for patients and ensuring best outcome for the trial. Main methods included...
Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C
Although certain risk factors can identify individuals who are most likely to develop chronic pain, few interventions to prevent chronic pain have been identified. To facilitate the identification of preventive interventions, an IMMPACT meeting was convened to discuss research design considerations...... for clinical trials investigating the prevention of chronic pain. We present general design considerations for prevention trials in populations that are at relatively high risk for developing chronic pain. Specific design considerations included subject identification, timing and duration of treatment...... element exposure), and are chronically painful conditions that are treated with a range of interventions. Improvements in the design of chronic pain prevention trials could improve assay sensitivity and thus accelerate the identification of efficacious interventions. Such interventions would have...
Lloyd, Gemma; Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise
Recruitment to clinical trials is often slow and difficult, with a growing body of research examining this issue. However there is very little work related to stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the success and efficiency of recruitment of community-dwelling stroke survivors over the first two years of a clinical trial aiming to improve community ambulation. Recruitment strategies fell into 2 broad categories: (i) advertisement (such as newspaper advertising and media releases), and (ii) referral (via hospital and community physiotherapists, a stroke liaison officer and other researchers). Records were kept of the number of people who were screened, were eligible and were recruited for each strategy. The recruitment target of 60 in the first two years was not met. 111 stroke survivors were screened and 57 were recruited (i.e., a recruitment rate of 51%). The most successful strategy was referral via hospital-based physiotherapists (47% of recruited participants) and the least successful were media release and local newspaper advertising. The referral strategies were all more efficient than any of the advertisement strategies. In general, recruitment was inefficient and costly in terms of human resources. Given that stroke research is underfunded, it is important to find efficient ways of recruiting stroke survivors to clinical trials. An Australian national database similar to other disease-specific data bases (such as the National Cancer Database) is under development. In the interim, recruiting for several clinical trials at once may increase efficiency.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the successful introduction of five topic-specific research networks in the UK, the Comprehensive Local Research Network (CLRN was established in 2008 in order to provide a blanket level of support across the whole country regardless of the clinical discipline. The role of the CLRN was to facilitate recruitment into clinical trials, and to encourage greater engagement in research throughout the National Health Service (NHS. Methods This report evaluates the impact of clinical research networks in supporting clinical trials in the UK, with particular reference to our experiences from two non-commercial dermatology trials. It covers our experience of engaging with the CLRN (and other research networks using two non-commercial dermatology trials as case studies. We present the circumstances that led to our approach to the research networks for support, and the impact that this support had on the delivery of these trials. Results In both cases, recruitment was boosted considerably following the provision of additional support, although other factors such as the availability of experienced personnel, and the role of advertising and media coverage in promoting the trials were also important in translating this additional resource into increased recruitment. Conclusions Recruitment into clinical trials is a complex task that can be influenced by many factors. A world-class clinical research infrastructure is now in place in England (with similar support available in Scotland and Wales, and it is the responsibility of the research community to ensure that this unique resource is used effectively and responsibly.
Halliday, Henry L
To search for recent clinical trials of neonatal surfactant treatment and report their findings. Recent was defined as published between 2000 and 2005. An online search on PubMed was made on 30th December 2005 using the following terms: surfactant treatment, clinical trials and neonate, with limits of years 2000 to 2005 and age - newborn from birth to 1 month. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs were prioritised and studies in children and animals were excluded from further analysis. 175 papers were found in this search. Only about half of these papers were directly related to some aspect of surfactant treatment and of these just over one-half were either RCTs or systematic reviews of RCTs. Of the 34 RCTs of surfactant treatment, 3 were excluded as they involved children or animals rather than neonates. Twenty-nine trials studied preterm babies with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 2 were for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in term infants. The median sample sizes of these studies were RDS (92, range 19-1,361) and MAS (42, range 22-61). Eighteen of the RDS trials compared two or more surfactant preparations, the most frequently studied being Curosurf and Survanta but altogether 11 different surfactants were compared. These new RCTs need to be analysed by meta-analyses in systematic reviews. Twelve systematic reviews were found and these demonstrated the superiority of prophylactic over selective use of surfactant in babies surfactant and the absence of an increase in long-term developmental sequelae. Surfactant for MAS may reduce the severity of respiratory illness and the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Of the non-randomised trials' novel delivery methods, failure to use evidence-based guidelines and the benefit of surfactant for babies Surfactant remains one of the most effective and safest interventions in neonatology. Prophylactic natural surfactant seems to be the most evidence-based treatment for babies
Lim, Chul-Hyun; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Baeg, Myong Ki; Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Kyu Yong
The drink test has been regarded as a surrogate marker of gastric accommodation. The aims of this study were to develop a novel nutrient drink test (NDT) protocol and investigate its potential for application to a clinical trial of functional dyspepsia (FD). A novel NDT was designed, involving drinking 125 mL of nutrient 4 times at 5-minute intervals or until maximal tolerability. Healthy volunteers and patients with FD rated their symptoms every 5 minutes for 20 minutes in a developmental study. Patients with FD were enrolled in an open trial of itopride for 4 weeks. NDT was performed before and after treatment. Improvement of integrative symptoms score during NDT after treatment for more than 50% compared with baseline was de-fined as responder. Total aggregate symptom scores, sum of symptom scores measured during NDT, were higher in FD patients (n = 40, 368.1 ± 245.3) than in controls (n = 19, 215.9 ± 171.2) (P = 0.018) in a developmental study. In an open trial of itopride, symp-tom scores measured during NDT decreased significantly at all time points after treatment in responders (n = 49), whereas did not in non-responders (n = 25). Total aggregate symptom score for NDT correlated significantly with integrative dyspeptic symptom score, sum of 8 symptom scores of NDI questionnaire, at baseline (r = 0.374, P = 0.001) and after treatment (r = 0.480, P ＜ 0.001). Our novel NDT can quantify dyspeptic symptoms and reflected therapeutic effects of itopride treatment in a clinical trial of FD patients. This NDT can be used as an effective parameter in clinical trials or drug development programs for assessing effects of novel therapies on postprandial symptoms.
Thuesen, Leif; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Tilsted, Hans Henrik
To describe a new research tool, designed to reflect routine clinical practice and relying on population-based health care databases to detect clinical events in randomized clinical trials.......To describe a new research tool, designed to reflect routine clinical practice and relying on population-based health care databases to detect clinical events in randomized clinical trials....
Full Text Available Clinical trial related injury and serious adverse events (SAE are a major area of concern. In all such scenarios the investigator is responsible for medical care of the trial participant and also ethically bound to report the event to all the stakeholders of the clinical trial. The trial sponsor is responsible for ongoing safety evaluation of the investigational product, reporting and compensating the participant in case of any SAE. The Ethics Committee and regulatory body of the country are to uphold the ethical principles of beneficence, justice, non-maleficence in such cases. Any unwanted and noxious effect of a drug when used in recommended doses is an adverse drug reaction (ADR whereas if causal association is not yet established it is termed adverse event (AE. An AE or ADR that is associated with death, in-patient hospitalization, prolongation of hospitalization, persistent or significant disability or incapacity, a congenital anomaly, or is otherwise life threatening is termed as an SAE. The principal investigator reports the event to the licensing authority (DCGI, sponsor and Chairperson of the Ethics Committee (EC within 24 hours of occurrence of the SAE. This report is furthered by a detailed report by both the investigator and the EC and given to the DCGI who then gives a final decision on the amount of compensation to be given by the sponsor or the sponsor's representative to the grieving party.
Sivendran, Shanthi; Latif, Asma; McBride, Russell B; Stensland, Kristian D; Wisnivesky, Juan; Haines, Lindsay; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D
Reporting adverse events is a critical element of a clinical trial publication. In 2003, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) group generated recommendations regarding the appropriate reporting of adverse events. The degree to which these recommendations are followed in oncology publications has not been comprehensively evaluated. A review of citations from PubMed, Medline, and Embase published between Jan 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011, identified eligible randomized, controlled phase III trials in metastatic solid malignancies. Publications were assessed for 14 adverse event-reporting elements derived from the CONSORT harms extension statement; a completeness score (range, 0 to 14) was calculated by adding the number of elements reported. Linear regression analysis identified which publication characteristics associated with reporting completeness. A total of 175 publications, with data for 96,125 patients, were included in the analysis. The median completeness score was eight (range, three to 12). Most publications (96%) reported only adverse events occurring above a threshold rate or severity, 37% did not specify the criteria used to select which adverse events were reported, and 88% grouped together adverse events of varying severity. Regression analysis revealed that trials without a stated funding source and with an earlier year of publication had significantly lower completeness scores. Reporting of adverse events in oncology publications of randomized trials is suboptimal and characterized by substantial selectivity and heterogeneity. The development of oncology-specific standards for adverse event reporting should be established to ensure consistency and provide critical information required for medical decision-making.
Ibrahim, Joseph G; Chen, Ming-Hui; Lakshminarayanan, Mani; Liu, Guanghan F; Heyse, Joseph F
Developing sophisticated statistical methods for go/no-go decisions is crucial for clinical trials, as planning phase III or phase IV trials is costly and time consuming. In this paper, we develop a novel Bayesian methodology for determining the probability of success of a treatment regimen on the basis of the current data of a given trial. We introduce a new criterion for calculating the probability of success that allows for inclusion of covariates as well as allowing for historical data based on the treatment regimen, and patient characteristics. A new class of prior distributions and covariate distributions is developed to achieve this goal. The methodology is quite general and can be used with univariate or multivariate continuous or discrete data, and it generalizes Chuang-Stein's work. This methodology will be invaluable for informing the scientist on the likelihood of success of the compound, while including the information of covariates for patient characteristics in the trial population for planning future pre-market or post-market trials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ohmann, Christian; Banzi, Rita; Canham, Steve
OBJECTIVES: We examined major issues associated with sharing of individual clinical trial data and developed a consensus document on providing access to individual participant data from clinical trials, using a broad interdisciplinary approach. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a consensus......-building process among the members of a multistakeholder task force, involving a wide range of experts (researchers, patient representatives, methodologists, information technology experts, and representatives from funders, infrastructures and standards development organisations). An independent facilitator...... supported the process using the nominal group technique. The consensus was reached in a series of three workshops held over 1 year, supported by exchange of documents and teleconferences within focused subgroups when needed. This work was set within the Horizon 2020-funded project CORBEL (Coordinated...
Joffe, Steven; Miller, Franklin G
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are central to evidence-based clinical and health-policy decisions. However, RCTs highlight the tension between the therapeutic obligations of the physician and the scientific obligations of the investigator. Clinical equipoise, defined as honest professional disagreement among expert clinicians about the preferred treatment, is often cited as the solution to this RCT dilemma. Nevertheless, there are numerous practical and conceptual problems with the notion of equipoise. These problems include its mistaken imposition of therapeutic norms on the scientific enterprise of research, the difficulty of knowing when a state of equipoise exists, the susceptibility of expert judgment to bias and weak evidence, and its inability to support evidence necessary for health-policy decisions. An alternate approach to risk-benefit assessment that is congruent with the scientific purpose of RCTs can better guide ethical evaluation of these trials, as discussed in this Perspective.
Hietanen, P; Aro, A R; Holli, K
for decision-making. Less educated patients and older patients had needed more time. Eighty-seven per cent (218/251) were happy with their decision to participate. While most patients are satisfied with the information received, there is a poor understanding of how treatment is allocated. Information should...... be modified for older and less-educated patients. The needs of the patients when offered participation in a clinical trial are clear information, enough time to consider the options and psychological support....
dosing, except for the whole brain, brain stem, cerebellum, cerebrum, medulla oblongata, seminal vesicle, whole spinal cord , testes, urinary bladder...Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0894 TITLE: Multicenter Clinical Trial of Keratin Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration PRINCIPAL...Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Peripheral 5b. GRANT NUMBER OR090621 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Li, Zhongyu (John), MD, PhD; Koman, L
Koszalka, Paulina; Tilmanis, Danielle; Hurt, Aeron C.
Influenza antiviral drugs are important for the control of influenza, most specifically for the treatment of influenza patients with severe disease following infection with a seasonal influenza virus, a newly emerging influenza strain, or in the event of a pandemic. Many influenza antivirals that are currently under investigation in late?stage clinical trials differ in their mechanism of action compared to drugs currently licensed for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide and DAS181 target...
Jolanta Artym; Michał Zimecki
Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine), with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA), which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP) – a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are used in health-promoting infant and adult formulae as well as in a modified form (HAMLET) to treat cancer. Lactoperoxidase (LCP) is used as an ad...
Oude Rengerink, K
This thesis presents a number of research projects centred on ‘evidence-based medicine’. It consists of two parts. Part 1 focuses on improving recruitment of the necessary number of patients in clinical trials, as this is the major problem while evaluating the effectiveness of interventions in health care. To improve our understanding of patient recruitment we tried to identify obstacles and facilitators for successful recruitment. Part 2 focuses on improving integration of evidence-based dec...
vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. INTRODUCTION Filoviruses (the...Crucell Holland B.V. developed the Ad26-vectored EVD vaccine Ad26.ZEBOV based on extensive experience testing Ad26 and Ad35 vectors for malaria and...a vector in the development of vaccines against many diseases, including malaria , hepatitis C, influenza, and, of course, filovirus diseases
Califf, Robert M
Patients, clinicians, and policymakers alike need access to high-quality scientific evidence in order to make informed choices about health and healthcare, but the current national clinical trials enterprise is not yet optimally configured for the efficient creation and dissemination of such evidence. However, new technologies and methods hold significant potential for accelerating the rate at which we are able to translate raw findings gathered from both patient care and clinical research into actionable knowledge. We are now entering a period in which the quantitative sciences are emerging as the critical disciplines for advancing knowledge about health and healthcare, and statisticians will increasingly serve as critical mediators in transforming data into evidence. In this new, data-centric era, biostatisticians not only need to be expert at analyzing data but should also be involved directly in diverse efforts, including the review and analysis of research portfolios in order to optimize the relevance of research questions, the use of "quality by design" principles to improve reliability and validity of each individual trial, and the mining of aggregate knowledge derived from the clinical research enterprise as a whole. In order to meet these challenges, it is imperative that we (1) nurture and build the biostatistical workforce, (2) develop a deeper understanding of the biological and clinical context among statisticians, (3) facilitate collaboration among biostatisticians and other members of the clinical trials enterprise, (4) focus on communication skills in training and education programs, and (5) enhance the quantitative capacity of the research and clinical practice worlds. © The Author(s) 2016.
Migdacelys Arboláez Estrada.
Full Text Available SUMMARYCuba has extensive experience about herbal drugs, however only a few products get to the clinical phase of drug development. Our objective was to design new guidelines for clinical trials with herbal drugs.A detailed bibliographic search about regulatory aspects about clinical trials in Cuba and the world was done for development of the guideline. The guideline's proposed format includes: 1 Index, including the classification of the content. 2 Summary, 3 Fifteen chapters, related to the clinical trials. The guideline also propose the inclusion of annexes.A new guideline containing 15 chapters allows for writing more clear and detailed clinical trial protocols. The guideline contains the information required to guide the research staff who is interested in the validation of herbal drugs pharmacological activations from the perspective of clinical trials. RESUMEN Cuba tiene experiencia extensa sobre plantas medicinales, aunque solo algunos productos llegan a una fase clínica del desarrollo. Nuestro objetivo fué diseñar una nueva guía para ensayos clínicos con plantas medicinales.Hemos realizado una detallada búsqueda bibliográfica sobre aspectos reguladores de ensayos clínicos en Cuba y el resto del mundo para el desarrollo de la guía. El formato propuesto de la guia incluye: 1 Índice, incluyendo la clasificación de los contenidos. 2 Resumen, 3 Quince capítulos, relacionados con los ensayos clínicos. La guía también propone la inclusión de anexos.La nueva guía que contiene 15 capítulos que orientan la redacción de protocolos de ensayos clínicos más claros y más detallados. La guía contiene la información requerida para orientar al personal investigador interesado en la validación de la actividad farmacológica de las plantas medicinales desde la perspectiva de los ensayos clínicos.
NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus encoding tyrosinase/mart-1/magea6-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine.
NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus/cytomegalovirus/epstein-barr virus-specific allogeneic cytotoxic t lymphocytes.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises questions about scientific and ethical integrity, especially when experience with those settings is lacking at the level of trial management. We therefore studied to what extent the geographical shift in patient enrolment is anticipated in the composition of trial management teams using the author nationalities on the primary outcome publication as an indicator of leadership. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort-study among 1,445 registered trials in www.clinicaltrials.gov that could be matched with a primary outcome publication using clinical trial registry numbers listed in publications. The name of the sponsor and the enrolment countries were extracted from all registrations. The author-addresses of all authors were extracted from the publications. We searched the author-address of all publications to determine whether enrolment countries and sponsors listed on registrations also appeared on a matched publication. Of all sponsors, 80.1% were listed with an author-address on the publication. Of all enrolment countries, 50.3% appeared with an author-address on the publication. The listing of enrolment countries was especially low for industry-funded trials (39.9% as compared to government (90.4% and not-for-profit funding (93.7%. We found that listing of enrolment countries in industry-funded trials was higher for traditional research locations such as the United States (98.2% and Japan (72.0% as compared to nontraditional research locations such as Poland (27.3% and Mexico (14.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite patient enrolment efforts, the involvement of researchers from nontraditional locations in trial management as measured by their contribution to
Koszalka, Paulina; Tilmanis, Danielle; Hurt, Aeron C
Influenza antiviral drugs are important for the control of influenza, most specifically for the treatment of influenza patients with severe disease following infection with a seasonal influenza virus, a newly emerging influenza strain, or in the event of a pandemic. Many influenza antivirals that are currently under investigation in late-stage clinical trials differ in their mechanism of action compared to drugs currently licensed for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide and DAS181 target components of the host cell and alter the ability of the virus to replicate efficiently, while small molecule drugs such as T705, JNJ63623872 and S-033188 bind to the viral polymerase complex and restrict viral replication. Monoclonal antibodies that are currently in clinical trial for the treatment of influenza most commonly are targeted to the stem region of the haemagglutinin molecule. Early findings from animal models and in vitro studies suggest that many of the new antiviral drugs when tested in combination with oseltamivir have improved effectiveness over monotherapy. Clinical trials assessing both monotherapy and combination therapy are currently under investigation. It is hoped that as new antivirals are licensed, they will improve the standard of care and outcomes for influenza patients with severe disease. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
King, G.J.; Spiekerman, C.F.; Greenlee, G.M.; Huang, G.J.
Focusing public insurance programs on interceptive orthodontics (IO) may increase access for low-income children. This report presents outcomes from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing IO with comprehensive orthodontics (CO) in Medicaid patients. One hundred seventy pre-adolescents with Medicaid-eligible malocclusions were randomized to IO (n = 86) followed by observation (OBS) or OBS followed by CO (n = 84). One hundred thirty-four completed the trial. Models at pre-treatment (baseline) and following ≤ 2 years of intervention and 2 years of OBS (48 mos) were scored by calibrated examiners using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) and Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Overall outcomes and clinically meaningful categorical ICON data on need/acceptability, complexity, and improvement were compared. At baseline, groups were balanced by age, gender, ethnicity, and PAR/ICON scores. Most were minorities. Most (77%) were rated as difficult-to-very difficult. Scores improved significantly for both groups, but CO more than IO (PAR, 18.6 [95%CI 15.1, 22.1] vs.10.1 [95%CI 6.7, 13.4]; ICON, 44.8 [95% CI 39.7, 49.9] vs. 35.2 [95%CI 29.7, 40.6], respectively). On average, IO is effective at reducing malocclusions in Medicaid patients, but less than CO. (ClinicalTrials.gov number CT00067379) PMID:22699670
Caon, Martin [School of Nursing and Midwifery, Flinders University, Adelaide (Australia)], E-mail: email@example.com
Examples of the statements about the radiation from medical imaging in the information for participants provided to the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) for approval are presented and discussed. There is considerable scope for improvement in the information about radiation that is presented to potential participants in clinical trials. Many radiation statements seem only intended to allay fear and anxiety about radiation rather than providing accurate information. This situation cannot be said to be conducive to allowing the participant to give informed consent to their involvement in a clinical trial in which ionising radiation is used. As many clinical trials are international and conducted at many sites (sometimes over 100), we would expect the same statements to have been seen by members of HRECs in many countries. Few HRECs include a member who is an expert in radiation. Hence, to ensure that the information is sound, those sections of the participant information that refer to radiation should be written or reviewed by a specialist in radiation protection such as a medical physicist, a health physicist or a radiation safety officer. (opinion)
Full Text Available We review and compare multiple hypothesis testing procedures used in clinical trials and those in genomic studies. Clinical trials often employ global tests, which draw an overall conclusion for all the hypotheses, such as SUM test, Two-Step test, Approximate Likelihood Ratio test (ALRT, Intersection Union Test (IUT and MAX test. The SUM and Two-Step tests are most powerful under homogeneous treatment effects, while the ALRT and MAX test are robust in cases with nonhomogeneous treatment effects. Furthermore, the ALRT is robust to unequal sample sizes across endpoints. In genomic studies, stepwise procedures are used to draw marker-specific conclusions and control family wise error rate (FWER or false discovery rate (FDR at the same time. FDR refers to the percent of false positives among all significant results and is preferred over FWER in screening high-dimensional genomic markers due to its interpretability. In cases where correlations between test statistics cannot be ignored, Westfall-Young resampling method can be employed to generate the joint distribution of P-values under the null and maintain their correlation structure. Finally, the GWAS from a clinical trial studying microvascular complications among Type 1 diabetes patients is used to illustrate various procedures.
Mohandas K Mallath
Full Text Available India's success in producing food and milk for its population (Green Revolution and White Revolution happened because of scientific research and field trials. Likewise improving the health of Indians needs clinical research and clinical trials. A Large proportion of the sick Indians are poor, illiterate with no access to good health care. They are highly vulnerable to inducement and exploitation in clinical trials. The past two decades saw the rise and fall of clinical trials in India. The rise happened when our regulators created a favorable environment, and Indian investigators were invited to participate in global clinical trials. The gap between the demand and supply resulted in inadequate protection of the trial participants. Reports of abuses of the vulnerable trial participants followed by public interest litigations led to strengthening of regulations by the regulators. The stringent new regulations made the conduct of clinical trials more laborious and increased the cost of clinical trials in India. There was a loss of interest in sponsored clinical trials resulting in the fall in global clinical trials in India. Following repeated appeals by the investigators, the Indian regulators have recently relaxed some of the stringent regulations, while continuing to ensure the adequate patient protection. Clinical trials that are relevant to our population and conducted by well-trained investigators and monitored by trained and registered Ethics Committees will increase in the future. We must remain vigilant, avoid previous mistakes, and strive hard to protect the trial participants in the future trials.
Østergaard, Mikkel; Møller-Bisgaard, Signe
the benefits of including MRI in treat-to-target strategies. The benefits of incorporating MRI into clinical registries are not yet known, but may include improved knowledge about the real-life advantages of MRI, as well as opportunities to develop better clinical and laboratory composite measures to monitor......Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly is more sensitive than clinical examination and conventional radiography (x-ray) for detection of inflammation (synovitis, bone marrow oedema (osteitis) and tenosynovitis) and damage (bone erosion and cartilage loss/joint space narrowing) in patients...... with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The question is when and how MRI should be used. The present article reviews our knowledge about, and provides suggestions for, the use of MRI in clinical trials, clinical care and clinical registries. In clinical trials, the OMERACT RA MRI scoring system (RAMRIS) is a thoroughly...
Saute, Jonas Alex Morales; Rieder, Carlos R M; Castilhos, Raphael Machado; Monte, Thais Lampert; Schumacher-Schuh, Artur Francisco; Donis, Karina Carvalho; D'Ávila, Rui; Souza, Gabriele Nunes; Russo, Aline Dutra; Furtado, Gabriel Vasata; Gheno, Tailise Conte; Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Portela, Luis Valmor Cruz; Camey, Suzi; Torman, Vanessa Bielefeld Leotti; Jardim, Laura Bannach
In a recent phase 2 clinical trial in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD), a neurogenetic disorder without specific therapy, benefits of lithium carbonate were found only on secondary efficacy outcomes, all related to ataxic features. In order to help designing future studies, we further analyzed the trial data searching for treatment response modifiers and metric properties of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) scales. Efficacy analysis was performed with the Neurological Examination Score for the Assessment of Spinocerebellar Ataxia (NESSCA) and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) subscores and with the subgroup of patients with independent gait according to the 8-meter walking-time (8MW). Interactions of clinical/molecular findings with treatment response, minimally important differences (MIDs), and sample size estimations for NESSCA, SARA, Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI) and Composite Cerebellar Functional Score (CCFS) were evaluated. 62 SCA3/MJD patients had been randomly assigned (1:1) for the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. While cerebellar NESSCA (range: 0-7 points) differed between groups 0.64 points (95% CI 0.23 to 1.05, ptrials in SCA3/MJD and that ataxia scales should be preferred to multisystem neurological instruments as the primary outcome. The inclusion of early stage patients is advisable in future clinical trials in SCA3/MJD. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01096082. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Marks, R G; Conlon, M; Ruberg, S J
The use of the world wide web for clinical trials changes the processes of performing clinical research in several fundamental ways. Greatly improved security, monitoring capability, and accuracy and timeliness of study conduct can be achieved while lowering cost. Data quality is enhanced while co-ordinating centre effort is reduced. The web provides a natural environment for linking the various components of clinical research, leading to new levels of simplicity and efficiency. It also enhances opportunities for recruitment of study investigators and patients. Other information technology tools and databases can be used to assist in this regard as well. Web-based trials change the relationship of the investigator site to the study and the site to the co-ordinating centre. Different roles and responsibilities lead to simplified processes and more and higher quality data. Many standard co-ordinating centre activities, such as randomization, protocol implementation and amending, document tracking, adverse event reporting, site monitoring, report generation and data analysis are all fundamentally changed in a web-based trial. Opportunities are enhanced to identify potential investigators and support their successful study conduct. As the role of investigator sites is changed in web-based research, more primary care medical providers can be attracted to research, providing more typical patients to studies than those sometimes available through more traditional research sites, especially those at academic study sites. Other activities can now be co-ordinated electronically with the advent of the web. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) can use online tools to control investigator participation, resulting in improved study efficiency and patient safety. A web-based research pharmacy provides tremendous efficiencies in managing and distributing study medications. Financial payments to the sites can be performed and recorded electronically, or even administered based on
Kjaergard, Lise L; Frederiksen, Sarah L; Gluud, Christian
The internal validity of clinical trials depends on the adequacy of the reported methodological quality. We assessed the methodological quality of all 383 randomized clinical trials published in GASTROENTEROLOGY as original articles from 1964 to 2000.......The internal validity of clinical trials depends on the adequacy of the reported methodological quality. We assessed the methodological quality of all 383 randomized clinical trials published in GASTROENTEROLOGY as original articles from 1964 to 2000....
Baik, Christina S; Rubin, Eric H; Forde, Patrick M; Mehnert, Janice M; Collyar, Deborah; Butler, Marcus O; Dixon, Erica L; Chow, Laura Q M
Recent advances in immuno-oncology and regulatory approvals have been rapid and paradigm shifting in many difficult-to-treat malignancies. Despite immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy becoming the standard of care across multiple tumor types, there are many unanswered questions that need to be addressed before this therapeutic modality can be fully harnessed. Areas of limitations include treatment of patients not sufficiently represented in clinical trials, uncertainty of the optimal treatment dosing and duration, and lack of understanding regarding long-term immune related toxicities and atypical tumor responses. Patients such as those with autoimmune disease, chronic viral infections, limited performance status, and brain metastases were often excluded from initial trials due to concerns of safety. However, limited data suggest that some of these patients can benefit from therapy with manageable toxicities; thus, future studies should incorporate these patients to clearly define safety and efficacy. There are still controversies regarding the optimal dosing strategy that can vary from weight-based to flat dosing, with undefined treatment duration. Further elucidation of the optimal dosing approach and evaluation of predictive biomarkers should be incorporated in the design of future trials. Finally, there are long-term immune-mediated toxicities, atypical tumor responses such as pseudoprogression and endpoints unique to immuno-oncology that are not adequately captured by traditional trial designs; thus, novel study designs are needed. In this article, we discuss in detail the above challenges and propose needed areas of research for exploration and incorporation in the next generation of immuno-oncology clinical trials. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Full Text Available Abstract The existence of effective therapies for most cardiovascular disease states, coupled with increased requirements that potential benefits of new drugs be evaluated on clinical rather than surrogate endpoints, makes it increasingly difficult to substantiate any incremental improvements in efficacy that these new drugs might offer. Compounding the problem is the highly controversial issue of comparing new agents with placebos rather than active pharmaceuticals in drug efficacy trials. Despite the recent consensus that placebos may be used ethically in well-defined, justifiable circumstances, the problem persists, in part because of increased scrutiny by ethics committees but also because of considerable lingering disagreement regarding the propriety and scientific value of placebo-controlled trials (and trials of antihypertensive drugs in particular. The disagreement also substantially affects the most viable alternative to placebo-controlled trials: actively controlled equivalence/noninferiority trials. To a great extent, this situation was prompted by numerous previous trials of this type that were marked by fundamental methodological flaws and consequent false claims, inconsistencies, and potential harm to patients. As the development and use of generic drugs continue to escalate, along with concurrent pressure to control medical costs by substituting less-expensive therapies for established ones, any claim that a new drug, intervention, or therapy is "equivalent" to another should not be accepted without close scrutiny. Adherence to proper methods in conducting studies of equivalence will help investigators to avoid false claims and inconsistencies. These matters will be addressed in the third article of this three-part series.
Finak, Greg; Jiang, Wenxin; Krouse, Kevin; Wei, Chungwen; Sanz, Ignacio; Phippard, Deborah; Asare, Adam; De Rosa, Stephen C; Self, Steve; Gottardo, Raphael
Flow cytometry datasets from clinical trials generate very large datasets and are usually highly standardized, focusing on endpoints that are well defined apriori. Staining variability of individual makers is not uncommon and complicates manual gating, requiring the analyst to adapt gates for each sample, which is unwieldy for large datasets. It can lead to unreliable measurements, especially if a template-gating approach is used without further correction to the gates. In this article, a computational framework is presented for normalizing the fluorescence intensity of multiple markers in specific cell populations across samples that is suitable for high-throughput processing of large clinical trial datasets. Previous approaches to normalization have been global and applied to all cells or data with debris removed. They provided no mechanism to handle specific cell subsets. This approach integrates tightly with the gating process so that normalization is performed during gating and is local to the specific cell subsets exhibiting variability. This improves peak alignment and the performance of the algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is demonstrated on two clinical trial datasets from the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN). In the ITN data set we show that local normalization combined with template gating can account for sample-to-sample variability as effectively as manual gating. In the HVTN dataset, it is shown that local normalization mitigates false-positive vaccine response calls in an intracellular cytokine staining assay. In both datasets, local normalization performs better than global normalization. The normalization framework allows the use of template gates even in the presence of sample-to-sample staining variability, mitigates the subjectivity and bias of manual gating, and decreases the time necessary to analyze large datasets. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti Lira
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare clinical trials published in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology and in foreign journals of ophthalmology with respect to the number of citations and the quality of reporting [by applying the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT statement writing standards]. METHODS: The sample of this systematic review comprised the two Brazilian journals of ophthalmology indexed at Science Citation Index Expanded and six of the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor® according ISI. All clinical trials (CTs published from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Brazilians journals and a 1:1 randomized sample of the foreign journals were included. The primary outcome was the number of citations through the end of 2011. Subgroup analysis included language. The secondary outcome included likelihood of citation (cited at least once versus no citation, and presence or absence of CONSORT statement indicators. RESULTS: The citation counts were statistically significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Foreign Group (10.50 compared with the Brazilian Group (0.45. The likelihood citation was statistically significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Foreign Group (20/20 - 100% compared with the Brazilian Group (8/20 - 40%. The subgroup analysis of the language influence in Brazilian articles showed that the citation counts were statistically significantly higher in the papers published in English (P<0.04. Of 37 possible CONSORT items, the mean for the Foreign Group was 20.55 and for the Brazilian Group was 13.65 (P<0.003. CONCLUSION: The number of citations and the quality of reporting of clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology still are low when compared with the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor®.
Chakraborty, Bhaswat S.
This paper reviews the critical issues in the control and design of antihypertension (anti-HT) clinical trials. The international guidelines and current clinical and biostatistical practices were reviewed for relevant clinical, design, end-point assessments and regulatory issues. The results are grouped mainly into ethical, protocol and assessment issues. Ethical issues arise as placebo-controlled trials (PCTs) for HT-lowering agents in patients with moderate to severe HT are undertaken. Patients with organ damage due to HT should not be included in long-term PCT. Active-control trials, however, are suitable for all randomized subsets of patients, including men and women, and different ethnic and age groups. Severity subgroups must be studied separately with consideration to specific study design. Mortality and morbidity outcome studies are not required in anti-HT trials except when significant mortality and cardiovascular morbidity are suspected. Generally, changes in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) at the end of the dosing interval from the baseline are compared between the active and the control arms as the primary endpoint of anti-HT effect. Onset of the anti-HT effect can be studied as the secondary endpoint. For maintenance of efficacy, long-term studies of ≥6 months need to be undertaken. Error-free measurement of BP is a serious issue as spontaneous changes in BP are large and active drug effect on diastolic BP is often small. Placebo-controlled short-term studies (of ~12 weeks) for dose-response and titration are very useful. Safety studies must be very vigilant on hypotension, orthostatic hypotension and effects on heart. In dose-response studies, at least three doses in addition to placebo should be used to well characterize the benefits and side-effects. PMID:21455414
Valkenhoef, Gert van; Tervonen, Tommi; Brock, Bert de; Hillege, Hans
Clinical trials provide pivotal evidence on drug efficacy and safety. The evidence, information from clinical trials, is currently used by regulatory decision makers in marketing authorization decisions, but only in an implicit manner. For clinical trials information to be used in a transparent and
Imanaka, Takahiro; Sato, Izumi; Tanaka, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji
Placebo effect is one of the methodological difficulties in dry eye clinical trials. If we could elucidate the tendencies of the placebo response and find predictors, we could reduce the placebo response in clinical trials for dry eye. In this study, we investigated the predictive factors for the placebo effect in dry eye clinical trials. A total of 205 patients with dry eye assigned to the placebo arms of three placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials were analysed by simple and multivariable regression analysis. The corneal fluorescein (FL) staining score and dry eye symptoms were studied at week 4. The variables of interest included gender, age, complications of Sjögren's syndrome, Schirmer's test I value, tear break-up time and conjunctival hyperaemia score. We also conducted a stratified analysis according to the patients' age. Among all the studied endpoints, the baseline scores were significantly related to the corresponding placebo response. In addition, for the FL score and the dryness score, age was a significant predictor of the placebo response (p=0.04 and panalysis by age showed that patients more than 40 years of age are more likely to have a stronger placebo response in the FL and dryness scores. The baseline scores and age were predictive factors of the placebo response in frequently used endpoints, such as FL score or dryness symptoms. These patient characteristics can be controlled by study design, and our findings enable the design of more efficient placebo-controlled studies with good statistical power. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Mitchell, Aaron P; Hirsch, Bradford R; Abernethy, Amy P
Poor accrual is a significant barrier to the successful completion of oncology clinical trials; half of all phase 3 oncology trials close due to insufficient accrual. Timely access to accrual data fosters an understanding of successful trial design and can be used to inform the design of new clinical trials prospectively. Accrual statistics are available within research networks, such as the cancer cooperative groups, but comprehensive data reflecting the overall portfolio of cancer clinical trials are lacking. As a demonstration case, the purpose of this study was to quantify the public availability of accrual data across all recent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) trials. The database for the Aggregate Analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov (AACT) summarizes all trials registered between October 2007 and September 2010. In total, 108 trials of pharmacologic therapy for RCC were included. Accrual data on these trials were gathered via ClinicalTrials.gov (CTG), a manual review of resulting publications, and online surveys sent to principle investigators or trial coordinators. In total, 26% (20 of 76) of trials listing a government, academic, or cooperative group (GAC) sponsor responded to the survey vs 0% (0 of 32) of those listing only industry sponsors. Across all methods, accrual data were available for only 40% (43 of 108) of trials, including 37% (28 of 76) of GAC trials and 47% (15 of 32) of industry trials. Moreover, 87% (66 of 76) of GAC trials were ongoing (open, actively recruiting, or of unknown status) vs 75% (24 of 32) of industry trials, while 9% (10 of 108) of trials were terminated or suspended. Despite extensive efforts (surveys, phone calls, CTG abstraction, publication searches), accurate accrual data remained inaccessible for 60% of the RCC trial cohort. While CTG reports trial results, ongoing accrual data are also critically needed. Poor access to accrual data will continue to limit attempts to develop a national summary of clinical trials metrics and to
Full Text Available Lisa Marie Saldanha,1 Saumya Nayak,1 Adeline Sng,1 Mei-Ling Long,1 Elisabeth Schrader,2 Amanur Rahman,3 Elvira Zenaida Lansang,1 Karen Wai,1 Ken Lee41Feasibility and Site Identification Asia, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, Singapore; 2Quintiles Pediatric Center of Excellence, Durham, NC, USA; 3Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Asia Site Services, Quintiles East Asia Private Limited, SingaporeObjective: This site survey was conducted to understand the current pediatric clinical trial landscape across countries in the Asia Pacific region, specifically in terms of interest, experience, capabilities, requirements of the ethics committee, patient availability, and overall challenges involved in conducting pediatric trials.Methods and materials: Between May and June 2012, an English language survey form was sent to sites (identified through Quintiles’ internal database with pediatric capability and referrals from doctors during a preliminary outreach. In July 2012, the responses from the completed survey forms were entered into SurveyMethods, a web-based central repository. Data analysis was performed in August–September 2012 using SurveyMethods.Results: Seventy-seven sites were contacted for this survey across the Asia Pacific region. Sixty-four percent (49 sites completed 63 surveys and confirmed interest to participate in clinical trials in the pediatric population. Seventy-one percent of the sites had prior experience. Eighty percent confirmed needing an assent from pediatric patients; 81%–95% confirmed acceptance of placebo-controlled and pharmacokinetic studies by ethics committees; and 37% cited challenges in conducting studies in this population.Conclusion: This survey indicates that there is a high level of interest among sites in the Asia Pacific region in conducting pediatric trials across various therapeutic indications. No major insurmountable challenges were identified in conducting
Jeong, Sohyun; Sohn, Minji; Kim, Jae Hyun; Ko, Minoh; Seo, Hee-Won; Song, Yun-Kyoung; Choi, Boyoon; Han, Nayoung; Na, Han-Sung; Lee, Jong Gu; Kim, In-Wha; Oh, Jung Mi; Lee, Euni
Clinical trial globalization is a major trend for industry-sponsored clinical trials. There has been a shift in clinical trial sites towards emerging regions of Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Our study objectives were to evaluate the current characteristics of clinical trials and to find out the associated multiple factors which could explain clinical trial globalization and its implications for clinical trial globalization in 2011-2013. The data elements of "phase," "recruitment status," "type of sponsor," "age groups," and "design of trial" from 30 countries were extracted from the ClinicalTrials.gov website. Ten continental representative countries including the USA were selected and the design elements were compared to those of the USA. Factors associated with trial site distribution were chosen for a multilinear regression analysis. The USA, Germany, France, Canada, and United Kingdom were the "top five" countries which frequently held clinical trials. The design elements from nine continental representative countries were quite different from those of the USA; phase 1 trials were more prevalent in India (OR 1.517, p health care expenditure per capita, Economic Freedom Index, Human Capital Index, and Intellectual Property Rights Index could explain the variance of regional distribution of clinical trials by 63.6%. The globalization of clinical trials in the emerging regions of Asia, South Africa, and Eastern Europe developed in parallel with the factors of economic drive, population for recruitment, and regulatory constraints.
Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1–3 Eric Druyts,1,4 Kabirraaj Toor,1,5 Jeroen P Jansen,1,6 Edward J Mills1,3 1Redwood Outcomes, Vancouver, BC, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 5School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Network meta-analysis (NMA is an extension of conventional pairwise meta-analysis that allows for simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions. Well-established drug class efficacies have become commonplace in many disease areas. Thus, for reasons of ethics and equipoise, it is not practical to randomize patients to placebo or older drug classes. Unique randomized clinical trial designs are an attempt to navigate these obstacles. These alternative designs, however, pose challenges when attempting to incorporate data into NMAs. Using ulcerative colitis as an example, we illustrate an example of a method where data provided by these trials are used to populate treatment networks. Methods: We present the methods used to convert data from the PURSUIT trial into a typical parallel design for inclusion in our NMA. Data were required for three arms: golimumab 100 mg; golimumab 50 mg; and placebo. Golimumab 100 mg induction data were available; however, data regarding those individuals who were nonresponders at induction and those who were responders at maintenance were not reported, and as such, had to be imputed using data from the rerandomization phase. Golimumab 50 mg data regarding responses at week 6 were not available. Existing relationships between the available components were used to impute the expected proportions in this missing subpopulation. Data for placebo maintenance
Hall R David
Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases have established central repositories for the collection of DNA, biological samples, and clinical data to be catalogued at a single site. Here we present an overview of the site which stores the clinical data and links to biospecimens. Description The NIDDK Data repository is a web-enabled resource cataloguing clinical trial data and supporting information from NIDDK supported studies. The Data Repository allows for the co-location of multiple electronic datasets that were created as part of clinical investigations. The Data Repository does not serve the role of a Data Coordinating Center, but rather as a warehouse for the clinical findings once the trials have been completed. Because both biological and genetic samples are collected from many of the studies, a data management system for the cataloguing and retrieval of samples was developed. Conclusion The Data Repository provides a unique resource for researchers in the clinical areas supported by NIDDK. In addition to providing a warehouse of data, Data Repository staff work with the users to educate them on the datasets as well as assist them in the acquisition of multiple data sets for cross-study analysis. Unlike the majority of biological databases, the Data Repository acts both as a catalogue for data, biosamples, and genetic materials and as a central processing point for the requests for all biospecimens. Due to regulations on the use of clinical data, the ultimate release of that data is governed under NIDDK data release policies. The Data Repository serves as the conduit for such requests.
Hartung, Daniel M; Zarin, Deborah A; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; McDonagh, Marian; Paynter, Robin; Helfand, Mark
ClinicalTrials.gov requires reporting of result summaries for many drug and device trials. To evaluate the consistency of reporting of trials that are registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov results database and published in the literature. ClinicalTrials.gov results database and matched publications identified through ClinicalTrials.gov and a manual search of 2 electronic databases. 10% random sample of phase 3 or 4 trials with results in the ClinicalTrials.gov results database, completed before 1 January 2009, with 2 or more groups. One reviewer extracted data about trial design and results from the results database and matching publications. A subsample was independently verified. Of 110 trials with results, most were industry-sponsored, parallel-design drug studies. The most common inconsistency was the number of secondary outcome measures reported (80%). Sixteen trials (15%) reported the primary outcome description inconsistently, and 22 (20%) reported the primary outcome value inconsistently. Thirty-eight trials inconsistently reported the number of individuals with a serious adverse event (SAE); of these, 33 (87%) reported more SAEs in ClinicalTrials.gov. Among the 84 trials that reported SAEs in ClinicalTrials.gov, 11 publications did not mention SAEs, 5 reported them as zero or not occurring, and 21 reported a different number of SAEs. Among 29 trials that reported deaths in ClinicalTrials.gov, 28% differed from the matched publication. Small sample that included earliest results posted to the database. Reporting discrepancies between the ClinicalTrials.gov results database and matching publications are common. Which source contains the more accurate account of results is unclear, although ClinicalTrials.gov may provide a more comprehensive description of adverse events than the publication. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Vardaki, Maria; Papageorgiou, Haralambos; Pentaris, Fragkiskos
We introduce a statistical, process-oriented metadata model to describe the process of medical research data collection, management, results analysis and dissemination. Our approach explicitly provides a structure for pieces of information used in Clinical Study Data Management Systems, enabling a more active role for any associated metadata. Using the object-oriented paradigm, we describe the classes of our model that participate during the design of a clinical trial and the subsequent collection and management of the relevant data. The advantage of our approach is that we focus on presenting the structural inter-relation of these classes when used during datasets manipulation by proposing certain transformations that model the simultaneous processing of both data and metadata. Our solution reduces the possibility of human errors and allows for the tracking of all changes made during datasets lifecycle. The explicit modeling of processing steps improves data quality and assists in the problem of handling data collected in different clinical trials. The case study illustrates the applicability of the proposed framework demonstrating conceptually the simultaneous handling of datasets collected during two randomized clinical studies. Finally, we provide the main considerations for implementing the proposed framework into a modern Metadata-enabled Information System.
Full Text Available Despite its place as the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, there are currently no approved chemotherapeutic agents, devices or techniques to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Importantly, there have been no phase III studies demonstrating survival benefit, nor any randomized studies of treatment except for transarterial chemoembolization and most recently sorafenib. The importance of well-designed clinical trials of agents to treat HCC has never been greater. However, general clinical study design issues, combined with HCC-specific issues pose significant challenges in structuring such studies. HCC-related challenges include the heterogeneity of this cancer and the fact that it is frequently accompanied by significant comorbidities at diagnosis, such as active hepatitis B or C virus replication, substantial past or on-going alcohol use, and cirrhosis, itself often a fatal disease. The recently published comparison of a newer treatment, nolatrexed to doxorubicin, and comments about this study’s initial HCC diagnostic criteria, staging system, comparator therapy and choice of endpoints have provided a platform to discuss the challenges unique to the design of HCC clinical trials. The difficulty in accurately framing study results obtained from the constantly changing HCC clinical landscape and approaches to meet these challenges will be reviewed.
Hodges, Tiffany R; Ferguson, Sherise D; Caruso, Hillary G; Kohanbash, Gary; Zhou, Shouhao; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Berger, Mitchel S; Poste, George H; Khasraw, Mustafa; Ba, Sujuan; Jiang, Tao; Mikkelson, Tom; Yung, W K Alfred; de Groot, John F; Fine, Howard; Cantley, Lewis C; Mellinghoff, Ingo K; Mitchell, Duane A; Okada, Hideho; Heimberger, Amy B
Emerging immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) such as dendritic cell (DC) vaccines, heat shock proteins, peptide vaccines, and adoptive T-cell therapeutics, to name a few, have transitioned from the bench to clinical trials. With upcoming strategies and developing therapeutics, it is challenging to critically evaluate the practical, clinical potential of individual approaches and to advise patients on the most promising clinical trials. The authors propose a system to prioritize such therapies in an organized and data-driven fashion. This schema is based on four categories of factors: antigenic target robustness, immune-activation and -effector responses, preclinical vetting, and early evidence of clinical response. Each of these categories is subdivided to focus on the most salient elements for developing a successful immunotherapeutic approach for GBM, and a numerical score is generated. The Score Card reveals therapeutics that have the most robust data to support their use, provides a reference prioritization score, and can be applied in a reiterative fashion with emerging data. The authors hope that this schema will give physicians an evidence-based and rational framework to make the best referral decisions to better guide and serve this patient population.
Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Leal, Franz Schubert; Gonçalves, Fauze Abdulmassih; Amorim, Fernando Henrique Ramos; Felix, João Paulo Fernandes; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite
To compare clinical trials published in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology and in foreign journals of ophthalmology with respect to the number of citations and the quality of reporting [by applying the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement writing standards]. The sample of this systematic review comprised the two Brazilian journals of ophthalmology indexed at Science Citation Index Expanded and six of the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor® according ISI. All clinical trials (CTs) published from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Brazilians journals and a 1:1 randomized sample of the foreign journals were included. The primary outcome was the number of citations through the end of 2011. Subgroup analysis included language. The secondary outcome included likelihood of citation (cited at least once versus no citation), and presence or absence of CONSORT statement indicators. The citation counts were statistically significantly higher (Pjournals of ophthalmology still are low when compared with the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor®.
David Gonçalves Nordon
Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical trials of acupuncture not always have concordant results, mostly due to their great heterogeneity. Two indexes have been developed to analyze the quality of acupuncture trials. This study hypothesizes that, the more adequate the intervention and the control techniques, the more efficacious the acupuncture. Methods: Both indexes were applied to 27 randomized clinical trials comparing acupuncture to placebo. Results were compared by using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Studies favorable to acupuncture had a intervention score’s median of 11.5; for the unfavorable ones, it was 7, p: 0.0017. Articles with and without statistically significant differences, though, had the same median for their scores in the control index: 6. Discussion: There is a positive relation between a better score for acupuncture technique and a statistically significant difference between acupuncture and interventional control. However, due to the little heterogeneity in the degree of physiological effect from each article, the control index had no statistical significance. Conclusion: This study established that, among acupuncture RCT controlled by placebo or sham of moderate physiological effect, the adequacy of the technique is more important than the adequacy of control in establishing a statistically significant difference between acupuncture and interventional control.
Full Text Available To evaluate the current evidence for effectiveness of acupuncture for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in the form of a systematic review, a systematic literature search was conducted in 23 electronic databases. Grey literature was also searched. The key search terms were “acupuncture” and “PTSD.” No language restrictions were imposed. We included all randomized or prospective clinical trials that evaluated acupuncture and its variants against a waitlist, sham acupuncture, conventional therapy control for PTSD, or without control. Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 2 uncontrolled clinical trials (UCTs out of 136 articles in total were systematically reviewed. One high-quality RCT reported that acupuncture was superior to waitlist control and therapeutic effects of acupuncture and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT were similar based on the effect sizes. One RCT showed no statistical difference between acupuncture and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. One RCT reported a favorable effect of acupoint stimulation plus CBT against CBT alone. A meta-analysis of acupuncture plus moxibustion versus SSRI favored acupuncture plus moxibustion in three outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the evidence of effectiveness of acupuncture for PTSD is encouraging but not cogent. Further qualified trials are needed to confirm whether acupuncture is effective for PTSD.
Eastman, Peter; Le, Brian; McCarthy, Gillian; Watt, James; Rosenthal, Mark
There has been growth in the number of clinical trials conducted in the palliative care setting. However, issues exist regarding patient acceptance and vulnerability as well as the appropriateness of conducting trials in the dying patient. This study aimed to investigate the uptake of palliative care clinical trials at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, evaluate patient demographics for those enrolled onto study and assess the proportion of patients who died within 28 days of enrolling on a palliative care clinical trial. A retrospective cohort study of all patients prescreened and enrolled onto palliative care clinical trials by the Palliative Care Clinical Trials Team (PCCTT) at the Royal Melbourne Hospital over a 27-month period was undertaken. Of 515 patients referred to the PCCTT for consideration of trial enrollment, 64 (12.4%) were subsequently enrolled onto one of six clinical trials open during the study period. About 62.5% were non-cancer patients; 81.3% of all patients completed the trial intervention and 65.6% completed trial follow-up; 28.1% of patients enrolled died within 28 days of trial commencement. More than 500 patients were referred for assessment of clinical trial participation perhaps reflecting clinician acceptance of palliative care clinical trials. A number of enrolled patients were involved in trials during their terminal phase, indicating a willingness of participants to be involved, despite poor prognosis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Clohisy, John C; Kim, Young-Jo; Lurie, Jon
options for FAI and to define the predictors of surgical and nonsurgical outcomes. Future randomized controlled trials and large observational cohort studies targeted at these clinical research deficiencies will strengthen the evidence and improve informed decision making regarding the management...... to be further defined. To date, clinical research reports have included primarily surgical case series. Future clinical investigations are needed to establish improved clinical evidence to guide patient care. Most urgent is the need to better understand the potential role of standardized nonsurgical treatment...
Fisher, Jill A
In this paper I explore the politics of trust in the clinical testing of pharmaceuticals in the US. Specifically, I analyze trust in terms of its institutional manifestations in the pharmaceutical clinical trials industry. In the process of testing new drugs, pharmaceutical companies must (1) protect their proprietary information from the clinicians who conduct their studies, and (2) find a way to ensure human subjects' compliance to study protocols. Concern with these two critical issues leads drug companies to approach clinicians and research subjects with an attitude of mistrust and the desire to exert control over their activities. This orientation results in an institutionalization of mistrust that structures the relationships and activities required for the clinical development of new pharmaceutical products.
Cohen, Jeffrey A; Reingold, Stephen C; Polman, Chris H
Many of the available disability outcome measures used in clinical trials of multiple sclerosis are insensitive to change over time, inadequately validated, or insensitive to patient-perceived health status or quality of life. Increasing focus on therapies that slow or reverse disability...... progression makes it essential to refine existing measures or to develop new tools. Major changes to the expanded disability status scale should be avoided to prevent the loss of acceptance by regulators as a measure for primary outcomes in trials that provide substantial evidence of effectiveness. Rather, we...... recommend practical refinements. Conversely, although substantial data support the multiple sclerosis functional composite as an alternative measure, changes to its component tests and scoring method are needed. Novel approaches, including the use of composite endpoints, patient-reported outcomes...
He, Zhe; Carini, Simona; Sim, Ida; Weng, Chunhua
To develop a method for profiling the collective populations targeted for recruitment by multiple clinical studies addressing the same medical condition using one eligibility feature each time. Using a previously published database COMPACT as the backend, we designed a scalable method for visual aggregate analysis of clinical trial eligibility features. This method consists of four modules for eligibility feature frequency analysis, query builder, distribution analysis, and visualization, respectively. This method is capable of analyzing (1) frequently used qualitative and quantitative features for recruiting subjects for a selected medical condition, (2) distribution of study enrollment on consecutive value points or value intervals of each quantitative feature, and (3) distribution of studies on the boundary values, permissible value ranges, and value range widths of each feature. All analysis results were visualized using Google Charts API. Five recruited potential users assessed the usefulness of this method for identifying common patterns in any selected eligibility feature for clinical trial participant selection. We implemented this method as a Web-based analytical system called VITTA (Visual Analysis Tool of Clinical Study Target Populations). We illustrated the functionality of VITTA using two sample queries involving quantitative features BMI and HbA1c for conditions "hypertension" and "Type 2 diabetes", respectively. The recruited potential users rated the user-perceived usefulness of VITTA with an average score of 86.4/100. We contributed a novel aggregate analysis method to enable the interrogation of common patterns in quantitative eligibility criteria and the collective target populations of multiple related clinical studies. A larger-scale study is warranted to formally assess the usefulness of VITTA among clinical investigators and sponsors in various therapeutic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rahman, Sayeeda; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim; Shaban, Sami F; Rahman, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Moslehuddin; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; D'Souza, Urban Ja
The rapid development of new drugs, therapies, and devices has created a dramatic increase in the number of clinical research studies that highlights the need for greater participation in research by physicians as well as patients. Furthermore, the potential of clinical research is unlikely to be reached without greater participation of physicians in research. Physicians face a variety of barriers with regard to participation in clinical research. These barriers are system-or organization-related as well as research-and physician-related. To encourage physician participation, appropriate organizational and operational infrastructures are needed in health care institutes to support research planning and management. All physicians should receive education and training in the fundamentals of research design and methodology, which need to be incorporated into undergraduate medical education and postgraduate training curricula and then reinforced through continuing medical education. Medical schools need to analyze current practices of teaching-learning and research, and reflect upon possible changes needed to develop a 'student-focused teaching-learning and research culture'. This article examines the barriers to and benefits of physician participation in clinical research as well as interventions needed to increase their participation, including the specific role of undergraduate medical education. The main challenge is the unwillingness of many physicians and patients to participate in clinical trials. Barriers to participation include lack of time, lack of resources, trial-specific issues, communication difficulties, conflicts between the role of clinician and scientist, inadequate research experience and training for physicians, lack of rewards and recognition for physicians, and sometimes a scientifically uninteresting research question, among others. Strategies to encourage physician participation in clinical research include financial and nonfinancial incentives
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment in contrast to normal growth effects for functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition by means of three-dimensional digital model analysis. Methods This randomised clinical trial was assessed to analyse the orthodontic treatment effects for patients with functional unilateral posterior crossbite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using a two-step procedure: initial maxillary expansion followed by a U-bow activator therapy. In the treatment group 31 patients and in the control group 35 patients with a mean age of 7.3 years (SD 2.1 were monitored. The time between the initial assessment (T1 and the follow-up (T2 was one year. The orthodontic analysis was done by a three-dimensional digital model analysis. Using the ‘Digimodel’ software, the orthodontic measurements in the maxilla and mandible and for the midline deviation, the overjet and overbite were recorded. Results Significant differences between the control and the therapy group at T2 were detected for the anterior, median and posterior transversal dimensions of the maxilla, the palatal depth, the palatal base arch length, the maxillary arch length and inclination, the midline deviation, the overjet and the overbite. Conclusions Orthodontic treatment of a functional unilateral posterior crossbite with a bonded maxillary expansion device followed by U-bow activator therapy in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition is an effective therapeutic method, as evidenced by the results of this RCT. It leads to three-dimensional therapeutically induced maxillary growth effects. Dental occlusion is significantly improved, and the prognosis for normal craniofacial growth is enhanced. Trial registration Registration trial DRKS00003497 on DRKS
van Herk, M.
Lan, Yu; Heitjan, Daniel F
In event-based clinical trials, it is common to conduct interim analyses at planned landmark event counts. Accurate prediction of the timing of these events can support logistical planning and the efficient allocation of resources. As the trial progresses, one may wish to use the accumulating data to refine predictions. Available methods to predict event times include parametric cure and non-cure models and a nonparametric approach involving Bayesian bootstrap simulation. The parametric methods work well when their underlying assumptions are met, and the nonparametric method gives calibrated but inefficient predictions across a range of true models. In the early stages of a trial, when predictions have high marginal value, it is difficult to infer the form of the underlying model. We seek to develop a method that will adaptively identify the best-fitting model and use it to create robust predictions. At each prediction time, we repeat the following steps: (1) resample the data; (2) identify, from among a set of candidate models, the one with the highest posterior probability; and (3) sample from the predictive posterior of the data under the selected model. A Monte Carlo study demonstrates that the adaptive method produces prediction intervals whose coverage is robust within the family of selected models. The intervals are generally wider than those produced assuming the correct model, but narrower than nonparametric prediction intervals. We demonstrate our method with applications to two completed trials: The International Chronic Granulomatous Disease study and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 0129. Intervals produced under any method can be badly calibrated when the sample size is small and unhelpfully wide when predicting the remote future. Early predictions can be inaccurate if there are changes in enrollment practices or trends in survival. An adaptive event-time prediction method that selects the model given the available data can give improved
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.
Harris-Hayes, Marcie; McDonough, Christine M; Leunig, Michael
Patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of outcomes assessment in clinical trials to assess the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). This review of disease-specific measures and instruments used to assess the generic quality of life and physical activity levels...
Lambers Heerspink, H. J.; Perkovic, V.; de Zeeuw, D.
The composite of end stage renal disease (ESRD), doubling of serum creatinine and (renal) death, is a frequently used endpoint in randomized clinical trials in nephrology. Doubling of serum creatinine is a well-accepted part of this endpoint because a doubling of serum creatinine reflects a large
Metra, Marco; Mentz, Robert J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Heizer, Gretchen M.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Clausell, Nadine; Corbalan, Ramon; Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Dickstein, Kenneth; Dunlap, Mark E.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Komajda, Michel; Krum, Henry; Lombardi, Carlo; Fonarow, Gregg C.; McMurray, John J. V.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Swedberg, Karl; Voors, Adriaan A.; Starling, Randall C.; Teerlink, John R.; O'Connor, Christopher M.
A growing number of countries and geographical regions are involved in major clinical trials. Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure is the largest trial in acutely decompensated heart failure (HF) with patients from 5 geographical regions: North America
Lin, Carol Alice; Bhandari, Mohit; Guyatt, Gordon; Walter, Stephen D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Sanders, David; Tornetta, Paul; Sanders, David W.; Walter, Stephen; Sprague, Sheila; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Leece, Pamela; Viveiros, Helena; Mignott, Tashay; Ansell, Natalie; Sidorkewicz, Natalie; Agel, Julie; Bombardier, Claire; Berlin, Jesse A.; Bosse, Michael; Browner, Bruce; Gillespie, Brenda; Jones, Alan; O'Brien, Peter; Poolman, Rudolf; Macleod, Mark D.; Carey, Timothy; Leitch, Kellie; Bailey, Stuart; Gurr, Kevin; Konito, Ken; Bartha, Charlene; Low, Isolina; MacBean, Leila V.; Ramu, Mala; Reiber, Susan; Strapp, Ruth; Tieszer, Christina; Kreder, Hans J.; Stephen, David J. G.; Axelrod, Terry S.; Yee, Albert J. M.; Richards, Robin R.; Finkelstein, Joel; Gofton, Wade; Murnaghan, John; Schatztker, Joseph; Ford, Michael; Bulmer, Beverly; Conlan, Lisa; Laflamme, G. Yves; Berry, Gregory; Beaumont, Pierre; Ranger, Pierre; Laflamme, Georges-Henri; Gagnon, Sylvain; Malo, Michel; Fernandes, Julio; Poirier, Marie-France; McKee, Michael D.; Waddell, James P.; Bogoch, Earl R.; Daniels, Timothy R.; McBroom, Robert R.; Vicente, Milena R.; Storey, Wendy; Wild, Lisa M.; McCormack, Robert; Perey, Bertrand; Goetz, Thomas J.; Pate, Graham; Penner, Murray J.; Panagiotopoulos, Kostas; Pirani, Shafique; Dommisse, Ian G.; Loomer, Richard L.; Stone, Trevor; Moon, Karyn; Zomar, Mauri; Webb, Lawrence X.; Teasdall, Robert D.; Birkedal, John Peter; Martin, David Franklin; Ruch, David S.; Kilgus, Douglas J.; Pollock, David C.; Harris, Mitchel Brion; Wiesler, Ethan Ron; Ward, William G.; Shilt, Jeffrey Scott; Koman, Andrew L.; Poehling, Gary G.; Kulp, Brenda; Creevy, William R.; Stein, Andrew B.; Bono, Christopher T.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Brown, T. Desmond; Pacicca, Donna; Sledge, John B.; Foster, Timothy E.; Voloshin, Ilva; Bolton, Jill; Carlisle, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Obremskey, William T.; LeCroy, C. Michael; Meinberg, Eric G.; Messer, Terry M.; Craig, William L.; Dirschl, Douglas R.; Caudle, Robert; Harris, Tim; Elhert, Kurt; Hage, William; Jones, Robert; Piedrahita, Luis; Schricker, Paul O.; Driver, Robin; Godwin, Jean; Kregor, Philip James; Tennent, Gregory; Truchan, Lisa M.; Sciadini, Marcus; Shuler, Franklin D.; Driver, Robin E.; Nading, Mary Alice; Neiderstadt, Jacky; Vap, Alexander R.; Vallier, Heather A.; Patterson, Brendan M.; Wilber, John H.; Wilber, Roger G.; Sontich, John K.; Moore, Timothy Alan; Brady, Drew; Cooperman, Daniel R.; Davis, John A.; Cureton, Beth Ann; Mandel, Scott; Orr, R. Douglas; Sadler, John T. S.; Hussain, Tousief; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Petrisor, Bradley; Drew, Brian; Bednar, Drew A.; Kwok, Desmond C. H.; Pettit, Shirley; Hancock, Jill; Cole, Peter A.; Smith, Joel J.; Brown, Gregory A.; Lange, Thomas A.; Stark, John G.; Levy, Bruce A.; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Garaghty, Mary J.; Salzman, Joshua G.; Schutte, Carol A.; Tastad, Linda; Vang, Sandy; Seligson, David; Roberts, Craig S.; Malkani, Arthur L.; Sanders, Laura; Dyer, Carmen; Heinsen, Jessica; Smith, Langan; Madanagopal, Sudhakar; Frantz-Bush, Linda; Coupe, Kevin J.; Tucker, Jeffrey J.; Criswell, Allen R.; Buckle, Rosemary; Rechter, Alan Jeffrey; Sheth, Dhiren Shaskikant; Urquart, Brad; Trotscher, Thea; Anders, Mark J.; Kowalski, Joseph M.; Fineberg, Marc S.; Bone, Lawrence B.; Phillips, Matthew J.; Rohrbacher, Bernard; Stegemann, Philip; Mihalko, William M.; Buyea, Cathy; Augustine, Stephen J.; Jackson, William Thomas; Solis, Gregory; Ero, Sunday U.; Segina, Daniel N.; Berrey, Hudson B.; Agnew, Samuel G.; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Campbell, Lakina C.; Derting, Lynn; McAdams, June; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Luitse, Jan; Kloen, Peter; Joosse, Pieter; Winkelhagen, Jasper; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Teague, David C.; Davey, Joseph; Sullivan, J. Andy; Ertl, William J. J.; Puckett, Timothy A.; Pasque, Charles B.; Tompkins, John F.; Gruel, Curtis R.; Kammerlocher, Paul; Lehman, Thomas P.; Puffinbarger, William R.; Carl, Kathy L.; Weber, Donald W.; Jomha, Nadr M.; Goplen, Gordon R.; Masson, Edward; Beaupre, Lauren A.; Greaves, Karen E.; Schaump, Lori N.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Goetz, David R.; Westberry, David E.; Broderick, J. Scott; Moon, Bryan S.; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Powell, James N.; Buckley, Richard E.; Elves, Leslie; Connolly, Stephen; Abraham, Edward P.; Steele, Trudy; Ellis, Thomas; Herzberg, Alex; Brown, George A.; Crawford, Dennis E.; Hart, Robert; Hayden, James; Orfaly, Robert M.; Vigland, Theodore; Vivekaraj, Maharani; Bundy, Gina L.; Miclau, Theodore; Matityahu, Amir; Coughlin, R. Richard; Kandemir, Utku; McClellan, R. Trigg; Lin, Cindy Hsin-Hua; Karges, David; Cramer, Kathryn; Watson, J. Tracy; Moed, Berton; Scott, Barbara; Beck, Dennis J.; Orth, Carolyn; Puskas, David; Clark, Russell; Jones, Jennifer; Egol, Kenneth A.; Paksima, Nader; France, Monet; Wai, Eugene K.; Johnson, Garth; Wilkinson, Ross; Gruszczynski, Adam T.; Vexler, Liisa
To determine the extent to which knowledge from clinical trial protocols is transferred to nonparticipating patients. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data from a large clinical trial. Six level-1 international trauma centers. We compared rates and timing of reoperation in a subset of
Unger, Joseph M.; Cook, Elise; Tai, Eric; Bleyer, Archie
OVERVIEW Fewer than 1 in 20 adult cancer patients enroll in cancer clinical trials. But although barriers to trial participation have been the subject of frequent study, the rate of trial participation has not changed substantially over time. Barriers to trial participation are structural, clinical, and attitudinal, and differ according to demographic and socioeconomic factors. In this paper, we characterize the nature of cancer clinical trial barriers, and we consider global and local strategies for reducing barriers. We also consider the specific case of adolescents with cancer, and show that the low rate of trial enrollment in this age group strongly correlates with limited improvements in cancer population outcomes compared to other age groups. Our analysis suggests that a clinical trial system that enrolls patients at higher rates produces treatment advances at a faster rate and corresponding improvements in cancer population outcomes. Viewed in this light, the issue of clinical trial enrollment is foundational, lying at the heart of the cancer clinical trial endeavor. Fewer barriers to trial participation would allow trials to be completed more quickly and would improve the generalizability of trial results. Moreover, increased accrual to trials is important to patients, since trials provide patients the opportunity to receive the newest treatments. In an era of increasing emphasis on a treatment decision-making process that incorporates the patient perspective, the opportunity for patients to choose trial participation for their care is vital. PMID:27249699
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the standard tasks performed by clinical research coordinators (CRCs in oncology clinical trials. Methods Forty-one CRCs were anonymously surveyed, using a four-page self-administered questionnaire focused on demographics, qualifications, and professional experience. The survey questions on responsibilities consisted of an ad-hoc 32-item questionnaire where respondents had to rate the frequency of involvement in the listed activities using a 3-point scale. We defined as "standard" a task that was rated as "in all or nearly all trials" by at least half of the respondents. Results A response rate of 90% (37 out of 41 was achieved after two mailings. Less than half of the respondents had received additional training in oncology, clinical research or Good Clinical Practices (GCP. Overall, all standard tasks performed by CRCs were in the category of "monitoring activities" (those usually performed by a Clinical Research Associate "CRA" and included patient registration/randomization, recruitment follow-up, case report form completion, collaboration with the CRA, serious adverse events reporting, handling of investigator files, and preparing the site for and/or attending audits. Conclusions CRCs play a key role in the implementation of oncology clinical trials, which goes far beyond mere data collection and/or administrative support, and directly contributes to the gathering of good quality data.
Rapaport, Mark H.; Maddux, Rachel E.
This paper reviews some of the challenges faced by individuals who design and implement clinical trials of potential antidepressant medications. Particular emphasis is placed on questioning the validity of some of the theoretical assumptions that form the underpinnings of most conventional trials. Work from our group developing clinical trial methodology for minor depression is used as an example of how alternate constructs may be helpful to differentiate drug-placebo differences.
Allen, Elizabeth N; Chandler, Clare Ir; Mandimika, Nyaradzo; Leisegang, Cordelia; Barnes, Karen
Analysis of drug safety in clinical trials involves assessing adverse events (AEs) individually or by aggregate statistical synthesis to provide evidence of likely adverse drug reactions (ADR). While some AEs may be ascertained from physical examinations or tests, there is great reliance on reports from participants to detect subjective symptoms, where he/she is often the only source of information. There is no consensus on how these reports should be elicited, although it is known that questioning methods influence the extent and nature of data detected. This leaves room for measurement error and undermines comparisons between studies and pooled analyses. This review investigated comparisons of methods used in trials to elicit participant-reported AEs. This should contribute to knowledge about the methodological challenges and possible solutions for achieving better, or more consistent, AE ascertainment in trials. To systematically review the research that has compared methods used within clinical drug trials (or methods that would be specific for such trials) to elicit information about AEs defined in the protocol or in the planning for the trial. Databases (searched to March 2015 unless indicated otherwise) included: Embase; MEDLINE; MEDLINE in Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; Cochrane Methodology Register (July 2012); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (February 2015); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (January 2015); Health Technology Assessment database (January 2015); CINAHL; CAB Abstracts; BIOSIS (July 2013); Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. The search used thesaurus headings and synonyms for the following concepts: (A): Adverse events AND measurement; (B): Participants AND elicitation (also other synonyms for extraction of information about adverse effects from people); (C): Participants AND checklists (also other
Fisher, William A; Gruenwald, Ilan; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Lowenstein, Lior; Pyke, Robert E; Reisman, Yakov; Revicki, Dennis A; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio
This series of articles outlines standards for clinical trials of treatments for male and female sexual dysfunctions, with a focus on research design and patient-reported outcome assessment. These articles consist of revision, updating, and integration of articles on standards for clinical trials in male and female sexual dysfunction from the 2010 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine developed by the authors as part of the 2015 International Consultation on Sexual Medicine. We are guided in this effort by several principles. In contrast to previous versions of these guidelines, we merge discussion of standards for clinical trials in male and female sexual dysfunction in an integrated approach that emphasizes the common foundational practices that underlie clinical trials in the two settings. We present a common expected standard for clinical trial design in male and female sexual dysfunction, a common rationale for the design of phase I to IV clinical trials, and common considerations for selection of study population and study duration in male and female sexual dysfunction. We present a focused discussion of fundamental principles in patient- (and partner-) reported outcome assessment and complete this series of articles with specific discussions of selected aspects of clinical trials that are unique to male and to female sexual dysfunction. Our consideration of standards for clinical trials in male and female sexual dysfunction attempts to embody sensitivity to existing and new regulatory guidance and to address implications of the evolution of the diagnosis of sexual dysfunction that have been brought forward in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. The first article in this series focuses on phase I to phase IV clinical trial design considerations. Subsequent articles in this series focus on the measurement of patient-reported outcomes, unique aspects of clinical trial design for men, and unique aspects of clinical