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Sample records for cabernet sauvignon grape

  1. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

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    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  2. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

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    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  3. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

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    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  4. Characterization and multivariate classification of grapes and wines of two Cabernet Sauvignon clones

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    Vívian Maria Burin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess and characterize two clones, 169 and 685, of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and to evaluate the wine produced from these grapes. The experiment was carried out in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil, during the 2009 harvest season. During grape ripening, the evolution of physical-chemical properties, phenolic compounds, organic acids, and anthocyanins was evaluated. During grape harvest, yield components were determined for each clone. Individual and total phenolics, individual and total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for wine. The clones were also assessed regarding the duration of their phenological cycle. During ripening, the evolution of phenolic compounds and of physical-chemical parameters was similar for both clones; however, during harvest, significant differences were observed regarding yield, number of bunches per plant and berries per bunch, leaf area, and organic acid, polyphenol, and anthocyanin content. The wines produced from these clones showed significant differences regarding chemical composition. The clones showed similar phenological cycle and responses to bioclimatic parameters. Principal component analysis shows that clone 685 is strongly correlated with color characteristics, mainly monomeric anthocyanins, while clone 169 is correlated with individual phenolic compounds.

  5. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

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    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  6. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

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    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  7. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

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    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-01-01

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits. PMID:25939070

  8. Condições meteorológicas e tipo de solo na composição da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' Weather and soil effects on the composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape

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    Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos das condições meteorológicas e do tipo de solo sobre características físico-químicas e compostos fenólicos da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera. O experimento foi realizado em vinhedo implantado em 2003, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto 'Paulsen 1103' e conduzido no sistema espaldeira. No vinhedo, foram selecionados dois solos: Cambissolo Háplico e Cambissolo Húmico. O efeito das condições meteorológicas (precipitação e temperatura mínima e máxima do ar foi avaliado nas safras 2008/2009, 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Foram determinados os atributos físicos e químicos dos solos, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez titulável e o pH do mosto, bem como o índice de polifenóis totais e dos teores de antocianinas e de taninos da uva. Os fatores solo e as condições meteorológicas (safras foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 2x3. Com exceção do teor de polifenóis totais, as condições meteorológicas e o tipo de solo afetam as características físico-químicas da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', com efeito mais pronunciado das condições meteorológicas do que do tipo de solo. Menores precipitações e maiores amplitudes térmicas favorecem o acúmulo de sólidos solúveis na uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Maiores precipitações favorecem o aumento da acidez do mosto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of weather and soil type on the physicochemical characteristics and phenolic compounds of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape (Vitis vinifera. The experiment was carried out in a vineyard established in 2003, grafted onto 'Paulsen 1103', and conducted in the cordon system. Two soils were selected in the vineyard: Typic Dystrudepts and Pachic Humudepts. The effect of weather (rainfall, and minimum and maximum temperature was evaluated in the seasons 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011. Soil physical and chemical properties, soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH of the

  9. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

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    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  10. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

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    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions. PMID:25771698

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of cabernet sauvignon grape cells exposed to thermal stresses reveals alterations in sugar and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

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    George, Iniga S; Pascovici, Dana; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Haynes, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera) are a valuable fruit crop and wine production is a major industry. Global warming and expanded range of cultivation will expose grapes to more temperature stresses in future. Our study investigated protein level responses to abiotic stresses, with particular reference to proteomic changes induced by the impact of four different temperature stress regimes, including both hot and cold temperatures, on cultured grape cells. Cabernet Sauvignon cell suspension cultures grown at 26°C were subjected to 14 h of exposure to 34 and 42°C for heat stress, and 18 and 10°C for cold stress. Cells from the five temperatures were harvested in biological triplicates and label-free quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was performed. A total of 2042 non-redundant proteins were identified from the five temperature points. Fifty-five proteins were only detected in extreme heat stress conditions (42°C) and 53 proteins were only detected at extreme cold stress conditions (10°C). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations of differentially expressed proteins provided insights into the metabolic pathways that are involved in temperature stress in grape cells. Sugar metabolism displayed switching between alternative and classical pathways during temperature stresses. Additionally, nine proteins involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were greatly increased in abundance at extreme cold stress, and were thus found to be cold-responsive proteins. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000977 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000977). PMID:25959233

  12. Electronic Nose Analysis of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatile Differences during Cold Soak and Postfermentation

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    Gardner, D. M.; Zoecklein, B. W.; Mallikarjunan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Cold soak is a prefermentation maceration process at cold temperatures, traditionally used to enhance red wine color. This study monitored changes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon volatiles using a commercial conducting polymer electronic nose (ENose) during a five-day cold soak and postfermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) of juice volatiles detected by the ENose during cold soak showed PCI accounted for 95.7% of the variation. Various volatile associations were made wi...

  13. Effect of cluster sun exposure on chemical composition and technological properties of grapes and wine from cultivars Cabernet sauvignon and mavrud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted on the effect of direct solar radiation on grape clusters of cvs Cabernet sauvignon and Mavrid, formed under four different microclimatic conditions: Vo- control; V1 - clusters exposed naturally to direct sunlight; V2 - clusters formed under natural shading; V3 - clusters formed under artificial shading.The positive impact of direct solar radiation on the formation of wine structure, character and body indicated the primary role of agrotechnical practices for ensuring better sunlight exposure of clusters and microclimatic conditions to enable the production of good wine-making materials

  14. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

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    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. PMID:25722170

  15. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

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    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  16. Effect of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines of the north foot of Mt. Tianshan.

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    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Cheng, Guo; Duan, Liang-Liang; Jiang, Ren; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2015-08-15

    C6 and C9 volatiles, originated from fatty acids, are important volatiles for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapes and wines. This study evaluated the influence of different training systems including Modified Vertical Shoot Positioned, (M-VSP); Fan training system with two trunks (F-TT); Fan training system with multiple trunks (F-MT) on these volatiles and the long-chain fatty acids (>C12) of grape berries and wines in the northwest of China. The expression profiles of genes from associated metabolic pathway were also analyzed. F-MT training resulted in lower vine vigor, larger yield, higher content of unsaturated fatty acids in grapes and lower C6 esters in wines in comparison with M-VSP and F-TT. M-VSP and F-TT enhanced C6 volatiles in grape berries. The concentrations of C6 volatiles were positively correlated with the expression of VvLOXA and VvHPL1. The results expanded the knowledge of the influence of training systems on fatty acids and their derived volatiles of grapes and wines. PMID:25794740

  17. Influence of autochthonous yeasts on the quality of wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Ivanova, Violeta; Dimovska, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Spasov, Hristo

    2014-01-01

    In this study 80 autochthonous yeast strains have been were isolated from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties grown in Tikveš wine region in the Republic of Macedonia. After the yeasts insulation, 10 yeast strains were selected and then used for fermentation and production of Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon wines in order to test their influence on the wine quality. For that purpose, some basic parameters, including alcohol content, total acids, volatile acids, reducing sugars and pH ...

  18. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

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    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  19. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  20. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as “microbial terroir.” The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi. PMID

  1. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

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    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  2. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  3. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. PMID:27211677

  4. Variabilidad Espacial del Rendimiento de Uva y Calidad del Mosto en Cuarteles de Vid cv. Cabernet Sauvignon y Chardonnay en Respuesta a la Variabilidad de Algunas Propiedades del Suelo Spatial Variability of Grape Yield and Must Quality on Blocks of Grapevines cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay in Response to Variability of Some soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Flores M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio de la variabilidad espacial de algunas propiedades físicas y químicas de un suelo de la serie Quipato (Ultic Palexeralfs de la provincia de Cauquenes (coordenadas 753.677 E; 6.014.001 N, UTM Datum WGS84 Z18, VII Región, Chile, fue realizado para determinar el grado de correlación espacial existente con el rendimiento de uva (Vitis vinifera L. y la calidad del mosto, en dos cuarteles de cv. Cabernet Sauvignon y un cuartel del cv. Chardonnay. El método de muestreo utilizado fue sistemático con una densidad de diez muestras por hectárea. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante el uso de técnicas geoestadísticas. Se realizó un análisis de dependencia espacial. Las variables espacialmente correlacionadas fueron agrupadas mediante un análisis de factores para luego definir zonas homogéneas de manejo a través de un análisis de clusters. Los resultados indicaron que la intensidad de muestreo utilizada no fue suficiente para caracterizar la variabilidad espacial del rendimiento de uva y la calidad del mosto en el cuartel correspondiente al cv. Chardonnay, y no existió correlación espacial con las propiedades del suelo evaluadas. En los dos cuarteles del cv. Cabernet Sauvignon se pudo caracterizar la variabilidad espacial del número de racimos, del peso poda y del pH del mosto, sin embargo, sólo el número de racimos presentó correlación espacial con las propiedades del suelo evaluadas. El número de muestras por hectárea necesarias para caracterizar la variabilidad espacial de las propiedades del suelo y del rendimiento de uva y calidad del mosto, es sitio específico y diferente para cada variable a evaluar.A study of spatial variability in some physical and chemical properties of a soil of the Quipato Series (Ultic Palexeralfs of Cauquenes Province (coordinates 753.677 E; 6.014.001 N, UTM Datum WGS84 Zona 18, 7th Region, Chile, was conducted to determine the d6egree of spatial correlation with grape (Vitis vinifera L. yield

  5. Influence of Temperature and Carbon Dioxide on Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon Must

    OpenAIRE

    Berovič, Marin; Mavri, Jan; Wondra, Mojmir; Košmerl, Tatjana; Bavčar, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    In the process of wine fermentation temperature and the amount of carbon dioxide present represent parameters that can be easily monitored and controlled. The influence of variation of the process temperature and the fluxes of additional inlet gaseous carbon dioxide in Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon grape must on the accumulation of biomass and production of metabolites was studied. All experiments with temperature and redox potential control on-line were performed i...

  6. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrovska Maja; Tomovska Elena; Bocevska Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA...

  7. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  8. Desfolha parcial em videiras e seus efeitos em uvas e vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon da região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Partial de foliation on vines and its effects on Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hermann Pötter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A desfolha no vinhedo tem como principais objetivos aumentar a radiação solar e a aeração na região dos frutos, para melhorar a coloração e a maturação das uvas tintas, além de reduzir a incidência de podridões, visando, com isso, obter vinhos de qualidade superior. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da desfolha nos parâmetros físico-químicos das uvas e dos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Dom Pedrito, região da Campanha, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As uvas foram colhidas em março de 2008, sendo provenientes de um vinhedo comercial cultivado em espaldeira. A desfolha foi realizada na base dos ramos, somente no lado que recebe o sol da manhã, com intensidade de aproximadamente 20%, no estádio fenológico grão "ervilha". As microvinificações foram feitas com controle de temperatura, em tanques de vidro em triplicata, com oito dias de maceração. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com desfolha apresentou mostos com pH significativamente mais baixo e maior acidez total. As cascas das uvas e os vinhos do tratamento com desfolha apresentaram aumento significativo no teor de polifenóis totais. A desfolha também propiciou vinhos com maior intensidade de cor, antocianinas totais, extrato seco e açúcar redutor, e menor teor de nitrogênio. Nos vinhos, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para acidez total e volátil, pH, álcool, densidade, extrato seco reduzido e teor de potássio. Conclui-se que a prática da desfolha em vinhedos da região da Campanha melhora a qualidade dos vinhos.The practice of partial defoliation in vineyards has as main objectives increase sunlight and ventilation for the fruit, aiming to improve color and maturity in red grapes and helping to reduce fungal diseases, which should result in better wine quality. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of partial defoliation on the quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from Dom

  9. Variabilidad Espacial del Rendimiento de Uva y Calidad del Mosto en Cuarteles de Vid cv. Cabernet Sauvignon y Chardonnay en Respuesta a la Variabilidad de Algunas Propiedades del Suelo Spatial Variability of Grape Yield and Must Quality on Blocks of Grapevines cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay in Response to Variability of Some soil Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Luis A. Flores M.

    2005-01-01

    Un estudio de la variabilidad espacial de algunas propiedades físicas y químicas de un suelo de la serie Quipato (Ultic Palexeralfs) de la provincia de Cauquenes (coordenadas 753.677 E; 6.014.001 N, UTM Datum WGS84 Z18), VII Región, Chile, fue realizado para determinar el grado de correlación espacial existente con el rendimiento de uva (Vitis vinifera L.) y la calidad del mosto, en dos cuarteles de cv. Cabernet Sauvignon y un cuartel del cv. Chardonnay. El método de muestreo utilizado fue si...

  10. 葡萄、葡萄皮%grape fruit,skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2006-01-01

    @@ 又名 Black Grape Raisins, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Calzin, Chardonnay, Emperor, Enocianina,Flame Seedless, Grape, Grapes, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Merlot, Petite Sirah, raisins, Red Globe, Red Malaga, sauvignon Blanc, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless,wine Grapes.

  11. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  12. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. PMID:26948592

  13. Avaliação da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of the cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the manufacture of red wine

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    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Sauvignon, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Brasil em 1921, mas foi somente a partir de 1980 que houve incremento de seu plantio na Serra Gaúcha. É uma cultivar destinada à elaboração de vinho tinto de guarda ou jovem. Devido a sua importância, conduziu-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para a elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1992. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Sauvignon tem cacho de tamanho médio de 149.3g/L e baga pequena de 1.40g. O mosto possui bom teor de açúcar e acidez titulável de 120meq/L, adequada para a produção de vinho tinto, o qual se caracteriza por apresentar teores elevados de álcoois superiores. Sob o aspecto sensorial, o vinho Cabernet Sauvignon se caracteriza pela cor vermelha relativamente intensa e com reflexos violáceos acentuados; pelo aroma típico que lembra pimentão-verde, que é sua característica varietal; e pelo corpo, estrutura e boa distinguibilidade.The Cabernet Sauvignon grape was developed in Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in Brazil in 1921, but its cultivation in the viticultural region of Serra Gaúcha only grew since 1980. It is used in the manufacture of aged or young red wines. Due to its importance, this work was carried out to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1992. The results showed that clusters of Cabernet Sauvignon are of medium size (149.3g and its berries are small (1.40g. The must have good sugar content with adequate titratable acidity (120meqL-1. The wine is characterized by high concentrations of higher alcohols; its predominant aroma is of bell pepper, which is a varietal characteristic. It has a

  14. Counter-radiation efficacy of Enoviton granules produced from Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident in the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, a need arose for radionuclide decontamination means capable of being used for a prolonged period of time without any side-effects on the human body. The probability of contamination with radionuclides in such emergencies, combined with external radiation, makes it necessary for the protective agents used to have a favourable effect on the protective force of the organism. The phenol compounds, anthocyanins, are the major plant pigments and are present in considerable amounts in red grapes and wines. Under relevant conditions in plants, phenolics protect hereditary cell mechanisms from mutagenic agents, such as ionising irradiation and UV rays. This ability of plant phenolics directed us towards the creation and use of the anthocyanin preparation Enoviton as a radioprotective means in investigations with animals. The Enoviton preparation was made on the basis of an anthocyanin colouring substance derived from specially isolated and purified anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon wine. (Author)

  15. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical Phenology, production and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' grapevines in subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.The objective of this study was to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced in a subtropical climate for red winemaking. The experimental area was located in a commercial vineyard belonging to the Intervin® Winery, in Maringá, PR. The grapevines were trained in a pergola system in a 4.0 x 1.5 m spacing, grafted on 'IAC 766 Campinas' rootstock. The evaluations started from the pruning held in late winter during four crops (2003, 2004

  16. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and sensory evaluation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabernet Sauvignon wines received gamma irradiation doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 KGy and were stored at 21°C for up to 18 months. As radiation dose and storage time increased, total anthocyanin concentration decreased, while color density, hue and color age increased. Acetaldehyde concentration increased with increasing radiation dose and decreased as storage time increased. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference in color or astringency, but off-flavors were detected in wines given a 2.4 KGy dose. Use of gamma irradiation to rapid age Cabernet Sauvignon wines did not appear to be feasible

  18. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions. PMID:27228593

  19. Evaluation of oenological potential on clonal selections of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceppi de Lecco C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 13 clonal selections of cv Cabernet Sauvignon, established in Nancagua VI Region, Chile (34.39 °S 71.17 °W. The genetic identity of the vines was confirmed by ampelography and microsatellite markers (SSR. Evaluations in the 2012–2013 season include: performance, analytical and sensorial parameters on the wines made by microvinification. The results were statistically analyzed with the Statgraphics Plus program and multiple comparison test of Tukey at 95% confidence level. Sensorially, the wines were evaluated by a panel of 12 experts. The results were likewise analyzed by testing principal components (PCA with covariance matrix without rotation. In the season studied the selection 108 highlighted with a high yield (kg/plant, in the composition of the wine selections generally highlighted for contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins over average. The results show typical sensory characteristics of wines from that grape variety, and it was possible to group the selections by their attributes (PCA with cherry red wines at different intensities, but without significant differences, with fruity and vegetal aromas, interesting complex flavors and with structured tannins.

  20. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Lorensini; Carlos Alberto Ceretta; Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi; Lessandro De Conti; Tadeu Luis Tiecher; Gustavo Trentin; Gustavo Brunetto

    2015-01-01

    Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N); however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009...

  1. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  2. Volatile Compounds of Young Wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay Varieties Grown in the Loess Plateau Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwen Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the aroma components of wine produced in the Loess Plateau region of China, volatile compounds of young wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay varieties grown in the new ecological region were investigated for the first time in this research. Among the volatile compounds analyzed by HS-SPME with GC-MS, a total of 45, 44 and 42 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. In the volatiles detected, alcohols formed the most abundant group in the aroma compounds of the three wines, followed by esters and fatty acids. According to their odor active values (OAVs, 18 volatile compounds were always present in the three wines at concentrations higher than their threshold values, but ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and isoamyl acetate were found to jointly contribute to 92.9%, 93.3%, and 98.7%, of the global aroma of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischet and Chardonnay wines, respectively. These odorants are associated with “fruity’’ and ‘‘ripe fruit’’ odor descriptors.

  3. Effect of fermentation, postfermentation, and postbottling heat treatment on Cabernet Sauvignon glycoconjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, A. K.; Zoecklein, B. W.

    2003-01-01

    In Cabernet Sauvignon must, total and phenol-free glycosides (expressed as glycosyl-glucose) rose during fermentation while skin concentrations dropped. Wines were heated postfermentation, prior to dejuicing (rising 2 to 3degreesC per day from 23 to 42degreesC, and held for one day at 42degreesC), or after bottling (at 42degreesC for 21 days) to determine the effect on total glycosides, glycosidic fractions, and anthocyanin complexing. Pre-dejuicing thermal vinification resulted in higher tot...

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  5. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  6. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 109 n.cm-2.s-1. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm2.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  9. Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison. PMID:26113159

  10. 不同根区交替滴灌方式对赤霞珠葡萄幼苗根冠生长的影响%Effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on growth of root and shoot of Cabernet Sauvignon grape seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于坤; 郁松林; 刘怀锋; 王文静; 白泽晨; 孙军利

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of its own subsurface drip irrigation with tank system, effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on grape seedling growth were explored, and the best drip irrigation mode and method was selected that was suitable for wine grape production in arid and semiarid areas of China. The experiment usedVitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ as materials and used conventional drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation with tank system(SDI) (independent design) as the basis of engineering technology .Under bag control experimental condition, four kinds of partial-root zone alternative controlled drip irrigation methods were designed as follows: SDI-DI (SDI was on the left side, DI was on the right side) SDI-SDI (both sides were SDI), DI-SDI (DI was on the left side, SDI was on the right side), DI-DI (both sides were DI).Effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on shoot biomass, root distribution, root vigor and leaf physiological function of Cabernet Sauvignon seedling were discussed. The ratio of root to shoot was at optimum level (1-1.3) and shoot biomass accumulation were not significantly affected by SDI-SDI、DI-SDI、DI-SDI under the same irrigation conditions . The ratio of root and shoot was increased, plant experienced drought stress more intense and plant growth was limited by DI-DI. Horizontal root number on the left and right of DI-SDI and SDI-DI had great differences, and root number on the right was 13.3%、10.5%、14.0%、22.1% more than that on the left ,while horizontal root number on both sides of DI-DI and SDI-SDI had small differences. Root penetration was promoted and root activity in the depth of soil layer 20-60 cm was improved by SDI-DI and DI-SDI. In the depth of soil layer 0-20 cm ,Root average diameter on the left side of SDI-DI and SDI-SDI were significantly higher than that of DI-DI and DI-SDI, and root surface area, root volume on the left side of SDI-DI and SDI-SDI were lower than DI-DI and DI

  11. Comparative study of phenolic compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon wines made in traditional and Ganimede fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bianxia; He, Fei; Yang, Lili; Chen, Feng; Reeves, Malcolm J; Li, Jingming

    2013-12-15

    Chemical profiles of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine made by two different winemaking techniques (traditional vinification and Ganimede method) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Particularly, effect of extraction on and subsequent stability of the phenolic compounds from the end of fermentation to bottling were investigated. The results showed that the total anthocyanin content was higher in the young wines produced in the Ganimede fermenter. The anthocyanin contents in these wines subsequently decreased significantly after two years of ageing. By contrast, the traditional vinification was slightly better than the Ganimede to yield the non-anthocyanin phenolics. This indicates that the Ganimede fermenter might be suitable for the production of brightly coloured red wines for early consumption, which could save time and labour cost for industrial production of highquality wines. PMID:23993575

  12. Comportamento das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah em diferentes porta-enxertos Yield-related performance of cv Cabernet Sauvingnon and Petite Syrah on different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia das Graças Silva Orlando

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah são destinadas à elaboração de vinhos tintos jovens ou de guarda bastante difundidas em diversas zonas vitivinícolas de todo o mundo. No Brasil, são utilizadas principalmente no Rio Grande do Sul e Vale do Rio São Francisco. Atualmente, produtores da região de Jundiaí, SP, têm demonstrado interesse na utilização de tais cultivares com intuito de obter vinhos de qualidade superior aos originários de cultivares americanas. Por isso, realizou-se o estudo do comportamento das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah em diferentes porta-enxertos, na região de Jundiaí, SP (23º06' S; 46º55' W, 715 m. Não houve influência dos diferentes porta-enxertos sobre o comportamento da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. O porta-enxerto IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' tendeu a conferir colheita tardia na cultivar Syrah. Os porta-enxertos IAC 572 'Jales' e IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' conferiram maior produção a cultivar Syrah. A cultivar Syrah apresentou-se como boa opção de plantio para obtenção de vinho de qualidade na região.Grapevines cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah are largely used for high quality vine making all around the world. In Brazil they are concentrated moreover, at the Rio Grande do Sul state and in the São Francisco Valley. Producers from Jundiaí region (São Paulo state have been interested in such cultivars for improved quality vine making as they generally use american cultivars for that propose. Aiming study the performance of cv Cabernet Sauvingnon and Syrah, cultivated over different rootstocks an experiment was conducted in the region of Jundiaí (SP (23º06' S; 46º55' W, 715 m. Results showed that there wasn't influence of different rootstocks on the performance of both analyzed cultivars. It was observed a trend of the rootstock IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' to improve final yield of cv Syrah. The Rootstocks IAC 572 'Jales' and IAC 571-6 'Jundiaí' combined to Syrah resulted in the highest yield in the

  13. Modificação parcial do ambiente de cultivo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: efeito sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis Crop partially modified environment on different rootstocks of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine: effect on yield and sugar concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas regiões onde existe ocorrência de chuvas durante o desenvolvimento e a maturação dos frutos justifica-se a busca de alternativas de cultivo protegido de uvas para vinho visando atenuar esse impacto sobre a qualidade da produção. Um experimento com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572' e 'Ripária do Traviú',cultura videira foi conduzido em Jundiaí (SP, sob cultivo protegido (cobertura com plástico e laterais abertas, objetivando estudar as alterações microclimáticas ocorridas no ambiente de cultivo do vinhedo e avaliar o impacto dessa prática sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis, em relação ao cultivo em ambiente a céu aberto. A proteção por polietileno no cultivo da 'Cabernet Sauvignon' diminuiu o nível de radiação solar para 85,4% e aumentou as temperaturas máximas em 1,3 ºC. Nos ambientes analisados separadamente, as maiores produções por planta e teor de sólidos solúveis foram obtidas na 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre porta-enxertos 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572' que superaram o 'Ripária do Traviú'. Na comparação entre os ambientes a céu aberto e parcialmente modificado não foram encontradas diferenças de produção, porém o teor de sólidos solúveis foi superior no ambiente a céu aberto.In the traditional regions of grape growers, where the incidence of rain is concentrated on the stage of fruit development and maturation, the search for improved crop management strategies is justified, aiming at attenuate the impact of it on yield quality. An experiment with grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" cultivated on rootstocks IAC 766, IAC 572 and Ripária do Traviú was carried out in Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, under plastic greenhouse. The search was focused on the microclimate modification in the environment of cultivated grapes from its conduction in partially modified crop cultivation environment (plastic cover with open sides, as well as evaluates the impact on

  14. Comportamento das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah em diferentes porta-enxertos Yield-related performance of cv Cabernet Sauvingnon and Petite Syrah on different rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Tânia das Graças Silva Orlando; Mário José Pedro Júnior; Antônio Odair Santos; José Luiz Hernades

    2008-01-01

    As cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon e Syrah são destinadas à elaboração de vinhos tintos jovens ou de guarda bastante difundidas em diversas zonas vitivinícolas de todo o mundo. No Brasil, são utilizadas principalmente no Rio Grande do Sul e Vale do Rio São Francisco. Atualmente, produtores da região de Jundiaí, SP, têm demonstrado interesse na utilização de tais cultivares com intuito de obter vinhos de qualidade superior aos originários de cultivares americanas. Por isso, realizou-se o estudo ...

  15. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. PMID:26920290

  16. Model Validation for Estimating the Leaf Stomatal Conductance in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevines Validación de un modelo para estimar la conductancia estomática de hojas en vides cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Jara-Rojas; Samuel Ortega-Farías; Héctor Valdés-Gómez; Carlos Poblete; Alejandro del Pozo

    2009-01-01

    The coupled model of assimilation and stomatal conductance (A-g s) was evaluated to estimate leaf stomatal conductance of a drip-irrigated vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) located in the Pencahue Valley (35º22’ S, 71°47’ W, 150 m.a.s.l.), Maule Region, Chile, during the 2003-2004 and the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Additionally, a calibration of the three parameters mesophyll conductance (g m), maximum specific humidity (Dmax) and coupled factor (f0) was applied on vines gro...

  17. Disponibilidade hídrica, radiação solar e fotossíntese em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sob cultivo protegido Water supply, solar radiation and photosynthesis in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines under plastic covering

    OpenAIRE

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota; Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante; Henrique Pessoa dos Santos; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da cobertura de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' com lona plástica translúcida sobre a disponibilidade de luz e água, a concentração foliar de clorofila e a fotossíntese. As plantas com cinco anos de idade foram conduzidas em sistema 'Y' sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (plantas sem e com cobertura plástica) e quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental). A cobe...

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  19. Caracterização fenológica e produtiva das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná Phenological and productive characterization out of season of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Jubileu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR. As videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas'. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação para a produção fora de época, durante dois anos consecutivos, realizadas no fim de janeiro de 2007 e 2008, onde foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade. Avaliou-se a duração, em dias, das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação (SST/AT. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 128 dias, enquanto da 'Alicante' foi de 131 dias, sendo consideradas tardias ambas as variedades para a região norte do Paraná. As estimativas da produção por planta e produtividade foram de 12,4 kg e 22,3 t.ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 11,9 kg e 19,8 t.ha-1 para a 'Alicante'. Os teores médios de SST, AT e SST/AT foram de 19,2 °Brix, 1,8% de ácido tartárico e 11,6 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 19,1 °Brix, 1,3% de ácido tartárico e 14,1, para a 'Alicante'. Ambas as variedades apresentam elevadas produtividades e matéria-prima adequada para processamento quando produzidas fora de época no norte do Paraná.This study aimed to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced out of season in the north of Paraná State for red wine elaboration. The experimental area was located in a commercial property belonging to the

  20. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  1. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon)

    OpenAIRE

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation leve...

  2. Biodiversity of wine grapes: less than we thought

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder RM

    2011-01-01

    Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe Editor of the International Journal of Wine Research has had a long-standing interest in the genetics of wine grape varieties. Two publications, in particular, piqued the interest from both the scientific and consumer point of view. Cabernet Sauvignon is the offspring of a chance cross-pollination of Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc in western France several centuries ago.

  3. Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR, a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

  4. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  5. Condições meteorológicas e tipo de solo na composição da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'

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    Rodrigo Vieira Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos das condições meteorológicas e do tipo de solo sobre características físico-químicas e compostos fenólicos da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera. O experimento foi realizado em vinhedo implantado em 2003, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto 'Paulsen 1103' e conduzido no sistema espaldeira. No vinhedo, foram selecionados dois solos: Cambissolo Háplico e Cambissolo Húmico. O efeito das condições meteorológicas (precipitação e temperatura mínima e máxima do ar foi avaliado nas safras 2008/2009, 2009/2010 e 2010/2011. Foram determinados os atributos físicos e químicos dos solos, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez titulável e o pH do mosto, bem como o índice de polifenóis totais e dos teores de antocianinas e de taninos da uva. Os fatores solo e as condições meteorológicas (safras foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 2x3. Com exceção do teor de polifenóis totais, as condições meteorológicas e o tipo de solo afetam as características físico-químicas da uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', com efeito mais pronunciado das condições meteorológicas do que do tipo de solo. Menores precipitações e maiores amplitudes térmicas favorecem o acúmulo de sólidos solúveis na uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Maiores precipitações favorecem o aumento da acidez do mosto.

  6. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical

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    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.

  7. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines. PMID:26675843

  8. CLUSTERS AND BIOCHEMISTRY COMPOSITION OF BLACK BERRY VINE SORTS OF GRAPE FOR PRODUCING JUICES OF DIRECT PRESSING

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    Chausov V. M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the study of the texture of the grapes and biochemical characteristics of red wine grape varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sapeari, Tsimladar, Pinot Noir for the production of juice of direct extraction and blending. The studied varieties in terms of the structure of the cluster may be divided into three groups of blackpinene (21.1, Cabernet Franc and Tsimladar (18.7 - 17.5, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi (16.5 - 16.8 , and bunches of addition in terms of two groups - Tsimladar (17.6, Cabernet - Sauvignon and other (15.6 - 16.4. The structural component of grapes varieties ranged from 5.2 to 5.9, berry index - from 62.1 to 83.4, the output of the wort from 74.2 to 76.3%. The content of sugars and acids in the berries of all varieties is favorable for the production of beverages. The largest Tartaric acid content was found in the juice of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Black, malic acid - in the juice of varieties Saperavi, Merlot, Tsimladar, citric acid - in the juice Tsimladar varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi. The ratio of tartaric acid to the content of the apple juice Cabernet Sauvignon was 2.9: 1, Cabernet Franc 2.6: 1, Pinot Black 2.5: 1, Merlot and Tsimladar 1.6: 1, 1.1 Sapevari: 1. According to the content of potassium cations, sodium, magnesium and calcium there were chosen three varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc. The lowest content of potassium and magnesium cations was in the variety of Tsimladar, Sodium – in the varieties Merlot and Saperavi, calcium – in Saperavi. Excellent tasting commended for juices was given to Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi, Tsimladar, good – to Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot black. Best blending juice obtained by mixing the juice of the grape of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot black 70:30, Saperavi and Pinot black 50:50. From the grapes of produced varieties, we can produce juice and varietal by

  9. Aplicação de taninos enológicos na elaboração de vinho Cabernet Sauvignon e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade sensorial Application of enological tannins in the development of Cabert Sauvignon and their effects on the sensory quality

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    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do uso de taninos enológicos na composição sensorial do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, safra 2004. Trata-se de uma cultivar que se destaca no Brasil pela importância na produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Porém, em algumas safras, possui dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, o que dificulta a elaboração de vinhos com o perfil sensorial desejado pelos consumidores. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está o manejo do vinhedo, aliado a ajustes tecnológicos nas etapas de elaboração do vinho. Para tal, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0g hl-1, 10,0g hl-1, 20,0g hl-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, descuba, e após a fermentação malolática. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se análises sensoriais, em relação aos atributos ligados aos perfis olfativos e gustativos, com análise de oito descritores olfativos e nove descritores gustativos, além de um conceito geral. Assim, verificou-se que os taninos enológicos imprimiram algumas diferenças, principalmente no perfil aromático dos vinhos, que apresentaram acréscimo de qualidade quando tratados com os taninos enológicos. Da mesma maneira, houve superioridade olfativa e gustativa nos vinhos que receberam tratamentos com taninos na etapa de maceração.The objective of this research was to study the effect of enological tannins in the sensory composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The study was conducted in Bento Gonçalves, RS, with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, harvest 2004. This is a cultivar that stands out in importance in Brazil for the production of red wines. However, in some crops there are difficulties for a proper maturation, which hampers the development of wines with the sensory profile desired by consumers. Among the strategies to minimize this problem

  10. Aplicação de taninos enológicos na elaboração de vinho Cabernet Sauvignon e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade sensorial Application of enological tannins in the development of Cabert Sauvignon and their effects on the sensory quality

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Manfroi; Gustavo Pires Costa; Celito Crivellaro Guerra; Mauro Celso Zanus; Flavio Bello Fialho; Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do uso de taninos enológicos na composição sensorial do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, safra 2004. Trata-se de uma cultivar que se destaca no Brasil pela importância na produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Porém, em algumas safras, possui dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, o que dificulta a elaboração de vinhos com o perfil sensorial desejado pelos consumidores. De...

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis...

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

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    Bin Tian

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and

  13. The combined effects of storage temperature and packaging on the sensory, chemical, and physical properties of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Helene; Buffon, Peter A; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-04-01

    A Californian Cabernet Sauvignon was stored for 6 months at three different constant temperatures to study the combined effects of storage temperature and packaging configuration. Glass bottles with natural cork, synthetic cork, and screw cap closure, as well as two Bag-in-Box treatments, were used in the experiment. A trained sensory panel was able to detect significant changes in aroma, flavor, taste, mouthfeel, and color attributes among the samples, differences that were found also with various chemical and physical measurements (volatile profile, polyphenol pattern, enological parameters, color space). Additionally, two commonly used polyphenol assays were compared to each other in terms of their ability to detect the changes in the polyphenol profile. Generally, sample changes were more pronounced due to the different storage temperatures, with 30 sensory attributes differing significantly among the three different storage temperatures, while only 17 sensory attributes showed a significant packaging effect. With increasing storage temperature the packaging effect became more pronounced, resulting in the largest changes in the Bag-in-Box samples stored at the highest temperature of 40 °C. At the highest storage temperature, all wines showed oxidized characters, independent of the wine packaging configurations, but to a varying degree. Generally, wines that received highest oxygen amounts and storage temperatures were much lighter, less red, and more brown-yellow at the end of the 6-month storage period, compared to their counterparts stored at 10 °C. These changes in color and polyphenols, respectively, were also detected with the two spectrophotometric assays. With increasing storage temperature both assays measured reduced concentrations in total phenols and total anthocyanins, while total tannins, degree of ionized anthocyanins, and color density increased. Various volatile compounds differed significantly among the samples, with largest relative

  14. Modificação parcial do ambiente de cultivo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sobre diferentes porta-enxertos: efeito sobre a produção e o teor de sólidos solúveis Crop partially modified environment on different rootstocks of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine: effect on yield and sugar concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Ferreira; Mário José Pedro Júnior; Antonio Odair Santos; José Luiz Hernandes

    2004-01-01

    Nas regiões onde existe ocorrência de chuvas durante o desenvolvimento e a maturação dos frutos justifica-se a busca de alternativas de cultivo protegido de uvas para vinho visando atenuar esse impacto sobre a qualidade da produção. Um experimento com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572' e 'Ripária do Traviú',cultura videira foi conduzido em Jundiaí (SP), sob cultivo protegido (cobertura com plástico e laterais abertas), objetivando estudar as alterações ...

  15. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina Viticultural performance of cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks in high altitude regions of Santa Catarina state

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    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.Rootstocks are a link between the soil and the scion, they play an important role in vine adaptation

  16. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal. PMID:27211692

  17. Aminoácidos livres e uréia durante a fermentação do mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon com diferentes leveduras

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    DUTRA Sandra Valduga

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de aminoácidos e uréia em mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon fermentado com diferentes leveduras, foram os principais objetivos desse trabalho. Cabernet Sauvignon foi utilizada por ser teoricamente uma cultivar com alto teor de prolina e baixo teor de arginina, em comparação com cultivares com alto teor e predominância de arginina. Os mostos foram coletados em Santana do Livramento, RS e transportados para a UFSM; lá foram dividos em dois lotes aos quais foram adicionados diferentes leveduras: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermol Bouquet e Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2056. A análise dos aminoácidos foi realizada utilizando um analizador de aminoácidos marca Hitachi L-8500 conforme SANDERS e OUGH (21. Uréia foi determinada de acordo com ALMY e OUGH (1 modificado por PEREIRA e DAUDT (19. O aminoácido encontrado no mosto, em maior quantidade foi a prolina (847mg/l seguido por arginina (235mg/l e alanina (87mg/l. A maioria dos aminoácidos (exceção de prolina foram consumidos pelas leveduras logo após o início da fermentação. A liberação máxima de uréia no meio coincidiu com o consumo máximo de arginina, que na fermentação com a levedura 2056 ocorreu à 19° Brix (2,7mg/l e com a levedura Fermol Bouquet ocorreu com o mosto a 15° Brix (4,1mg/l. O teor de prolina permaneceu elevado durante todo o processo fermentativo, confirmando a pouca preferência das leveduras por este aminoácido. Os aminoácidos arginina, treonina, serina, aspartato e isoleucina, podem ser considerados melhores fontes de nitrogênio para as leveduras.

  18. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  19. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Teng-Fei Xu; Jiang-Fei Meng; Peng-Fei Ning; Zhen-Wen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grap...

  20. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang-Yun Cui; Chang-Qing Duan; Jian-Jun He; He-Qiong Bi; Zan-Min Jin

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат...

  1. Determination of odorants in varietal wines from international grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera) grown in NW Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Vilanova de la Torre, María del Mar; Genisheva, Z.; Graña, M.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the odorants found in ten varietal wines from different international grape cultivars (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot noir, Tempranillo, Sauvignon blanc, Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot gris, Pinot blanc and Gewürztraminer) grown in northwest Spain. Monoterpenes, alcohols, fatty acids, ethyl esters, acetates and volatile phenols were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that Gewürztraminer white wines had the hi...

  2. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  3. The effects of post-fermentation and post-bottling heat treatment on Cabernet Sauvignon (V. vinifera L.) glycosides and quantification of glycosidase activities in selected strains of Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Oenococcus oeni.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, Anna Katharine

    2001-01-01

    Thermal processing has been used as a means of modifying the sensory aspects of wine. Cabernet Sauvignon wines were heated prior to dejuicing (3ºC per day from 25ºC to 42ºC) or after bottling (42ºC for 21 days) to determine the effects on total glycosides and glycosidic fractions. Total and phenol-free glycosidic concentrations in the wine and skins were quantified by analysis of glycosyl-glucose. Pre-dejuicing thermal vinification resulted in higher total glycosides (12%), phenol-free g...

  4. Production Charachteristics of Some Introduced Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jasminka Karoglan Kontić; Edi Maletić; Nikola Mirošević; Bernard Kozina; Jasmina Marić

    2000-01-01

    In order to expand the number of red grape cultivars suitable for Northern Dalmatia subregion experimental vineyard has been planted on the farm 'Bastica' PK Zadar. The large number of red grape cultivar has been introducted. Seven of them are spread in central and southern Italy (Montepulciano, Sangiovese, Malvasia nera di Lecce, Ciliegiolo, Aglianico, Cabernet sauvignon, Moscato rosa), which have similar ecological conditions as the area of Ravni Kotari. During the five years period agrobio...

  5. Efecto de Diferentes Niveles de Agua Aplicada en Post-Cuaja y en Post-Pinta Sobre la Calidad del Vino cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Effects of Different Levels of Water Application in Post-Setting and Post-Verais on Wine Quality cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Acevedo O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un experimento para evaluar el efecto de diferentes niveles de reposición hídrica aplicados en post cuaja y en post pinta sobre la calidad del vino en el cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. durante la temporada de crecimiento 2000-2001 y 2001-2002. El viñedo está localizado en el Valle de Pencahue, VII Región de Chile (35º22' lat. Sur; 71º47' long. Oeste. El viñedo de 7 años de edad fue regado por goteo y conducido en espaldera simple. Los tratamientos de riego consistieron en la aplicación de 40, 70 y 100% de la evapotranspiración real de la vid (ETreal durante los períodos de post cuaja y de post pinta. Los resultados mostraron que la mejor combinación de calidad de vinos fue obtenida al aplicar restricciones hídricas del 40% durante post cuaja y 70% durante post pinta, con incrementos significativos de la calidad global y atributos sensoriales del vino. Por el contrario, la menor calidad de vino (alta acidez titulable y baja concentración de polifenoles y antocianinas totales fue obtenida con una aplicación de agua del 100% de la ETreal para todo el período de crecimiento.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of different levels of water application during post setting and post veraison on wine quality of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. during the 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 growing seasons. The vineyard is located in the Pencahue Valley, VII Region of Chile (35º22' S lat; 71º 47' W long. The 7 year-old vineyard was drip irrigated and trained in a vertical shoot positional system. Irrigation treatments were the application of 40, 70 and 100% of the real evapotranspiration (ETreal during post setting and post veraison. The results showed that the best combination for wine quality was obtained by restricting water applications to 40% ETreal during post setting and 70% ETreal during post veraison, with significant increments in the global quality and wine sensory attributes. On the

  6. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    OpenAIRE

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such...

  7. Effects on 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol precursor concentrations from prolonged storage of Sauvignon blanc grapes prior to crushing and pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Dimitra L; Black, Cory A; Jeffery, David W

    2012-04-01

    Formation of wine thiol precursors is a dynamic process, which can be influenced by vineyard and winery processing operations. With the aim of increasing thiol precursor concentrations, a study of the effects of storing machine-harvested Sauvignon blanc grapes prior to crushing and pressing was undertaken on a commercial scale. 3-Mercaptohexan-1-ol (3-MH) precursors, 2-S-glutathionylcaftaric acid (grape reaction product, GRP), glutathione (GSH) and a number of C6 compounds were assessed at several time points during the experiment. The concentration of the cysteine precursor to 3-MH doubled within 8 h and tripled after 30 h while the GSH and cysteinylglycine precursors increased in concentration roughly 1.5 times. (E)-2-Hexenal and GSH levels decreased as thiol precursors, GRP and C6 alcohols increased during storage. Principal component analysis revealed that precursors contributed to most of the variation within the samples over the storage period, with additional influence, primarily from GSH and GRP, as well as (E)-2-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol. Early storage time points were associated with higher concentrations of GSH and some unsaturated C6 compounds while longer storage times were most closely associated with higher thiol precursor and GRP concentrations. This study provides a detailed overview of interactions related to thiol precursor formation on a commercial scale and highlights the ability to manipulate precursor concentrations prior to grape crushing. PMID:22435800

  8. Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde, Virginia; Gindro, Katia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew ( Plasmopara viticola ) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms. PMID:23205623

  9. Effect of Pruning on chemical changes during fruit ripening of vitisvinifera l. var. cabernet sauvig

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Walteros; Deisy Molano; Pedro José Almanza; Mauricio Camacho; Sergio González Almanza

    2012-01-01

    The growth and grape fruit development is influenced by the presence of major changes at the biochemical level that lead to a correct ripening, determines the quality of musts and wines. As the pruning technique that regulates the quality of the fruit, we sought to know the effect of three types of pruning (short, long and mixed) on the evolution of chemical components of quality during fruit ripening of Vitisvinifera L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, in the municipality of Sutamarchán (Boyacá). Si...

  10. Characterization of Cold Soak on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Grape and Wine Volatiles Using an Electronic Nose System

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the electronic nose in the wine industry is an emerging technology. Although electronic nose systems have been used in other industries as tools to monitor fruit maturity or quality control, the use of these systems for wine analysis has been debated. Many electronic nose sensor types exist, but have often been accused of primarily discriminating varying ethanol concentrations of wines as opposed to aroma and flavor volatiles. This study evaluated the use of a commercial conduc...

  11. NMR metabolic fingerprinting and chemometrics driven authentication of Greek grape marc spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, Charalambos; Zervou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    NMR metabolomics was used to investigate 57 Greek spirits of four indigenous and four international varieties from Macedonia (tsipouro) and Crete (tsikoudia) to establish their authenticity. The metabolic profile of Romeiko, Malvasia, Xinomavro, Sangiovese and Nebbiolo varieties was assessed for the first time. The WET1D sequence was used to improve sensitivity and unveil minor metabolites. PCA was applied to delineate the provenance of samples and associate metabolites with distinct varietal characteristics, such as the acidity of Sangiovese, the overripe grapes harvesting of Romeiko, the intense body of Cabernet Sauvignon, the light body of Xinomavro and the glutamic acid for Malvasia. The migration of Cabernet Sauvignon from north Greece to Crete was framed. Monitoring multi-varietal spirits introduced 2-vinylethanol as a marker for yeast selection. OPLS-DA was applied to samples from the same vineyard, thus highlighting genotypic markers. Consequently, the findings address the concepts of typicity and traceability in grape marc spirits. PMID:26593552

  12. SERRA - NEWEST HIGH QUALITY WINE MUSCAT GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest wine Muscat grape variety with colored pulp and juice Serra was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by P.Zamanidi and L.Troshin in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian Odessa black variety (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon) with the new Greek Muscat black berry Krimbas variety. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period is 146-155 days. Strong growth of sho...

  13. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon) with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong gro...

  14. TRAMINER BLACK - NEWEST WINE AROMATHIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Maltabar L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Newest breeding aromatic grape variety with colored pulp and juice is Traminer black bred in Athens Viticulture Institute (Greece) P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and L.Maltabar in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian (Odessian) black varieties (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon) with the European Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the group of Western European varieties. Length of production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth shoots is st...

  15. Influence of Intermittent Heating during Maceration on the Antioxidant Capacity of Some Grape Seeds and Skins

    OpenAIRE

    Anamaria D. HOSU; Claudia CIMPOIU; Vasile MICLAUS; Damian, Grigore; Irina TARSICHE; Pop, Nastasia

    2010-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from seeds and skins of three red grape varieties, namely, 'Cabernet Sauvignon', 'Merlot' and 'Burgund' from a Romanian winery, were prepared by maceration using different temperature conditions. The stable free radicals DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl) and Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl) were used in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The variation in time of free radical concentration was followed by double integration...

  16. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

    OpenAIRE

    María José Otero-Pareja; Lourdes Casas; María Teresa Fernández-Ponce; Casimiro Mantell; Enrique J. Martínez de la Ossa

    2015-01-01

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Pet...

  17. Identification of S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione and its bisulfite adduct in grape juice from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc as new potential precursors of 3SH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibon, Cécile; Böcker, Caroline; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Moine, Virginie; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-05-15

    Two main precursors (S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-cysteine and S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-glutathione) of 3-sulfanylhexanol (3SH, formerly named 3-mercaptohexanol) have been identified so far in grape juice but a correlation between precursor concentrations in grape juices and 3SH concentrations in wines is not always observed. This suggests that there may be other compounds associated with the aromatic potential. In this work, S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione (Glut-3SH-Al) and its bisulfite (Glut-3SH-SO3) adduct were identified in Sauvignon blanc grape juice by liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform mass spectrometry experiments. A partial purification of the compounds was carried out by Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography (MPLC) on the reverse phase using 5L of grape juice. The addition of synthetized Glut-3SH-Al and Glut-3SH-SO3 in the synthetic medium induced a significant release of 3SH after fermentation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Glut-3SH-Al and its bisulfite adduct are present in grape juice and could be considered as new direct 3SH precursors with molar conversion yields close to 0.4%. PMID:26776028

  18. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Anthocyanins were released from skins during the early phases of the enzymatic treatments, but were then degraded during further enzymatic treatment; flavonols underwent transformation from glycosylated (rutin) to deglycosylated (quercetin...... lignin. The data moreover suggest that p-coumaric acid was also released during enzyme catalyzed degradation of acylated anthocyanins, probably as a result of cinnamate esterase activity. The data thus provided unexpected new clues as to how the enzymatic treatment with multicomponent pectinolytic...

  19. ESTUDIO DE LA COMPOSICIÓN DE VINOS DE TEMPRANILLO Y CABERNET SAUVIGNON FERMENTADOS Y CONSERVADOS EN HORMIGÓN, ACERO INOXIDABLE Y BARRICAS

    OpenAIRE

    PEIDRÓ MONTANER, MARÍA JOSÉ

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The quality of one wine depends of many factors, soil, clime, kind of grape, the elaboration and breeding. The oxygen plays an important role in the polyphenolic and aromatic composition of the wines. This work has two objectives, first study and evaluation of the kind of deposit that we use during fermentation-maceration, with the conventional parameters even with polyphenolic and aromatic composition of the wines. In the other hand, we want to study and evaluate the influence of the...

  20. Effect of maceration time on polyphenol and colour features of Cabernet Sauvignon wine produced with flash evaporation%浸渍时间对闪蒸赤霞珠干红酚类物质和颜色特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华玉波; 崔彦志; 王莉; 柴菊华

    2012-01-01

    The Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were treated by flash evaporation and were macerated for different times (0d, 3d, 5d, 7d), then polyphenol and colour features of the wines were studied and compared with the wine produced with traditional technology during their fermentation and aging process ,the results showed that: during the fermentation and aging process in oak barrels, the wines produced with flash evaporation technology, which were macerated for 3d, 5d, 7d have more total phenols and tannins and the content of total phenols and tannins is positively correlated with maceration time; all the wines produced with flash evaporation technology have higher color density and lower color tone; the wine produced with flash evaporation and macerated for 5d has the darkest color while the wine macerated for 7d has the most red color tone after aged for 270d.%对赤霞珠葡萄进行闪蒸处理,通过不同时间(0d、3d、5d、7d)的浸渍发酵,比较研究了闪蒸葡萄酒与传统发酵酒在发酵和橡木桶陈酿过程中酚类物质含量和颜色特征的差异,结果表明:在发酵和陈酿过程中,与传统发酵酒相比,闪蒸处理后进行3d、5d、7d浸渍可显著提高酒中总酚、单宁含量,且和浸渍时间呈正相关;所有闪蒸处理酒均色度值高、色调值低;陈酿270d后,浸渍5d的闪蒸酒颜色最深,而浸渍7d的闪蒸酒红色色调最强.

  1. Response of grape cultivars to nitrogen and phosphorus grown with water harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fertilizer studies were conducted on mature vineyards established with a water harvesting system on a White House sandy 10 am (fine, mixed, thermic, Ustollic Haplargid) soil at the University of Arizona Oracle Agricultural Center. In one study, two grape (Vitis viinifera L.) cultivars, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Sauvignon blanc', were treated with different levels of 15 N and P fertilizer and tested for tissue NO3-N and total-P content. In the second study, eleven grape varieties were treated with three levels of N. Tissue samples were analysed for total P and NO3-N content, and the ratio of petiole-P to leaf blade-P was determined. When sufficient quantities of both nutrients were provided, N and P interacted positively resulting in increased grape yields. The petiole-P to leaf blade-P ratio correctly monitored the P status of the vines. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs

  2. The effects of different processing parameters (cold soak and percent alcohol (v/v) at dejuicing) on the concentrations of grape glycosides and glycoside fractions and glycosidase activities in selected yeast and lactic acid bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Heather

    1998-01-01

    Grape-derived aroma and flavor precursors exist partially as non-volatile, sugar-bound glycosides. Hydrolysis of these compounds may modify sensory attributes and potentially enhance wine quality. Cold soak (prefermentation skin contact) at two temperatures and alcohol content (%, v/v) at dejuicing were monitored to determine effects on Cabernet Sauvignon glycoside concentration. Total, phenolic-free, and red-free glycoside concentrations were estimated by the quantification of glycosyl-...

  3. Evaluation of Differences on the Sensory Characteristics of Wine Produced from Non-Dried and Dried Grapes by Using Discriminative Sensory Test, Two out of Five

    OpenAIRE

    ANISA PEÇULI; ERANDA MANE

    2014-01-01

    Eight wines produced from Kallmet and Cabernet Sauvignon, from non-dried and dried grapes and in two years 2011 and 2013 were subjected of discriminative sensory test 2out of 5. The aim of the study was to confirm by human perception, the chemical data that shows differences between wines from non-dried and dried grapes. A group of 15 trained panelist after tasted the wines in a blind test were asked to group the wines in two groups according to their similarity. After a small break a visual ...

  4. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y......) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R 2 = 0.96, P <0.0001. The kinetics of caffeic acid formation with time in response to initial p-coumaric acid levels and at different grape skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o......-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3′-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K m of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid....

  5. Anthocyanin content in dried berry skins and wine produced from dried grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEÇULI ANISA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin, are the substances which are biosynthesized in the grape skin, extracted during the maceration and vinification and which contribute in wine color. During the aging of wines these substances are converted in their derivates, contributing in wine quality. For this reasons in nowadays there is a big attention of studies in these components. Wines from two grapes variety, a French variety, Cabernet Sauvignon and the other an autochthonous variety of Albania Kallmet were observed. The role of drying in concentration of anthocyanin in skins berry and if this technique is reflected in wine produced from this dried grape, was studied. The results shown that the quantity of anthocyanins from dried skins varied from 136 mg/100gr fresh product to 468 mg/100gr. The dried skins had the higher quantity, but this result was more significant for Cabernet Sauvignon wine than Kallmet wine. Measurement of phenolic content showed no significant changes between wines from dried and non-dried grapes.

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea. PMID:25521116

  7. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  8. Influence of Intermittent Heating during Maceration on the Antioxidant Capacity of Some Grape Seeds and Skins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria D. HOSU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from seeds and skins of three red grape varieties, namely, 'Cabernet Sauvignon', 'Merlot' and 'Burgund' from a Romanian winery, were prepared by maceration using different temperature conditions. The stable free radicals DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl and Tempol (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl were used in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The variation in time of free radical concentration was followed by double integration of the EPR spectra of the samples obtained after maceration under different conditions (room temperature and intermittent heating. Results showed that the antioxidant capacity depends on the nature of analysed samples (either being seeds or skins and grape variety. The results also show that the intermittent heating during maceration leads to a decrease of the antioxidant capacity of samples.

  9. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported for...... the quantitative allocation of plant cell wall monomers into relevant structural polysaccharide elements. By this method the relative molar distribution (mol %) of the different polysaccharides in the red wine grape skins was estimated as 57-62 mol % homogalacturonan, 6.0-14 mol % cellulose, 10-11 mol......-47% by weight of the skins (dry matter), the rest mainly being lignin. The predicted relative molar levels of the polysaccharide elements in the apple skins, which made up similar to 49-64% by weight of the skins (dry matter), appeared to be similar to those of the grape skins. The apple skins were...

  10. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nerve and eye problems, improving wound healing, preventing tooth decay, preventing cancer, an eye disease called age-related ... Activin, Black Grape Raisins, Calzin, Draksha, Enocianina, European Wine Grape, Extrait de Feuille de Raisin, Extrait de Feuille de ...

  11. Grape marc as a source of carbohydrates for bioethanol: Chemical composition, pre-treatment and saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Kendall R; Hsieh, Yves S Y; Betts, Natalie S; Byrt, Caitlin S; Henderson, Marilyn; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2015-10-01

    Global grape production could generate up to 13 Mt/yr of wasted biomass. The compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon (red marc) and Sauvignon Blanc (white marc) were analyzed with a view to using marc as raw material for biofuel production. On a dry weight basis, 31-54% w/w of the grape marc consisted of carbohydrate, of which 47-80% was soluble in aqueous media. Ethanol insoluble residues consisted mainly of polyphenols, pectic polysaccharides, heteroxylans and cellulose. Acid and thermal pre-treatments were investigated for their effects on subsequent cellulose saccharification. A 0.5M sulfuric acid pre-treatment yielded a 10% increase in the amount of liberated glucose after enzymatic saccharification. The theoretical amount of bioethanol that could be produced by fermentation of grape marc was up to 400 L/t. However, bioethanol from only soluble carbohydrates could yield 270 L/t, leaving a polyphenol enriched fraction that may be used in animal feed or as fertilizer. PMID:26117238

  12. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

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    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  13. Composição do suco de uva caseiro de diferentes cultivares Composition of homemade grape juice from different varieties

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    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um volume considerável de uva do grupo das americanas da Serra Gaúcha é destinado para a produção de suco de uva caseiro. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das cultivares Isabel, Bordô (Ives e Concord de Vitis labrusca e Cabernet Sauvignon de Vitis vinifera, na composição do suco de uva, elaborado na Embrapa Uva e Vinho na safra de 2003. Os sucos foram avaliados quanto às análises clássicas: densidade, °Brix, acidez total, acidez volátil, pH e relação °Brix/acidez total, efetuadas através de métodos físico-químicos. Os compostos voláteis etanol, metanol e aldeído acético foram determinados através da cromatografia gasosa. Os elementos minerais Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn foram analisados por absorção atômica, enquanto que o K, Na e Rb, por emissão de chama. O P foi determinado por colorimetria. Os resultados evidenciaram variabilidade entre os sucos das diferentes cultivares. O suco de Cabernet Sauvignon diferenciou-se dos demais pelos menores teores de metanol e etanol e pelos maiores de acidez volátil e Fe. Os sucos da uva Bordô e Concord apresentaram menor teor de acidez total e de Mn.A great amount of American grapes is employed to produce homemade juice in the Serra Gaúcha Region. The purpose of this work was to evaluated the effects of Vitis labrusca cultivars (Isabel, Bordô (Ives, Concord and a Vitis vinifera cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon, in the juice composition. The juice was prepared at Embrapa in Bento Gonçalves, RS, in the 2003 vintage. The juices had been evaluated as classic analysis: density, °Brix, total and volatile acidity, pH, °Brix total acidity ratio, made by the physical-chemical methods. The volatile components ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography. The mineral elements Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn had been analysed by atomic absorption when the K, Na and Rb by flame emission. The results showed variability among juices from different grape

  14. Características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ na região norte do Paraná = Physic, chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera, cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente àVinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em julho de 2000, tendo o ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ como porta-enxerto. Para cada variedade foram utilizadas 20 plantas uniformes, conduzidas em latada em espaçamento de 4 x1,5 m. A maturação das uvas foi avaliada quanto à evolução de pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SST, acidez titulável (AT e relação SST/AT do mosto das bagas, a partir dos 50 dias aproximadamenteapós o florescimento, até 7 dias após colheita. Em função do número de cachos por planta, massa dos cachos e número de plantas por hectare, foram estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. O diâmetro e a massa das bagas foram também caracterizadas. Verificou-se que a uva ‘Tannat’ apresenta características químicas e produtivas adequadas para o processamento, sendo as principais características da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’: comportamento da maturação melhor ajustado à regressão cúbica; pH, teor de SST, AT e relação SST/AT do mosto de 3,3 e 3,2; 14,1 e 17,2°Brix; 0,76 e 0,70% de ácido tartárico e 18,7 e 29,6;estimativas da produção por planta, produtividade, massa média dos cachos, número de cachos por planta, diâmetro e massa das bagas de 9,5 e 6,1 kg; 15,9 e 10,1 t ha-1; 0,12 e 0,16 kg; 78 e 36 cachos por planta; 12,0 e 12,9 mm, respectivamente.The aim of this research was to determine the physic-chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in the north of Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard owned by Intervin® Cellar

  15. Effect of Pruning on chemical changes during fruit ripening of vitisvinifera l. var. cabernet sauvig

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    Ingrid Walteros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and grape fruit development is influenced by the presence of major changes at the biochemical level that lead to a correct ripening, determines the quality of musts and wines. As the pruning technique that regulates the quality of the fruit, we sought to know the effect of three types of pruning (short, long and mixed on the evolution of chemical components of quality during fruit ripening of Vitisvinifera L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, in the municipality of Sutamarchán (Boyacá. Since the beginning of veraison to maturity, every 15 days 20 berries were collected randomly to determine the behavior of the total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA and the technical maturity index (IMT. The results show that the SST, increased continuously as the berries ripen. Pruning mixed long and went from 12.5 to 21.2° Brix at harvest time. For its part, the ATT decreased with fruit development, the control (pruning cuts produced by ripening fruits with higher ATT in vintage was 7.6 g L-1. The IMT, increased significantly as a function of chronological time. Pruning cuts produced fruits with lower IMT, while pruning long had the highest value 3.40. Pruning long and mixed, to present appropriate values during ripening, provide a better quality of fruit for winemaking.

  16. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture. PMID:24279372

  17. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stop the growth of lactobacillus acidophilus in the intestinal tract and cancel its effects. Don't take grape and lactobacillus at the same time.Vitamin CEarly research suggests that people with high blood pressure who ...

  18. Effects of phylloxera infestation on the root ultrastructure of grape cultivars with different resistance%根瘤蚜侵染对不同抗性葡萄品种根系超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜远鹏; 蒋恩顺; 翟衡

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同抗性葡萄品种对葡萄根瘤蚜Daktulosphaira vitifolia Fitch侵染后的组织结构响应.[方法]以砧木140Ru(Vitis rupestris×V.berlandieri)和栽培品种赤霞珠Vitis vinifera cv.Cabernet Sauvignon离体三级根及140Ru盆栽苗为试材接种根瘤蚜卵,接种两周后取刺吸位点组织作超薄切片并观察超微结构变化,取盆栽140Ru不同时期根结测定多酚含量.[结果]超微结构显示,砧木140Ru根系周皮层最外层细胞壁的厚度(1 031.25 nm)及周皮层细胞层数(6~7层)显著高于赤霞珠品种的周皮层细胞厚度(543.75 nm)及层数(3~4层),140Ru根系韧皮部酚类物质含量比赤霞珠高出35%;侵染后,砧木140Ru周皮层细胞第3层以内的细胞壁加厚并积聚大量的多酚类物质,140Ru葡萄新根被根瘤蚜侵染后多酚含量呈升高趋势,在接种20d时是对照的2.4倍;赤霞珠粗根被根瘤蚜侵染后薄壁细胞中细胞质变浓,出现大量淀粉粒,线粒体及内质网数量增多.[结论]砧木140Ru的周皮层组织结构较赤霞珠不利于根瘤蚜口针穿刺,被根瘤蚜侵染后发生了不利于根瘤蚜侵染取食的变化.%[ Aim ] To investigate the effects of phylloxera infestation on the root ultrastructure of grape cultivars with different resistance. [ Methods] Excised tertiary roots of rootstock 140Ru ( Vitis rupestris X V. Berlandieri) and Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and potted 140 Ru were inoculated with phylloxera eggs. After two weeks, tissues at the probing sites were collected to make ultrathin section and the transmission electronic microscope was used to observe the changes of ultrastructure, and potted 140Ru nodosities in different stages were collected to examine the phenol content. [ Results ] The outermost periderm cell wall in 140 Ru (1 031. 25 nm) was thicker than that in Cabernet Sauvignon (543. 75 nm) , and the number of periderm cell layers in 140Ru (6-7 layers) was more than that in Cabernet

  19. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  20. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study. PMID:25939071

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

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    Camila M.P.B.S. de Ponzzes-Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  2. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  3. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feige, Markus; Hampel, Gabriele; Kratz, Jens Volker; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Koenig, Helmut [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Weinforschung; Wagner, Andreas [Weingut Wagner, Essenheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  4. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  5. Changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking of Sauvignon wines

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Gracin, L.; Komes, Draženka; Ćurko, Natka; Lovrić, T.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking and maturation processes of wines made from Vitis vinifera cv Sauvignon grapes from Slavonia region (vintage 2008). Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). Samples used in this study were obtained during production of Sauvignon wines in three...

  6. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  7. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination. PMID:26590878

  8. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  9. TRAMINER BLACK - NEWEST WINE AROMATHIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Newest breeding aromatic grape variety with colored pulp and juice is Traminer black bred in Athens Viticulture Institute (Greece P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and L.Maltabar in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian (Odessian black varieties (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with the European Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the group of Western European varieties. Length of production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. Productivity is high. The average weight of bunch 200 grams. Characterized by a high resistance to cold, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is hermaphrodite. Clusters are short or medium, conical, sometimes with wing, average density. Berry is small, round, blue-black coloring, with a thick waxy coating. Peel thick, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored, with a taste of Gewurztraminer. Content of sugar is very high: in the bushes on the stale grapes reaches more than 40%. Prolonged preservation of crop on bushes. Sort intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet wines and liqueurs, and is suitable for high-quality juices. When used in blends with other varieties, enhances coloration, completeness of taste and improves the bouquet of wine

  10. CONTENIDO DE FLAVONOLES EN UVAS PARA VINO CULTIVADAS EN EL VALLE DE CASABLANCA, CHILE Flavonol content of Chilean wine grapes grown in Casablanca Valley, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ciudad B.

    2002-01-01

    flavonols, and moreover, recently foreign literature has recognized the comparatively high levels that Chilean wines possess. As a consequence, it is of interest to classify and evaluate the potential productive concentrations of the flavonols: myricetin and quercetin in Chilean grapes, which pass into the must during the production process. To meet this objective, wine grape samples of Carmenère, Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Chardonnay were collected in the Casablanca Valley in the 1999 harvest, using a completely randomized design with four repetitions, where each repetition corresponded to a bunch. The proportion of berry skin was determined, and the skins were lyophilised and processed using hydrolysis in the Biochemistry and Vegetable Physiology Laboratory of the La Platina Regional Research Center. Flavonols were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and expressed as mg kg-1 of fruit. According to the results of the study, Cabernet Sauvignon and Carmenère varieties had the highest concentrations of flavonols in the fruit; followed sequentially by Merlot, Chardonnay and Pinot noir. These values are consistent with those reported by other authors in the same wine varieties.

  11. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Planococcus citri em diferentes estruturas vegetativas de cultivares de videira Biology and fertility life table of Planococcus citri in different vegetative structures of grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia e a tabela de vida de fertilidade de Planococcus citri, em folhas de videira das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Itália e Isabel, em bagas de uva 'Itália' e em raízes da 'Isabel' e dos porta-enxertos 101-14 e IAC-572. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: duração e viabilidade dos estágios de ovo e ninfa; e fecundidade e longevidade dos adultos. Em raízes do porta-enxerto IAC-572, a cochonilha não completou o ciclo biológico. Em bagas de uva 'Itália', o inseto completou a fase de ninfa, porém os adultos foram inférteis. Em folhas das diferentes cultivares, a duração média do período de ovo a adulto dos machos foi de 24,63 dias, com viabilidade de 32%, enquanto as fêmeas duraram 32 dias com viabilidade de 56%. Em raízes, a duração do ciclo biológico de fêmeas e machos foi de 32,45 e 29,50 dias, respectivamente. Em folhas, a fecundidade foi de 67,27, 66,09 e 53,33 ovos por fêmea, nas cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Isabel e Itália, respectivamente. Nas raízes foram obtidos 30,4 e 70,0 ovos por fêmea, no porta-enxerto 101-14 e na cultivar Isabel, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to study the biology and fertility life table of Planococcus citri in leaves of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Itália and Isabel, in berries of 'Itália', in roots of 'Isabel' and 101-14 and IAC-572 rootstocks. The following parameters were evaluated: duration and viability of the egg and nymph stages; and fertility and longevity of the adults. On berries of 'Itália', the insect completed the nymph phase, however the adults were infertile. On roots of the rootstock IAC-572, citrus mealybug was unable to develop. On leaves of the grape cultivars, the period of egg to adult males was 24.63 days, with viability of 32%, while females lasted 32 days with viability of 56%. On roots, the duration of the cycle of females and males was 32.45 and 29.50 days, respectively. For females

  12. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic study for varietal discrimination of grapes according to plant sterols content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Laura; Sampedro, M Carmen; Sánchez, Alicia; Delporte, Cédric; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-07-01

    Grapevine and derived products are rich in a wide range of compounds and its quality mainly depends on its metabolites, as a result of viticulture practices. Plant sterols, also called phytosterols (PS), are secondary metabolites regarded as bioactive substance present in grape berries and other plant-based food. The present study deals with a metabolomic approach focusing on phytosterols family in six varieties of Rioja grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Graciano, Garnacha, White Garnacha and Viura), in order to find significant differences among them. Liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry with a quadrupole-time of flight mass analyzer (LC-QTOF) was used to find as many metabolites as possible in the different grape berry fractions, and using statistics to help finding significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulp, peel and seeds in relation to the variety. The best chromatographic and detection conditions were achieved by gas phase ionization via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode. Furthermore, analysis with electrospray (ESI) is also needed for phytosterol derivatives confirmation. Putative compounds of interest in the analyzed samples were found by an automated compound extraction algorithm (Molecular Feature Extraction, MFE) and an initial differential expression from the data was created with the aid of commercial software. Once the data were collected, the results were filtered, aligned and normalized, and evaluating applying one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a 95% significance level. For sample class prediction, partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is used as a supervised pattern recognition method and excellent separation among the grape varieties is shown. An overall accuracy of 93.3% (pulp samples), 100.0% (peel) or 96.7% (seeds) in discriminating between grape varieties was achieved when comparing the different fractions. In general, 7 PS derivatives were identified with ID scores

  13. Antibacterial activity of grape extracts on cagA-positive and -negative Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S; D'Addario, C; Braconi, D; Bernardini, G; Salvini, L; Bonechi, C; Figura, N; Santucci, A; Rossi, C

    2009-11-01

    There is considerable interest in alternative/adjuvant approaches for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori using biologically active compounds, especially antioxidants from plants. In the present work, we tested the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of hydro-alcoholic extracts from Colorino, Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon grape cultivars against H. pylori G21 (cagA-negative, cagA-) and 10K, (cagApositive, cagA+) clinical isolates. We determined the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by incubating strain suspensions in Brucella broth with fetal bovine serum and samples at different concentrations in a final volume of 100 microl in a microaerobic atmosphere. After incubation, subcultures were carried out on Brucella agar plates which were incubated for 3-5 days in a microaerobic environment. The lowest concentration in broth, where the subculture on agar showed complete absence of growth, was considered the MBC.The Colorino extract showed the highest antibacterial activity against G21 strain (MBC=1.35 mg/ml), while Sangiovese and Carbernet MBCs were 4.0 mg/ml ca. H. pylori 10K was only susceptible to Colorino after 48 hours (MBC = 3.57 mg/ml). Resveratrol exhibited the highest antibacterial activity. interestingly, the most pathogenic strain (10K) was less susceptible to both the grape extracts and the isolated compounds. These results suggest that the administration of grape extracts and wine constituents, in addition to antibiotics, might be useful in the treatment of H. pylori infection. Should the reduced susceptibility of 10K strain be extended to all the cagA+ H. pylori isolates, which are endowed with cancer promoter activity, this observation may help explain why the organisms expressing CagA are more closely associated with atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma development. PMID:19933041

  14. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

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    María José Otero-Pareja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  15. Green extraction of antioxidants from different varieties of red grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Pareja, María José; Casas, Lourdes; Fernández-Ponce, María Teresa; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

    2015-01-01

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol. PMID:26016554

  16. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong growth of arms (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots - over 90. Productivity is very high: 20-30 t / ha. The average mass of clusters is 260 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Lobes, the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Bunch medium, often with tapered wing, the average density. Berry small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. The peel is medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored. Sugar content is very high. Prolonged preservation of different crop on bushes. Variety intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties, it enhances color, flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

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    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  18. METHODOLOGY FOR FROST-RESISTANCE DETERMINING OF GRAPE VARIETIES (BASED ON EXAMPLE OF STAGE AND CHARACTER OF DAMAGING WINTER BUDS IN GRAPE BUSHES IN JANUARY 2015 IN ZAO “POBEDA” IN TEMRIUK DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuzok N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In January 2015, at the Vineyard and ZAO "Pobeda" in Temryuk District of the Krasnodar region, the thermometer dropped to minus 21,6 C, which resulted in significant damage to the central wintering buds. The article presents a method of determining the degree of damage of wintering buds. Based on the results of inspection of variety by sections divided into 3 groups. Group 1: saved between 40 and 72% central. This group includes the following 7 varieties : Pervenets Magaracha (uch. 64 Gibernal (uch. 74/3, Viorica (uch. 77, Riton (uch. 66, Riesling (uch. 82, Traminer (uch. 73/2, Chardonnay (uch. 73/3. Cutting of bushes should be carried out by the usual way. The task of cutting - compensate the loss of crops due to leaving the greater load. Group 2: Central buds was damaged nearly 70-85%, saved from 20 to 35% of replacement buds. This group includes Merlot (uch. 83, Tsitronyy Magaracha (uch. 69, Augustine (uch. 66, Saperavi (uch. 79, Chardonnay (uch. 74/1, Muscat white (uch. 73 Cabernet Sauvignon (uch. 80. During cutting should be left as much as possible of annual shoots and well-developed secondary shoots. Group 3: damaged more than 85% of central buds, replacement buds significantly damaged . To this group assigned Saperavi (uch. 80, Pinot blanc (uch. 74, Merlot (uch. 80/2, Moldova (uch. 70, Chardonnay (uch. 68, Moldova (uch. 22 Kaberne- Sauvignon (uch. 68, Moldova (uch. 38, Arkadia (uch. 78, Tsimlyansky black (uch. 68. Pre-cutting consists in removing all clearly dead and unusable parts of the bush (dried vines, stumps, annual shoots that will accelerate the development of shoots from the angular buds and resting buds. Considering the high plasticity of grape plants, can not only in accelerated way to restore the crown of bushes damaged by frost, but also get a crop in the current year, using special methods of agricultural technology

  19. SERRA - NEWEST HIGH QUALITY WINE MUSCAT GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

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    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine Muscat grape variety with colored pulp and juice Serra was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by P.Zamanidi and L.Troshin in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian Odessa black variety (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with the new Greek Muscat black berry Krimbas variety. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period is 146-155 days. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots is over 90. Productivity is very high: 25-30 t / ha. Average weight is 350 g. Grapes characterized with high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, with the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Cluster is medium, conical, sometimes with wing, medium density. Berry is small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are intensely colored, flavored with Muscat taste. Sugar content is very high, in the bushes at sun-dried bunches up to more than 40%. Prolonged preservation of crop on bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines, and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality intensively colored juice with Muscat taste. When used in blends with other varieties increases color, full flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  20. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  1. 葡萄籽超微粉在模拟人体肠胃环境中的吸收状况%Absorptive Situation of Grape Seeds Supermicro Powder in Simulated Stomach and Intestinal Circumstance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春龙; 李华; 张予林; 李玲玲; 赵丽娟

    2011-01-01

    葡萄籽含有丰富的生物活性成分,具有极高的营养价值和保健作用.为了充分利用葡萄籽中的功能性成分,提高产品的附加值,将超微粉碎技术应用于葡萄籽的加工中,生产葡萄籽超微粉产品.为评价葡萄籽超微粉在人体中的吸收利用状况,做模拟肠、胃环境的吸收试验.试验结果表明:葡萄籽超微粉经模拟胃液消化3~5h,多酚、白藜芦醇溶出率:霞多丽60.87%~67.43%、23.65%~40.64%,赤霞珠60.48%~69.99%、20.63%~43.38%;经模拟肠液消化5~15 h,多酚、白藜芦醇溶出率:霞多丽1.96%~17.86%、17.51%~50.25%,赤霞珠3.38%~15.23%、14.02%~44.74%.葡萄籽多酚物质的消化吸收主要集中在胃环境中,白藜芦醇在肠、胃环境中的消化吸收几乎各占一半.%Grape seeds contain abundant active components, which have high nutritional and heath care value.In order to be useful grape seeds for increase new value-added products, the technology of super grinding was applied in the process of grape seeds and created a new products-supermicro powder of grape seeds.for the sake of evaluation the products, the absorptive experiment of the supermicro powder in simulated stomach and intestinal circumstance was carried out.The results were shown: After supermicro powder of grape seeds digested in simulated stomach juice for 3~5 h,the dissolved rate of polyphenols and resveratrol, Chardonnay were 60.87%~67.43%, 23.65%~40.64% respectively;Cabernet Sauvignon were 60.48%~69.99%, 20.63%~43.38%, respectively; digested for 5~15 h in simulated intestinal juice, Chardonnay were 1.96%~17.86%, 17.51%~50.25%, respectively; Cabernet Sauvignon were 3.38%~15.23%, 14.02%~44.71% respectively.It indicated that a majority of polyphenols and almost half of resveratrol of grape seeds were mainly dissolved in simulated stomach circumstance, and the others was dissolved in simulated intestinal circumstance.

  2. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties.

  3. Wine grape pomace flour improves blood pressure, fasting glucose and protein damage in humans: a randomized controlled trial

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    Inés Urquiaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet is a healthy diet with positive scientific evidence of preventing chronic diseases. Bioactive components support the healthy properties of the Mediterranean diet. Antioxidants and fiber, two components of the Mediterranean diet, are key functional nutrients for healthy eating and nutrition. Wine grape pomace is a rich source of these dietary constituents and may be beneficial for human health. Our hypothesis was that the intake of red wine grape pomace flour (WGPF prepared from red wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon variety reduced the metabolic syndrome in humans. To evaluate the effect of WGPF on components of metabolic syndrome we design a 16-week longitudinal intervention study. Thirty-eight males, 30-65 years of age, with at least one component of metabolic syndrome, were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 25 or the control group (n = 13. At lunch, the intervention group was given 20 g of WGPF per day, which contained 10 g of dietary fiber, 822 mg of polyphenols and an antioxidant capacity of 7258 ORAC units. Both groups were asked to maintain their regular eating habits and lifestyles. Clinical evaluation, anthropometric measurements and biochemical blood analyses were done at the beginning and the end of the study. RESULTS: WGPF intake significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as fasting glucose levels. Plasma γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol increased and carbonyl group in plasma protein decreased in WGPT group, significantly. No significant effect was observed for waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C in and between groups. The group-dependent magnitude of the differences between the baseline and final postprandial insulin values and γ-tocopherol concentrations was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of WGPF-rich in fiber and polyphenol antioxidants, as a food supplement in a

  4. Effect of skin contact and pressure on the composition of Sauvignon Blanc must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggu, Manu; Winz, Robert; Kilmartin, Paul A; Trought, Michael C T; Nicolau, Laura

    2007-12-12

    Early white winemaking operations are known to affect the extraction of grape skin compounds into the juice fraction, which will dictate their concentration in the resulting wine. Grape skin contact and the amount of pressure applied during grape pressing affect the extraction of varietal aromas located in the skins. Compounds such as the polyphenols and glutathione, with antioxidant properties involved in juice oxidation processes and white wine stability, are also affected. The present study evaluates how grape skin contact and the amount of pressure applied during grape pressing affect the levels of S-(3-hexan-l-ol)cysteine (3MH-S-cys, a key grape-derived precursor to the volatile thiol 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH), which is reminiscent of passion fruit aroma); 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP, with a capsicum-like descriptor); phenolic compounds; and glutathione in Sauvignon Blanc juice. The study was conducted using grapes obtained from commercial Marlborough (New Zealand) vineyards, using both commercial and laboratory grape-processing procedures. Immobilized metal ion chromatography was used to isolate the 3MH- S-cys precursor from the juices. The isolated precursor was then volatilized by trimethylsilylation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). IBMP was analyzed by GC/MS after solvent extraction, and a high-performance liquid chromatography method was used for the quantification of phenolic compounds and glutathione. 3MH- S-cys levels were seen to increase in juice fractions obtained from a winery press operating at higher pressures. The increase was attributed to the cumulative effect of longer skin contact time and the amount of pressure applied. The highly water-soluble IBMP was less affected by the amount of pressure applied during commercial grape pressing. Additional information was generated by the specific assessment of skin contact and applied pressure during grape pressing in a laboratory trial. In this trial, a long (32

  5. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek) with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher) with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon). Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m). The percentage of productive shoots is more than...

  6. 76 FR 66625 - Approval of Grape Variety Names for American Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... (76 FR 3573) proposing to add a number of grape variety names to the list of approved names in Sec. 4.... Pepin St. Vincent Sauvignon gris Valiant Valvin Muscat Vergennes ] Vermentino Wine King Zinthiana...) * * * * * Valdepe as (Tempranillo) * * * * * Valiant Valvin Muscat * * * * * Vergennes Vermentino * * * * *...

  7. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE LABORATORY SELECTED AND ACTIVE DRIED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE YEAST CULTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE BRANDY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Samples from different industrial grape cultivars were collected during the vintage season from the vineyard of the winery (the «Shabo» winery Company, located in the Odesa region, Ukraine). The following industrial cultivars of grapes were selected for the research: Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon, Riesling Rhenish, Aligote, Rkatsiteli, Bastardo, Traminer, Telti Kuruk, Grinosh. The grape cultivars were cultivated on the sandy soils in the district located between the Black ...

  8. Evaluation of Fermentation Efficiency of Yeast Strains and their Effect on Quality of Young Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A. K.; Singh, Pranay Nath; S. D. Sawant

    2011-01-01

    The yeast has important role in fermentation of wine grapes and wine quality. The fermentation of wine grapes affect by efficiency of particular yeast strain, sugar content, pH, available temperature, etc. To evaluate the efficiency of yeast strains (Premier Cuvee, RS-1, RS-2, RS-3 and natural), present study was conducted on two wine grape varieties viz.; Sauvignon Blanc (White) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Red). Efficiency of yeast strains was evaluated in terms of conversion rate of sugar into ...

  9. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of green cover crops on vine productivity and on grape and wine composition. For two growing seasons, evaluations were done for three intercrops, two managements of the cover crops, and for a control treatment with weeds controlled by herbicides and mowing. A vineyard of 'Cabernet Sauvignon', located at 1,130 m altitude in a Haplumbrept soil, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil was used. Intercropping was done with a succession of the cover crops moha

  10. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  11. The effect of linoleic acid on the Sauvignon blanc fermentation by different wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Francesca; Pinu, Farhana R; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Greenwood, David R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2016-08-01

    The level of linoleic acid in the Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juice affects the development of different aroma compounds during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118, including key varietal thiols such as 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). However, it is still unknown if linoleic acid would affect in a similar way other commonly used S. cerevisiae wine strains. Here we investigated the effect of grape juice linoleic acid on the development of aroma compounds and other metabolites of SB wines using different wine yeast strains: EC1118, AWRI796 and VIN13. Linoleic acid clearly affected the levels of acetylated aroma compounds, several amino acids, and antioxidant molecules, independent of yeast strain, but the production of 3MH was affected by linoleic acid in a strain-specific manner. Moreover, the supplementation of deuterium-labelled 3MH also affected the production of varietal thiols in a strain-specific way. Linoleic acid reduced the acetylation process probably by inhibiting an acetyltransferase, an effect that was independent of the yeast strain. However, regulation of the 3MH biosynthesis is strain-specific, which suggests a mindful consideration not only towards the wine yeast but also to the linoleic acid concentration in the grape juice in order to obtain the desired wine aroma characteristics. PMID:27364827

  12. APOLLON – THE NEW WINE HIGH QUALITY GRAPE VARIETY WITH BLACK BERRY Aполлон – новый высококачественный универсальный черноягодный сорт винограда

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal black-berry Apollo grape has been launched in Greece by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and A.Isachkin in 2003 with combinative selection - crossing of the Fi-lery Greek variety with the French Cabernet-Sauvignon. The duration of the production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth of arms is strong (2,1-3,0 m, the degree of maturation of the vines is high. Crop yields are very high - 35-40 t/ha. The aver-age mass of clusters is 430 g. It is characterized by high winter hardiness, drought-resistance and high resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varie-ties of Vitis vinifera. The flower is bisexual. Cluster is big or very big, conical with the wing, loose. Berries are medium or large, oval, blue-black in color, with a thick wax coating. The skin is thick. The pulp and juice - with varietal flavor. Sugar content is high. Notable for long saving the harvest in the bushes, well-kept in the cooler cells. The variety is meant for the fresh consumption and for manufacture of red dry, desert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high-quality juices

  13. Pre-fermentation fining effects on the aroma chemistry of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc press fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Katie J; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Bouda, Flo; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In the wine industry, fining agents are commonly used with many choices now commercially available. Here the influence of pre-fermentation fining on wine aroma chemistry has been explored. Free run and press fraction Sauvignon blanc juices from two vineyards were fined using gelatin, activated carbon, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and a combination agent which included bentonite, PVPP and isinglass. Over thirty aroma compounds were quantified in the experimental wines. Results showed that activated carbon fining led to a significant (p<0.05) concentration decrease of hexan-1-ol and linalool in the experimental wines when compared to a control, consistent across all vineyard and fraction combinations. Other aroma compounds were also influenced by fining agent, even if vineyards and press fractions played a crucial role. This study confirmed that fining agents used pre-fermentation can influence wine aroma profiles and therefore needs specific tailoring addressing style and origin of grape. PMID:27132857

  14. Exogenous application of pectin-derived oligosaccharides to grape berries modifies anthocyanin accumulation, composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Daniel; Handford, Michael; Alcalde, José Antonio; Perez-Donoso, Alonso

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites synthesized in grape berry skins via the phenylpropanoid pathway, with functions ranging from skin coloration to protection against pathogens or UV light. Accumulation of these compounds is highly variable depending on genetics, environmental factors and viticultural practices. Besides their biological functions, anthocyanins improve wine quality, as a high anthocyanin content in berries has a positive impact on the color, total phenolic concentration and, ultimately, the price of wine. The present work studies the effect of the pre-veraison application of pectin derived oligosaccharides (PDO) on the synthesis and accumulation of these compounds, and associates the changes observed with the expression of key genes in the phenylpropanoid pathways. To this end, pre-veraison Cabernet Sauvignon bunches were treated with PDO to subsequently determine total anthocyanin content, the anthocyanin profile (by HPLC-DAD) and gene expression (by qRT-PCR), using Ethrel and water treatments for comparison. The results show that PDO were as efficient as Ethrel in generating a significant rise in total anthocyanin content at 30 days after treatment (dat), compared with water treatments (1.32, 1.48 and 1.02 mg e.Mv-3G/g FW respectively) without any undesirable effect on berry size, soluble solids, tartaric acid concentration or pH. In addition, a significant alteration in the anthocyanin profile was observed. Specifically, a significant increase in the relative concentration of malvidin was observed for both PDO and Ethrel treatments, compared with water controls (52.8; 55.0 and 48.3%, respectively), with a significant rise in tri-hydroxylated forms and a fall in di-hydroxylated anthocyanins. The results of gene expression analyses suggest that the increment in total anthocyanin content is related to a short term increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) expression, mediated by a decrease in MYB4A expression. A longer term increase in UDP

  15. Study on Best Harvest Time of Merlot Grape From Manasi County in Xinjiang%新疆玛纳斯县梅鹿辄葡萄最佳采收期的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫寅斌; 唐虎利

    2011-01-01

    The thesis studied the maturity and the phenols of Cabernet Sauvignon Grape during the ripping process from Manasi county in Xinjiang,in 2008.The results showed that:firstly,during the ripping process,with the continuing increase of the sugar content and the continuing decrease of the acid content,sugar and acid ratio was increasing gradually.Daily average increment of the reducing sugar was 2.94g/L,and daily average reduction of the total acid was 0.24g/L.when reaching the harvest time,the ratio of the Fructose and the Glucose content in grape is 0.8592,but the ratio of the Tartaric acid and the Malic acid content in grape is 1.1.Secondly,during the ripping process,the contents of total Phenols and the Tannin in grape juice was decreasing gradually,and daily average reductions were 0.118g/kg and 0.101g/kg respectively.However,the content of total Anthocyan in grape skin was increasing gradually,and daily average increment of it was 0.061g/kg.Thirdly,in order to get high quality dry wine,September 3 was the harvest time for Merlot Grape,the grape maturity was 31.2,the contents of total Phenols and the Tannin in grape juice and the content of total Anthocyan in grape skin were 0.553g/ kg,0.678g/ kg and 2.670g/kg respectively.%对新疆玛纳斯县2008年的梅鹿辄葡萄在成熟过程中进行成熟度、酚类物质等的研究。结果表明:1、在葡萄成熟过程中,随葡萄含糖量不断增加,含酸量不断减少,糖酸比逐渐增大。还原糖日均增量为2.94g/L,总酸日均减量为0.24g/L。达最佳采收时,葡萄中果糖与葡萄糖含量之比为0.8592,而酒石酸与苹果酸含量之比为1.1;2、在葡萄成熟过程中,葡萄汁中总酚和单宁含量逐渐减少,日均减量分别为0.118g/kg、0.101g/kg,而葡萄皮中总花色素苷含量逐渐增加,日均增量0.061g/kg;3、确定酿造优质干红葡萄酒时,梅鹿辄葡萄的最佳采收期为9月3日,葡萄成熟度31.2,葡萄汁中总酚、单

  16. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  17. Nitrogen catabolite repression modulates the production of aromatic thiols characteristic of Sauvignon Blanc at the level of precursor transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subileau, Maeva; Schneider, Rémy; Salmon, Jean-Michel; Degryse, Eric

    2008-08-01

    The free thiols 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH) and its acetate, practically absent from musts, are liberated by yeast during fermentation from a cysteinylated precursor [S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-cysteine (Cys-3MH)] present in the grape must and contribute favorably to the flavor of Sauvignon white wines. Production of 3MH is increased when urea is substituted for diammonium phosphate (DAP) as the sole nitrogen source on a synthetic medium. On grape must, complementation with DAP induces a decrease of 3MH production. This observation is reminiscent of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). The production of 3MH is significantly lower for a gap1Delta mutant compared with the wild type, during fermentation of a synthetic medium containing Cys-3MH as the precursor and urea as the sole nitrogen source. Mutants isolated from an enological strain with a relief of NCR on GAP1 produce significantly higher amounts of 3MH on synthetic medium than the parental strain. These phenotypes were not confirmed on grape must. It is concluded that on synthetic medium, Cys-3MH enters the cell through at least one identified transporter, GAP1p, whose activity is limiting the release of volatile thiols. On grape must, the uptake of the precursor through GAP1p is not confirmed, but the effect of addition of DAP, eventually prolonging NCR, is shown to decrease thiol production. PMID:18549408

  18. Complete genome sequence analysis of an American isolate of Grapevine virus E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence of an isolate of Grapevine virus E (GVE) collected from a red-berried wine grape cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) in Washington State was determined. The 7,568 nt long genome of GVE is similar in size and sequence identity with a GVE isolate from a wine grape cv. Shiraz fro...

  19. Evolution of the localisation and composition of phenolics in grape skin between veraison and maturity in relation to water availability and some climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cadot, Yves; Chevalier, Michel; Barbeau, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the composition of phenolics in grape skin during grape maturation under various conditions of light exposure, water stress, nitrogen supply and mineral nutrition, but their localisation during berry development is not well known. In this study the composition and localisation of proanthocyanidins were monitored for three years on four plots known to induce a distinctive behaviour of the vine (Cabernet Franc). The composition of phenolics was dete...

  20. Extraction of phenolic compounds from elder berry and different grape marc varieties using organic solvents and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Vatai, Tünde; Škerget, Mojca; KNEZ, ŽELJKO

    2012-01-01

    Optimal operating conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from grape marc and elder berry have been investigated. The aim was to obtain extracts with high anthocyanin content, which show stability during storage and would be potentially interesting for commercial applications as natural colorants. For this purpose three varieties of grape marc, native to Slovenia (Refošk, Merlot and Cabernet), were studied. The results were compared with the extraction of elder berry, which is kno...

  1. Grape Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  2. 基于香气成分含量对酿酒红葡萄品种的分类研究%Classification of the Red Wine Grapes Based on the Content of Aroma Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯力璇; 张京芳; 徐洪宇

    2012-01-01

    The aroma components in 26 different kinds of wine grape and the content of the important component part were identified by the headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry. This paper discussed the classification of wine grape according to the contents of aroma compounds with the cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results showed that; (1)49 kinds of aroma compositions were detected in 26 different kinds of wine grapes and were divided into 6 types, C6-al-cohols and aldehydes, alcohols (except C6-alcohols) , esters,aldehydes (except the C6-aldehydes) and ke-tones,terpenes,organic acids. (2)The results of clustering analysis showed that 26 different kinds of wine grape were classified into three categories. Among them,the first kind of wine grapes included 11 varieties, such as cabernet sauvignon. C6-alcohols and aldehydes compounds were major properties in the first category,and its total content up to 66. 4%. The second kind of wine grape includes 6 varieties, such as ruby cabernet. The contents of C6-alcohols and aldehydes and alcohols (except C6-alcohols) reached to 40. 73% and 30. 21% ,respectively. The third kind of wine grape included 9 varieties, such as merlot. The content of esters was the supreme aroma components in the third class and it account for 71. 06% of the total aroma components. And the organic acids was the lowest part in the three categories (0. 18% ,0. 08% and 0. 005% respectively). (3)The results of principal component analysis showed that the first six main components could represent its original information of variables in the first class of wine grape and the first four main components could represent their original information of variables in both the second and third classes of grape. (4)Based on the known aroma compounds,a discrimination model was established for assessing and ranking wine grape by discriminante analysis, and the accuracy of the model was 85.7%. This research showed

  3. Quantificação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato no processamento e conservação de vinhos de uvas viníferas e híbridas Quantification of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the processing and conservation of wines made of winegrapes and hybrid grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Maria Pesamosca Facco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os folatos compõem uma classe de vitaminas redescoberta nas últimas décadas pela sua importante associação com diversas funções, nos vários processos metabólicos no organismo humano. As principais fontes descritas na literatura são os vegetais, os cereais e as leveduras. Objetivou-se quantificar o 5-metiltetrahidrofolato (5-metilTFH em vinhos durante o processamento e conservação. Foram coletadas amostras de vinhos tintos das variedades viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot e Pinot noir, e das não viníferas Isabel (tinta e Niágara (branca na colheita, no final da fermentação alcoólica, e maloláctica e seguindo-se aos 4, 7, 12 e 24 meses de conservação a partir do início da fermentação. A técnica de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE foi utilizada para a separação, identificação e quantificação. Os resultados mostraram que os níveis de 5-metil-THF aumentaram consideravelmente durante a fermentação alcoólica e continuaram aumentando até o término da fermentação maloláctica. Os níveis mantiveram-se estáveis durante um período de 3 a 6 meses para o vinho branco e de 1 a 2 anos para os vinhos tintos, dependendo da variedade. Os vinhos tintos de viníferas se mostraram uma boa fonte de 5-metilTHF.Folates are a class of vitamins that have been rediscovered in recent decades because of their association with various metabolic processes in the human organism. The main sources of folates described the scientific literature are vegetables, cereals and yeasts. The purpose of this study was to quantify 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF in wines during wine production and aging. Red wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Pinot Noir wine grape varieties, and from Isabel (red and Niagara (white non-wine grape varieties were analyzed. The samples were analyzed at the beginning of fermentation, at the end of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, and periodically at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months of

  4. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  5. 葡萄果实分支酸变位酶基因的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression of gene encoding chorismate mutase in grape berries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 陈灵婧; 李小溪; 王军

    2014-01-01

    莽草酸途径是连接糖代谢和次生代谢的主要桥梁,分支酸变位酶(Chorismate Mutase,CM)是控制碳同化物由莽草酸途径进入苯丙烷代谢途径的入口酶,在葡萄果实酚类物质积累中起着重要作用。本研究以赤霞珠葡萄(Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon)果实为试材,采用电子克隆和分子克隆相结合技术,获得两个编码分支酸变位酶同源基因,分别命名为VvCM1和VvCM2。这两个基因分别定位于4号和14号染色体上,其编码区全长分别为741 bp和963 bp,编码蛋白含246和320个氨基酸。VvCM1和VvCM2与其他植物中的同类酶在氨基酸水平上具有广泛的同源性。Real-time PCR分析显示,VvCM1和VvCM2基因在葡萄的各器官和组织中均有表达,VvCM1在果实中表达丰度最高,而VvCM2在茎中表达丰度最高。%Shikimate pathway connects primary carbohydrate metabolism with the biosynthesis of most secondary metabolites in plants. Chorismate Mutase (CM) is an entry enzyme from shikimate pathway into phenylpropanoid metabolism, which plays an important role in the accumulation of phenolic compounds in grape berries. In the present study, two CM cDNAs were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) and designated as VvCM1 and VvCM2. The cDNAs of VvCM1 and VvCM2 contained open reading frames of 741 bp and 963 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 246 and 320 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 27.06 kDa and 35.2 kDa, respectively. The DNA sequences corresponding to the two isogenes both contain four introns and located on the chromosome 4 and 14, respectively. The sequence homology comparison showed that VvCM1 and VvCM2 had high homology of the amino acid sequences with other plant CM from the GenBank. Analysis by Real time-PCR showed that VvCM1 and VvCM2 were expressed in all the tested tissues. The transcript abundance of VvCM1 was the highest in grape berries and VvCM2 had the highest

  6. 24-表油菜素内酯对农药处理下葡萄叶片光合特性和抗逆性的影响%Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on photosynthetic characteristics and resistance system in grape leaves after pesticide treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小琴; 惠竹梅; 张晖; 高江曼

    2015-01-01

    质和丙二醛的积累以及提高解毒酶活性以促进百菌清降解,从而缓解农药对植株的伤害。%This study was conducted to determine the influences of exogenous EBR (24-epibrassinolide ) on the photosynthetic characteristics ,antioxidant systems and pesticide degradation metabolism of wine grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon ,and to explore EBR-induced alleviation of pesticide damage to the vines and its role in reducing pesticide residue .Using wine grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L .) potted seedlings as the experimental material , effects of EBR on the photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics ,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters ,reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde contents ,antioxidant substances content ,detoxification enzyme activities and chlorothalonil residue in grape leaf were investigated .In comparison to the control ,0 .1 mg·L-1 EBR treatment alone could improve photosynthetic characteristics in grape leaf , and chlorothalonil treatment (600 times diluent ) had an inhibiting effect . Compared with the CHT treatment ,EBR+CHT treatment could improve leaf net photosynthetic rate ( Pn) ,stomatal con-ductance ( Gs ) ,as well as intercellular CO2 concentration ( Ci ) significantly ,and it could also increase photosynthetic system II (PSII) ,photochemical conversion rate ( Fv/Fm) ,actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient ( qP) significantly .Compared with the control ,chlorothalonil treatment could cause significant in-crease of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) ,superoxide anion (O ·2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA ) contents in grape leaf ,while EBR+CHT treatment made them decreased by 33 .4% ,15 .8% and 6% respectively compared with CHT treatment and also it made glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents increased by 5 .6% and 18 .2% on average .Exoge-nous 0 .1 mg·L-1 EBR treatment alone and CHT treatment could both enhance activities of peroxidase (POD ) ,glu

  7. 甘肃河西走廊产区酿酒葡萄附生微生物区系分析%Epiphytic microflora of wine grapes in Hexi corridor of Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守一; 贠建民; 韩建平; 赵洪源; 邵晓庆

    2015-01-01

    Four cultivars ripen wine grapes,Cabernet Sauvignon,Cabernet franc,Cabernet Gernischt and Pinot noir,were chosen from three different production areas (Wuwei,Zhangye and Jiayuguan)in Hexi Corridor of Gansu in order to determine their epiphytic microbial flora and the microbe species.The results showed that the epiphytic microflora was composed of eleven strains of bacteria,ten strains of yeasts and fourteen strains of moulds.For the three production areas,the yeast colony count was the most,which reached 104 ~ 106cfu/g,the bacteria colony count reached 104 ~ 105 cfu/g,and the mould colony count reached 102~104 cfu/g.The original had a significant effect on the epiphytic microbial colony count,inclu-ding yeast,mould and bacteria,but the cultivars had no significant effect on the epiphytic yeast,mould and bacteria colony count.The pathogens of berries were also isolated and identified as Botrytis cinerea ,Alter-naria alternata ,Penicillium spp.%以甘肃河西走廊具有代表性的3个产地(武威、张掖、嘉峪关)的4个品种(‘赤霞珠’‘品丽珠’‘蛇龙珠’‘黑比诺’)成熟期酿酒葡萄为研究对象,通过对葡萄浆果表面附生微生物的筛查、分离纯化与鉴定,分析葡萄附生微生物区系组成及其种群.结果显示:河西走廊产区酿酒葡萄附生菌相由11株细菌、10株酵母和14株霉菌组成.3个产地成熟期酿酒葡萄附生酵母菌的数量最大,达104~106 cfu/g,附生细菌数量为104~105 cfu/g,附生霉菌的数量为102~104 cfu/g.酵母、霉菌、细菌数量受地域因素影响显著,但受葡萄品种因素影响不显著,且分离鉴定出灰葡萄孢霉(Botrytis cinerea )、交链孢霉(Alternaria alternata )和青霉属(Penicillium spp.)等主要病害菌.研究结果可为原料采收后的前处理阶段开展有害微生物控制及评价原料耐贮性提供理论依据,并为酿造葡萄酒优良菌株选育提供种质资源.

  8. Accumulation Characteristics of Volatile Compounds in Wine Grape Berries Grown in High Altitude Regions of Yunnan%云南高原区酿酒葡萄果实香气物质的积累规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓帆; 高媛; 韩梅梅; 彭振雪; 潘秋红

    2014-01-01

    Objective] Aroma is an important factor determining the quality of wine grape berries and wines. Terrior greatly affects the composition and concentration of volatiles. Study on aroma accumulation of grape fruit of Yunnan plateau region will not only help uncover the formation mechanism of grape flavor under the high altitude climate, but also provide some guidelines for the production of high-quality grape berries. [Method] Grape berries (Vitisvinifera L. Cabernet sauvignon) were collected from Meilishi (located at about 2 300 m above sea level) and Shuiri (about 2 900 m) vineyards of Deqin County, Yunnan Province in 2010 and 2011 vintages. Free volatile compounds were extracted using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method. The extraction of glycosidically-bound volatiles was followed by the separation using Cleanert PEP-SPE column, the hydrolysis of glycosidase AR2000 and the adsorption of HS-SPME. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed via the technology of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These volatiles were classified into three groups according to their biosynthetic pathways, including fatty acid-derived, amino acid-derived and isoprene-derived volatiles, and the effects of vintage and grape-growing region on the accumulation of the three groups of volatiles were assessed.[Result]The accumulation of soluble solid and variation of pH in grape berries were affected scarcely by vintages, either for Meilishi or Shuiri vineyards, but volatiles showed a great difference in the concentration between vintages. Compared with the 2010-vintage berries, regardless of the vineyard altitude, the berry samples of the year 2011 contained significantly higher concentrations of free-form straight-chain aliphatic alcohols, acids and esters that were produced from fatty acid metabolism, as well as norisoprenoids (free and glycosidically-bound) and free terpenes that were all generated from isoprene metabolism. As for amino acid

  9. From grape to wine: Changes in phenolic composition and its influence on antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Mariana S; Fabani, María P; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Baroni, María V

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their relationship with the antioxidant capacity (AC) of samples taken along the winemaking process of three Vitis vinifera L. cv., Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grown in Argentina were studied. Forty-five compounds were identified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS, while the AC was determined by FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays. Results show that phenolic composition and AC vary along the winemaking process and between varieties. Multiple regression analysis showed a high correlation between phenolic composition and AC of samples, being anthocyanins the main family with significant contribution to AC. In addition, quantitative differences in specific phenolic compounds help to explain differences in AC observed between varieties. A high phenolic content and bioactivity still remain in pomaces which support its use as an inexpensive source of antioxidants. PMID:27132844

  10. INFLUENCE OF VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPES AND THE NATURE OF ALCOHOL AGENT ON LIQUEUR WINE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergunov A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies revealed that the application of spirits as a strength agent of 91.0 - 96.6% in special wines contained more vitamin-like substances than wine, alcoholized with double-distilled water with 75% alcohol concentration. The highest marks for tasting wines were given to the options made with the use of rectified grain origin alcohol as an agent of alcohol. Application of double-distilled water wine leads to accumulation of unnecessarily high undesirable groups of compounds such as methanol and fusel oil, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. Organoleptic parameters were the best for selection of wines from Anapa ZOSViV - Dionysus and Krasnostop EPA, as well as - Cabernet Sauvignon. We can conclude that for the production of high-quality red dessert wines we need, along with the classic varieties, wider use of new autochthonous varieties using alcohol agents of rectified grain origin

  11. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  12. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Manfroi

    2006-06-01

    , glycerol 9,3 g L-1, proline 669 mg L-1, anthocyanins 330 mg L-1, tannins 1.19 g L-1, color intensity 0.286, K 1,078 mg L-1, methanol 101.7 mg L-1, and summ of higher alcohols 450 mg L-1. The results found in the analysed wines showed similar results to parameters previously determined in Cabernet Franc wine from the same region elaborated from grapes cultivated in the pergola system. This makes evident that grapevines conducted in the lyre system are an alternative to produce quality red wine in the Serra Gaúcha region.

  13. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  14. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  15. Quantificação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato no processamento e conservação de vinhos de uvas viníferas e híbridas Quantification of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the processing and conservation of wines made of winegrapes and hybrid grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizete Maria Pesamosca Facco; Aline de Oliveira Fogaça; Carlos Eugenio Daudt; Helena Teixeira Godoy

    2007-01-01

    Os folatos compõem uma classe de vitaminas redescoberta nas últimas décadas pela sua importante associação com diversas funções, nos vários processos metabólicos no organismo humano. As principais fontes descritas na literatura são os vegetais, os cereais e as leveduras. Objetivou-se quantificar o 5-metiltetrahidrofolato (5-metilTFH) em vinhos durante o processamento e conservação. Foram coletadas amostras de vinhos tintos das variedades viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot e Pinot noir, e da...

  16. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    OpenAIRE

    Bešlić Zoran S.; Todić Slavica R.; Matijašević Saša M.

    2014-01-01

    The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portion...

  17. Efectos del déficit hídrico en el color de la baya y del vino, en la variedad de uva Cabernet sauvignon. Madrid.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Olga; Rodríguez Fernández, Lucía; Peiro Gangoso, Emilio; García García, Elisa; Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Existe una preocupación por las consecuencias que puede ocasionar a la viticultura el cambio climático, especialmente en zonas cálidas y secas. Estos cambios podrían tener importantes consecuencias tanto en la calidad de la uva como en el potencial de sus vinos. El objetivo del ensayo fue evaluar los efectos del déficit hídrico en el color de los vinos, ya que hoy en día resulta de carácter obligatorio mantener su intensidad y calidad constante, frente a la percepción del consumidor frente...

  18. Efectos de las diferentes estrategias de riego en la composición del vino y su perfil sensorial (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Cabernet sauvignon)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Olga; Baeza Trujillo, Pilar; Junquera González, Pedro; Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    La preocupación por las consecuencias que puede ocasionar a la viticultura el cambio climático, se ven reflejadas en muchos de los estudios que existen en los últimos años. En las actuales zonas de producción, estos cambios podrían tener importantes consecuencias, tanto en la calidad de la uva como en su potencial productivo. El objetivo marcado en este ensayo, consistió en evaluar como el déficit hídrico en climas secos afectó a la calidad y composición de sus vinos. El diseño experimental s...

  19. Técnicas enológicas de frío y enzimáticas aplicadas a la extractabilidad de Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon y Monastrell.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Pérez, Ana Adoración

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue aplicar diferentes técnicas enológicas para optimizar la extractabilidad de compuestos fenólicos y aromáticos, evaluando su influencia sobre la calidad de vinos tintos jóvenes. Objetivos parciales:  Aplicar técnicas prefermentativas a baja temperatura (maceración en frío, congelación del mosto con nieve carbónica y congelación de las uvas) y técnicas de maceración con enzimas (enzima comercial y enzima natural β-galactosidasa) en la vinificación de Syr...

  20. Application of nitrogen sources on grapevines and effect on yield and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the yield, total N content in leaves and must composition of grapes from the Cabernet Sauvignon variety subjected to the application of urea and organic compost. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines in Rosário do Sul, RS, Brazil, in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were subjected to annual application of 40 kg N ha-1 in the form of organic compost and urea, and compared to unfertilized grapevines. In the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 crop seasons, leaves were collected for analysis of total N content. At maturation of the grapes, the yield and quality attributes of the must were evaluated. The application of N sources, especially organic compost, increased the N content in the whole leaf at full flowering. Application of organic compost and urea has little effect on grape yield and does not affect the total nutrient content in the must, nor the enological attributes.

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF GRAPE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Tagirova P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Technological methods of grape and derived semi-products processing are considered in the article. Husks, seeds and cuticle of grape are the important source of BAS due the high content of essential substances. Salt of tartaric acid, CO2 – extracts, grape oil, resveratol, vegetative flour are produced from the grape husks

  2. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qing Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer” with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  3. Effect of closure and packaging type on 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines and other impact odorants of Riesling and Cabernet Franc wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Amy; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Brindle, Ian D; Inglis, Debbie; Sears, M; Pickering, Gary J

    2009-06-10

    3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) represent an important and potent class of grape- and insect-derived odor-active compounds associated with wine quality. Thirty nanograms per liter each of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), and 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine (SBMP) was added to Riesling and Cabernet Franc wines and monitored with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over 18 months to investigate the effects of various closure and packaging options on MPs. Changes in MP concentrations during bottle aging varied with closure/packaging option, with the greatest decrease evident in Tetrapak cartons. After 18 months, IBMP, IPMP, and SBMP in both Tetrapak-stored wines decreased by approximately 45, 32, and 26%, respectively. Similar changes were observed in other impact odorants to previous studies, including a greater decrease in odorant concentrations in wines closed with synthetic corks compared to natural corks and screw caps. These differences are thought to be due to the differential sorptive capacities of the various closure types. Overall, the data suggest that differences in gas permeability/contribution from the different closure and packaging options strongly associate with changes in wine composition during aging. PMID:19432423

  4. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in strawberry and grape

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli; Aline Bertin; Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom; Marcos Botton

    2012-01-01

    A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas), em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas') e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'). A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16...

  5. Quantifying the Spatial-temporal Variability in Carbon Stocks in a California Vineyard

    OpenAIRE

    Morande, Jorge Andres

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering ~230,000 ha in California (8.2% of total land cultivated in CA) are dedicated to wine grape production, annual C capture and storage in woody biomass is substantial. In this study, destructive sampling was used to measure C stocks in the woody biomass of a 15-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon vines from a California Northern San Joaquin...

  6. Free resveratrol monomers in varietal red and white wines from Dalmatia (Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Katalinić, Višnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Pezo, Ivan; Generalić, Ivana; Stričević, Olivera; Miloš, Mladen; Modun, Darko; Boban, Mladen

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Resveratrol is considered to be one of the major antioxidant constituents in red wine. In this article we investigated the presence of, and relation between trans- and cis-resveratrol monomers in the most characteristic varietal wines from Dalmatia (Croatia), produced according to the Croatian appellation of origin system. Materials and Methods: The wines of red grape varieties (Plavac mali, Merlot,Cabernet sauvignon, Babić, Plavina, Trnjak, Vranac and Lasin) and white grap...

  7. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  8. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  9. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables. PMID:26675855

  10. Perception of mineral character in Sauvignon blanc wine: inter-individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Veronica Parr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the descriptors employed to characterize wine organoleptically, minerality is arguably one of the most enigmatic. The aim of the work described in this article was to delineate the nature of perceived minerality in Sauvignon wine, specifically its sensorial reality for experienced wine professionals from France and New Zealand. Participants evaluated 16 Sauvignon blanc wines (8 French; 8 New Zealand under three conditions, ortho-nasal olfaction, palate only (Nose-clip condition, and by full tasting (global perception. Data from the global condition only are reported here. Key results include: i that although there were quantitative differences in perception of minerality as a function of culture, there was substantial agreement conceptually between French and New Zealand participants in terms of the sensorial experience of minerality; and ii that perceived minerality associated significantly with other key wine descriptors, notably presence of citrus, stone-related characters (e.g., flinty or chalky/calcareous notes, and reductive notes, along with absence of Sauvignon varietal characteristics (passion fruit; green notes. Of particular interest, no significant, direct association was found between perceived sourness/acidity and minerality judgments for either culture.

  11. GRAPE-6A: A single-card GRAPE-6 for parallel PC-GRAPE cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushige, T; Kawai, A; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Kawai, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of GRAPE-6A, a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations. It was designed to be used with a PC cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE-6A. Such configuration is particularly effective in running parallel tree algorithm. Though the use of parallel tree algorithm was possible with the original GRAPE-6 hardware, it was not very cost-effective since a single GRAPE-6 board was still too fast and too expensive. Therefore, we designed GRAPE-6A as a single PCI card to minimize the reproduction cost and optimize the computing speed. The peak performance is 130 Gflops for one GRAPE-6A board and 3.1 Tflops for our 24 node cluster. We describe the implementation of the tree, TreePM and individual timestep algorithms on both a single GRAPE-6A system and GRAPE-6A cluster. Using the tree algorithm on our 16-node GRAPE-6A system, we can complete a collisionless simulation with 100 million particles (8000 steps) within 10 days.

  12. GRAPE-6A: A single-card GRAPE-6 for parallel PC-GRAPE cluster system

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Kawai, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of GRAPE-6A, a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations. It was designed to be used with a PC cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE-6A. Such configuration is particularly effective in running parallel tree algorithm. Though the use of parallel tree algorithm was possible with the original GRAPE-6 hardware, it was not very cost-effective since a single GRAPE-6 board was still too fast and too expensive. Therefore...

  13. Aplicação de nitrogênio em videiras na Campanha Gaúcha: produtividade e características químicas do mosto da uva Application of nitrogen in grapevines in the campaign of the Rio Grande do Sul: productivity and chemical characteristics of the grape must

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Brunetto; Carlos Alberto Ceretta; João Kaminski; George Wellington Bastos de Melo; Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi; Vaneila Furlanetto; Afrânio Moraes

    2007-01-01

    A aplicação de N na videira, em geral, causa grande impacto na produção e nas características químicas da uva e do seu mosto e, conseqüentemente, no vinho. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da aplicação de N na produção de uva e nas características químicas desejáveis do mosto. O experimento foi conduzido na safra 2004/05 em vinhedo comercial de viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, na Empresa Pernod Ricard Brasil/Almadén, em Santana do Livramento, RS, sobre Argissolo Vermelho distrófico arêni...

  14. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  15. ONTARIO GRAPE PRODUCTION ECONOMIC IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Grier, Kevin; Martin, Larry J.; Stiefelmeyer, Kate

    2000-01-01

    This report was undertaken in order to measure the economic impacts of the grape industry on the Ontario economy and the impacts of maintaining the Wine Content Act at the 30% level. It will also provide an estimate of the benefits to grape growers and Ontario of increasing the requirements of the Wine Content Act to 75%. Specifically, the objectives are: 1. To determine the current contribution of the processing grape industry to the economy of Ontario. 2. To estimate the economic effects of...

  16. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  17. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  18. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  19. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon. Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. The percentage of productive shoots is more than 90. The yield is very high: 25-30 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 250 g. It can be characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite. Cluster is medium, conical, sometimes with wings, medium density. Berry is small, round, blue-black color with a thick waxy coating. The skin is medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice are intensely colored. Very high sugar content. Variety is intended for the production of intensely colored dry red wines of excellent class, as well as high-quality sparkling wines, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; suitable for the manufacture of high-quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties enhances color, full flavor and enhances the bouquet of the wine

  20. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics with GRAPE and Parallel Virtual Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Nakasato, Naohito; Mori, Masao; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1997-01-01

    We have developed Remote-GRAPE, a subroutine library to use the special purpose computer GRAPE-3A. The GRAPE-3A can efficiently calculate gravitational force between particles, and construct neighbor lists. All other calculations are performed on the host workstation (WS) which is directly connected to GRAPE. The use of GRAPE for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GRAPE-SPH) can in principle greatly speed up the calculations on WS. However the current bottleneck of GRAPE-SPH is that its perform...

  1. The natural product content of the selected Cabernet Franc wine samples originating from Serbia: a case study of phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejin, Boris; Stanimirovic, Bojana; Vujovic, Dragan; Popovic Djordjevic, Jelena; Velickovic, Milovan; Tesevic, Vele

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the content of selected phenolic natural products in the wine samples made of three new Serbian Cabernet Franc clones (Nos. 02, 010 and 012, respectively) and mother vine (used as the relevant standard) during the period 2008-2012. Compared with all other wine samples, the Cabernet Franc wine of the clone No. 010 was found to have the highest total content of polyphenolics (1.85 ± 0.02 g/L) and anthocyanins (178.55 ± 3.75 mg/L). In addition, its Folin-Ciocalteu index (36.86 ± 0.12) stood out among the examined samples. Finally, the same wine was enriched with ellagic and gallic acids (3.44 ± 0.29 and 27.46 ± 0.21 mg/L, respectively), catechin (135.16 ± 6.47 mg/L) and epicatechin (51.33 ± 2.33 mg/L), the natural products known to exert significant lipid-lowering effects. Taken all together, the clone No. 010 developed in Serbia may offer new Cabernet Franc wine with geographical indication. PMID:26766130

  2. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Císarová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine) on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal ...

  3. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  4. QUALITATIVE PECULIARITIES OF THE FLAVOURED WINES AND OF THE VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, OBTAINED FROM THE SAUVIGNON BLANC VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the dynamics of the physical-chemical parameters of flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by the addition of hydroalcoholic macerates from plants to the Sauvignon Blanc wine variety, we analyzed certain physical and chemical characteristics (D 20 20, Alcool %, Total dry extract g/l, Free sugar g/l, Unreducing extract g /l, Total Acidity g/l C4H6O6, Free SO2 mg/l Total SO2 mg/l for 9 samples. Compared to the main wine parameters, the tested parameters had the following evolution: Alcoholic strength, Free sugar and Density increased in vermouth type wines, Total acidity decreased slightly in flavoured wines and more obvious in vermouth type wines. The total dry extract increased sharply in vermouth type wines and the unreducing extract decreased sharply in vermouth type wines. The amount of Free SO2 was higher in flavoured wines, but Total SO2 had lower values, both for flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, comparative to Sauvignon Blanc wine. Plants macerates added to the Sauvignon Blanc basic wine, influenced most of the physical-chemical parameters and provided new qualitative features to resulting beverages.

  5. Does natural larval parasitism of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) vary between years, generation, density of the host and vine cultivar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuéreb, A; Thiéry, D

    2006-04-01

    Populations of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller and its larval parasitoids were studied for two consecutive years on an experimental insecticide-free vineyard in France planted with adjacent plots of five grape cultivars (Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Sauvignon, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sémillon) using a natural L. botrana population during the first year, and a natural population supplemented with artificially inoculated individuals during the second year. Levels of natural populations of larval parasitoids were measured by their parasitism rate. The ichneumonid Campoplex capitator Aubert was the most common species collected from L. botrana larvae. Its incidence was higher during the spring compared to summer. The overall parasitism rate found on the experimental vineyard varied from 23% in 2000 to 53% in 2001, and was mainly due to C. capitator. Parasitism was not affected by the grape cultivar on which the host developed but was positively correlated with the host density, per bunch or per stock, suggesting that among the five grape cultivars tested, C. capitator females probably do not discriminate between hosts feeding on different grape cultivars, but rather the densities of L. botrana larvae. PMID:16556330

  6. The effect of gibberellic acid on some photosynthetic products in the leaves of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the research work set up to examine the effect of giberellic acid on the some photosynthetic products formed in the leaves of cabernet souvignon grapes. A series of tests were performed by applying 0, 25, 50 ppm of giberellic acid to the leaves. The fractions of sugar, soluble amino acid and organic acid all labelled by C14O2, are determined by radioactivite counts and using the results obtained. The total amounts were calculated. The fresh weight of leaves subject to GA application increases considerably, on the other hand no significant effect of giberellic acid on the dry weight was detected. Increasing the amount of giberellic acid from 25 ppm to 50 ppm does not cause any change neither on fresh weight nor on dry weight of leaves. It is noted that the application of giberellic acid not change the amount of sugar present in the leaves, however, the amount of soluble amino acid decreases while the amount of organic acid increases. Still increasing the amount of giberellic acid has no effect on the amount of these fractions

  7. Investigation of the impact of grape cultivars on the grape brandies quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Vesna; Palić Radosav; Živković Jelena; Mošić Ivana; Stanković Snežana; Stojanović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    The results of the four-year investigation of the grape cultivars impact of the first Yugoslav interspecies hybrids Lucija and Mediana on the grape brandies quality are presented. The experiment was carried out with reference to the standard grape cultivars Smederevka intended for production of grape brandies. Investigation covered a procedure for establishing parameters, which determine the quality of strong alcoholic beverages and organoleptic rating. Higher presence of methanol with refere...

  8. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Zoran S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portions. Linear regression was used for calculation of the correlation between blue pixels and grape weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels and grape weight (R2=0.91 was obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend this simple technique for yield forecasting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP31063

  9. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Kequan Zhou; Raffoul, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid ...

  10. Grape quality mapping for vineyard differential harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Odair Santos; Robert L. Wample; Sivakumar Sachidhanantham; Oren Kaye

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out from 2005 to 2008, to calibrated NIR-based instrumentation and explore within field grape quality variability and map potential grape quality descriptors along vineyards, as a subsidy for differential harvesting,. The quality indicators (anthocyanin content, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids) were subject to geo-spatial modeling. Subsequently, the data set was utilized to delineate "within-field" grape quality zone and to determine the timing of the harve...

  11. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Manfroi; Alberto Miele; Luiz A. Rizzon; Carlos I.N. Barradas

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta durante o ciclo vegetativo de 1995/1996. O experimento foi realizado em oito vinhedos localizados nos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Monte Belo do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação, com duas repetições para cada vinhedo, os quais foram analisados por processos físico-químicos, espectrofotometria...

  12. The PCI Interface for GRAPE Systems: PCI-HIB

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, A.; Fukushige, T.; Taiji, M.; Makino, J.; Sugimoto, D.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a PCI interface for GRAPE systems. GRAPE(GRAvity piPE) is a special-purpose computer for gravitational N-body simulations. A GRAPE system consists of GRAPE processor boards and a host computer. GRAPE processors perform the calculation of gravitational forces between particles. The host computer performs the rest of calculations. The newest of GRAPE machines, the GRAPE-4, achieved the peak performance of 1.08 Tflops. The GRAPE-4 system uses TURBOChannel for the interface to the ho...

  13. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  14. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  15. A sugar-inducible protein kinase, VvSK1, regulates hexose transport and sugar accumulation in grapevine cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Lecourieux, David; Vignault, Céline; Delrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    In grapevine (Vitis vinifera), as in many crops, soluble sugar content is a major component of yield and economical value. This paper identifies and characterizes a Glycogen Synthase Kinase3 protein kinase, cloned from a cDNA library of grape Cabernet Sauvignon berries harvested at the ripening stage. This gene, called VvSK1, was mainly expressed in flowers, berries, and roots. In the berries, it was strongly expressed at postvéraison, when the berries accumulate glucose, fructose, and abscis...

  16. 酿酒葡萄加工废弃物中多酚含量和抗氧化性的分析%The Content & Antioxidant Activities of Polyphenol Extracted from Wine Grape Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浡; 李双石; 兰蓉; 王晓杰; 陈思

    2016-01-01

    The content and antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from Cabernet Sauvignon processing waste (skin, seeds, stems) by dif-ferent methods were analyzed. The results showed that, the content of polyphenol by organic solvent extraction was higher than that by other ex-traction methods, and the content of polyphenol from stems was higher than that from skin and seeds and its antioxidant activities were stronger accordingly.%通过对不同提取方法提取的酿酒葡萄赤霞珠加工废弃物(皮、籽、梗)的多酚含量进行测定,并分析提取多酚抗氧化性。结果表明,有机溶剂提取法提取含量高于其他方法的提取量。葡萄梗中总酚的含量相对高于葡萄皮与葡萄籽,并具有良好的抗氧化性。

  17. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  18. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  19. QUALITATIVE PECULIARITIES OF THE FLAVOURED WINES AND OF THE VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, OBTAINED FROM THE SAUVIGNON BLANC VARIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Elena CULEA; Radiana Mariana TAMBA - BEREHOIU; Ciprian Nicolae POPA

    2015-01-01

    In order to establish the dynamics of the physical-chemical parameters of flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by the addition of hydroalcoholic macerates from plants to the Sauvignon Blanc wine variety, we analyzed certain physical and chemical characteristics (D 20 20, Alcool %, Total dry extract g/l, Free sugar g/l, Unreducing extract g /l, Total Acidity g/l C4H6O6, Free SO2 mg/l Total SO2 mg/l) for 9 samples. Compared to the main wine parameters, the tested parameters had the...

  20. Climate signatures of grape harvest dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krieger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape harvest dates have been recorded in many European locations for several centuries, and potentially contain important information about past climate. In this study, we systematically analyse the relationship of grape harvest dates recorded in the Burgundy region (France with different climate data sets in order to understand the connection between climatic conditions and the time of harvest. The results point to a primary dependence of the grape harvest on the temperature from April to August. The strength of this connection depends on the winter to summer temperature relationship and increases over the last 100 years. The grape harvest date is also related to the winter temperature. This connection is non-stationary on interannual, but stable on decadal-to-multidecadal time scales. Therefore, the grape harvest date can be used for independent reconstructions of local April-to-August temperature on interannual time scales as well as remote winter temperature on decadal-to-multidecadal time scales.

  1. Grape quality mapping for vineyard differential harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Odair Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out from 2005 to 2008, to calibrated NIR-based instrumentation and explore within field grape quality variability and map potential grape quality descriptors along vineyards, as a subsidy for differential harvesting,. The quality indicators (anthocyanin content, pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were subject to geo-spatial modeling. Subsequently, the data set was utilized to delineate "within-field" grape quality zone and to determine the timing of the harvest. Differential machine harvesting was implemented and segregation of wine grapes was done "on-the-go". The approach for field prediction of grape quality parameters and zone delineation allowed for separated fermentation for at least two wine styles.

  2. Dicty_cDB: SHL792 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHL792 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11234-1 - (Link to Original site) ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ...

  3. Relation between Grape Wine Quality and Related Physicochemical Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Yue Chen; Yuan-Biao Zhang; Qiu-Ye Qian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate grape wine quality more objectively by reducing the error of traditional grape-wine-quality evaluation. On combining grape wine quality and physicochemical index of grapevine, we provided a grape-wine-quality evaluation model by grapevine’s physicochemical index in this study. Firstly, evaluations of the tasters are analyzed, for eliminating the disturbance caused by their individual difference. Then, relationship between grape wine and grapevines are anal...

  4. Bio-Functional Aspects of Grape Seeds-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Poonam Arora; S H Ansari; Iram Nazish

    2011-01-01

    Grapes are one of the most widely consumed fruits all over the world and have considerable importance for their medicinal and nutritive value for thousand of years. Grapes are rich in polyphenols and 60-70 % of grapes polyphenols exist in grape seeds. The seeds contain lipid, proteins, carbohydrates and 5-8 % polyphenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds present in grape seeds are flavonoids including gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers and their oligomeric and polymeric derivatives (...

  5. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine. PMID:10227191

  6. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  7. Comparison between aroma compounds in wines from four Vitis vinifera grape varieties grown in different shoot positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aroma characteristics of wines from four Vitis vinifera grape varieties (‘Cabernet sauvignon’, ‘Merlot’, ‘Chardonnay’, and ‘Italian Riesling’ grown in three shoot positions were evaluated by HS-SPME-GC/MS. In this study, the numerous significant differences found in most of the aromatic compounds influence of different shoot positions on the quality of wine. The results showed that the middle shoot position increased significantly the aroma concentration in the majority of wines investigated. The volatile components showing the greatest differences in the wines of different cultivars were aldehydes and terpenes. 8 and 11 compounds were found and quantified (OAVs>1 in the two red wines and white wines at concentrations higher than their corresponding odor thresholds, respectively; and therefore they significantly contributed to the wine aromas. According to their OAVs, fruity, floral, cheese and fatty aroma strongly influenced the characteristics of the four monovarietal wines, while the two white wines showed the green and fresh aroma characteristics. These results are related to the different microclimate of the canopies of the different shoot positions and varieties. They suggest that proper elevating the fruiting zones could improve the accumulation of aroma compounds in wines from the different varieties. On the other hand, grapevines trained to systems with uniform fruiting zones could improve the quality of wine.

  8. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  9. Grape brandy production, composition and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Argyrios; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-02-01

    Grape brandy is a spirit drink produced by wine distillation and is matured in wooden casks. According to legislation, it can be characterised by the geographical area where the grapes were produced, the grape variety used and the selected distillation and ageing techniques. Distillation increases ethanol concentration and aromatic constituents which are already present in grapes or are developed during fermentation and distillation. During maturation in wooden casks, compounds that contribute to the aroma and taste are extracted from the wood. Hence the spirit acquires the desired softer mouth feel, aromatic complexity and overall quality. Different methods of analysis are used in order to pursuit this process by analysing volatile and non-volatile substances and correlate composition with quality. Analysis can also be useful in identification of brandy safety, potential adulterations, provenance and differentiation from other spirits drinks. PMID:24037649

  10. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  11. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  12. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  13. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't have the merits of existing rootstocks. The short description of the grapes rootstocks which were created in the Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking such as AZOS-1, AZOS-2, AZOS-3, AZOS-4, AZOS-5 and AZOS-6 is given in the article. It is indicated that these rootstocks have a high resistance to a leaf form of phylloxera, to chlorosis and to some other diseases of a grapes bush. They have the short period of vegetation, high quantity of standard cutting from hectare and other useful properties. In the article the description of a new formation of rootstocks grapes bushes of "AOS- 1" and "AOS-2" with a free trail shoots is given. This construction of grapes bush is developed by the Anapa's Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking. We have also given all the advantages of this forming in comparison with other designs of grapes bushes. It is especially noted that use of this forming of bushes increases the productivity per men in the process of bushes scrap and preparation of cutting; the expenditures on the struggle against diseases and wreckers on the vineyards are reduced; the quantity standard of grapes cutting increases by 27-33%

  14. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov A. I.; Mikhaylovskiy S. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't ...

  15. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  16. THE EFFECT OF PECTOLYTIC ENZYME TREATMENTS ON RED GRAPES MASH OF VRANEC ON GRAPE JUICE YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRO MOJSOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and industrial trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of pectolytic enzyme treatments on red grape mash of Vranec on grape juice yields. The red grape Vranec for laboratory trials were taken from private winery “Imako vino” Stip (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their laboratory. The red grape Vranec for industrial trials were taken from private winery “Tristo” Veles (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their winery. The grapes were weighed, destemmed, crushed and divided in 5 liters plastic reservoirs for laboratory trials, and for industrial trials were placed in a stainless steel fermentor (4t.. All treatments were performed in doublecate. Red grape mash made from Vranec were macerated for 6 hours at 18 to 20oC with addition of one commercial pectolytic enzymepreparation (Vinozym Vintage FCE, Rohapect VR-C and Trenolin Rot DF. After addition of SO2 (50ppm and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae NEUTRE SC (Lallemand, 2009(200 mg/kg grape, maceration time of 5 days (~25 oC was applied in order to study the effect of macerating enzymes on grape juice yields. After the maceration, the pomace was removed, in the obtained 4 different variations. Pectolytic enzyme preparation was not added to control trial. All treatments were performed in duplicate. Results of laboratory and industrial trials from our experiments, gives increased on free run juice yields by 4.85%-6.35% compared with non-treated mash of control trials.

  17. Ochratoxin A in dried grapes and grape-derived products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Ayse Sibel; Ozden, Sibel; Alpertunga, Buket

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin and widespread food contaminant which results in a probable human exposure. A total of 85 samples (50 dried grapes, 10 grape juices and 25 pekmez (boiled and concentrated grape juices) were collected from different supermarkets and traditional bazaars in Istanbul during 2008-2009. An analytical method based on immuno-affinity column for clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used to determine the OTA. Contamination frequencies were 8%, 20% and 88% with mean concentrations of positive samples of 1.15, 1.40 and 2.04 µg/kg for dried grapes, grape juices and pekmez samples, respectively. These levels were lower than the maximum levels as set by the European Commission (EC). However, 12 of 25 pekmez samples had higher levels than permitted by the European Union (EU) for safe consumption. PMID:24779935

  18. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlakov M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice varieties Aniuta, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska close to each other (50.93; 56.14; 51.23%. According to the percentage of glucose similar varieties Aniuta and Nizina (33 - 34.27%, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska (41.16 - 45.22%. Sort Jubilee Novocherkasska, had content in berries close fructose and glucose. Most of fructose (66.02% in berries variety Nizina. In berries studied cultivars organic acid content was: wine 3128 - 3861, malic 982 - 3753, citric 109 - 317, amber 3 - 115 mg / dm3. The highest concentrations of potassium and sodium cations are presented in berries varieties Aniuta: potassium - 1219 sodium - 35.13 mg / dm3 and cations magnesium and calcium in berries Jubilee Novocherkasska 46.75 and 73.64 mg / dm3. The lowest concentration of potassium and sodium cations observed in grape Vodograi, magnesium - from grape Aniuta, calcium - at grape Nizina. We studied grape bunches are large, not dense, beautiful, berries are large, harmonious taste. Tasting score fresh grapes varieties Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina, Jubilee Novocherkasska 7.6; 7.4; 7.8; 7.8 points respectively

  19. Grape Tomato Cultivar Evaluation for Northern Indiana, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Four grape tomato varieties were evaluated in a replicated trial at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana. A fifth grape variety and one cherry variety were observed in unreplicated plots. Yield, plant, and fruit characteristics are reported.

  20. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  1. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  2. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... Concord grape juice. It contains the common components of grape juice, namely anthocyanins, tartrates, malates, sugars, and minerals, etc., but not in the same proportion as found in grape juice....

  3. Antibacterial Effects of Grape Extracts on Helicobacter pylori▿

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Joseph C.; Huang, Guohui; Haley-Zitlin, Vivian; Jiang, Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities were determined by agar dilution, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cell proliferation assays following treatment with various grape extracts. Muscadine grape skin possessed the strongest activity, followed by grape synergy (skin and seed) and seed, suggesting that higher phenolic levels do not necessarily determine overall anti-H. pylori efficacy.

  4. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table grape crop insurance provisions. 457.149 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.149 Table grape crop insurance provisions. The Table Grape Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as...

  5. GRAPE IN MEVLANA / MEVLANA’DA ÜZÜM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. R. Bahar AKPINAR

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the mystical meaningsattributed to fruit and grape in the works (Mesnevi andRubaiyyat) of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, and discussesthe relations between the symbolism of the unripe grape,grape, wine and vineyard, wine, drinking place, winebearer, drunken.

  6. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  7. Establishment of in vitro culture of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of in vitro culture from shoot tip explants (meristemetic tissue) of grapes was investigated through tissue culture technique. These explants were collected from gene bank of Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Fifteen accessions of grapes were surface sterilized and tested on 75% MS media for germination and initial growth parameters. Accession No. 020017 (Dakh-1) exhibited highest viability (100%), shoot length (4.12 cm) and nodes plant (3.8). Moreover, it was found that response of cultures to different treatments was dependent both on accession and treatment duration. In conclusion, this protocol proved to be useful in optimizing the dose and duration of the treatment of grape explants with the surface disinfectant. (author)

  8. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  9. Comparison of Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations from different appellations of origin and grape varieties by microsatellite analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Leonor; Machado, Sofia; Ramos, P; Alemão, F.; Gomes, P; Sousa, S.; Santos, Manuel A.S.; Duarte, F.L; Casal, Margarida; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    One hundred ninety two grape samples were collected during the 2006 harvest season in the Vinho Verde (grape varieties: Arinto, Alvarinho, Avesso, Loureiro, Touriga Nacional) Bairrada (grape varieties: Arinto, Baga, Castelão Francês, Maria Gomes, Touriga Nacional) Alentejo (grape varieties, Aragonês, Trincadeira, Touriga Nacional), Terras do Sado (grape variety Castelão) Bucelas (grape variety Arinto) and Estremadura (grape varieties: Arinto, Aragonês, Castelão, Trincadeira, Touriga Nacional)...

  10. Clinical and Laboratory Investigation of Oral Allergy Syndrome to Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Falak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is occasionally observed following consumption  of raw fruits  in  allergic adults. Since this  phenomenon  was  commonly  reported  in  Khorasan province of Iran; we intended to check if common  diagnostic tests could be applied for differential diagnosis of OAS to grapes.IgE reactivity of 84 patients with OAS to grape and 34 patients with OAS to other fruits were analyzed by in vivo and in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those of controls. The patients underwent skin prick test (SPT with common allergic pollen extracts as well as grape extract. The specific IgE  level to grape proteins was determined by an indirect ELISA. The correlation of SPT results with ELISA and western blotting patterns was checked by statistical methods.The results showed a significant correlation of grape SPT diameters with grape specific IgE levels. Furthermore,  a significant association of grape SPT results with IgE immunoreactivity of a 10 kDa  grape protein,  probably lipid transfer protein  (LTP was prominent. Immunoreactivity of other proteins was linked with mild clinical symptoms.The study showed a significant correlation of grape SPT results with grape total extract, as well as its 10 kDa component’s IgE reactivity. The results suggested that OAS to grape should not be considered as a main criterion in diagnosis of grape allergy and a combination of grape SPT results with evaluation of IgE reactivity to grape 10 kDa allergen should be considered to achieve a more reliable grape allergy diagnosis.

  11. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Burlakov M. M.; Rodionova L. Y.; Troshin L. P.; Chausov V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice var...

  12. Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed supplementation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Kyong; Zhang, Xian-Hua; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seeds have a beneficial effect on human health. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of grape seeds on antioxidant activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control diet group (C), a high-fat diet group (HF), a 5% grape seed-supplemented control diet group (G), and a 5% grape seed-supplemented high-fat diet group (HG). Dietary supplementation with grape seeds reduced serum concentrations of lipid peroxides compared wi...

  13. Desfolha em videiras americanas e viníferas na fase de pré-maturação dos frutos Defoliation of american and vinifera grapevines in the pre ripening of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2011-07-01

    2006/2007 harvesting. The experiment was disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications and four plants per plot. The following treatments were tested: T1 (no defoliation, T2 (removal of leaves located in the opposite side of the grapes, T3 (removal of leaves located under the grapes and T4 (removal of leaves located under and in the opposite side of the grapes. The Vitis labrusca received an additional treatment (T5 consisting of leaves removed above the grapes. These treatments were applied during the change of berries color for Concord, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes and in the beginning of berries softening for Niagara Branca grape. After the harvesting, the grapevine production, cluster weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH were evaluated. It was observed that the defoliation until the grapes height did not influence the quantity and quality of grapes. However, when the defoliation was carried out above the clusters, there was a delay in the maturation of american grapes. This condition shows that is not necessary a selective desfolation until the clusters height on grapevines, when it is realized during the initial fruit ripening phase.

  14. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  15. In vitro cultures of grape tissues : new possibilities to study grape berry physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Grape berries suffer important morphological, biochemical and physiological changes during its development and maturation. It is known that photoassimilates translocated from leaves serve as the major source of carbon and energy to support fruit needs, but recent findings revealed that, at least in the green phase, grape berries show high photosynthetic activity especially in the exocarp. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis for fruit growth and production of organic compounds is far from...

  16. Evaluating the correlation between chemical and sensory compounds in Blaufränkisch and Cabernet Franc wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Balga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive physiological effects of the bioactive compounds of red wines have been known for a long time. Besides that, the polyphenolic compounds of red wines represent one of the most important factors for oenology. With a special chemical analysis, we discover the relationship between chemical and sensory compounds. In this way, we explore which compounds influence sensory properties. The phenolic compounds are the quality attributes of the wine. The analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out in two red wines: Cabernet Franc and Blaufränkisch. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these two wines and evaluate the connection between the two parameters. In addition, we also examined the influence of the polyphenolic content on sensory perception. The experiment was carried out in a cool climate wine region in Eger, Hungary, in vintage of 2008. We investigated the profile of phenolic contents in new and aged wines. Total polyphenolic content, anthocyanin, leucoanthocyanin and catechin were evaluated by spectrophotometer. Stilbenes were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  17. Balanço de energia e consumo hídrico de vinhedo de ‘Cabernet Franc’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de energia foi utilizado em vinhedo da uva para vinho ‘Cabernet Franc’, conduzido em espaldeira alta, para caracterizar a repartição do saldo de radiação (SR nos diferentes fluxos de calor: latente (LE, sensível e no solo. Em média LE representou aproximadamente 79% de SR. São apresentadas as variações horárias dos componentes do balanço de energia para dias: ensolarado e nublado. O consumo hídrico do vinhedo para os diferentes subperíodos fenológicos foi: poda-florescimento (99 mm, florescimento-início de maturação (249 mm e início de maturação-colheita (201 mm. Para o ciclo total (poda-colheita, o consumo hídrico obtido foi de 549 mm.

  18. Use of gamma irradiation to stimulate growth of some grape varieties in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three rootstocks (R.99, Ruggeri 140, and 3309) and three varieties (Helwani, Cabernet and Ashlamich) of grapevine cultured on DSD1 medi, were irradiated with 0, 2, 5, and 7 Gy of gamma irradiation (Co60 sources, 0.17 Gy/min). Ashlamich variety did not show any growth in all tested doses. Shoot length of all other varieties and rootstocks were increased at the 7 Gy dose compared to control except R.99. The root number was significantly increased of three rootstock with 5. Root length was significantly higher at doses 2, 5, and 7 Gy had the same effect on Helwani and Cabernet varieties. The number of Cabernet leaves exposed to 2 and 7 Gy was increased compared to control, whereas it was increased at 5 and 7 Gy on Helwani. The leaf area of Helwani and Cabernet was significantly reduced at 5 Gy dose. (authors)

  19. Type 2 diabetes and glycemic response to grapes or grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Susanj

    2009-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes affects approximately 7% of the population in the United States and is characterized by decreased disposal of glucose in peripheral tissues due to insulin resistance and overproduction of glucose by the liver, defects in pancreatic beta-cell function, and decreased beta-cell mass. Obesity, decreased physical exercise, and consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) and load are major predisposing factors in the development of type 2 diabetes. The GI is used to evaluate the rise in blood glucose levels in response to food. The GI provides an indication of the quality of carbohydrate in a food. The glycemic load (GL) is used to provide information about the quantity of carbohydrates in a food and the insulin demand. Individuals with diabetes are advised to maintain a diet of low-GL foods, because low-GL diets improve diabetes symptoms. Grapes have a mean GI and GL in the low range. Little research has been performed with grapes and/or grape products to determine the glycemic response either alone or with a meal. Grapes and other fruits contain numerous polyphenols, including the stilbene resveratrol, the flavanol quercetin, catechins, and anthocyanins that have shown potential for reducing hyperglycemia, improving beta-cell function, and protecting against beta-cell loss. Therefore, with a low mean GI and GL, grapes or grape products may provide health benefits to type 2 diabetics. PMID:19625702

  20. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  1. Prospects for GRB Polarimetry with GRAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P. F.; Legere, J.; Macri, J. R.; Narita, T.; Ryan, J. M.

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses the latest progress in the development of GRAPE (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation from these sources will lead to a better understating of both the emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. We can monitor individual Compton scatters that occur in the plastics and determine whether the photon is photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal or not. A Compton scattered photon that is immediately photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal constitutes a valid event. These valid events provide us with the interaction locations of each incident photon and ultimately produces a modulation pattern for the Compton scattering of the polarized radiation. Comparing with Monte Carlo simulations of a 100% polarized beam, the level of polarization of the measured beam can then be determined. The complete array is mounted on a flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) that can measure the deposited energies resulting from the photon interactions. The design of the detector allows for a large field-of-view (> π steradian), at the same time offering the ability to be close-packed with multiple modules in order to reduce deadspace. We present in this paper the latest laboratory results obtained from GRAPE using partially polarized radiation sources along with a brief description of our future plans for the GRAPE design.

  2. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  3. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step. PMID:27451191

  4. Distribution of Wild and Cultivated Grapes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H UZUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of main gene centers in the world for grapes. It is believed that cultivated grapes have their origins in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris is the only wild grape species in this region. That is why Turkey has a very large amount of wild grapevine populations and grape cultivars which offer to grapevine breeders a valuable gene pool. Wild grapevines have significant characters for inducing the resistence to biotic and abiotic stress factors, such as resistance to lime, drought, pests and diseases. Turkey has over 1.600 local grape cultivars, among which the majority of them are conserved at the national grape collection vineyard in Tekirda?. They are mostly used as table grapes, dried grapes or for local consumptions. Wild grapes are distributed all over the country territory, mainly in the river basins and forests. Wild grape collection vineyards were established at some universities in Turkey. These grapevines will be screened for the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

  5. Effect of screwcap and cork closures on SO2 levels and aromas in a Sauvignon Blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajkovich, Michael; Tibbits, Nigel; Peron, Guilaine; Lund, Cynthia M; Dykes, Stuart I; Kilmartin, Paul A; Nicolau, Laura

    2005-12-28

    The development of a Sauvignon Blanc wine sealed under screwcap and cork was undertaken using different fill heights and initial levels of free SO2 (20, 25, and 30 mg/L) over 2 years. More SO2 was lost for wines under cork over the first 3 months, corresponding to a higher level of dissolved oxygen at bottling. From this time wines under cork and screwcap lost SO2 at a similar rate and retained dissolved CO2 equally well, indicating that both types of closure presented a similar effective barrier to gas movement. After 2 years in the bottle, the different treatments retained similar levels of the volatile thiols 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) and 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) responsible for fruity aromas, with initial SO2 levels having no effect, but the thiol concentrations were 18-23% lower under cork, which may be due to absorption of volatiles into the cork. Levels of polyphenols such as caftaric acid and the absorbance at 420 nm were the same for wines under cork and screwcap, whereas some indication was given that more oxidation occurred with a lower level of initial free SO2. Although the different treatments were not readily distinguished by a sensory panel, the data for individual wines showed a positive correlation between passion fruit descriptors and levels of 3MHA and 3MH. PMID:16366687

  6. A rapid qualitative and quantitative evaluation of grape berries at various stages of development using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musingarabwi, Davirai M; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Young, Philip R; Eyéghè-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc grape berries. FT-NIR and ATR FT-MIR spectroscopy, coupled with spectral preprocessing and multivariate data analysis (MVDA), provided reliable methods to qualitatively assess berry samples at five distinct developmental stages: green, pre-véraison, véraison, post-véraison and ripe (harvest), without any prior metabolite extraction. Compared to NIR spectra, MIR spectra provided more reliable discrimination between the berry samples from the different developmental stages. Interestingly, ATR FT-MIR spectra from fresh homogenized berry samples proved more discriminatory than spectra from frozen homogenized berry samples. Different developmental stages were discriminated by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In order to generate partial least squares (PLS) models from the MIR/NIR spectral datasets; the major sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (malic acid, succinic acid and tartaric acid) were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the data used as a reference dataset. PLS regression was used to develop calibration models to predict the concentration of the major sugars and organic acids in the berry samples from different developmental stages. Our data show that infrared (IR) spectroscopy could provide a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective alternative to the chromatographic analysis of the sugar and organic acid composition of grape berries at various developmental stages, using small sample volumes and requiring limited sample preparation. This provides scope and support for the possible development of hand-held devices to assess quality parameters in field-settings in real-time and non-destructively using IR technologies. PMID:26212968

  7. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of pomace extracts from four Virginia‐grown grape varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yixiang; Burton, Sheanell; Kim, Chyer; Sismour, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Grape pomace is a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of pomace extracts from four Virginia‐grown grape varieties were investigated. White grape pomaces had higher (P 

  8. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  9. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon; Alberto Miele

    2012-01-01

    The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nect...

  10. Effects of grape pomace on the antioxidant defense system in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang-Sook; Chung, Hae-Kyung; CHOI, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Myung-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grape seeds extract and grape peels extract prepared from grape pomace on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, degree of lipid peroxidation in serum and liver tissue were investigated in rabbits fed on high cholesterol diet. New Zealand white rabbits were divided as follows ; 1) NOR (normal group); 2) CHOL (cholesterol group); 3) GSH (cholesterol + grape seed extract group); 4) GPE (cholesterol + grape peel extract); 5) GSP (cholesterol + grape seed powder); 6) GPP (cholesterol...

  11. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year s...

  12. Design and Construction of Grape Theme Sightseeing Garden

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Jun; Yu, Yifei; Li, Jingchuan; Han, Ruifeng; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Taking the grape theme sightseeing garden of Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences for example, this article discusses the suitable edible and wine making cultivation varieties, vineyard frame and cultivation techniques in the grape theme sightseeing garden, from the perspective of planning and design. The garden landscape design and construction is integrated with sightseeing and garden visiting to highlight the theme of grape sightseeing garden, aimed at achieving purposes of sightseeing, pick...

  13. Antioxidant and Vasodilatory Effects of Blackberry and Grape Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Boban, Mladen

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of ...

  14. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ∼400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV), at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of > 1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above. (authors)

  15. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ~400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV, at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of >1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above.

  16. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  17. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  18. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Isolated microorganisms from Iranian grapes and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maulani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objective of this study was to monitor the microorganisms isolated from grapes and its derivative traditional products produced in Iran.Material and Methods: Four kinds of grapes cultivated summer of 2010 in vineyard of Takestan and also grape derived products from Shahrod, Hamedan and Takestan were used for this study. The samples were cultured in specific media to isolate the microorganisms that might grow on or pollute the products.Results: Species of bacteria and fungi isolated from 4 kinds of grapes cultivated in Takestan graveyards and also from 2 kinds of derived traditional products; grape sap and sour grape (abe-ghure locally named, were taken from Takestan, Shahrod and Hamedan cities. Also, bacteria Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., Clostridium spp., and fungus of Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were isolated.Conclusion: The isolated bacteria were common microorganisms that grow in soil or in the organic fertilizer and may appear from the environments that samples were collected. These bacteria were not pathogenic to human. The fungus isolated from the grapes may harm humans as they produce toxin. The results suggested that bacterial diversity on grapes and its derived traditional products are expected to be monitored and described in all Iranian graveyards as Iran has been known as one of the world’s biggest grape producers.

  20. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  1. VPLIV RAZLIČNO OBARVANIH TULCEV IN ČRNE FOLIJE NA TEMPERATURO ORGANOV VINSKE TRTE TER KOLIČINO IN KAKOVOST GROZDJA SORTE 'SAUVIGNON'

    OpenAIRE

    Breznik, Nataša

    2010-01-01

    V letih 2005 in 2006 smo na UC za vinogradništvo in vinarstvo Meranovo ugotavljali vpliv različno obarvanih tulcev in črne PVC folije na temperaturo posameznih organov ter količino in kakovost grozdja vinske trte Vitis vinifera L. 'Sauvignon'. V letu 2005 je bilo največje povprečno število jagod na grozd in največja masa pecljevine pri trsih, ki so imeli deblo obdano z belo-črnim tulcem, prostor v vrsti pa je pokrivala črna PVC folija. Najmanjšo maso jagod na grozd so imeli trsi, pri katerih ...

  2. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obtained from a long-term grape growing. In addition, they have to be supported by histological and biochemical analyses.

  3. PTR-MS in enology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaler, Renate; Araghipour, Nooshin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin; Via, Josef Dalla; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2007-10-01

    The present communication deals with the improvement of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) wine headspace analyses. In contrast to previous PTR-MS investigations of wine, where wine headspace was ionized by protonated ethanol clusters, the headspace was diluted by a factor of 1:40 with N2 and ionized by H3O+ ions. This method is better suited for routine applications than the previously reported method since it is simpler, faster, and the mass spectra obtained are less complex. A test wine was mixed with ethanol and with water to yield ethanol contents ranging from 10 to 15% (v/v) and these mixtures were analyzed to assess whether any quantitative differences in the composition of volatiles were detectable. The data showed no impact of the ethanol content on the wine headspace composition. The new method was applied to eight different wine samples produced from two different grape varieties: Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon. Each variety was grown in two different locations in South Tyrol (Northern Italy) and harvested at two different dates. Quantitative (but not qualitative) differences in PTR-MS spectra between the two wine varieties were observed. Using principal component analysis of selected m/z signals differentiation between Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon samples was achievable.

  4. Optimization of the GRAPE Polarimeter Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark

    The Gamma Ray Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is designed to investigate one of the most exotic phenomena in the universe - gamma-ray bursts (GRB). There has been intense observational and theoretical research in recent years, but research in this area has been largely focused on studies of time histories, spectra, and spatial distributions. Theoretical models show that a more complete understanding of the inner structure of GRBs, including the geometry and physical processes close to the central engine, requires the exploitation of gamma-ray polarimetry. Over the past several years, we have developed the GRAPE instrument to measure the polarization of gamma-rays from GRBs over the energy range of 50 to 500 keV. The GRAPE design is a modular one in which several independent modules are required to achieve sufficient sensitivity. A single module fits on the front end of a 2-inch square flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). The first operational balloon flight took in place in September of 2011 from Ft. Sumner, NM. The purpose of the 2011 flight was to validate the science capability of GRAPE by measuring the Crab polarization with a collimated array of 16 modules. The limited success of that flight led to a second validation flight (also from Ft. Sumner) in the fall of 2014, with significantly improved shielding and a larger array of modules. That flight proved too short to make a full observation of the Crab. Although we did not succeed in measuring the polarization of the Crab with a high degree of confidence, we feel that we are nonetheless prepared to move forward with our program. Our next goal is to fly GRAPE on a long duration balloon (LDB) platform to collect data on a significant sample of GRBs. Our experience with the first two balloon flights, coupled with further design efforts focused on orbital payloads, has led to an improved polarimeter concept that represents a natural evolution of the current design. It is this new concept that we are

  5. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wi...

  6. Implementing quantum logic gates with GRAPE: principles and practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, B

    2012-01-01

    We briefly describe the use of GRAPE pulses to implement quantum logic gates in NMR quantum computers, and discuss a range of simple extensions to the core technique. We then consider a range of difficulties which can arise in practical implementations of GRAPE sequences, reflecting non-idealities in the experimental systems used.

  7. GENE POOL OF INDIGENOUS GRAPE VARIETIES AND INTRODUCENTS IN ABKHAZIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aiba V. S.; Troshin L. P.; Kravchenko R. V.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of results of the conducting surveys on screening and saving gene pool of indigenous grape varieties in the Republic of Abkhazia, which contributed to detection and identification of the 15 previously described in the literature of Abkhazian native grape varieties

  8. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety names. 4.93 Section 4.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names §...

  9. Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate fro

  10. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry. PMID:25251191

  11. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters. PMID:19886682

  12. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  13. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  14. 78 FR 1715 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...This rule increases the assessment rate established for the California Desert Grape Administrative Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.0125 to $0.0150 per 18-pound lug of grapes handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates the handling of grapes grown in a designated area of southeastern California. Assessments upon grape......

  15. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Geuna, Filippo;

    2010-01-01

    spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has......We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce...

  16. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    OpenAIRE

    Ester Foppa Pedretti; Daniele Duca; Giuseppe Toscano; Giovanni Riva; Andrea Pizzi; Giorgio Rossini; Matteo Saltari; Chiara Mengarelli; Massimo Gardiman; Riccardo Flamini

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine cha...

  17. GRAPE-6: The massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical particle simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Junichiro; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Koga, Masaki; Namura, Ken

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture and performance of the GRAPE-6 system, a massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical $N$-body simulations. GRAPE-6 is the successor of GRAPE-4, which was completed in 1995 and achieved the theoretical peak speed of 1.08 Tflops. As was the case with GRAPE-4, the primary application of GRAPE-6 is simulation of collisional systems, though it can be used for collisionless systems. The main differences between GRAPE-4 and GRAPE-6 are (a...

  18. GRAPE-6: The massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical particle simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Makino, J; Koga, M; Namura, K; Makino, Junichiro; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Koga, Masaki; Namura, Ken

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture and performance of the GRAPE-6 system, a massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical $N$-body simulations. GRAPE-6 is the successor of GRAPE-4, which was completed in 1995 and achieved the theoretical peak speed of 1.08 Tflops. As was the case with GRAPE-4, the primary application of GRAPE-6 is simulation of collisional systems, though it can be used for collisionless systems. The main differences between GRAPE-4 and GRAPE-6 are (a) The processor chip of GRAPE-6 integrates 6 force-calculation pipelines, compared to one pipeline of GRAPE-4 (which needed 3 clock cycles to calculate one interaction), (b) the clock speed is increased from 32 to 90 MHz, and (c) the total number of processor chips is increased from 1728 to 2048. These improvements resulted in the peak speed of 64 Tflops. We also discuss the design of the successor of GRAPE-6.

  19. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Ucchesu

    Full Text Available The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC, allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  20. Dicty_cDB: VHD644 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHD644 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16586-1 VHD644P (Link to Original ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ...

  1. Dicty_cDB: VHD679 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHD679 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16586-1 VHD679P (Link to Original ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ...

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHD258 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHD258 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10844-1 VHD258P (Link to Original ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ...

  3. Dicty_cDB: VHB563 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHB563 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16586-1 VHB563P (Link to Original ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ...

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHA335 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHA335 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16586-1 VHA335P (Link to Original ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ... Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes ... : HindIII (clone prefix : VCS1H) and EcoRI (clone ...

  5. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Edward William R Barlow

    2016-01-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four nor...

  6. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  7. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  8. Changes in grape phylloxera abundance in ungrafted vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Karen S; Hoffmann, Ary A; Powell, Kevin S

    2006-10-01

    To examine seasonal changes in the abundance of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), several sampling methods were tested at vineyards in Victoria, Australia. At a recently infested site, changes detected by root assessment, trunk trapping, and emergence trapping were closely correlated, although the largest numbers of grape phylloxera were obtained using traps that collected phylloxera emerging from soil. This trapping technique was further used to investigate changes in grape phylloxera numbers across three different sites from southeastern Australia as well as in three consecutive seasons at the same vineyard. Grape phylloxera numbers decreased as vines deteriorated; a single peak of emergence occurred in every summer. Size and timing of emergence peaks varied between sites and also between vine blocks within a site. The number of grape phylloxera trapped was correlated with degree-days. Monitoring soil temperature may provide a way of timing control options against grape phylloxera and a way of identifying peak periods when phylloxera detection surveys should be completed or when grape phylloxera are at the highest risk of spreading among vineyards. PMID:17066812

  9. Design and Construction of Grape Theme Sightseeing Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; LIU; Yifei; YU; Jingchuan; LI; Ruifeng; HAN; Ying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Taking the grape theme sightseeing garden of Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences for example,this article discusses the suitable edible and wine making cultivation varieties,vineyard frame and cultivation techniques in the grape theme sightseeing garden,from the perspective of planning and design. The garden landscape design and construction is integrated with sightseeing and garden visiting to highlight the theme of grape sightseeing garden,aimed at achieving purposes of sightseeing,picking,appreciating the beautiful scenery,and enjoying palatable food.

  10. Lake Erie Grape Farm Cost Survey, 2001-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Barry E.; White, Gerald B.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a summary of five years of grape costs and returns data collected from Lake Erie Region grape growers for the 2001-2005 seasons. “Concord” and “Niagara” grapes utilized for juice and generic wine accounted for over 90 percent of the survey acreage. About two-thirds of the acreage surveyed was in New York and one-third from Pennsylvania. In recent years, 42 to 49 growers participated, with total vineyard acreage ranging from about 4,400 to 5,200 acres. Average costs per acre ove...

  11. Lake Erie Grape Farm Cost Survey: 1996-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Barry E.; White, Gerald B.

    2003-01-01

    This report is a summary of five years of grape costs and returns data collected from Lake Erie Region grape growers for the 1996 – 2000 seasons. “Concord” and “Niagara” grapes utilized for juice and generic wine accounted for over 90 percent of the survey acreage. About two-thirds of the acreage surveyed was in New York and one-third from Pennsylvania. In recent years, about 40 growers participated, with total vineyard acreage of just over 4,000. Average costs per acre were $1,559 including ...

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Arginine in Grape Juice Using 8-Hydroquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; LIANG Xin-hong; ZHAO Rui-xiang; FENG Li-dan; LI Hua

    2008-01-01

    Arginine in grape juice can be metabolized by wine yeasts and malolactic bacteria to precursors of ethyl carbamate, known as carcinogen. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, fast, and accurate method for determining arginine in grape juice with Sakaguchi reaction by separating arginine with strong cation-exchange resins. Parameters were optimized including the concentrations of 8-hydroquinoline and sodium hydrobromite. The color stability lasted for 4 min, which is sufficient to finish the measurement. The method is simple, reproducible and accurate, and can be applied for quick measurement of arginine in grape juice to take necessary measures for controlling the level of ethyl carbamate.

  13. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses ...

  14. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obta...

  15. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  16. Análisis de las diferencias en el crecimiento vegetativo, en los componentes del rendimiento y en la composición de las uvas y vinos del cv. cabernet sauvignon (vitis vinifera L.), producidos por el déficit hídrico durante pre-envero y post-envero

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Olga

    2013-01-01

    La presente Tesis Doctoral se realizó con el fin de estimar conjuntamente la respuesta agronómica y fisiológica de la vid (Vitis vinifera L.), así como los efectos sobre la evolución de la maduración, composición y la calidad de la uva y del vino, bajo la aplicación de diferentes déficit hídricos en pre-envero y post-envero, dentro de un marco de referencia de cambio climático. La variación climática que prevén los estudios sobre el cambio climático, resulta un factor decisivo en la eficienc...

  17. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  19. Methane production from grape skins. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunghans, W.N.

    1981-10-09

    Methane production from grape pomace was measured for a 50-day digestion period. Gas production was calculated to be 2400 ft/sup 3//10 d/ton at 53% methane content. Microorganisms particularly a fungus which grows on grape pomace and lignin was isolated. Lignin content of pomace was measured at approximately 60%. Lignin is slowly digested and may represent a residue which requires long term digestion. Research is continuing on isolation of anaerobic methane bacteria and codigestion of pomace with enzymes as cellulase and pectinase. The sewage sludge functioned adequately as a mixed source of organisms capable of digesting grape pomace. A sediment from stored grape juice produced significant amounts of methane and represents a nutrient substrate for additional studies on continuous flow methane production. 3 figs.

  20. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  1. Identification of potential protein markers of noble rot infected grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Millioni, Renato; Franchin, Cinzia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Simonato, Barbara

    2015-07-15

    The evaluation of Botrytis cinerea as noble rot on withered grapes is of great importance to predict the wine sensory/organoleptic properties and to manage the winemaking process of Amarone, a passito dry red wine. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of grapes infected by noble rot under withering conditions to identify possible markers of fungal infection. 2-D gel electrophoresis revealed that protein profiles of infected and not infected grape samples are significantly different in terms of number of spots and relative abundance. Protein identification by MS analysis allowed to identify only in infected berries proteins of B. cinerea that represent potential markers of the presence of the fungus in the withered grapes. PMID:25722151

  2. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  3. Agrobiologocal and Technological Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Danlas White

    OpenAIRE

    Melita Fazinić; Bernard Kozina

    1999-01-01

    Viticulture has always been primarity directed towards growing wine cultivars white table grape cultivar growing was limited to very few highly valued cultivars which found their position in the big market.\

  4. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  5. Biology and management of grape phylloxera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granett, J; Walker, M A; Kocsis, L; Omer, A D

    2001-01-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae), is a worldwide pest of grapevines. Its life cycle has sexual and asexual portions with forms that feed from leaf and root galls. Not all forms occur throughout the insect's range. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera cultivars; leaf forms predominate on other Vitis species characteristic of the American native range. Other conditions influence expression of the life cycle. Hosts and conditions similarly affect life table performance. Damage to grapevines is by secondary soilborne pathogens attacking the feeding site and by physiological interaction of the insect with the grapevine, though the latter has not been well studied. Resistant rootstocks derived from native American Vitis are the primary control tool. The insect varies genetically and relative to performance on hosts. Use of insecticides is limited in effect, and other control methods are not proven. More research on the biology, ecology, and management of phylloxera is needed. PMID:11112174

  6. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. PMID:25597978

  7. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Vasil Georgiev; Anthony Ananga; Violeta Tsolova

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among ...

  8. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  9. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Ageeva N. M.; Suprun I. I.; Prakh A. V.

    2015-01-01

    The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire s...

  10. Load displacement in grape harvesters: Discrete Element Analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    González Montellano, Carlos; Baguena Isiegas, Eva; Ramírez Gómez, Álvaro; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic weighing of the hopper in grape harvesters is affected by a number of factors. One of them is the displacement of the load inside the hopper as a consequence of the terrain topography. In this work, the weight obtained by a load cell in a grape harvester has been analysed and quantified using the discrete element method (DEM). Different models have been developed considering different scenarios for the terrain.

  11. Analytical Methodology for Characterization of Grape and Wine Phenolic Bioactives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefova, Marina; Ivanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols are a large and complex group of compounds responsible for the characteristics, quality and colour of grape and wine, especially for red ones. Polyphenolic composition has been extensively studied and a large family of structures have been identified in grape and wine. These compounds can affect the appearance, taste, mouth-feel, fragrance and antimicrobial properties of wine. In addition, polyphenols were confirmed to be the key compounds responsible for the antioxidant potential...

  12. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Felšöciová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Dana Tančinová; Zuzana Mašková; Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Asper...

  13. Co-composting process of (Sugarbeet) vinasse and grape marc

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Blanco, M. J.; Madejón, Engracia; López Núñez, Rafael; Ron Vaz, M. D.; Cabrera, Francisco

    1996-01-01

    Beet vinasse, a high density liquid waste from the sugar industry, and grape marc, a primary by-product of wine production, could be recycled as fertilizers due to their high OM and nutrient contents. The direct incorporation of grape marc into agricultural land, a common practice, has become a serious problem because degradation products inhibiting root growth are released (Inbar et al., 1991). Furthermore, the direct aplication of vinasse has also several shortcomings because of its high sa...

  14. Copper content of grape and wine from Italian farms

    OpenAIRE

    Esparza, Mª Angeles García

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Copper content in grape and wine from 16 wine-farms in Italy was studied during the harvest of 2003. The influence of number of applications, days between last application and harvest and total copper applied was studied. Of the total number of grape and wine samples analysed, 13% and respectively 18% exceeded the MRL. Total copper applied and number of days between the last application and harvest were the two factors that best explained the concentration of copper in gra...

  15. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. PMID:26292165

  16. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  17. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that...

  18. LEAF MORPHOMETRY OF KUBAN WILD-GROWING GRAPE LIANA Leaf morphometry of kuban wild-growing grape liana

    OpenAIRE

    Troshin L. P.

    2011-01-01

    Leaf morphometry of Kuban wild-growing grape liana has not been studied yet and there is no evidence of straight subspecies representatives location of Vitis vinifera silvestris Gmel. on the Kuban land. Though there have been suppositions about it in science since long ago [5]. With morphometric taxonomy appearance there was necessity of exact focusing on modern state of genotypic grape variety and biological leaf polymorphism for link identification silvestris – silvesatis - sativa

  19. The Governance of Grapes: The NSW Inquiry into the Wine Grape Market and Prices (2010) – An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Bligh; Dollery, Brian; Kortt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of the grape growing and wine making industries to Australia’s continued economic prosperity is under threat. While international market dynamics are often cited as the cause, the problem of oversupply and more specifically calls for government intervention were the focus of the recently completed NSW Legislative Council’s Standing Committee on State Development Wine Grape Market and Prices Inquiry (Catanzariti Inquiry, 2010a). This paper examines the process and outcomes of ...

  20. Trends in phenology of grapevine in North-Eastern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Andrea; Meggio, Franco; Fila, Gianni

    2010-05-01

    Plants are sensitive indicators of climate change and the analysis of shifts in phenological records may help in confirming trends not easily detected by instrumental observations alone. We have analyzed a detailed phenological database for grapevine, using observations collected from 1986 to 2008 in two sites of North-Eastern Italy, on the cultivars Prosecco, Chardonnay, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Parameters of models for winter dormancy, vegetative growth, and ripening phases have been fitted and validated on a subset, yielding a consistent estimate of chilling and heat requirements. A significant shift of flowering, veraison and harvest dates were observed, reaching almost -1 day per year in the warmer site for the earlier cultivars. While traditional breeding programs have been so far seeking for early ripening capacity, the trends we detected show the close risk of a negative impact of climate change on enological characteristics of grapes even in Northern Italy and the opportunity to look for late-ripening types.

  1. PRICING ATTRIBUTES OF WINES FROM EMERGING SUPPLIERS ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica YOO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine British Columbia (BC wine consumers’ valuation of wine imported from emerging suppliers (Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia and Hungary using hedonic pricing technique. BC Liquor Distribution Branch retail sales data covering weekly sales of table wine imported into the province of British Columbia from all five countries for the period April 20th, 2002 to May 8th, 2004 are applied to estimate the influence of wine attributes on prices. The results indicate that grape variety, brand name, country of origin, and alcohol content are important factors influencing prices paid by consumers. In particular, Chilean white and red wines are associated with larger price premia as compared to Argentinean wines. Wines from Hungary, Bulgaria, and Croatia, although sold in large quantities in the BC market, are substantially discounted in comparison to New World wines. Cabernet Sauvignon fetches a higher price when blended with other varietals and Chardonnay appears to be popular and highly valued by consumers among white wines.

  2. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations. PMID:26925621

  3. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  4. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  5. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  6. PPPM and TreePM Methods on GRAPE Systems for Cosmological N-body Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Kohji; Fukushige, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present Particle-Particle-Particle-Mesh (PPPM) and Tree Particle-Mesh (TreePM) implementations on GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-6A systems, special-purpose hardware accelerators for gravitational many-body simulations. In our PPPM and TreePM implementations on GRAPE, the computational time is significantly reduced compared with the conventional implementations without GRAPE, especially under the strong particle clustering, and almost constant irrespective of the degree of particle clustering. We carry...

  7. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu’s assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower c...

  8. The Role of Contracts in Wine Grape Supply Coordination: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Iain

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the role of contracts in coordinating the supply of grapes between independent wine grape growers and wineries is examined. A review of technical issues that underpin the design and implementation of contracts provides insights into the wine industry. A review of the economics literature on contractual relations in the wine industry indicates that although grape contracts are important they are subject to a number of problems. In particular, the precise determination of grape qu...

  9. Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, Phenolic Compositions and Color Properties of Fresh Grape Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Ali; CANDEMİR, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Grape leaves have been consumed as fresh and canned for years. Stuffed grape leaves (dolma) is a traditional delicacy for Turkish, Balkan and Middle East nations. In this study; grape leaves from Sultani Çekirdeksiz (SÇ), Sultan1 (S1), Sultan7 (S7) Saruhanbey (SB) and Narince (N) grape cultivars were assayed for their total phenolics, total flavonoids, some phenolic compounds and color properties. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the samples were determined by Folin Ciocalteu an...

  10. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    OpenAIRE

    Šárka Nedomová; Vojtěch Kumbár; Pavel Pavloušek; Roman Pytel; Jaroslav Začal; Jaroslav Buchar

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, ...

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Guo-Tian; Wang Jun-Fang; Cramer Grant; Dai Zhan-Wu; Duan Wei; Xu Hong-Guo; Wu Ben-Hong; Fan Pei-Ge; Wang Li-Jun; Li Shao-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the ...

  12. The Value of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Grapes: Evidence from California

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Kate B.; Alston, Julian M.; Sambucci, Olena

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.8 billion to the value of California’s farm production in 2011 (California Department of Food and Agriculture, 2012). Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could...

  13. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on ...

  14. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  15. [Antioxidant and antiradical properties of red grape wines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Muzychenko, G F; Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the antioxidant and antiradical capacity of red table wines. It is shown that the antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines due to the varieties of grapes and processing technologies. A correlation between the concentration of phenolic components of the complex and antiradical properties, as well as antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines has been established. Antioxidant and antiradical properties were higher in variants with the highest concentration of the most important components of a phenolic complex--catechins and tannins. Their greatest content has been identified in the wine materials Saperavi made on technologies which can extract components polyphenol complex not only from grape skin, and grape seed (seed) containing ellagitannins and gallocatechin (using Vinificator company Padovan; prepared by fermenting mash irrigation heated mash, using a fermentation mash by Fludase). Depending on the grape varieties and production technology, the antioxidant activity varied by more than 30%. These data indicate that the technology can increase the production of wine intravarietal (for grapes) antioxidant activity of 10 to 20%. PMID:26841558

  16. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  17. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  18. Feasibility of grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis Harris, larval acoustic detection in Florida vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape root borer (GRB) is an important pest of grapes in the Eastern U.S. The larvae feed on grape roots, reducing vine vigor and increasing susceptibility to pathogens and drought. A study was conducted in 3 vineyards to test whether infestations could be identified using acoustic methods. Sound...

  19. EFFECTS OF EMILIANOS ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON FORMATION OF QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyanov A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapes are product of areas. Grape plant is very plastic and can grow on almost all types of soils except highly saline, fusion and wetlands. In studies of many authors, it was indicated the influence of different soil types and their properties on the growth of the vine plants, the quality of berries and their products. The object of study is soils and vines growing on them, laws and processes affecting the formation of grape production. Research methods are expeditions, field and laboratory. The article presents data on the effect of agrochemical soil properties (pH, solid residue, the amount of aqueous extract ions, chlorine ions, alkalinity (НSO3¯, calcium ion, magnesium ion, total carbonate, active carbonates, nitrate nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, exchangeable potassium , humus, humus reserves on the formation of the harvest of grapes and wine products (tasting score, the extract, the amount of phenolic compounds, the amount of organic acids, the amount of amino acids, metal ions, potassium ions, sodium metal, magnesium ions, calcium ions, the amount of metal ions. With the help of statistical data, we can establish the effect of weather conditions on the formation of 2009-2011 qualitative wines of Cabernet Sauvignon

  20. Potential of bio-drying applied to exhausted grape marc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, experimentation was carried out to study the behavior of exhausted grape marc during the bio-drying process. This process was chosen as an alternative to the typical grape marc thermal drying approach. The aim was to reduce the moisture level thanks to the biological exothermal reactions, and to increase the energy content in the biodried grape marc. The target was the generation of a product interesting for energy options. For the development of the research, a biological pilot reactor and a respirometric apparatus were used. Results demonstrated that bio-drying can decrease the water content saving the original energy content. The final material could be assumed like a solid recovered fuel, class 5:1:1 with a very low potential rate of microbial self-heating.

  1. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  2. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.;

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at...... each of three daily meals (31.3 mg total phenolics, including 9.0 mg catechin). An increased activity of glutathione reductase and a borderline increase of glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes were observed after grape-skin intervention, while the intervention had no significant effect on...

  3. Antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of blackberry and grape wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Boban, Mladen

    2012-03-01

    In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  4. An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESR spectra of the seeds, skins and stalks of unirradiated and γ-irradiated Cape black grapes have been obtained. In the spectra of all parts of the grape a single line (g ca. 2.004) is observed both before and after irradiation. New spectral features are observed after irradiation with doses of between 2 and 10 kGy. Some of these features decline in intensity over a period of several days. However, in the case of stalks, new spectral features are readily observed over the shelf-life of the fruit and in samples irradiated to a dose of only 2 kGy. (author)

  5. Clinical and Laboratory Investigation of Oral Allergy Syndrome to Grape

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is occasionally observed following consumption  of raw fruits  in  allergic adults. Since this  phenomenon  was  commonly  reported  in  Khorasan province of Iran; we intended to check if common  diagnostic tests could be applied for differential diagnosis of OAS to grapes.IgE reactivity of 84 patients with OAS to grape and 34 patients with OAS to other fruits were analyzed by in vivo and in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those of controls. The p...

  6. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m). The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire le...

  7. The clone selection studies on Siyah Gemre grape variety

    OpenAIRE

    Dilli Yıldız; Yağcı Adem; Ateş Fadime; Yıldız Naci

    2015-01-01

    V. vinifera L.cv. “Siyah Gemre” is an important table grape variety of Mediterranean Region in Turkey. It is late sea- son, medium bunch density, round berry, red-black colored and seeded. The study was carried out to make clone selection for increasing the yield and quality in “Siyah Gemre” grape variety The project was completed in two stages. First one was selection nominees of mother clone vine and second was establishing of clonal collection vineyard. The first stage studies were carried...

  8. Biochemical Analysis and in Vivo Hypoglycemic Activity of a Grape Polyphenol–Soybean Flour Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander.; Oren, Andrew; Lila, Mary Ann; Fridlender, Bertold; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can efficiently sorb, concentrate, and stabilize polyphenols, but not sugars, from Concord grape juice, to yield grape polyphenol-enriched DSF. Sorption of grape polyphenols to DSF particles was dependent on the ratio of DSF and grape juice concentrate used, but not time of mixing or pH. Depending on ratios of starting materials, 1 g of grape polyphenol-enriched DSF contained 1.6–10.4 mg of anthocyanins, 7.5–93.1 mg of proanthocyanidins, and 20.5–144.5 mg of total...

  9. Wages and wage elasticities for wine and table grapes in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Conradie, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    A survey of 190 wine and table grape farmers in the Western Cape puts the average wage for farm labour at R928 per month in 2003 and R1123 per month in 2004. Output per worker has doubled since 1983. On farms with grape harvesters, labour is 30 per cent more productive (48 ton/worker) than on farms where wine grapes are picked by hand (37 ton/worker). At 9.75 tons per worker, table grapes are four times as labour-intensive as wine grapes. Resident men dominate the workforce on wine farms, whi...

  10. The Application of Grape Grading Based on PCA and Fuzzy Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Qiuye; Wang Yufei; Weixia Luan; Wang Guizhou

    2013-01-01

    This study grades the wine grape based on the data of physical and chemical indexes of wine grape and the quality of wine in 2012 CUMCM. Since the physical and chemical indexes of wine grape are numerous, we firstly adopt principal component analysis to select the main physical and chemical indexes which can represent most of the property of wine grape. Then, we take the comprehensive score of wine quality as the quality index of wine grape. Later, taking the contribution rate in principal co...

  11. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  12. Effect of some nutrients on nutritional and physiological status of grape plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grape is as old as that of man and is intermingled with it; details of grape growing of figure in mosaics of fourth dynasty of Egypt(2440 B.C) and later the grape as commercial crop is assuming increasing importance. In addition; grapes are the world's biggest most widespread deciduous fruit crop. About one acre in every 125 cultivated acres in the world is in grapes and one person in every 100 works in more phase of the grape and products business. About 55% of the world grape production goes into wine and about 15% into raisins. The balance is grown mainly for the table grapes, juice and other products. The vinfera grape is predominate (Chiders, 1983). According to the statistics of FAO in 1989 the total acreage of grape vine was about 8, 424, 000 hectare which produced 59, 158, 000 metric tones of fruits. Nowadays, in A.R.E, grapes are considered the second fruit in egypt. The total area increased in last few years under the new land reclamation and different soil types, its total area reached about 118826 faddans produced about 786968 metric tons according to the last statistics of the ministry of agriculture in 1994. 25 tabs., 104 refs

  13. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  14. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  15. Evolution of 3-mercaptohexanol, hydrogen sulfide, and methyl mercaptan during bottle storage of Sauvignon blanc wines. Effect of glutathione, copper, oxygen exposure, and closure-derived oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugliano, Maurizio; Kwiatkowski, Mariola; Vidal, Stéphane; Capone, Dimitra; Siebert, Tracey; Dieval, Jean-Baptiste; Aagaard, Olav; Waters, Elizabeth J

    2011-03-23

    The effects of wine composition and postbottling oxygen exposure on 3-mercaptohexanol (3-MH), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methyl mercaptan (MeSH) were investigated. A Sauvignon blanc wine with initial copper concentration of 0.1 mg/L was treated with copper sulfate and/or glutathione (GSH) prior to bottling to give final concentrations of 0.3 and 20 mg/L, respectively. The wines were bottled with a synthetic closure previously stored in either ambient air or nitrogen to study the effect of the oxygen normally present in the closure. Bottled wines were stored for 6 months in either air or nitrogen to study the effect of oxygen ingress through the closure. Copper addition resulted in a rapid initial decrease in 3-MH. During storage, a further decrease of 3-MH was observed, which was lower with GSH addition and lowered oxygen exposure. H2S accumulated largely during the second 3 months of bottle storage, with the highest concentrations attained in the wines treated with GSH and copper. Lower oxygen from and through the closure promoted H2S accumulation. The concentration of MeSH was virtually not affected by the experimental variables at 6 months, although differences were observed after 3 months of storage. The implications for wine quality are discussed. PMID:21332202

  16. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Draijer; Young de Graaf; Marieke Slettenaar; Eric de Groot; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentratio...

  17. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  18. Interpreting the Grapes of Wrath from the Perspective of Marxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余金燕

    2016-01-01

    as a quite important school of literary criticism, Marxism offers us a set of literary theories effective for textual analysis. This paper tries to apply the theories and methodology of Marxism literary criticism to interpreting the famous novel—the Grapes of Wrath, aiming at gaining a new interpretation of this novel.

  19. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  20. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... certification of fresh fruits, vegetables, and other products (7 CFR part 51); except that all persons who... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 925.304, see the List of CFR Sections Affected,...

  1. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unless such grapes meet the minimum grade and size requirements specified in 7 CFR 51.884 for U.S. No. 1..., 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements of U.S. No. 1 Institutional with..., and other products (7 CFR part 51) and in accordance with the Procedure for Requesting Inspection...

  2. GRAPE - A Balloon-Borne Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the development status of GRAPE (the Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), although GRAPE could also be employed in the study of other astrophysical sources. Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation will lead to a better understating of both emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. The azimuthal distribution of photon scatters from the plastic array into the central calorimeter provides a measure of the polarization fraction and polarization angle of the incident radiation. The design of the detector provides sensitivity over a large field-of-view (>pi steradian). The design facilitates the fabrication of large area arrays w...

  3. INNOVATIONS OF RUSSIAN VITICULTURE. 29. HARVESTING OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuzok N. V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the questions of a preliminary determination of vineyard yield, studying the dynam-ics of sugar content in berries, harvesting methods of handheld and mechanized grape harvesters. We have also presented color photographs of functioning har-vesters in the vineyards

  4. Auxin synthesis-encoding transgene enhances grape fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Elisa; Landi, Lucia; Silvestroni, Oriana; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2007-04-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) yield is largely dependent on the fecundity of the cultivar. The average number of inflorescences per shoot (i.e. shoot fruitfulness) is a trait related to fecundity of each grapevine. Berry number and weight per bunch are other features affecting grape yield. An ovule-specific auxin-synthesizing (DefH9-iaaM) transgene that increases the indole-3-acetic acid content of grape transgenic berries was transformed into cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless, which differ in the average number of inflorescences per shoots. Thompson Seedless naturally has very low shoot fruitfulness, whereas Silcora has medium shoot fruitfulness. The average number of inflorescences per shoot in DefH9-iaaM Thompson Seedless was doubled compared to its wild-type control. Berry number per bunch was increased in both transgenic cultivars. The quality and nutritional value of transgenic berries were substantially equivalent to their control fruits. The data presented indicate that auxin enhances fecundity in grapes, thus enabling to increase yield with lower production costs. PMID:17337528

  5. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  6. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type) labeling. 4.23 Section 4.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine §...

  7. A Stylistic Analysis of The Grapes of Wrath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲

    2009-01-01

    As we known, stylistics plays an important role in analysis of the literary works, therefore, this paper applies the theory of the stylistics to The Grapes of Wrath so as to explore the language usege in process of creating the novel, that is, the mind of the writer. This can help the readers appreciate the art of literature.

  8. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not damage due to insufficient or improper application of pest control measures; (4) Plant disease, but not damage due to insufficient or improper application of disease control measures; (5) Wildlife... harvested before normal maturity or for a special use (such as Champagne or Botrytis-affected grapes),...

  9. INNOVATIONS OF RUSSIAN VITICULTURE. 29. HARVESTING OF GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Matuzok N. V.; Radchevskiy P. P.; Troshin L. P.; Griuner M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The article highlights the questions of a preliminary determination of vineyard yield, studying the dynam-ics of sugar content in berries, harvesting methods of handheld and mechanized grape harvesters. We have also presented color photographs of functioning har-vesters in the vineyards

  10. 闪蒸品丽珠干红葡萄酒香气成分的GC/MS分析%GC/MS analysis of arolna compounds in Cabernet Franc wine made with flash evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴菊华; 崔彦志; 刘维维; 杨晓宽; 王莉; 张学峰

    2011-01-01

    采用溶剂萃取法提取闪蒸和传统品丽珠干红葡萄酒中的香气成分,经气相色谱-质谱联机分析,闪蒸干红酒鉴定出30种香气成分,包括16种酯、6种醇、3种萜烯类、4种酸和1种酮,传统干红酒鉴定出26种香气成分,包括14种酯、4种醇、4种萜烯类、2种酮、1种酸和1种醚.与传统品丽珠干红酒相比,闪蒸品丽珠干红酒酯类化合物相对含量提高29.43%,醇类化合物相对含量降低20.99%,葡萄酒香气更加浓郁、复杂、深沉.%The aroma compounds of Cabernet Franc wines made with flash evaporation and traditional technology were extracted by solvent extraction and analyzed by GC/MS method.The results showed that there were 30 aroma compounds in Cabernet Franc wine made with flash evaporation, including 16 esters, 6 alcohols, 3 terpones, 4 acids and 1 ketone; and there were 26 aroma compounds in Cabernet Franc wine made with traditional technology, including 14 esters, 4 alcohols, 4 terpenes, 2 ketones, 1 acid and 1 ether.Comparing with the wine made with traditional technology, the relative content of esters was increased by 29.43%, and the relative content of alcohol was reduced by 20.99% in Cabernet Franc wine made with flash evaporation.Besides, the aroma was stronger, more complex and heavy.

  11. Antioxidant effect of extract of the grape seed in streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousof Doostar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder as old as mankind and its incidence is considered to be high all over the world. Oxidative stress is strongly associated with development and the complications of diabetes. Antioxidant agents, especially with the origin of plants, are of more importance in the treatment of diabetic complications. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extract of the grape seed on antioxidants status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Material and methods: In this laboratory experimental study which conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz research center. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups including healthy control group, healthy group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg, diabetic control group and diabetic group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg. The experimental rats were treated in related groups for 12 weeks and at the end of experiment serum level of malonaldehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured in red blood cells. Statistically, comparison of the groups was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p< 0.05. Results: Diabetic rats showed significant increase in the value of MDA and a decrease in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Oral administration of grape seed extract resulted in significant reduction in the level of MDA and significant increase in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetes and show the anti-oxidative effect of grape seed extract

  12. 葡萄籽多酚化合物抗氧化能力与抗癌细胞增殖活性的评价%Antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenolic compounds on cancer cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰兰; 张雅丽; 朱磊; 邓嘉进; 曲桂芹; 卢江

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenlic compounds on Petri-Dish cultured cancer cells. Methods: Three phenolic compound parameters(total phenols, flavonoids, and flavan-3-ols) and three antioxidant property parameters DPPH(2,2-diphenyi- 1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ABTS 2, 2-azino-di-(3-ethylben -zothialozine-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging and FRAP(ferric reducing antioxidant power), were measured. In-vitro cultured human liver cancer cells-HepG2 were treated with extracts of grape seed phenlic compounds in different concentration for 24 h, and were measured for proliferation ability by MTT assay. Results: Phenolic compounds,antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities were different among variant grape seed extracts. Large quantity of phenolic compounds were remained in grape pomace. V. vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon"had higher values of phenolic compounds, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities than V.rotundifolia "Noble". Conclusions: Grape seed phenolic extracts from both fresh fruit and pomace showed antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities.%目的:探讨葡萄鲜果及酿酒皮渣中葡萄籽提取物中的酚类化合物含量,抗氧化特性及对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。方法:乙醇法提取葡萄籽中多酚化合物,分光光度计法测定三大酚类化合物参数(总酚、类黄酮类、黄烷-3-醇类)及3种抗氧化性能参数(DPPH)及ABTS自由基清除能力,FRAP分析)。体外培养肝癌细胞HepG2,建立细胞模型,不同浓度的提取物作用于癌细胞后,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(MTT法)检测多酚提取物对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。结果:不同样品葡萄籽所含酚类化合物、抗氧化性能、抗癌细胞增殖能力均不同,酿酒皮渣的葡萄籽中仍含有大量的多酚化合物,其中欧亚种赤霞珠鲜果

  13. Efeito de três processos de vinificação sobre a composição química e a qualidade do vinho Cabernet Franc Effect of three processes of vinification on chemical composition and quality of Cabernet Franc wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de três processos de vinificação sobre a composição química e a qualidade do vinho Cabernet Franc, nas safras de 1987 a 1990. As vinificações foram realizadas em escala industrial, pelos processos clássico, de termovinificação e de maceração carbônica. Avaliaram- se teor alcoólico, acidez total, açúcares redutores, cinzas, extrato seco, compostos fenólicos e voláteis e elementos minerais. Procedeu-se, também, à análise sensorial dos vinhos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de componentes principais (ACP e à análise de variância, sendo que os três primeiros eixos explicaram 68,2% da variação total. Através da ACP, foi possível separar os vinhos de maceração carbônica dos outros dois processos de vinificação. As variáveis que apresentaram maior efeito na variação foram os álcoois superiores, os cátions e os compostos fenólicos. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que a maceração carbônica originou vinhos leves e com menor intensidade de cor, e a termovinificação e a vinificação clássica originaram vinhos com mais corpo, melhor qualidade e equilíbrio gustativo e maior tipicidade varietal.The effects of three processes of vinification on chemical composition and quality of Cabernet Franc wine were evaluated from the 1987 to the 1990 vintages. The vinifications were made in an industrial scale by the following processes: conventional vinification, thermovinification and carbonic maceration. The analyses performed were alcohol, total acidity, reducing sugar, ash, dry extract, phenolic and volatile compounds and mineral elements. The quality was evaluated by sensory analysis. Data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA and to analysis of variance, where the three first axes explained 68.2% of the total variation. The PCA permitted to separate the wines of carbonic maceration from the other two vinification processes. The variables presenting important

  14. Validation of a nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and the accurate quantification by isotopic dilution of glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one in white grape juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Aurélie; Vialaret, Jérôme; Moniatte, Marc; Rigou, Peggy; Razungles, Alain; Schneider, Rémi

    2010-03-01

    A rapid nanoLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3-mercapto-hexan-1-ol (3MH) and 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one in grape juice using stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA). The analytes were extracted from must using a cation exchange resin and purified on C18 cartridges. They were chromatographically separated on a reverse phase column and finally analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) using deuterated analogues as standards except for glutathionylated conjugate of 4MMP which was analyzed by external calibration. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization recommendations by determining linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect, repeatability, intermediate reproducibility, LODs and LOQs. Calibration for each precursor was determined by performing Lack-of-Fit test and the best fitting for 3MH precursors was a quadratic model whereas a linear model was better adapted for 4MMP precursors. All calibration curves showed quite satisfactory correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.995 for SIDA quantification and R(2)>0.985 for external calibration). Quantification by SIDA and external calibration allowed a high level of accuracy since the averaged value ranged from 80 to 108%. Quantification of aroma precursors was accurate and reproducible over five days since intermediate precision (same analyst, same sample and same apparatus), which was evaluated by the calculation of RSD was inferior to 16%. Limits of quantification for G3MH and G4MMP were closed to 0.50 and 0.07 nmol/L and as 4.75 and 1.90 nmol/L for Cys3MH and Cys4MMP respectively. This method was applied to the quantification of precursors into several types of grape juices: Melon B., Sauvignon, Riesling and Gewurztraminer. PMID:20122692

  15. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  16. Bioactive amines in Brazilian wines: types, levels and correlation with physico-chemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange C. Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of ten bioactive amines and the physico-chemical characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot wines from Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, vintage of 1999 were investigated. The physico-chemical characteristics varied significantly: pH from 3.80 to 4.07, total acidity from 67.7 to 85.3 meq/L, alcohol content from 11.45 to 12.46 mL/100 mL and total SO2 from 9.6 to 102 mg/L. Six amines were detected in every sample - spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, serotonine and phenylethylamine. Total amine levels ranged from 2.03 to 7.60 mg/L. Putrescine was the prevalent amine, contributing with 20 to 66% of total levels. The amine profile and total levels were affected to a greater extent by vinification practices compared to grape type. There was significant correlation between some amines and also between amines and the physico-chemical parameters. Histamine levels were well below limits recommended by several countries.Os teores de aminas bioativas e as características físico-químicas de Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc e Merlot da região de Bento Gonçalves, RS, safra de 1999, foram analisados. As características físico-químicas variaram significativamente: pH de 3,80 a 4,07; acidez total de 67,7 a 85,3 meq/L, teor alcoólico de 11,45 a 12,46 mL/100 mL e SO2 total de 9,6 a 102 mg/L. Seis aminas estavam presentes em todas as amostras - espermidina, putrescina, histamina, tiramina, serotonina e feniletilamina. Os teores totais de aminas variaram de 2,03 a 7,60 mg/L. Putrescina foi a amina predominante, contribuindo com 20 a 66% do total. O perfil de aminas foi mais afetado pela vinícola do que pelo tipo de uva. Houve correlação significativa entre aminas e também entre aminas e parâmetros físico-químicos. Os teores de histamina detectados são inferiores aos limites máximos estipulados para o vinho em outros países.

  17. PPPM and TreePM methods on GRAPE systems for Cosmological N-body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, K; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Fukushige, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present Particle-Particle-Particle-Mesh (PPPM) and Tree Particle-Mesh (TreePM) implementations on GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-6A systems, special-purpose hardware accelerators for gravitational many-body simulations. In our PPPM and TreePM implementations on GRAPE, the computational time is significantly reduced compared with the conventional implementations without GRAPE, especially under the strong particle clustering, and almost constant irrespective of the degree of particle clustering. We carry out the survey of two simulation parameters, the PM grid spacing and the opening parameter for the most optimal combination of force accuracy and computational speed. We also describe the parallelization of these implementations on a PC-GRAPE cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE board, and present the optimal configuration of simulation parameters for good parallel scalability.

  18. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  19. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth. PMID:26776019

  20. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  1. Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa Soto; Elena Falqué; Herminia Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sou...

  2. Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics.

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF FEASIBILITY AND DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF LIQUEURS FROM GRAPE POMACE

    OpenAIRE

    Осіпова, Л. А.

    2014-01-01

    The technology of liqueurs, producible on the basis of extracts from grape pomace, was developed and its feasibility was demonstrated. Parameters of extracting were investigated (temperature, duration, type of extract, degree of grinding, static and dynamic modes), which provide intensification of extraction of phenolic compounds from grape pomace. It was set that grinding up grape pomace to the degree of dispersion of 2...3 mm, results in the 1,5-multiple increase of concentration of phenoli...

  4. Acceleration Method of Neighbor Search with GRAPE and Morton-ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, T. R.; J. Koda

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new method to accelerate neighbor searches on GRAPE, i.e. a special purpose hardware that efficiently calculates gravitational forces and potentials in $N$-body simulations. In addition to the gravitational calculations, GRAPE simultaneously constructs the lists of neighbor particles that are necessary for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). However, data transfer of the neighbor lists from GRAPE to the host computer is time consuming, and can be a bottleneck. In fact, the da...

  5. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu FM; Du B; Li J

    2015-01-01

    Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems) poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphen...

  6. Agro-environmental partnerships facilitate sustainable wine-grape production and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Broome, Janet C; Warner, Keith Douglass

    2008-01-01

    The California wine-grape sector has invested considerable time, money and effort in collective enterprises to reach fellow growers and assess the industry as a whole on sustainability. At the same time, California wine-grape production has become increasingly branded by particular geographic regions. Premium wine grapes are grown in regions with high population growth, high land values and often, charged environmental politics. Growers and their institutions have developed several agro-envir...

  7. MULTI-RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN GRAPES IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Pujeri, U. S.; A.S.Pujari; S. C. Hiremath; M.S.Yadawe

    2010-01-01

    Fruit samples of grapes were analyzed for pesticide residues, employing multi-residue analysis by gas- liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS/ LCMS/ MS). All the fruit samples showed the presence of pesticide residues with one or other group of pesticides. Some of the grape samples contain more than the minimum residue limit. The increasing interest in the study of pesticides in grapes is justified from an enological point of view, since some pesticides can interfere with fermentativ...

  8. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur; Giuliano Elias Pereira; Juliana Alvarenga Alves; Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quanti...

  9. Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose and Alginate Coating Combined with Brewer Yeast on Postharvest Grape Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Shaoying; Ren Yinzhe

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carboxymethyl cellulose and alginate coating combined with brewer yeast on postharvest grape preservation was investigated. The postharvest grapes were coated with 2% of alginate and 3% of carboxymethyl cellulose combined with 1.5×109 CFU/mL of brewer yeast. The combined treatment samples showed good sensory character on day 13 compared with control samples or only coated samples. The increase of weight loss and decrease of total soluble solids of combined treatment grapes were ...

  10. Whole genome comparison between table and wine grapes reveals a comprehensive catalog of structural variants

    OpenAIRE

    Di Genova, Alex; Almeida, Andrea Miyasaka; Muñoz-Espinoza, Claudia; Vizoso, Paula; Travisany, Dante; Moraga, Carol; Pinto, Manuel; Hinrichsen, Patricio; Orellana, Ariel; Maass, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most important Mediterranean fruit crop, used to produce both wine and spirits as well as table grape and raisins. Wine and table grape cultivars represent two divergent germplasm pools with different origins and domestication history, as well as differential characteristics for berry size, cluster architecture and berry chemical profile, among others. ‘Sultanina’ plays a pivotal role in modern table grape breeding providing the main source of s...

  11. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Soural; Naděžda Vrchotová; Jan Tříska; Josef Balík; Štěpán Horník; Petra Cuřínová; Jan Sýkora

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. ...

  12. Variability and Heritability of Several Important Traits for Grape Production and Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Radu E. SESTRAS; Sergiu Dan MOLDOVAN; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-01-01

    Yield capacity, quality of grapes and resistance to downy mildew attack remain the important breeding objectives for grape. For these traits were analyzed more than 2200 F1 hybrids, belonging to eight combinations of wine grape. In each combination cv. Gewurztraminer was used, both as maternal and as paternal genitor, the other genitor being represented by an interspecific selection, rated as highly resistant to diseases (derived from Saint Emilion x Rayon d'or and Seyve-Villard 12-375 x Quee...

  13. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xi Li; Fei He; Jun Wang; Zheng Li; Qiu-Hong Pan

    2014-01-01

    Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabern...

  14. From Sugar of Grape to Alcohol of Wine: Sensorial Impact of Alcohol in Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Jordão, António M.; Alice Vilela; Fernanda Cosme

    2015-01-01

    The quality of grapes, as well as wine quality, flavor, stability, and sensorial characteristics depends on the content and composition of several different groups of compounds from grapes. One of these groups of compounds are sugars and consequently the alcohol content quantified in wines after alcoholic fermentation. During grape berry ripening, sucrose transported from the leaves is accumulated in the berry vacuoles as glucose and fructose. The wine alcohol content continues to be a challe...

  15. Efficiency analysis of commercial grape-producing family farms in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Manevska-Tasevska, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    An empirical analysis was conducted on the efficiency of commercial grape-producing family farms in the Republic of Macedonia in order to examine how farm performance is influenced by selected aspects of the current Rural Development Programme (RDP) (2007-2013). The emphasis was on Macedonian grape production on family farms and on instruments for more efficient use of resources, production modernisation, vine revitalisation, and the knowledge and managerial capacity of Macedonian grape growe...

  16. The Impact of Agricultural Extension Services: The Case of Grape Production in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Cerdán-Infantes; Alessandro Maffioli; Diego Ubfal

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the impact of the provision of agricultural extension services to grape producers in Mendoza, Argentina, on yield and grape quality. Using fixed effects and matching techniques, we show that despite non-significant average treatment effects on yield, the program has large positive effects on productivity for producers who were in the bottom of the productivity distribution before launching of the program. There is also evidence of increased quality of their grapes, e...

  17. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Dilara Konuk; Figen Korel

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C) were determined...

  18. Free Radical Scavenging and Lipid Peroxidation Activity of the Shahani Black Grape

    OpenAIRE

    Yassa, N.; H. Razavi Beni; A. Hadjiakhoondi

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate antioxidant activity of different parts of Shahani black grape berries. The antioxidant activity of grape berry juice, seed and skin extracts were measured by the inhibition of lipid peroxidation (Ferric Ammonium Thiocyanate) and free radical scavenging activity (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. Vitamin E and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) were used as reference values. The free radical scavenging capacity of grape extracts followed th...

  19. Carotenoid profile in grapes related to aromatic compounds in wines from Douro region

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla; Barbosa, Antonina; Ferreira, A. C. Silva; Guerra, Joaquim; Pinho, Paula Guedes de

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize 8 representative grape varieties of the Douro Region using the carotenoid profile as it relates to aromatic compounds in the respective wines. Some other analyses, such as the determination of sugar, probable alcohol, pH, and total acidity, were also performed in an attempt to understand in which way the evaluated characteristics influenced by grape variety could contribute to the wine aroma. For the 3 y of the study, grape varieties with h...

  20. Unravelling the geometry of data matrices: effects of water stress regimes on winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushing, Hsieh; Hsueh, Chih-Hsin; Heitkamp, Constantin; Matthews, Mark A; Koehl, Patrice

    2015-10-01

    A new method is proposed for unravelling the patterns between a set of experiments and the features that characterize those experiments. The aims are to extract these patterns in the form of a coupling between the rows and columns of the corresponding data matrix and to use this geometry as a support for model testing. These aims are reached through two key steps, namely application of an iterative geometric approach to couple the metric spaces associated with the rows and columns, and use of statistical physics to generate matrices that mimic the original data while maintaining their inherent structure, thereby providing the basis for hypothesis testing and statistical inference. The power of this new method is illustrated on the study of the impact of water stress conditions on the attributes of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' Grapes, Juice, Wine and Bottled Wine from two vintages. The first step, named data mechanics, de-convolutes the intrinsic effects of grape berries and wine attributes due to the experimental irrigation conditions from the extrinsic effects of the environment. The second step provides an analysis of the associations of some attributes of the bottled wine with characteristics of either the matured grape berries or the resulting juice, thereby identifying statistically significant associations between the juice pH, yeast assimilable nitrogen, and sugar content and the bottled wine alcohol level. PMID:26468072

  1. Acetobacter aceti fast identification by Real Time PCR in spoiled wine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a beverage that made from grape berries. However, without beneficial bacteria, we would not produce good wine. But very often wines contain acetic acid bacteria, which are undesirable in winemaking process. Acetic acid bacteria as known as a vinegar bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and ubiquitous bacteria. This study was focused on species of acetic acid bacteria, specifically Acetobacter aceti that make spoilage in wine.The aim of our study was the identification of Acetobacter aceti in spoiled red wine samples, with plate dilution method on agar plates and using sensitive Real-time PCR (qPCR method. We cultivated Acetobacter aceti on GYC agar at 30°C, 48h. The one of main objective in the present work was the test fast, sensitive and reliable technique such as quantitative Real-time PCR and detecting the presence of Acetobacter aceti in wine samples with positive Acetobacteraceti control on amplification plot and melting curve. The next objective before  qPCR analysis was DNA extraction from wine samples incubated for one week at 28°C aerobically. We used five different red wine samples for this experiment: Alibernet 2013, Blaufränkisch 2013, Cabernet Sauvignon 2013, Dunaj 2012 and Saint-Laurent 2012. Next we extracted DNA from wine samples and from pure Acetobacter aceti CCM 3620T strain purchased from Czech collection of microorganisms in Brno. Susceptibility ofAcetobacter aceti was varied in different isolates from 102 to 107 CFU.mL-1. The number of Acetobacter cells on GYC medium ranged from 4.05 to 4.83log CFU.mL-1 in differentwine samples.The higher number of Acetobacter cells (4.83 log CFU.mL-1 was found in Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 wine.

  2. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence. PMID:23667822

  3. New grape stems-based liqueur: Physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana; Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Pinto, Joana; Cunha, Maria; Rosa, Eduardo; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A number of traditional liqueurs are obtained by maceration of red fruits in aqueous ethanol liquor, namely sloe berries or sour cherry. On the other hand, the exploration of residual plant material derived from the winery industry (grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems), which has been regarded as an interesting source of colored and uncolored (poly)phenols, could lead to an industrial alternative to the traditional distilled spirits produced, with valuable physicochemical and phytochemical properties. In the present work, vinification residues (grape stems) were used to produce a new beverage. The evaluation of the physic-chemical characteristics and phytochemical composition as well as the evolution of the determined parameters during maceration (90 and 180 days) allowed a number of interesting bioactive compounds to be identified. This new beverage is a liqueur with a high retention of phenolic compounds (ortho-diphenols, flavanols, flavonols, and anthocyanins), with interesting physic-chemical characteristics, that revealed significant antioxidant activity. PMID:26213054

  4. Pesticide residues in grapes, wine, and their processing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A

    2000-04-01

    In this review the results obtained in the 1990s from research on the behavior of pesticide residues on grapes, from treatment to harvest, and their fate in drying, wine-making, and alcoholic beverage processing are reported. The fungicide residues on grapes (cyproconazole, hexaconazole, kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, penconazole, tetraconazole, and triadimenol), the application rates of which were of a few tens of grams per hectare, were very low after treatment and were not detectable at harvest. Pyrimethanil residues were constant up to harvest, whereas fluazinam, cyprodinil, mepanipyrim, azoxystrobin, and fludioxonil showed different disappearance rates (t(1/2) = 4.3, 12, 12.8, 15.2, and 24 days, respectively). The decay rate of the organophosphorus insecticides was very fast with t(1/2) ranging between 0.97 and 3.84 days. The drying process determined a fruit concentration of 4 times. Despite this, the residue levels of benalaxyl, phosalone, metalaxyl, and procymidone on sun-dried grapes equalled those on the fresh grape, whereas they were higher for iprodione (1.6 times) and lower for vinclozolin and dimethoate (one-third and one-fifth, respectively). In the oven-drying process, benalaxyl, metalaxyl, and vinclozolin showed the same residue value in the fresh and dried fruit, whereas iprodione and procymidone resides were lower in raisins than in the fresh fruit. The wine-making process begins with the pressing of grapes. From this moment onward, because the pesticide on the grape surface comes into contact with the must, it is in a biphasic system, made up of a liquid phase (the must) and a solid phase (cake and lees), and will be apportioned between the two phases. The new fungicides have shown no effect on alcoholic or malolactic fermentation. In some cases the presence of pesticides has also stimulated the yeasts, especially Kloeckera apiculata, to produce more alcohol. After fermentation, pesticide residues in wine were always smaller than those on the

  5. Application of pollen treated with ionizing radiation in grapes breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problem concerning the priority of investigations into transformation inducing using plant pollen irradiation method is raised. Data on investigations into grape predominant type pollen irradiation with rigid 1-100 Gy dose gamma rays are considered. Using grape seedling morphological index analysis it is shown that gene transformation inducing is possible using high dose pollen irradiation for cross pollination process. Advantages of the given method are indicated: application of irradiated pollen for pollination allows one to transmit certain characters to progeny at some stages - without impregnation (1); with pollen irradiation dose increase the number of male plant characters transmitted to progeny is reduced (2); deep recessive characters of one of the parent plants can be manifested in progeny or valuable neoplasms can even occur

  6. The program structure designing and optimizing tests of GRAPES physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU GuoQiang; WANG ShiYu; CHEN DeHui; XUE JiShan; SUN Jian; SHEN XueShun; SHEN YuanFang; HUANG LiPing; WU XiangJun; ZHANG HongLiang

    2008-01-01

    According to the modularization and standardization of program structure in Global/Regional Assimi-lation and Prediction System (GRAPES), the plug-compatible and transplantable regional meso-scale and global middle-range physics software package is established, The package's component integrality is comparative with the other advanced models physics. A three-level structure of connecting GRAPES physics and dynamic frame has been constructed. The friendly interface is designed for users to plug in their own physics packages. Phenomenon of grid-point storm rainfall in numerical prediction is analyzed with the numerical tests. The scheme of air vertical velocity calculation is improved. Opti-mizing tests of physics schemes are performed with the correlative parameters adjusting. The results show that the false grid-point storm rainfall is removed by precipitation scheme improving. Then the score of precipitation forecast is enhanced.

  7. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Garcia-Jares; Alberto Vazquez; Juan P. Lamas; Marta Pajaro; Marta Alvarez-Casas; Marta Lores

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot b...

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SHKODA GRAPE AND ITS SELECTION OF USAGE DIRECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Герус, Л. В.; Калмикова, I. С.; Ковальова, I. А.; Федоренко, M. Г.

    2014-01-01

    The study of Shkoda grape of the new generation of selection of the National Research Center “Institute of Winegrowing and Winemaking named after V. E. Tairov” was conducted to identify the suitability of this sort to consume it fresh and use it in the winemaking.The  characteristics of Shkoda grape was given compared with wide district Karaburnu grape for table use in Odessa Region and sorts of a new selection grape – Arkadia, Flora, Muscat Pearl, Kardishakh. The mechanical analysis of the g...

  9. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes. PMID:10722101

  10. Grape juice quality control by means of ¹H nmr spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva Grandizoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of ¹H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single ¹H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration.

  11. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-08-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four norisoprenoids were detected in grape samples. The highest concentrations of total monoterpenoids, total sesquiterpenes, and total norisoprenoids in grapes were all observed at pre-veraison. Terpenes derived from the same biosynthetic pathway had a similar production pattern during berry development. Terpenes in grapes at harvest might not necessarily be synthesised at post-veraison, since the compounds or their precursors may already exist in grapes at pre-veraison, with the veraison to harvest period functioning to convert these precursors into final products. PMID:26988525

  12. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    OpenAIRE

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtain...

  13. Grapes and crepes: a parody based on architextuality

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Ramos

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the Simpsons' reframing of the book The Grapes of Wrath (1939) by John Steinbeck. Parody is discussed as an effect of language and the article also raises questions about animation as a means to redefine, subvert and challenge orthodox views of the human experience in different cultures and, in this case, especially applied to the North American culture. This Simpsons episode, which aims to parody the lifestyle of a North American middle class family, satirizes aspects o...

  14. Six Species of Penicillium Associated with Blue Mold of Grape

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, WON KI; Sang, Hyun Kyu; Woo, Sung Kyoon; Park, Myung Soo; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Yu, Seung Hun

    2007-01-01

    Grape fruits with blue mold symptoms were collected from house storages in different locations in Korea and were investigated for their association with Penicillium species. A total of 12 isolates of Penicillium were isolated from the collected fruits. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics and β-tublin gene sequence data analysis, they were identified as P. bialowiezense, P. citrinum, P. echinulatum, P. expansum, P. solitum and unidentified Penicillium species. P. solitum was th...

  15. Varietal flavour compounds of four grape varieties producing Madeira wines

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara, J. S.; Herbert, Paulo; Marques, J C; Alves, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    Boal, Malvasia, Sercial and Verdelho are the main white grape varieties used in Madeira wine production. To estimate the free fraction of varietal aroma compounds of these varieties, 39 samples of musts were analysed to determine their content of monoterpenols and C13 norisoprenoids (terpenoids), using dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The r-values for linearity studies of the analytical method used, varied between 0.977 (nerolido...

  16. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; Xue, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly ...

  17. Influence of gamma radiation on grapes color during storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general food contains some components that are very sensible to irradiation processing and if radiation dose is higher, can cause some harmful transformation in taste, odor and flavor in these foods, present in very lower concentrations, regulating their appearance and nutritious value. The ionizing radiation application in order to preserve and disinfect food is used for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms, extending the shelf life and reducing the loss of crops during storage of the product. The genus Vitis is the main representative of the Vitaceae family due to the nutritional importance of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.), widely consumed 'in natura'. The V. vinifera produces a fruit of great nutritional value to humans. The quality and acceptance of products are associated with sensory parameters such as color, which is the primary criterion for acceptance by the consumer. Anthocyanins are generally unstable when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. The flavonoids are largely distributed in nature and are responsible for most of blue, purple and all shades of red colors. In vines, these compounds are responsible for the color of the grape skin and are also found in the flesh of some varieties of grapes. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on color of grapes at different days of storage. The irradiation will be in 60Co source at doses of 0 and 4.5 kGy. The samples will be stored at room and refrigerated temperature for 21 days. The evaluation of color will be analyzed through 'L', 'a' and 'b' parameters. (author)

  18. Talking about economics using "The grapes of Wrath”

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Paulo

    2003-01-01

    A hundred years after John Steinbeck's birth, I found in this date a good reason to approach The Grapes of Wrath as an introductory suggestion to some concepts of Economics to the students of the Social Communication Course of the University of Minho. These students present a diversified cultural baggage, but, however, they acknowledge a deep lack of specific preparation in the quantitative domains, which can unchain some previous aversion to subjects such as Statistics or Economics. With the...

  19. Potential ergogenic activity of grape juice in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; Tavares, Renata Leite; Toscano, Luciana Tavares; Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira da; Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro de; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that certain food products have ergogenic potential similar to that of sports supplements. The present study aimed to investigate the potential ergogenic effect of integral purple grape juice on the performance of recreational runners. Twenty-eight volunteers of both sexes (age, 39.8 ± 8.5 years; peak oxygen consumption, 43.2 ± 8.5 mL/(kg·min)) were randomized into either a group that received grape juice (grape juice group (GJG), n = 15; 10 mL/(kg·min) for 28 days) or a group that received an isocaloric, isoglycemic, and isovolumetric control beverage (control group (CG), n = 13). A time-to-exhaustion exercise test, anaerobic threshold test, and aerobic capacity test were performed, together with assessments of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, immune response, and muscle injury, performed at baseline and 48 h after the supplementation protocol. The GJG showed a significant increase (15.3%) in running time-to-exhaustion (p = 0.002) without significant improvements in either anaerobic threshold (3.6%; p = 0.511) or aerobic capacity (2.2%; p = 0.605). In addition, GJG exhibited significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (38.7%; p = 0.009), vitamin A (11.8%; p = 0.016), and uric acid (28.2%; p = 0.005), whereas α-1-acid glycoprotein significantly decreased (20.2%; p = 0.006) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels remained unchanged. In contrast, no significant changes occurred in any of these variables in the CG. In conclusion, supplementation with purple grape juice shows an ergogenic effect in recreational runners by promoting increased time-to-exhaustion, accompanied by increased antioxidant activity and a possible reduction in inflammatory markers. PMID:26288392

  20. Statistical Characteristics of Single Sort of Grape Bulgarian Wines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadzhiev, D.

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the differences in the values of the 8 basic physicochemical indices of single sort of grape Bulgarian wines (white and red ones), obligatory for the standardization of ready production in the winery. Statistically significant differences in the values of various sorts and vintages are established and possibilities for identifying the sort and the vintage on the base of these indices by applying discriminant analysis are discussed.

  1. Estimation of water diffusivity parameters on grape dynamic drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Inês N.; Miranda, João M.R.; Brandão, Teresa R. S.; Cristina L.M. Silva

    2010-01-01

    A computer program was developed, aiming at estimating water diffusivity parameters in a dynamic drying process with grapes, assessing the predictability of corresponding non-isothermal drying curves. It numerically solves Fick’s second law for a sphere, by explicit finite differences, in a shrinking system, with anisotropic properties and changing boundary conditions. Experiments were performed in a pilot convective dryer, with simulated air conditions observed in a solar dryer, for modellin...

  2. Multi-experimental characterization of grape skin extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťavíková, L.; Polovka, M.; Hohnová, Barbora; Zemanová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, S (2008), S43-S48. ISSN 1212-1800. [National Conference on Quality of Moravian and Czech Wines and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : EPR * grape skin * PFE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  3. GRAPE WINES, PROBLEMS OF THEIR QUALITY AND REGIONAL ORIGIN EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yakuba, Yu. F.; Kaunova, A. A.; Temerdashev, Z. A.; Titarenko, V. O.; Halafjan, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of articles and normative documents for quality control and regional origin of wines was carried out. Chemical composition of the grapes and the wine has been considered, qualitative and quantitative changes during vinification, maturation and aging of wine were shown. The basic group of compounds contents and ratios which determine the qualitative characteristics of wines, as well as have an important role in the formation of aroma and taste of the drink was found. The prerequis...

  4. Enantioselective degradation of metalaxyl in grape, tomato, and rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiyun; Hua, Xiude; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yu; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Minghua

    2015-02-01

    Enantioselective biodegradation of chiral pesticide metalaxyl in grape, tomato, and rice plants under field conditions were studied. Metalaxyl enantiomers were completely separated with a resolution (Rs) of 5.01 by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) based on a cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) chiral column (Lux Cellulose-2). Metalaxyl enantiomers from matrixes were extracted by acetonitrile and purged using Cleanert Alumina-A solid phase extraction (SPE). The linearity, recovery, precision, sensitivity, and matrix effect of the method were assessed. The result showed that significant stereoselectivity occurred in grape, tomato, and rice plants. In grape, (+)-S-metalaxyl with a half-life of 5.5 d degraded faster than (-)-R-metalaxyl with that of 6.9 d, and the enantiomer fraction (EF) value reached 0.37 at 21 d. The same enantioselectivity was observed in tomato, and the half-life was 2.2 d for the S-enantiomer and 3.0 d for the R-enantiomer. The EF values decreased from 0.49 of 0 d to 0.26 of 14 d. On the other hand, a preferential degradation of the R-form was found in rice plants, with an EF value of 0.70 at 14 d, and the corresponding half-life was 2.3 d for the R-form and 2.8 d for the S-form. PMID:25311959

  5. Preservation effect of high energy electron beam on kyoho grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoho grapes were kept in cold storage of-0.5 degree C ∼ 0.5 degree C, RH 85% ∼ 95% after irradiation of 400, 700, 1000, 1500, 2500 Gy and SO2 treatment, and the antiseptic effect and storage quality were studied. The result showed that high energy electron beam could control the growth of bacteria, mould, yeast, coliform, alleviate the deterioration of grapes during storage. Irradiation below the dose 1000 Gy can decrease the respiration intensity, prevent the decreasing of titratable acid, ascorbic acid content, and keep higher activity of SOD enzyme. The Vc content was 3.79 mg /100 g after 700 Gy irradiation 90 days, the titratable acid and total soluble sugar content were 0.348%, 11.44%, and the activity of SOD was 14.89 U /g, which was higher than the control significantly (P 2 bleaching spot. Integrate the effects on microorganism control and grape quality, treatment of 700 Gy had the best preservation effect in this study. After preserved for 98 d, the good fruit rate of 700 Gy treatment was 93.33% , significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). (authors)

  6. Assessment and utilization of spontaneous sport mutant of grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous sport mutant of Fujiminori was discovered in grape garden of Xiaying county at Ningbo city in 1993. The biological, botanical characteristics and fruit quality trait (such as total soluble solid, titratable acid, total water soluble sugar, reducing sugar, free Vc, organic acid and aroma etc.) of the mutant were continuously investigated from 1994 to 1999. The results showed that the sport mutant grew more vigorously, having multiple-bearing capacity in the year cycle. Fruit quality determination demonstrated that total soluble sugar, reducing sugar, soluble solids content and aroma contents of the mutant were higher than those of maternal plant in different degree, while titratable acid content of mutant was deceased. Meanwhile, it was also found that the berries of mutant are firmer and have longer storage life. The RAPD analysis of the genomic DNAs extracted from the young leaves of the spontaneous sport mutant indicated that there were some differential bands in the PCR amplified products using the arbitrary primers, which indicated the genotype diversity happened in the spontaneous mutation of grape.The mutant had been successfully developed the new grape variety named as 'Yongyou No. 1' via selection breeding method. The variety was approved by Ningbo Science and Technology Bureau in 1999 and was rapidly planted at other regions, such as Fenghua County, Yuyao County, Cixi County, Ninghai County, Shaoxing City, Jiaxing City and Hangzhou City, etc. Due to its high quality and productivity, it exhibits the extensive application potential in the future. (author)

  7. GRAPE: a balloon-borne gamma-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Mark L.; Bancroft, Christopher; Bloser, Peter F.; Connor, Taylor; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James M.

    2009-08-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50 - 500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module that has been calibrated at a polarized hard X-ray beam and flown on an engineering balloon test flight. A full-scale scientific balloon payload, consisting of up to 36 modules, is currently under development. The first flight, a one-day flight scheduled for 2011, will verify the expected scientific performance with a pointed observation of the Crab Nebula. We will then propose long-duration balloon flights to observe gamma-ray bursts and solar flares.

  8. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and one unidentified genus Mycelium sterillium without creation fruiting bodies. The most frequent were genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The most frequent Aspergillus species was Aspergillus section Nigri (100 % and Penicillium species was Penicillium chrysogenum (50 %. The largest number of isolates belonged to Alternaria (275 isolates, Cladosporium (114 isolates and Penicillium (92 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 42 %, 19.6 % and 15.8 %, respectively. The selected isolates – Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1, G1 and cyclopiazonic acid producing ability. Out of 11 strains 54 % produced at least one mycotoxin. In our research ochratoxigenic microfungi (some species of Aspergillus section Nigri were found in grape samples but without production of OTA.

  9. Effection of different yeasts and maceration enzymes on aromatic components of cabernet gernischt red wine%不同酶和酵母对干红葡萄酒香气影响的差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何英霞; 蒋玉梅; 李霁昕; 米兰; 马腾臻; 杭洁; 陈玉蓉; 胡妍芸

    2016-01-01

    为提高甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒的香气品质,优化酿酒工艺,该文采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术,分析比较了添加不同浸渍酶和酵母发酵的蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒的香气构成。结果显示:蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒中初步定性香气化合物75种,主要为酯、醇、酸、萜烯和酚类物质。比较酯类、萜烯类等香气成分质量浓度和香气物质释放总量,EX-V酒样明显高于EX和HC酒样,D254酒样明显高于BDX酒样。各组酒样主要香气成分构成相似,但微量香气成分差异显著。果香是香气强度最高的香气系列,植物香、脂肪香、花香次之,其香气强度EX-V酒样高于EX和HC酒样,D254酒样高于BDX酒样。浸渍酶和酵母对甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒香气品质的影响评价显示,浸渍酶EX-V优于EX和HC,酵母D254优于BDX。研究结果可为甘肃河西产区蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒香气品质的提高及酿造工艺研究提供科学数据参考。%In order to provide technical support for the production of high-aroma quality wine in Gansu Hexi Corridor, the volatile compounds of Cabernet Gernischt red wine were analyzed by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, three maceration enzymes (EX-V, EX and HC), two yeast strains (BDX and D254) were used to prepare samples respectively and the volatile compounds of samples were compared and analyzed. The results showed that 75 compounds were identified in Cabernet Gernischt red wine, in which esters, alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes were the major compounds;56、46 and 44 compounds were identified in samples added with EX, EX-V and HC maceration enzymes respectively, while 44 and 50 compounds were identified in fermented wine by D254 and BDX yeasts. The total concentration of volatile compounds in EX-V an d D254 samples was significantly higher than EX、HC and BDX

  10. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Paola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  11. Developing and testing a diagnostic probe for grape phylloxera applicable to soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Karen; Powell, Kevin; Mckay, Alan; Hartley, Di; Herdina; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Schiffer, Michele; Hoffmann, Ary

    2008-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera Phylloxeridae) is a damaging pest of grapevines (Vitis spp.) around the world, and the management of this pest requires early detection of infestations. Here, we describe the development and validation of a sensitive DNA test for grape phylloxera that can be applied to soil. Species-specific primers were developed for grape phylloxera in the internal transcribed space region 2, and their specificity was confirmed after thorough screening by using a wide range of vineyard organisms and aphid genera. Preliminary testing of the detection limits of the grape phylloxera-specific primers was conducted using field-sourced soil types spiked with a known number of grape phylloxera. The assay was converted to a real-time polymerase chain reaction format (TaqMan MGB). This assay, in combination with DNA extraction from soil, can detect phylloxera crawlers added to soil. The assay was evaluated in the field at a recently detected grape phylloxera infestation site from the Yarra Valley in Victoria, Australia. The DNA assay proved to be substantially more sensitive than a standard ground survey for detecting grape phylloxera presence on vine roots in the infested vineyard. Moreover, unlike the ground survey, the assay provided quantitative information on grape phylloxera infestations, because grape phylloxera DNA concentrations in samples from vines closely matched the numbers of grape phylloxera crawlers collected with emergence traps placed at the base of vines. Unlike other detection techniques, the method can be applied at any time of the year, and it can be potentially modified to provide specific information on the virulence levels of the particular grape phylloxera genotypes responsible for any new infestations. PMID:19133477

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of grape skin and seeds on liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Mi-Ok; Moon, Jeon-OK

    2010-01-01

    Grape is one of the most popular and widely cultivated fruits in the world. Although grape skin and seeds are waste product of the winery and grape juice industry, these wastes contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and anthocyanidins, which play an important role as chemopreventive and anticancer agents. We evaluated efficacies of grape skin and seeds on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Treatment with DMN significantly increase...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE PEDICEL DETACHING AND CRUSHING FORCES OF GRAPE BERRIES TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMAL MECHANICAL HARVESTING TIME

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Carrara; Pietro Catania; Felice Pipitone; Mariangela Vallone; Marco Salvia

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical harvesting of grapes is an important operation in order to contain the operating costs of the viticultural farms. One of the limits of the mechanical harvesting of grapes is represented by the production of juice that is mostly due to the energetic action of the shakers that knocks against the grape clusters to allow the detachment of the berries. As a consequence, under the same structural conditions of the plants, the production of grape juice depends on the physical-mechanic...

  14. Caracterização física, química e sensorial do vinho branco seco sauvignon blanc tratado com polivinilpolipirrolidona (PVPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana M. Pereira

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A evolução química e sensorial de um vinho depende da possível presença de oxigênio e também da natureza e concentração dos compostos fenólicos, da temperatura, da concentração de dióxido de enxofre e das características físico-químicas iniciais do vinho. A oxidação de vinhos brancos e suas consequências na cor e no aroma prejudicam sua qualidade e devem ser evitadas. O nível de fenóis em vinhos pode ser reduzido pelo uso de produtos enológicos, tais como: gelatina, caseína, carvão ativado ou polímeros como a polivinilpolipirrolidona (PVPP. A remoção de compostos fenólicos tem um efeito favorável na cor e na sensibilidade do vinho à oxidação. Foram avaliadas as características físicas, químicas e sensoriais do vinho branco seco Sauvignon blanc tratado com PVPP, nas concentrações de 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5g/l. A redução nos teores de fenóis totais e de flavonóides, assim como a diminuição na intensidade de cor, foram diretamente proporcionais ao aumento na concentração do polímero. Os tratamentos com PVPP não alteraram os valores de pH e a acidez total das amostras. Doses de PVPP acima de 0,5g/l exerceram pouca influência na remoção dos ácidos 4-hidroxibenzóico e 4-hidroxi-3,5-dimetoxibenzóico. O uso de 1,5g/hl de PVPP removeu significativamente os ácidos 3,4-dihidroxibenzóico e 4-hidroxi-3-metoxibenzóico. Em todas as concentrações estudadas, o polímero foi bastante seletivo para 3,3',4',5,7-pentahidroxiflavanona (catequina. Os resultados mostraram que as características sensoriais das amostras tratadas foram similares às da amostra sem tratamento, devido aos baixos teores de fenóis totais e de flavonóides.

  15. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  16. Mining and validating grape (Vitis L.) ESTs to develop EST-SSR markers for genotyping and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninety-six new primer pairs, used to identify disease resistance in grapes were created. The newly identified EST-derived SSRs are being used to conduct analyses of grape functional diversity and in the development of grape SSR-EST genetic and physical maps. A pipeline including several computation...

  17. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  18. Hot water treatment reduces microbial growth and improves quality of packaged fresh-cut tables grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaged fresh-cut table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has emerged as a popular snack food because it offers freshness, nutrition, and convenience. However, tissue injury sustained during stem removal, and the openings created after stem removal make grapes susceptible to microbial growth, product deca...

  19. SAPPORO: A way to turn your graphics cards into a GRAPE-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Gaburov; S. Harfst; S. Portegies Zwart

    2009-01-01

    We present Sapporo, a library for performing high precision gravitational N-body simulations on NVIDIA graphical processing units (GPUs). Our library mimics the GRAPE-6 library, and N-body codes currently running on GRAPE-6 can switch to Sapporo by a simple relinking of the library. The precision of

  20. Development of Table and Raisin Grapes With High Anthocyanins Using a Leaf Disk Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanins are considered an excellent source of antioxidant phytochemicals for health benefits. The majority of wine, table and raisin grapes have anthocyanins only in their colored skin. Anthocyanin content of grapes would be increased if their flesh also contained anthocyanins. Rubired wine ...

  1. 77 FR 39184 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... assessment rate of $0.0150 per 18- pound lug is established for grapes grown in a designated area of...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 925 Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  2. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE E.U. ROLE IN THE WORLD GRAPE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the EU-27 position in the world grape production based on the data collected from FAO Stat data base for the period 2000-2008, using the index and share methods. The EU-27 is the most important vine cultivator and grape producer in the world. With its 3.5 million ha planted with vine, it accounts for 90.21 % of Europe’s area of vineyards and 48.14 % of the world vine area. In 2008, the EU-27 produced 25.1 million tones grapes placing it on the top position and contributing by 41.56 % to the world production. The top European countries: Italy, Spain, France, Germany and Romania achieved 21.8 million tones grapes, representing 86.98 % of the EU-27 and 32.96 % of the world grape production. Italy, Spain and France are among the top 10 grape producers in the world. As a conclusion, even thou the EU-27 planted area decreased by 8.24 % and its grape production declined by 16.16 %, the EU-27 continues to remain the main grape producer in the world.

  3. Wine Grape Production: A Promising Enterprise for Small Scale Enterprises in North Carolina?

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson-Moore, Kenrett Y.; Bynum, Jarvetta S.; Mosley, Jannety M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate wine grape production as a promising enterprise for small scale enterprises in North Carolina. Although results indicate that wine grape production is an ideal alternative enterprise for small scale producers, growers will have to wait at least 15 years to receive a complete return on the initial investment.

  4. Generation of Valuable Nanomaterials Using Biodegradable Waste: Rags to Riches Story of Red Grape Pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our sustainable research endeavors pertaining to environmental remediation, we envisioned utilizing winery waste, red grape pomace, as a primary source for the dual role of reduction of inorganic salts and capping of the ensuing nanomaterials This study shows that red grape po...

  5. The influence of virus diseases on grape polyphenols of cv. 'Refosk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors can modulate the synthesis of polyphenols in the plants. Cv. 'Refosk' was used to show the influence of the GLRaV-1 and rugose wood (RW) on the polyphenols in grape. The infection shifted polyphenols from seeds to grape skins but had no impact on anthocyanins

  6. ‘BRS MAGNA’ – a novel grape cultivar for juice making, with wide climatic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ritschel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Magna’ is a-novel cultivar to make grape juice, which presents intermediate productive cycle and wide climatic adaptation, released as an alternative to improve the color, the sweetness and the flavor of grape juice in Brazil.

  7. Effects of box liner perforation area on methyl bromide diffusion into table grape packages during fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastic liners are used inside boxes of table grapes to retard moisture loss from the grapes and to contain sulfur dioxide gas released inside the packages to control postharvest decay. However, to control organisms of quarantine concern, regulators specify exported packages must be fumigated with m...

  8. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  9. Experimental investigation and empirical correlations of thin layer drying characteristics of seedless grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical model for a grapes drying chamber based on the energy balance equations for the drying air and the drying product is presented. The drying constant (k) is determined from the drying experiments of the seedless grapes. The characteristic constants c and n in Henderson's equation are also obtained using the experimental results. The empirical values of the constants K, n and c are employed for calculating the system thermal performance such as the temperature distribution and drying curves. This work presents two empirical equations for the equilibrium moisture content (M e) and the latent heat of vaporization (L) of the grapes. A test rig has been designed and constructed to obtain the experimental data used to derive the empirical equations. These two formulae are very important to evaluate the drying rate of the grapes at particular conditions and also to calculate the correct values of the latent heat of grapes as a function of the equilibrium moisture content

  10. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  11. Consecutive alcoholic fermentations of white grape musts with yeasts immobilized on grape skins : effect of biocatalyst storage and SO2 concentration on wine characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Genisheva, Zlatina Asenova; Vilanova, Mar; Mussatto, Solange I.; Teixeira, J.A.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, immobilized by natural adsorption on grape skins, were used to carry out the alcoholic fermentation step of a winemaking process. The viability of the immobilized cells was evaluated by the implementation of 7 successive fermentations of a white grape must containing 30 mg/L of SO2. The time to complete alcoholic fermentation, the physicochemical characteristics of the produced wines (ethanol, glycerol, organic acids, volatile compounds, color) and se...

  12. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  13. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  14. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  15. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  16. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  17. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  18. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies. PMID:25251333

  19. Anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Bo; Choi, Soo-Kyong; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skin, grape products, and peanuts as well as red wine, has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on adipocytes. The anti-obesity effects of grape skin extracts were investigated by measuring proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of grape skin ethan...

  20. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  1. Nitrogen nutrition of the grape-vine (Vitis vinifera spp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thorough knowledge concerning the nitrogen relationship in the grape-vine is essential in order to appreciate how different patterns of uptake, assimilation, storage and utilisation of nitrogen might be advantageous in particular environmental situations. The 15N-isotope technique has been used to determine the uptake and distribution of nitrogen absorbed during early spring, early summer and autumn. Apart from the total N fraction, protein N and soluble N were determined as well. The utilisation of labelled N applied in the field, was determined for vineyards on heavier and lighter soils

  2. Pathways of glucose regulation of monosaccharide transport in grape cells

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Carlos; Agasse, A.; Glissant, David; Tavares, R. M.; Gerós, H.; Delrot, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera) heterotrophic suspension-cultured cells were used as a model system to study glucose (Glc) transport and its regulation. Cells transported D-[14C]Glc according to simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics superimposed on first-order kinetics. The saturating component is a high-affinity, broad-specificity H+-dependent transport system (Km = 0.05 mM). Glc concentration in the medium tightly regulated the transcription of VvHT1 (Vitis vinifera hexose transporter 1), a monosaccharid...

  3. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries. PMID:24915400

  4. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  5. Effects of intercropping vines with tobacco and root extracts of tobacco on grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-yue; SU Jun-ping; LIU Wei-wei; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of grape-tobacco intercropping patterns on populations of grape phyl oxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, as wel as on the growth and development of the infested vines were evaluated in the ifeld and the impact of an aqueous tobacco root extract on grape phyl oxera was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. The aqueous tobacco root extract exhibited biological activity against this pest. The egg mortality, nymph mortality, development period, life span and female fecundity were signiifcantly affected. In the ifeld trial, grape phyl oxera populations were clearly lower as compared to the monoculture pattern. However, the rates of newly developed roots and newly infested grape roots were signiifcantly higher and lower, in intercropping patterns than in the vine monoculture, respectively. The grape phyl oxera population number on the grape roots decreased each year, and the vine trees gradual y renewed upon continuous intercropping with tobacco over three years. These results conifrmed that intercropping grapes with tobacco can effectively control grape phyl oxera in an infested vineyard. The results also indicated that additional crops could be intercropped with grapes and are effective against grape phyl oxera, which should be explored as an integrated approach for control ing the pest.

  6. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  7. An in Vitro Assessment of Interaction Between Grape Phylloxera and Indole Acetic Acid Treated Grape Plants Daktulosphaira Vitifolia (FITCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the Life table of local strain of grape phylloxera was determined to evaluate the relationship between indole acetic acid (IAA) and phylloxera on our local variety Helwani. The study was carried out by applying in vitro dual culture system. The results showed that there was a great variation in mean developmental time, female longevity, number of laid eggs and egg distribution between all IAA concentrations and plant ages. Based on the tested biological parameters of phylloxera, (Helwani) would be unsuitable host for such destructive insect as it became older and when 2mg/1 of IAA was applied to in vitro culture media. (author)

  8. Effects of Different Level Leaf Collecting and Leaf Fertilizer Applications on Grape Yield and Quality of Sultana Grape Cultivar

    OpenAIRE

    AKÇAY, K.; AKIN, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted on 13 year-old Sultana (Vitis vinifera L.) grape cultivar grown on its own root in a vegetation period of 2012 in Manisa province. In this research, it was examined whether the applications of Control (C), Few Number Leaf Collection (FNLC), Normal Number Leaf Collection (NNLC), Much Number Leaf Collection (MNLC), FNLC+Potassium Humate (PH), NNLC+PH, MNLC+PH, FNLC+Micronized Calcite (MC), NNLC+MC, MNLC+MC, FNLC+PH+MC, NNLC+PH+MC, MNLC+PH+MC, on a leaf had effects on gr...

  9. Diazinon residues and degradation kinetics for grapes under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Ehssan; Talebi, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    The dissipation of diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl phosphorothioate) in grapes was investigated to determine its pre-harvest interval (PHI). Diazinon was applied to grapes at the recommended dosage (0.9 g a.i. L(-1)) and twice the recommended dosage (1.8 g a.i. L(-1)) three times, at the fruit formation stage, the sour stage, and the ripening stage, in a field trial with three replications. Samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 15, 20, 26 and 32 days after spraying. The residue was extracted using a water/methanol/acetonitrile (1:1:1, v/v/v) solvent and solid phase extraction was employed for cleanup. Quantitative analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The dissipation trend for the recommended dosage and twice the recommend dosage followed the simple first-order kinetic model (SFOK) (DT(50) = 3.29 days, DT(90) = 11 days, PHI = 13.5 days) and first-order double-exponential decay (FODED) model (DT(50) = 1.08 days, DT(90) = 5.82 days, PHI = 15.29 days), respectively. The average initial deposit of diazinon at the recommended dosage was 9.04 mg kg(-1)and for twice the recommended dosage was 27.38 mg kg(-1)and it dissipated rapidly within days of spraying. PMID:23374043

  10. Anticancer effects of four varieties of muscadine grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    God, Jason M; Tate, Patricia; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2007-03-01

    The initiating event in carcinogenesis is a somatic mutation. During progression of the disease, additional mutations accumulate as the transformed cells develop the ability to proliferate and metastasize. These mutations can be produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated through metabolism, or environmental insult. Metastasis involves tissue degradative enzymes, many of which are members of the matrix metalloproteinase family. Hence, substances that can neutralize ROS, inhibit mutagenesis, or block activity of the matrix metalloproteinases should prove to be anticarcinogenic. This study was performed to evaluate the possible anticarcinogenic characteristics of muscadine grapes. These grow wild in the southeast United States and have not been subjected to extensive breeding, as have most commercially cultivated fruits. The extracts tested were from pomace remaining after wine production. This is usually discarded, but the results obtained in this study indicate that pomace water extracts could be used as sources for purification of anticarcinogenic compounds. Four varieties of muscadine grape were tested for their abilities to affect mutagenesis by the metabolically activated carcinogen 2-aminoanthracene. Each extract was also assayed for antioxidant activity and for its ability to inhibit activity of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Each of the four extracts showed significant inhibition of 2-aminoanthracene mutagenesis, high antioxidant activity, and the ability to inhibit activities of both metalloproteinases, implying that these extracts could be good inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Two of the extracts showed little activity when tested for their effects on mutagenesis by the direct-acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate. PMID:17472467

  11. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  12. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS radio occultation (RO observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3 satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  13. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the anthocyanin rich extract of grape skin. Grape skin anthocyanin (GSA neutralized free radicals in different test systems, such as 2,-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays, to form complexes with Fe2+ preventing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, GSA decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in isolated mitochondria thus inhibiting 2',-7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH oxidation. In an in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were administered GSA, at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg per kg per day orally for 30 consecutive days. Herein, we demonstrate that GSA administration significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes in mice sera, livers, and brains. Furthermore, GSA inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the in vitro assay with an IC50 value of 363.61 µg/mL. Therefore, GSA could be an excellent source of antioxidants and its inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest with regard to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  14. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients. PMID:26868559

  15. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  16. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  17. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  18. MULTI-RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN GRAPES IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S.Pujeri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit samples of grapes were analyzed for pesticide residues, employing multi-residue analysis by gas- liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS/ LCMS/ MS. All the fruit samples showed the presence of pesticide residues with one or other group of pesticides. Some of the grape samples contain more than the minimum residue limit. The increasing interest in the study of pesticides in grapes is justified from an enological point of view, since some pesticides can interfere with fermentative microflora used in wine production, as well as affect consumer safety. There were no significant differences between some pesticide levels found in the whole grape (skin and pulp and in the grape skin. Chlorpyriphos, captan, dichlorovos, oxyfluorfen, fipronoil, 4- bromo-2-chlorophenol and indoxycarb were detected. Nevertheless, consumer intake of pesticides from grapes studied in this work should be decreased as a result of water washing of the grapes. In this paper, multiresidue determination of pesticides using GCMS/ LC-MS/MS are discussed.

  19. Superheated liquid and supercritical denatured ethanol extraction of antioxidants from Crimson red grape stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Jonathan; Samaniego, Cheryl Storer; Wang, Lihua; Nelson, La'Shyla; Ketchum, Korrine; Ammerman, Michelle; Zand, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Grapes are widely known for health benefits due to their antioxidant content. In wine production, grape stems are often discarded, though they has a higher content of antioxidants than the juice. The effectiveness of using an environmentally friendly solvent, ethanol, as a superheated liquid and supercritical fluid to extract antioxidant compounds from grape stems of organically grown Crimson Seedless grapes was evaluated. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), or Folin-Ciocalteu assay, were used to quantify the antioxidant power of grape stem extracts. The extractions were performed at temperatures between 160°C and 300°C at constant density. It was found that the optimal extraction temperature was 204°C, at superheated liquid conditions, with a FRAP value of 0.670 mmol Trolox Equivalent/g of dry grape stem. The FRAP values were higher than other studies that extracted antioxidants from grape stems using single-pass batch extraction. PMID:26788298

  20. Ontology-oriented retrieval of putative microRNAs in Vitis vinifera via GrapeMiRNA: a web database of de novo predicted grape microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two complete genome sequences are available for Vitis vinifera Pinot noir. Based on the sequence and gene predictions produced by the IASMA, we performed an in silico detection of putative microRNA genes and of their targets, and collected the most reliable microRNA predictions in a web database. The application is available at http://www.itb.cnr.it/ptp/grapemirna/. Description The program FindMiRNA was used to detect putative microRNA genes in the grape genome. A very high number of predictions was retrieved, calling for validation. Nine parameters were calculated and, based on the grape microRNAs dataset available at miRBase, thresholds were defined and applied to FindMiRNA predictions having targets in gene exons. In the resulting subset, predictions were ranked according to precursor positions and sequence similarity, and to target identity. To further validate FindMiRNA predictions, comparisons to the Arabidopsis genome, to the grape Genoscope genome, and to the grape EST collection were performed. Results were stored in a MySQL database and a web interface was prepared to query the database and retrieve predictions of interest. Conclusion The GrapeMiRNA database encompasses 5,778 microRNA predictions spanning the whole grape genome. Predictions are integrated with information that can be of use in selection procedures. Tools added in the web interface also allow to inspect predictions according to gene ontology classes and metabolic pathways of targets. The GrapeMiRNA database can be of help in selecting candidate microRNA genes to be validated.