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Sample records for cabernet sauvignon grape

  1. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

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    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  2. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

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    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  3. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

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    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  4. Characterization and multivariate classification of grapes and wines of two Cabernet Sauvignon clones

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    Vívian Maria Burin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess and characterize two clones, 169 and 685, of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and to evaluate the wine produced from these grapes. The experiment was carried out in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil, during the 2009 harvest season. During grape ripening, the evolution of physical-chemical properties, phenolic compounds, organic acids, and anthocyanins was evaluated. During grape harvest, yield components were determined for each clone. Individual and total phenolics, individual and total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for wine. The clones were also assessed regarding the duration of their phenological cycle. During ripening, the evolution of phenolic compounds and of physical-chemical parameters was similar for both clones; however, during harvest, significant differences were observed regarding yield, number of bunches per plant and berries per bunch, leaf area, and organic acid, polyphenol, and anthocyanin content. The wines produced from these clones showed significant differences regarding chemical composition. The clones showed similar phenological cycle and responses to bioclimatic parameters. Principal component analysis shows that clone 685 is strongly correlated with color characteristics, mainly monomeric anthocyanins, while clone 169 is correlated with individual phenolic compounds.

  5. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

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    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  6. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

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    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-01-01

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  7. Generation of ESTs in Vitis vinifera wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon) and table grape (Muscat Hamburg) and discovery of new candidate genes with potential roles in berry development.

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    Peng, Fred Y; Reid, Karen E; Liao, Nancy; Schlosser, James; Lijavetzky, Diego; Holt, Robert; Martínez Zapater, José M; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, Jörg; Lund, Steven T

    2007-11-01

    We report the generation and analysis of a total of 77,583 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon (wine grape) and Muscat Hamburg (table grape) with a focus on EST sequence quality and assembly optimization. The majority of the ESTs were derived from normalized cDNA libraries representing berry pericarp and seed developmental series, pooled non-berry tissues including root, flower, and leaf in Cabernet Sauvignon, and pooled tissues of berry, seed, and flower in Muscat Hamburg. EST and unigene sequence quality were determined by computational filtering coupled with small-scale contig reassembly, manual review, and BLAST analyses. EST assembly was optimized to better discriminate among closely related paralogs using two independent grape sequence sets, a previously published set of Vitis spp. gene families and our EST dataset derived from pooled leaf, flower, and root tissues of Cabernet Sauvignon. Sequence assembly within individual libraries indicated that those prepared from pooled tissues contributed the most to gene discovery. Annotations based upon searches against multiple databases including tomato and strawberry sequences helped to identify putative functions of ESTs and unigenes, particularly with respect to fleshy fruit development. Sequence comparison among the three wine grape libraries identified a number of genes preferentially expressed in the pericarp tissue, including transcription factors, receptor-like protein kinases, and hexose transporters. Gene ontology (GO) classification in the biological process aspect showed that GO categories corresponding to 'transport' and 'cell organization and biogenesis', which are associated with metabolite movement and cell wall structural changes during berry ripening, were higher in pericarp than in other tissues in the wine grape studied. The sequence data were used to characterize potential roles of new genes in berry development and composition. PMID

  8. Phenolic composition of Merlot and Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes from Bordeaux vineyard for the 2009-vintage: Comparison to 2006, 2007 and 2008 vintages.

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    Lorrain, Bénédicte; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-06-15

    Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot skin and seed extracts from Bordeaux grapes were investigated to determine both grape variety and vintage effect on phenolic composition. The total content of polyphenols and tannins in Merlot seeds was higher than that of Cabernet-Sauvignon allowing to discriminate the varieties. HPLC analyses underlined significant differences in the absolute concentration of proanthocyanidins amongst the two varieties and in their composition: mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) and percentage of galloylation of seed extracts were good indicators of grape variety. The vintage effect on the phenolic composition was confirmed for 2009 in comparison to previous vintages. Low values of mDP and concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were found in 2009 seeds and skins. The climatic conditions of 2009 (high rainfall before flowering followed by a strong hydric stress during berries development until ripening) let us hypothesise a lower activation of flavonoid pathway.

  9. Effects of Fruit Density on Growth Potential of Grape Cabernet Sauvignon%留果量对赤霞珠葡萄生长势的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗利军; 王静; 项殿芳

    2012-01-01

    The effects of fruit density on growth potential of grape Cabernet Sauvignon were studied using 5-year-old cabernet sauvignon plant as material. The fruit density was kept as 20, 30, 40 spike per running meter of grape shelf. The results showed that the fruit density had certain effects on the fruit setting rate, leaf area index, photosynthetic rate, yield and quality of grape. With the increase of fruit density, the yield of grape was increased; fruit setting rate was significantly decreased; and specific leaf weight, leaf thickness and chlorophyll content was decreased with no significant difference.%为研究不同留果量对赤霞珠葡萄(Cabernet Sauvignon)生产势的影响,以五年生赤霞珠葡萄为试验材料,对其进行每延长米架面分别留果20、30、40、50穗的处理.结果表明,赤霞珠葡萄单位架面不同留果量对坐果率、叶面积指数、光合速率、产量和品质都有一定的影响.随单位架面留果量的增加,产量上升,坐果率明显降低;比叶重、叶厚和叶绿素含量呈下降趋势,但差异不显著.

  10. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

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    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  11. Electronic Nose Analysis of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Volatile Differences during Cold Soak and Postfermentation

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    Gardner, D. M.; Zoecklein, B. W.; Mallikarjunan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Cold soak is a prefermentation maceration process at cold temperatures, traditionally used to enhance red wine color. This study monitored changes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon volatiles using a commercial conducting polymer electronic nose (ENose) during a five-day cold soak and postfermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) of juice volatiles detected by the ENose during cold soak showed PCI accounted for 95.7% of the variation. Various volatile associations were made wi...

  12. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

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    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines.

  13. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

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    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (pcompounds than other wines. PMID:27596425

  14. Influence of autochthonous yeasts on the quality of wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties

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    Ilieva, Fidanka; Ivanova, Violeta; Dimovska, Violeta; Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Spasov, Hristo

    2014-01-01

    In this study 80 autochthonous yeast strains have been were isolated from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties grown in Tikveš wine region in the Republic of Macedonia. After the yeasts insulation, 10 yeast strains were selected and then used for fermentation and production of Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon wines in order to test their influence on the wine quality. For that purpose, some basic parameters, including alcohol content, total acids, volatile acids, reducing sugars and pH ...

  15. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

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    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  16. 留梢量对赤霞珠葡萄生长结果的影响%Effect of shoot density on grape fecundity of Cabernet Sauvignon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红星

    2015-01-01

    The proper shoot density of grape Cabernet Sauvignon using 2010 -2011 plant as material was studied .The results showed that the shoot density had deep effects on the tree grow th ,fruit development ,and quality formation of grape .With the greater density , the yield of grape was increased ;quality was significantly decreased .With the smaller density , quality was increased .The reasonable shoots left was15 ,per m2 according to the comprehen‐sive analysis .%2010~2011年对赤霞珠葡萄适宜留梢量进行了研究。结果表明:留梢量对赤霞珠葡萄枝叶生长、果实发育、品质形成等有较大影响。适当多留梢有利于产量的提高,但使品质下降;适当少留梢有利于提高浆果品质。综合比较认为:赤霞珠葡萄每m2架面留结果梢15个较适宜。

  17. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  18. Tannin composition of cabernet-sauvignon and merlot grapes from the bordeaux area for different vintages (2006 to 2009) and comparison to tannin profile of five 2009 vintage mediterranean grapes varieties.

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    Chira, Kleopatra; Lorrain, Bénédicte; Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-02-11

    The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009). The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise). The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009) revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  19. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

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    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  20. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

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    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  1. Influence of canopy-applied chitosan on the composition of organic cv. Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon berries and wines.

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    Tessarin, Paola; Chinnici, Fabio; Donnini, Silvia; Liquori, Enrico; Riponi, Claudio; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico

    2016-11-01

    The effects of canopy-applied chitosan on grapes and derived wine were evaluated in an organically managed mature vineyard. The experiment was performed on Sangiovese and Cabernet Sauvignon red grape cultivars, the application of a chitosan solution was compared to water spraying. Each treatment was applied 3 times (beginning and end of veraison, and pre-harvest) in a randomized block experimental design. Significant differences in (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 amounts in berries and wines were detected in Cabernet Sauvignon but not in Sangiovese. Chitosan did not influence the berry skin anthocyanin and flavonol amount or t-resveratrol concentration in both skins and wines. A considerable increase in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), together with some other amino acids, ammonium and amines was observed in the berry flesh of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The increase in phenolic acids and nitrogenous compounds, especially GABA, in the pulp of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes suggests changes in stress response. PMID:27211677

  2. Influence of Temperature and Carbon Dioxide on Fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon Must

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    Berovič, Marin; Mavri, Jan; Wondra, Mojmir; Košmerl, Tatjana; Bavčar, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    In the process of wine fermentation temperature and the amount of carbon dioxide present represent parameters that can be easily monitored and controlled. The influence of variation of the process temperature and the fluxes of additional inlet gaseous carbon dioxide in Saccharomyces bayanus fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon grape must on the accumulation of biomass and production of metabolites was studied. All experiments with temperature and redox potential control on-line were performed i...

  3. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  4. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

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    Dimitrovska Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA. The established data were submitted to analysis of variance and principle component analysis in order to evaluate their potential for differentiation of wines according to variety and vintage. Vranec wines have shown distinctive characteristics, with the highest content of anthocyanins and values of colour intensity, % red and % dA, compared to the other two studied varieties. The content of petunidin-3-glucoside, peonindin-3-glucoside and anthocyanin acetates were established as possible markers for differentiation of Vranec wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. However, none of the assayed parameters could be used for differentiation of Cabernet Sauvignon from Merlot wines. It was observed that wine age limits successful classification of the wines by variety according to anthocyanins. The chromatic parameters allowed distinguishing of young (aged up to 1 year from old Vranec wines.

  5. Effects of different single plant loading on growth and fruit quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes%不同单株负载量对赤霞珠葡萄生长及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施明; 王佳; 康超; 王昊; 南雄雄; 李永华

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore different single plant loading on growth and fruit quality of wine grapes, using Cabernet Sauvignon wine grape as experiment materials, different single plant loading experiments were set in sandy soil and irrigation-silting soil of the eastern foot of Helan Mountain. Single fruit mass, total soluble sugar content, titratable acid content, leaves nutrient elements and mass of 100 fresh or dry leaves were determined under different single plant loading levels. The results showed that ratio of fresh mass to dry mass of 100 leaves in Cabernet Sauvignon was decreased ifrstly, and then increased in both the sandy soil and the irrigation-silting soil, with single plant loading increased. Contents of N, P and K in leaves and leaf stalks was decreased in the two kinds of soils, as single plant loading increased. But variation extent of K content in leaf stalk was larger in the sandy soil, and K content in leaf stalk in the single plant loading ifve bunches treatment was 87.31% higher than that in the single plant loading 25 bunches treatment. Under the condition of single plant loading 15 bunches, soluble sugar content in six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapes reached 23.33%, single fruit mass was the minimum (1.36 g), and single bunch mass was the maximum (228.3 g) in the sandy soil. In the irrigation-silting soil, single fruit mass was minimum (1.35 g), total soluble sugar content was middle (17.94%), and ratio of sugar to acid was 24.24 under the condition of single plant loading 10 bunches treatment. Reasonable loading level signiifcantly inlfuenced fruit quality of wine grape, single plant 15 bunches was the reasonable loading level of six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in the sandy soil, and single plant 10 bunches was the reasonable loading level in the irrigation-silting soil.%为了探索不同的单株负载量对酿酒葡萄生长及果实品质的影响,以赤霞珠酿酒葡萄为试材,设置了宁夏贺兰山东麓地区砾质沙

  6. Effects of different single loading on cold resistance of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in Helan mountain east region%负载量对贺兰山东麓赤霞珠葡萄抗寒性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施明; 王佳; 康超; 王昊; 王金涛

    2015-01-01

    为了探索不同的单株负载量对酿酒葡萄枝条抗寒性的影响,以宁夏贺兰山东麓地区砾质沙土和灌淤土6年生赤霞珠酿酒葡萄为试材,测定了单株5穗、10穗、15穗、20穗、25穗负载量水平下一年生葡萄枝条的相对电导率、半致死温度、可溶性糖、脯氨酸及翌年葡萄枝条萌芽率及果枝比等指标。结果表明:两地6年生赤霞珠葡萄枝条的抗寒性随着单株负载量的增加有先增加后降低的趋势。灌淤土上6年生赤霞珠负载处理10穗的半致死温度最低为-16.15℃,砾质沙土上6年生赤霞珠负载处理15穗半致死温度最低为-22.18℃,因此控制合适的负载量有利于酿酒葡萄安全越冬。在相同低温、相同负载处理条件下,砾质沙土上赤霞珠枝条可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量高于灌淤土上赤霞珠枝条。%In order to explor different single loading on cold resistance of wine grapes, six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon wine grape was used as experiment material to study the effect of different single loading including the sandy soil and irrigation-silting soil in Helan mountain east region, and the electrical conductivity, semi-lethal temperatures(LT50), soluble sugar, proline, as well as the bud germination rate and fruit-shoot ratio of annual branches were measured. The results showed that the annual branches of different region had a tendency with increase single loading, cold resistance increase first and then decrease. Under the condition of single loading 10 clusters treatment, the semi-lethal temperatures(LT50) of annual branches in irrigation-silting soil was as low as-16.5℃, which the other was minimum-22.18℃in the sandy soil with the single loading 15 clusters, so controling the appropriate single loading could improve the safety of wine grapes during its living through the winter. Under the condition of same temperature and loading treatment, the content of soluble sugar and proline of

  7. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  8. 葡萄、葡萄皮%grape fruit,skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2006-01-01

    @@ 又名 Black Grape Raisins, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Calzin, Chardonnay, Emperor, Enocianina,Flame Seedless, Grape, Grapes, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Merlot, Petite Sirah, raisins, Red Globe, Red Malaga, sauvignon Blanc, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless,wine Grapes.

  9. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes.

  10. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. PMID:26948592

  11. Counter-radiation efficacy of Enoviton granules produced from Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident in the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, a need arose for radionuclide decontamination means capable of being used for a prolonged period of time without any side-effects on the human body. The probability of contamination with radionuclides in such emergencies, combined with external radiation, makes it necessary for the protective agents used to have a favourable effect on the protective force of the organism. The phenol compounds, anthocyanins, are the major plant pigments and are present in considerable amounts in red grapes and wines. Under relevant conditions in plants, phenolics protect hereditary cell mechanisms from mutagenic agents, such as ionising irradiation and UV rays. This ability of plant phenolics directed us towards the creation and use of the anthocyanin preparation Enoviton as a radioprotective means in investigations with animals. The Enoviton preparation was made on the basis of an anthocyanin colouring substance derived from specially isolated and purified anthocyanins from Cabernet Sauvignon wine. (Author)

  12. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical Phenology, production and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' grapevines in subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.The objective of this study was to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced in a subtropical climate for red winemaking. The experimental area was located in a commercial vineyard belonging to the Intervin® Winery, in Maringá, PR. The grapevines were trained in a pergola system in a 4.0 x 1.5 m spacing, grafted on 'IAC 766 Campinas' rootstock. The evaluations started from the pruning held in late winter during four crops (2003, 2004

  13. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  14. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical and sensory evaluation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabernet Sauvignon wines received gamma irradiation doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 KGy and were stored at 21°C for up to 18 months. As radiation dose and storage time increased, total anthocyanin concentration decreased, while color density, hue and color age increased. Acetaldehyde concentration increased with increasing radiation dose and decreased as storage time increased. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference in color or astringency, but off-flavors were detected in wines given a 2.4 KGy dose. Use of gamma irradiation to rapid age Cabernet Sauvignon wines did not appear to be feasible

  16. Comparison of four cabernet sauvignon clonal selections from Skopje's vineyard region, R.Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Beleski, Klime; Ivanova, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka

    2011-01-01

    Some agrobiological and techological characteristics of four Cabernet sauvignon clonal selections, including 15,337,341 and VCR5, cultivated in Skopje's vineyard region, R.Macedonia (during the period from 2005 to 2007) were determined. Certificated seedling material was introduced from Italy and France in 1999/2000, cultivated and studied at the vineyards of the Department of viticulture and oenology, Institute of Agriculture, Skopje. The aim of the study was to apply optimal agrotechnical a...

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  18. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  19. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  20. 不同根区交替滴灌方式对赤霞珠葡萄幼苗根冠生长的影响%Effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on growth of root and shoot of Cabernet Sauvignon grape seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于坤; 郁松林; 刘怀锋; 王文静; 白泽晨; 孙军利

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of its own subsurface drip irrigation with tank system, effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on grape seedling growth were explored, and the best drip irrigation mode and method was selected that was suitable for wine grape production in arid and semiarid areas of China. The experiment usedVitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ as materials and used conventional drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation with tank system(SDI) (independent design) as the basis of engineering technology .Under bag control experimental condition, four kinds of partial-root zone alternative controlled drip irrigation methods were designed as follows: SDI-DI (SDI was on the left side, DI was on the right side) SDI-SDI (both sides were SDI), DI-SDI (DI was on the left side, SDI was on the right side), DI-DI (both sides were DI).Effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on shoot biomass, root distribution, root vigor and leaf physiological function of Cabernet Sauvignon seedling were discussed. The ratio of root to shoot was at optimum level (1-1.3) and shoot biomass accumulation were not significantly affected by SDI-SDI、DI-SDI、DI-SDI under the same irrigation conditions . The ratio of root and shoot was increased, plant experienced drought stress more intense and plant growth was limited by DI-DI. Horizontal root number on the left and right of DI-SDI and SDI-DI had great differences, and root number on the right was 13.3%、10.5%、14.0%、22.1% more than that on the left ,while horizontal root number on both sides of DI-DI and SDI-SDI had small differences. Root penetration was promoted and root activity in the depth of soil layer 20-60 cm was improved by SDI-DI and DI-SDI. In the depth of soil layer 0-20 cm ,Root average diameter on the left side of SDI-DI and SDI-SDI were significantly higher than that of DI-DI and DI-SDI, and root surface area, root volume on the left side of SDI-DI and SDI-SDI were lower than DI-DI and DI

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 109 n.cm-2.s-1. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm2.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  3. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  4. 避雨栽培对‘赤霞珠’葡萄果实品质影响的对比研究%The Comparative Study of Rain-shelter on Fruit Quality of Cabernet sauvignon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学娟; 徐冬雪; 王秀芹; 黄卫东

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author adopted the rain-shelter method to change the small environment of Cabernet sauvignon fruit, sugar, acids, phenols and other indicators were measured by comparing the open field and Cabernet sauvignon grapes cultivated by rain-shelter to study the rain-shelter on fruit quality of Cabernet sauvignon grapes, so as to improve the cultivation and management during the grape growing, and provide a theoretical basis for cultivating high-quality grapes. The results showed that: rain-shelter cultivation conditions was benefit to the accumulation of sugars, organic acids in decomposition and formation of polyphenols, but the impact of the rain-shelter shed light was not benefit to the formation of anthocyanin. Therefore, the change of light condition under rain-shelter cultivation would improve the fruit quality.%采用避雨栽培的方法改变‘赤霞珠’葡萄果实生长小环境,通过对比测定露地及避雨栽培赤霞珠葡萄果实的糖、酸、酚类等指标,研究避雨栽培条件对赤霞珠葡萄果实品质的影响,从而为改善葡萄生长期间的栽培管理,培育优质酿酒葡萄提供理论依据.结果表明:避雨栽培条件有利于糖分的积累、有机酸的分解及多酚物质的形成,但由于避雨棚对光照的影响,却不利于花色苷的形成.因此,避雨栽培条件下改善光照条件,将对提高果实品质具有重要意义.

  5. Characterization of NPR1 Genes from Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-ming; NI Xi-lu; MA Hui-qin; Wenping Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) plays a significant role in the defense responses of plants to pathogens by regulating the expression of defense-related genes. In the present study, we isolated two NPR1 genes from Vitis aestivalis cv. Norton and Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, which were referred to as VaNPR1.1 and VvNPR1. 1-CS, respectively. They encode a protein of 584 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 64.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.74. The predicted amino acid sequences of VaNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.1-CS differ by only one amino acid. Over-expression of VaNPR1.1 gene in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants restores the transcriptional expression of AtPR-1 gene, though not to the full scale. This result demonstrated that a grapevine VaNPR1.1 possesses a similar function to the Arabidopsis NPR1 in the regulation of defense-related genes. Over-expression of VaNPR1.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plant increased tolerance to salinity, but had no effect on the drought tolerance. We conclude that VaNPR1.1 is a functional ortholog of AtNPR1 and also involved in grapevine’s response to the salt stress.

  6. Comprehensive lipidome profiling of Sauvignon blanc grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Sergey; Zubenko, Yuri; Greven, Marc; Greenwood, David R; Shmanai, Vadim; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2015-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive lipidome analysis of Sauvignon blanc grape juice by combining GC-MS based fatty acid profiling with shotgun lipidomics strategy. We observed that despite grape juice being a water based matrix it contains a diverse range of lipid species, including common saturated and unsaturated free and intact fatty acids as well as odd-numbered and hydroxy fatty acids. Based on GC-MS quantitative data, we found that the total lipid content of grape juice could be as high as 2.80 g/L. The majority of lipids were present in the form of complex lipids with relatively small amount of free fatty acids (<15%). Therefore we concluded that the lipidome should be considered an important component of grape juice with the potential to impact on fermentation processes as well as on the sensorial properties of fermented products. This work serves as a hypothesis generating tool, the results of which justify follow-up studies to explore the influence of the grape juice lipidome and lipid metabolism in yeast on the aroma profile of wine. PMID:25766825

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  8. Caracterização fenológica e produtiva das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná Phenological and productive characterization out of season of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Jubileu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR. As videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas'. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação para a produção fora de época, durante dois anos consecutivos, realizadas no fim de janeiro de 2007 e 2008, onde foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade. Avaliou-se a duração, em dias, das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação (SST/AT. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 128 dias, enquanto da 'Alicante' foi de 131 dias, sendo consideradas tardias ambas as variedades para a região norte do Paraná. As estimativas da produção por planta e produtividade foram de 12,4 kg e 22,3 t.ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 11,9 kg e 19,8 t.ha-1 para a 'Alicante'. Os teores médios de SST, AT e SST/AT foram de 19,2 °Brix, 1,8% de ácido tartárico e 11,6 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 19,1 °Brix, 1,3% de ácido tartárico e 14,1, para a 'Alicante'. Ambas as variedades apresentam elevadas produtividades e matéria-prima adequada para processamento quando produzidas fora de época no norte do Paraná.This study aimed to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced out of season in the north of Paraná State for red wine elaboration. The experimental area was located in a commercial property belonging to the

  9. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

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    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  10. Investigation and Sensory Characterization of 1,4-Cineole: A Potential Aromatic Marker of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Tempère, Sophie; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Deloire, Alain; de Revel, Gilles; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-10-21

    This work reports the quantitation and sensory characterization of 1,4-cineole in red wine for the first time. A headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed to quantitate 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole in 104 commercial Australian red wines. 1,4-Cineole was detected in all of the wines analyzed, with concentrations ranging from 0.023 to 1.6 μg/L. An important varietal effect was observed, with concentrations of 1,4-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon wines (mean of 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) significantly higher than in Shiraz (0.07 ± 0.04 μg/L) and Pinot Noir (0.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) wines. Regional variations of both cineole isomer concentrations have been measured between wines originating from different Australian regions. Sensory studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.54 μg/L 1,4-cineole in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine, to produce a final concentration of 0.63 μg/L, was perceived significantly by a sensory panel (p wines and may be potential markers of regional typicality of these wines.

  11. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon)

    OpenAIRE

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation leve...

  12. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  13. Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR, a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

  14. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  15. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.

  16. Influência da maceração carbônica e da irradiação ultravioleta nos níveis de trans-resveratrol em vinhos de uva cabernet sauvignon Influence of the carbonic maceration on the levels of trans-resveratrol in cabernet sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo moderado de vinho reduz significativamente os riscos de doenças cardiovasculares. Este efeito é atribuído aos polifenóis presentes no vinho, em especial ao resveratrol (3,5,4'-triidroxiestilbeno, que é uma fitoalexina encontrada em várias partes da videira, principalmente na casca da uva, assim como em outras espécies de plantas. Uvas da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon foram submetidas à irradiação com luz ultravioleta e maceração carbônica e após fermentadas. Procedeu-se à coleta de amostras durante todo o experimento, as quais foram posteriormente analisadas quanto ao teor de trans-resveratrol através da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Os resultados do trabalho demonstram que a evolução do conteúdo de trans-resveratrol foi ascendente durante as fases da fermentação. Diferenças ocorreram no final da fermentação, em que as amostras de vinhos com maceração carbônica apresentaram leve declínio, possivelmente pela atmosfera de CO2 na qual ficaram armazenadas, inibindo a formação do resveratrol. Ao final da fermentação principal a concentração de trans-resveratrol foi de 15 mg.L-1 em todos os tratamentos, chegando a 1,5 mg.L-1, em média, no final do período de estocagem.The moderate consumption of wine reduces the risks of heart diseases significantly. This effect is attributed to the polyphenols found in the wine, in special to resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihidroxistilbene that it is a phytoalexin found in the various parts of the vine, including in the skin of the grape, as well as in other species of plants. Grapes of cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon had been submitted to the irradiation with ultra-violet light and carbonic maceration and after fermented. It was proceeded all collection from samples during the experiment, which later had been analyzed how much to the concentration of trans-resveratrol using the Liquid Chromatography of High Efficiency. The of the content of trans-resveratrol was ascendent

  17. Intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho na composição da uva Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Alberto Miele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada durante quatro anos, num vinhedo de Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., em Bento Gonçalves-RS. O objetivo foi determinar o efeito das intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho em variáveis relacionadas aos componentes de produção da videira e à composição do mosto de uva. Os tratamentos consistiram em dois níveis de poda seca - curta e longa - e quatro de desbaste de cacho (% - 0; 25; 50 e 75 -; com cinco repetições. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas. Os resultados mostram que a poda seca e o desbaste de cacho tiveram efeito altamente significativo na produtividade do vinhedo que, na média dos quatro anos, variou de 10.971 kg/ha − poda curta, 75% de desbaste − a 32.819 kg/ha − poda longa, 0% de desbaste. Houve, também, efeito significativo na produtividade por gema, peso de ramos podados por gema e por hectare, área foliar/peso fresco do fruto e produtividade/peso de ramos podados. Entretanto, o efeito nas variáveis relacionadas a açúcar e acidez do mosto da uva foi pouco expressivo. O componente 1 da análise de componentes principais discriminou o tratamento poda curta a 75% de desbaste de cacho dos tratamentos poda longa-0% de desbaste e poda longa-25% de desbaste.

  18. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines.

  19. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines. PMID:26675843

  20. CLUSTERS AND BIOCHEMISTRY COMPOSITION OF BLACK BERRY VINE SORTS OF GRAPE FOR PRODUCING JUICES OF DIRECT PRESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the study of the texture of the grapes and biochemical characteristics of red wine grape varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Sapeari, Tsimladar, Pinot Noir for the production of juice of direct extraction and blending. The studied varieties in terms of the structure of the cluster may be divided into three groups of blackpinene (21.1, Cabernet Franc and Tsimladar (18.7 - 17.5, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi (16.5 - 16.8 , and bunches of addition in terms of two groups - Tsimladar (17.6, Cabernet - Sauvignon and other (15.6 - 16.4. The structural component of grapes varieties ranged from 5.2 to 5.9, berry index - from 62.1 to 83.4, the output of the wort from 74.2 to 76.3%. The content of sugars and acids in the berries of all varieties is favorable for the production of beverages. The largest Tartaric acid content was found in the juice of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Black, malic acid - in the juice of varieties Saperavi, Merlot, Tsimladar, citric acid - in the juice Tsimladar varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi. The ratio of tartaric acid to the content of the apple juice Cabernet Sauvignon was 2.9: 1, Cabernet Franc 2.6: 1, Pinot Black 2.5: 1, Merlot and Tsimladar 1.6: 1, 1.1 Sapevari: 1. According to the content of potassium cations, sodium, magnesium and calcium there were chosen three varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc. The lowest content of potassium and magnesium cations was in the variety of Tsimladar, Sodium – in the varieties Merlot and Saperavi, calcium – in Saperavi. Excellent tasting commended for juices was given to Cabernet Sauvignon, Saperavi, Tsimladar, good – to Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot black. Best blending juice obtained by mixing the juice of the grape of the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot black 70:30, Saperavi and Pinot black 50:50. From the grapes of produced varieties, we can produce juice and varietal by

  1. Aplicação de taninos enológicos na elaboração de vinho Cabernet Sauvignon e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade sensorial Application of enological tannins in the development of Cabert Sauvignon and their effects on the sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do uso de taninos enológicos na composição sensorial do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, safra 2004. Trata-se de uma cultivar que se destaca no Brasil pela importância na produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Porém, em algumas safras, possui dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, o que dificulta a elaboração de vinhos com o perfil sensorial desejado pelos consumidores. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está o manejo do vinhedo, aliado a ajustes tecnológicos nas etapas de elaboração do vinho. Para tal, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0g hl-1, 10,0g hl-1, 20,0g hl-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, descuba, e após a fermentação malolática. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se análises sensoriais, em relação aos atributos ligados aos perfis olfativos e gustativos, com análise de oito descritores olfativos e nove descritores gustativos, além de um conceito geral. Assim, verificou-se que os taninos enológicos imprimiram algumas diferenças, principalmente no perfil aromático dos vinhos, que apresentaram acréscimo de qualidade quando tratados com os taninos enológicos. Da mesma maneira, houve superioridade olfativa e gustativa nos vinhos que receberam tratamentos com taninos na etapa de maceração.The objective of this research was to study the effect of enological tannins in the sensory composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The study was conducted in Bento Gonçalves, RS, with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, harvest 2004. This is a cultivar that stands out in importance in Brazil for the production of red wines. However, in some crops there are difficulties for a proper maturation, which hampers the development of wines with the sensory profile desired by consumers. Among the strategies to minimize this problem

  2. Aplicação de taninos enológicos na elaboração de vinho Cabernet Sauvignon e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade sensorial Application of enological tannins in the development of Cabert Sauvignon and their effects on the sensory quality

    OpenAIRE

    Vitor Manfroi; Gustavo Pires Costa; Celito Crivellaro Guerra; Mauro Celso Zanus; Flavio Bello Fialho; Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do uso de taninos enológicos na composição sensorial do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS), com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, safra 2004. Trata-se de uma cultivar que se destaca no Brasil pela importância na produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Porém, em algumas safras, possui dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, o que dificulta a elaboração de vinhos com o perfil sensorial desejado pelos consumidores. De...

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Bin; Harrison, Roland; Morton, James; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis...

  4. The combined effects of storage temperature and packaging on the sensory, chemical, and physical properties of a Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Helene; Buffon, Peter A; Ebeler, Susan E; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-04-01

    A Californian Cabernet Sauvignon was stored for 6 months at three different constant temperatures to study the combined effects of storage temperature and packaging configuration. Glass bottles with natural cork, synthetic cork, and screw cap closure, as well as two Bag-in-Box treatments, were used in the experiment. A trained sensory panel was able to detect significant changes in aroma, flavor, taste, mouthfeel, and color attributes among the samples, differences that were found also with various chemical and physical measurements (volatile profile, polyphenol pattern, enological parameters, color space). Additionally, two commonly used polyphenol assays were compared to each other in terms of their ability to detect the changes in the polyphenol profile. Generally, sample changes were more pronounced due to the different storage temperatures, with 30 sensory attributes differing significantly among the three different storage temperatures, while only 17 sensory attributes showed a significant packaging effect. With increasing storage temperature the packaging effect became more pronounced, resulting in the largest changes in the Bag-in-Box samples stored at the highest temperature of 40 °C. At the highest storage temperature, all wines showed oxidized characters, independent of the wine packaging configurations, but to a varying degree. Generally, wines that received highest oxygen amounts and storage temperatures were much lighter, less red, and more brown-yellow at the end of the 6-month storage period, compared to their counterparts stored at 10 °C. These changes in color and polyphenols, respectively, were also detected with the two spectrophotometric assays. With increasing storage temperature both assays measured reduced concentrations in total phenols and total anthocyanins, while total tannins, degree of ionized anthocyanins, and color density increased. Various volatile compounds differed significantly among the samples, with largest relative

  5. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina Viticultural performance of cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks in high altitude regions of Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.Rootstocks are a link between the soil and the scion, they play an important role in vine adaptation

  6. Geyser Peak Cabernet Sauvignon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>年份:2000产地:美国加州Sonoma County售价:$196 Geyser Peak(盖世峰)成立于1880年,是美国军有的过百岁葡萄酒庄。可惜美国酿制葡萄酒的技术在近三四十年才有突破,历史再悠久也没有太多帮助近二十年Geyser Peak就努力改进,希望迎头赶上其它加州新秀的水平,1989年,他们就聘请了澳洲Penfolds酒庄的酿酒师Daryl Groom,让旗下出品多了一份澳洲式的"霎眼娇"风格。2003年,Geyser Peak更在International Wine & Spirit Competition赢得"最佳美国葡萄酒生产商"大奖。

  7. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal. PMID:27211692

  8. Aminoácidos livres e uréia durante a fermentação do mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon com diferentes leveduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUTRA Sandra Valduga

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de aminoácidos e uréia em mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon fermentado com diferentes leveduras, foram os principais objetivos desse trabalho. Cabernet Sauvignon foi utilizada por ser teoricamente uma cultivar com alto teor de prolina e baixo teor de arginina, em comparação com cultivares com alto teor e predominância de arginina. Os mostos foram coletados em Santana do Livramento, RS e transportados para a UFSM; lá foram dividos em dois lotes aos quais foram adicionados diferentes leveduras: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermol Bouquet e Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2056. A análise dos aminoácidos foi realizada utilizando um analizador de aminoácidos marca Hitachi L-8500 conforme SANDERS e OUGH (21. Uréia foi determinada de acordo com ALMY e OUGH (1 modificado por PEREIRA e DAUDT (19. O aminoácido encontrado no mosto, em maior quantidade foi a prolina (847mg/l seguido por arginina (235mg/l e alanina (87mg/l. A maioria dos aminoácidos (exceção de prolina foram consumidos pelas leveduras logo após o início da fermentação. A liberação máxima de uréia no meio coincidiu com o consumo máximo de arginina, que na fermentação com a levedura 2056 ocorreu à 19° Brix (2,7mg/l e com a levedura Fermol Bouquet ocorreu com o mosto a 15° Brix (4,1mg/l. O teor de prolina permaneceu elevado durante todo o processo fermentativo, confirmando a pouca preferência das leveduras por este aminoácido. Os aminoácidos arginina, treonina, serina, aspartato e isoleucina, podem ser considerados melhores fontes de nitrogênio para as leveduras.

  9. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  10. Expression of ABA synthesis and metabolism genes under different irrigation strategies and atmospheric VPDs is associated with stomatal conductance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Jim; Binney, Allan; Collins, Marisa; Edwards, Everard; Loveys, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The influence of different levels of irrigation and of variation in atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on the synthesis, metabolism, and transport of abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects on stomatal conductance were examined in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines. Xylem sap, leaf tissue, and root tissue were collected at regular intervals during two seasons in conjunction with measurements of leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs). The different irrigation levels significantly altered the Ψleaf and gs of the vines across both seasons. ABA abundance in the xylem sap was correlated with gs. The expression of genes associated with ABA synthesis, NCED1 and NCED2, was higher in the roots than in the leaves throughout and highest in the roots in mid January, a time when soil moisture declined and VPD was at its highest. Their expression in roots was also inversely related to the levels of irrigation and correlated with ABA abundance in the roots, xylem sap, and leaves. Three genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylases were isolated and their identities confirmed by expression in yeast cells. The expression of one of these, Hyd1, was elevated in leaves when VPD was below 2.0-2.5 kPa and minimal at higher VPD levels. The results provide evidence that ABA plays an important role in linking stomatal response to soil moisture status and that changes in ABA catabolism at or near its site of action allows optimization of gas exchange to current environmental conditions. PMID:23630325

  11. Research on the reasonable application of N fertilizer on Cabernet Sauvignon at the eastern foot of Helan Mountain%贺兰山东麓赤霞珠氮肥合理施用量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 郭洁; 孙权; 王锐; 吴旭东; 王振平

    2013-01-01

      通过田间试验和室内分析,研究了宁夏贺兰山东麓不同氮肥施用量对风沙土3年生酿酒葡萄赤霞珠生长与产量、品质的影响及施氮肥的经济效益。结果表明:供试土壤有机质肥力、速效氮和速效磷含量较低,而氮素是酿酒葡萄生长发育的决定性指标,对酿酒葡萄生长、产量及品质均有显著影响,但施氮量超过450 kg/hm2后抑制新梢生长,产量反而下降。经肥效方程计算得出风沙土3年生酿酒葡萄最高产量施氮量为332.5 kg/hm2,最佳经济效益施氮量为305.33 kg/hm2。%A field experiment combined with lab analysis was conducted to study the effect of N fertilizer application amount on the growth, yield and quality as well as on the economic benefits of 3-years-old Cabernet Sauvignon in sandy soil at the eastern foot of Helan Mountain. The results showed that the contents of organic substances, avail P and available K in the soil tested in the experiment were lower. Nitrogen is the most important factor effecting the growth of wine grape. With the enhanced application rate of N fertilizer, the length of new branches, leaves weight, the contents of N, P, K in leaves, as well as the yield of the wine grape were significantly increased along with the increase of N fertilizer application amount less than 450 kg/hm2. However, when the application amount exceeds 450 kg/hm2, the branch length and yield decrease accordingly. The N fertilizer application amount for maximum yield was 332.5 kg/hm2. The N fertilizer application amount for optimal economic benefits was 305.33 kg/hm2.

  12. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Teng-Fei Xu; Jiang-Fei Meng; Peng-Fei Ning; Zhen-Wen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grap...

  13. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  14. Commercial Digital Camera to Estimate Postharvest Leaf Area Index in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon on a Vertical Trellis Uso de una Cámara Digital Comercial para Estimar el Índice de Área Foliar en Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon en Poscosecha Conducida en Espaldera Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espinosa L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI of a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in the commune of Cauquenes, Maule Region in Chile, was estimated from digital images obtained with a commercial camera using two indirect methods: Leaf Area Gap and Brightness (LAGB and -Photogrammetric Leaf Area Quantification System (PLAQS. The latter requires deleafing of the grapevine. In a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI map, three points of vine vigor were selected: high, medium, and low for which horizontal and vertical images were obtained. Images were filtered with the Arc View GIS 3.1 program to provide only leaf images and corresponding pixel numbers. Image area and square meters per linear meter were calculated. The best models were selected from  three linear regression adjustments: i LAI of LAGB vertical images of with LAI of PLAQS, ii LAI of PLAQS horizontal images with and, iii LAI of both types of images with PLAQS. The parameters in all models were significant. Adjustment between the LAGB and PLAQS vertical images provides greater simplicity and easy calculation since it requires only a vertical image to estimate LAI. Images thus obtained can accurately estimate LAI in this type of cultivar.En un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon ubicado en la comuna de Cauquenes, Región del Maule, se estimó el índice de área foliar (LAI mediante imagen digital obtenida de una cámara fotográfica comercial, a partir de dos métodos indirectos: Espacio y Brillo Área Foliar (LAGB y Sistema Cuantificador de Área Foliar por Fotogrametría (PLAQS. Este último, requiere el deshoje de la parra. En un mapa de índice vegetativo diferencial normalizado (NDVI, se seleccionaron tres puntos de vigor de las vides: alto, medio y bajo, en cada uno de los cuales se obtuvo una imagen horizontal y vertical. Las imágenes se filtraron con el programa Arc View GIS 3.1, dejando sólo las hojas y el número de píxeles correspondientes. Se

  15. Changes of Flavan-3-ols with Different Degrees of Polymerization in Seeds of ‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ Grapes after Veraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavan-3-ols consist of flavan-3-ol monomers and polymers with different degrees of polymerization (DP. In this study, flavan-3-ol extracts from grape seeds were well separated into three fractions including monomers, oligomers (2 < DP < 10 and polymers (DP > 10, by means of normal-phase HPLC-MS. The different patterns of these three fractions were analyzed in three Vitis vinifera cultivars (‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ seeds from veraison to harvest. The results showed: (1 polymers were the main form of flavan-3-ols in grape seeds and monomers accounted for only a small proportion; (2 the contents of flavan-3-ol monomers in the seeds of three grape cultivars all exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with a little fluctuation, whereas the patterns of the change of contents of oligomers and polymers were extremely different among grape cultivars; the contents of flavan-3-ol oligomers were enhanced in the seeds of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, but were reduced in the other two cultivars; (3 with regard to the proportion of flavan-3-ols with a certain DP to total flavan-3-ols, both flavan-3-ol monomers and flavan-3-ols with low DP fell in proportion, while the flavan-3-ols with high DP increased correspondingly. These findings indicate that flavan-3-ol polymerization in developing seeds is variety-dependent and may be genetically regulated.

  16. Effect of Pruning on chemical changes during fruit ripening of vitisvinifera l. var. cabernet sauvig

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Walteros; Deisy Molano; Pedro José Almanza; Mauricio Camacho; Sergio González Almanza

    2012-01-01

    The growth and grape fruit development is influenced by the presence of major changes at the biochemical level that lead to a correct ripening, determines the quality of musts and wines. As the pruning technique that regulates the quality of the fruit, we sought to know the effect of three types of pruning (short, long and mixed) on the evolution of chemical components of quality during fruit ripening of Vitisvinifera L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, in the municipality of Sutamarchán (Boyacá). Si...

  17. Characterization of Cold Soak on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Grape and Wine Volatiles Using an Electronic Nose System

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Denise M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the electronic nose in the wine industry is an emerging technology. Although electronic nose systems have been used in other industries as tools to monitor fruit maturity or quality control, the use of these systems for wine analysis has been debated. Many electronic nose sensor types exist, but have often been accused of primarily discriminating varying ethanol concentrations of wines as opposed to aroma and flavor volatiles. This study evaluated the use of a commercial conduc...

  18. NMR metabolic fingerprinting and chemometrics driven authentication of Greek grape marc spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, Charalambos; Zervou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    NMR metabolomics was used to investigate 57 Greek spirits of four indigenous and four international varieties from Macedonia (tsipouro) and Crete (tsikoudia) to establish their authenticity. The metabolic profile of Romeiko, Malvasia, Xinomavro, Sangiovese and Nebbiolo varieties was assessed for the first time. The WET1D sequence was used to improve sensitivity and unveil minor metabolites. PCA was applied to delineate the provenance of samples and associate metabolites with distinct varietal characteristics, such as the acidity of Sangiovese, the overripe grapes harvesting of Romeiko, the intense body of Cabernet Sauvignon, the light body of Xinomavro and the glutamic acid for Malvasia. The migration of Cabernet Sauvignon from north Greece to Crete was framed. Monitoring multi-varietal spirits introduced 2-vinylethanol as a marker for yeast selection. OPLS-DA was applied to samples from the same vineyard, thus highlighting genotypic markers. Consequently, the findings address the concepts of typicity and traceability in grape marc spirits. PMID:26593552

  19. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

    OpenAIRE

    María José Otero-Pareja; Lourdes Casas; María Teresa Fernández-Ponce; Casimiro Mantell; Enrique J. Martínez de la Ossa

    2015-01-01

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Pet...

  20. 气质联用法分析赤霞珠干红葡萄酒中脂肪酸%Determination of the Fatty Acids in Cabernet Sauvignon Wines by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘河疆; 冯婷; 王成; 安冉; 孙婷

    2016-01-01

    采用气质联用法(GC/MS法)分析赤霞珠干红葡萄酒中脂肪酸组成,样品用正己烷提取,氢氧化钾-甲醇法甲酯化,归一化法计算含量。结果显示,干红葡萄酒中主要含有己酸、辛酸、十一烷酸、月桂酸、肉豆蔻酸、肉豆蔻烯酸、十五烷酸、棕榈酸、棕榈油酸、十七烷酸、十七碳烯酸、硬脂酸、油酸、反油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、花生酸、花生一烯酸、山嵛酸、顺-13,16-二十二碳二烯酸、二十二碳五烯酸、神经酸、木焦油酸等23种脂肪酸。%The chemical composition and contents of fatty acid in cabernet sauvignon wines was determined by GC/MS. The GC/MS detection showed containing 23 kinds of fatty acid, such as:hexanoic acid,caprylic acid, undecanoic acid,lauric acid,myristic acid,myristoleic acid,pentadecanoic acid,palmitic acid,palmitoleic acid,heptadecanoic acid,heptadecenoic acid,stearic acid,oleic acid,elaidic acid,linoleic acid,linolenic acid, arachidic acid,eicosatrienoic acid,behenic acid,docosadienoic acid,DPA,nervonic acid,lignoceric acid.

  1. Effect of maceration time on polyphenol and colour features of Cabernet Sauvignon wine produced with flash evaporation%浸渍时间对闪蒸赤霞珠干红酚类物质和颜色特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华玉波; 崔彦志; 王莉; 柴菊华

    2012-01-01

    The Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were treated by flash evaporation and were macerated for different times (0d, 3d, 5d, 7d), then polyphenol and colour features of the wines were studied and compared with the wine produced with traditional technology during their fermentation and aging process ,the results showed that: during the fermentation and aging process in oak barrels, the wines produced with flash evaporation technology, which were macerated for 3d, 5d, 7d have more total phenols and tannins and the content of total phenols and tannins is positively correlated with maceration time; all the wines produced with flash evaporation technology have higher color density and lower color tone; the wine produced with flash evaporation and macerated for 5d has the darkest color while the wine macerated for 7d has the most red color tone after aged for 270d.%对赤霞珠葡萄进行闪蒸处理,通过不同时间(0d、3d、5d、7d)的浸渍发酵,比较研究了闪蒸葡萄酒与传统发酵酒在发酵和橡木桶陈酿过程中酚类物质含量和颜色特征的差异,结果表明:在发酵和陈酿过程中,与传统发酵酒相比,闪蒸处理后进行3d、5d、7d浸渍可显著提高酒中总酚、单宁含量,且和浸渍时间呈正相关;所有闪蒸处理酒均色度值高、色调值低;陈酿270d后,浸渍5d的闪蒸酒颜色最深,而浸渍7d的闪蒸酒红色色调最强.

  2. Response of grape cultivars to nitrogen and phosphorus grown with water harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fertilizer studies were conducted on mature vineyards established with a water harvesting system on a White House sandy 10 am (fine, mixed, thermic, Ustollic Haplargid) soil at the University of Arizona Oracle Agricultural Center. In one study, two grape (Vitis viinifera L.) cultivars, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Sauvignon blanc', were treated with different levels of 15 N and P fertilizer and tested for tissue NO3-N and total-P content. In the second study, eleven grape varieties were treated with three levels of N. Tissue samples were analysed for total P and NO3-N content, and the ratio of petiole-P to leaf blade-P was determined. When sufficient quantities of both nutrients were provided, N and P interacted positively resulting in increased grape yields. The petiole-P to leaf blade-P ratio correctly monitored the P status of the vines. (author). 20 refs., 6 tabs

  3. The effects of different processing parameters (cold soak and percent alcohol (v/v) at dejuicing) on the concentrations of grape glycosides and glycoside fractions and glycosidase activities in selected yeast and lactic acid bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Heather

    1998-01-01

    Grape-derived aroma and flavor precursors exist partially as non-volatile, sugar-bound glycosides. Hydrolysis of these compounds may modify sensory attributes and potentially enhance wine quality. Cold soak (prefermentation skin contact) at two temperatures and alcohol content (%, v/v) at dejuicing were monitored to determine effects on Cabernet Sauvignon glycoside concentration. Total, phenolic-free, and red-free glycoside concentrations were estimated by the quantification of glycosyl-...

  4. Comparison of berries's wine-making quality in four clones of Cabernet Sauvignon%赤霞珠葡萄四个无性系浆果酿酒品质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董良; 王羽西; 陈瑍瑶; 于泽源; 王军

    2015-01-01

    The berries from the four clones of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS169, CS170, CS338, CS685) were classified to six weight categories (≤0.50 g, 0.51~0.75 g, 0.76~1.00 g, 1.01~1.25 g, 1.26~1.50 g,>1.50 g), Berry weight, lengthways and transverse diameter, skin weight, seed number, seed weight, soluble solids content and pH in every category were measured, respectively. Total seeds weight, pulp weight, berry volume and surface area were calculated, the distribution of berries in every category was counted. The results indicated that the smaller berries of CS338 had a slightly high proportion in four clones, while the relative skin weight was the lowest, CS338 had a high content of soluble solids but the total acidity level was low. CS169 was the best clone in wine-making quality among the four clones with the high soluble solids content, total acid and high level of relative skin weight.%对赤霞珠四个无性系(CS169、CS170、CS338和CS685)的果粒按质量大小分为6个级次:≤0.50 g、0.51~0.75 g、0.76~1.00 g、1.01~1.25 g、1.26~1.50 g、>1.50 g,分别测量每一个质量级次的果粒质量、纵横径、果皮质量、种子数、单粒种子质量、可溶性固形物含量、pH值,并计算种子总质量、果肉质量、体积和表面积,统计每一个质量级次的果粒质量分布。结果表明,四个品系中,CS338的小果粒比例最高,但其相对果皮质量较低,可溶性固形物含量高而含酸量低;CS169的相对果皮质量、可溶性固形物含量和总酸都较高,是四个品系中酿酒品质较优的一个无性系。

  5. The Evolvement of Aroma Characters in Cabernet Sauvignon Dry Red Wine during Ageing in Bottle%瓶贮赤霞珠干红葡萄酒香气特征的演变规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永胜; 朱晓琳; 文彦

    2012-01-01

    To get the evolvement of some important aroma characters in Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) dry red wines, wine samples of CS in fourteen vintages from Changli were selected. 30 panelists were trained by using 'wine standard aroma kits'. When analyzing wine aroma, the panelists were forced to describe the wine aroma using 5~8 terms in standard aroma kits. And each term was described by 5-scales. The final score of each term was the geometrical mean of its frequency and intensity percent. The data were processed with principle component analysis (PCA) to extract important characters in terms of vintages. The results showed that young red CS wines had higher intensity of smoke, green pepper and green grass; the aroma of strawberry, temperate fruits, as apple, and pear, and some floral traits were improving with ageing in bottle, and the best time in bottle was 5 years for these characters. With time continuing, some bad odor in the wine stayed in bottle for more than 10 years were obvious, such as pickled vegetable, vinegar and soy sauce.%采集我国昌黎产区14个年份的赤霞珠干红葡萄酒样品,研究它们在瓶贮过程中香气特征的演变规律.实验酒样的香气特征采用感官量化品尝法分析.要求30名经过培训的品尝员在分析时用“葡萄酒标准香气”中5~8个香气特征来描述,并且用5点标度法对其进行量化.最终某一香气特征的量化值是品尝组对这一特征的使用频率和强度的几何平均值.对量化数据进行主成分分析(PCA),寻找与年份差异显著相关的香气特征.结果显示,年轻的新酒烟熏、青椒和青草味较重.瓶贮5年左右的干红酒中苹果、梨、草莓、金银花和茉莉花香气较突出.随着陈酿时间增加,葡萄酒的香气质量下降,超过10年的供试酒样中劣质气味特征明显,如泡菜、醋和酱油味.

  6. Anthocyanin content in dried berry skins and wine produced from dried grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEÇULI ANISA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin, are the substances which are biosynthesized in the grape skin, extracted during the maceration and vinification and which contribute in wine color. During the aging of wines these substances are converted in their derivates, contributing in wine quality. For this reasons in nowadays there is a big attention of studies in these components. Wines from two grapes variety, a French variety, Cabernet Sauvignon and the other an autochthonous variety of Albania Kallmet were observed. The role of drying in concentration of anthocyanin in skins berry and if this technique is reflected in wine produced from this dried grape, was studied. The results shown that the quantity of anthocyanins from dried skins varied from 136 mg/100gr fresh product to 468 mg/100gr. The dried skins had the higher quantity, but this result was more significant for Cabernet Sauvignon wine than Kallmet wine. Measurement of phenolic content showed no significant changes between wines from dried and non-dried grapes.

  7. Effects of different kinds of fertilizers on soil quality and photosynthetic characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine%不同种类的肥料对土壤质量和赤霞珠葡萄光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉文婷; 王振平; 代红军

    2016-01-01

    The 5-year-old wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' as experimental material to study the effects of different fertilizer treatments on photosynthetic characteristics and soil quality. The results showed that the organic fertilizer+Bacillus subtilis treatments could significant increase the leaf photosynthetic indexes, including transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and tintercellular CO2 concentration, the effect were better than other treatments; The soil nutrient content of Nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium, organic matter and soil porosity had significant increase by organic fertilizer+Bacillus subtilis (1.0 kg/667m2) treatment, above of the five indexes, the phosphorus content was significant, indicated the microbial fertilizer treatments was better thanthe inorganic fertilizer treatments. Meanwhile in the 0~20 cm soil layer, organic fertilizer+Bacillus subtilis (1.0 kg/667m2) treatment significantly increased the activity of invertase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, and urease activity was the highest. Four enzymatic activities had reduced trend with soil depth. Overall, the mocrobial fertilizer treatments were better inorganic fertilizer.%以5年生酿酒葡萄赤霞珠为试材,研究了有机肥(牛粪)、枯草芽孢杆菌、无机肥对其叶片光合特性和土壤理化性质、酶活性的影响。结果表明:牛粪+枯草芽孢杆菌处理的赤霞珠叶片蒸腾速率、净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度四种光合指标优于牛粪+无机肥处理;土壤碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾、有机质含量以及孔隙度都是在牛粪+枯草芽孢杆菌(1.0 kg/667m2)处理下增加最多,其中速效磷含量呈极显著增加,且所有菌肥处理效果优于有机肥处理;同时,在0~20 cm土层中,蔗糖酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、过氧化氢酶在牛粪+枯草芽孢杆菌(1.0 kg/667m2)处理活性均最高,其中含量最高的是脲酶,且随着土层深度的增

  8. Berry skin development in Norton grape: Distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. Results A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet

  9. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agostini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel, harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40% in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%, 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  10. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y......) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R 2 = 0.96, P skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o......-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3′-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K m of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid....

  11. Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine on red bordeaux and loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujou de Boubée, D; Van Leeuwen, C; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-10-01

    The 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine content in grapes and red wines was assayed by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, following vapor extraction and purification on a cation resin microcolumn. The threshold beyond which the green bell pepper character is marked in wines has been determined. From a comparison of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 50 red Bordeaux and Loire wines from different vintages and grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot) with the intensity of the green bell pepper character as perceived on tasting, the threshold value was estimated to be 15 ng/L. Statistical analysis of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 89 red Bordeaux wines showed that Cabernet wines were more commonly affected by this vegetative character. Changes in the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration as the grapes ripen are affected by the environmental and cultural conditions (soil, climate, training system, etc.). A very good correlation was shown between the breakdown of malic acid and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine as the grapes ripened, irrespective of grape variety, type of soil, or weather conditions.

  12. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Anthocyanins were released from skins during the early phases of the enzymatic treatments, but were then degraded during further enzymatic treatment; flavonols underwent transformation from glycosylated (rutin) to deglycosylated (quercetin) during....... The data moreover suggest that p-coumaric acid was also released during enzyme catalyzed degradation of acylated anthocyanins, probably as a result of cinnamate esterase activity. The data thus provided unexpected new clues as to how the enzymatic treatment with multicomponent pectinolytic enzymes may...

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea. PMID:25521116

  14. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  15. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  16. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  17. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported......, 7 mol % arabinan, 4.5-5.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan I, 3.5-4.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan II, 3 mol % arabinogalactan, and 0.5-1.0 mol % mannans; the ranges indicate minor variations in the skin composition of the three different cultivars. These cell wall polysaccharides made up similar to 43...

  18. Methoxypyrazine analysis and influence of viticultural and enological procedures on their levels in grapes, musts, and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Davinder; Lund, Jensen; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Saucier, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the factors that affect the concentrations of methoxypyrazines (MPs) and the techniques used to analyze MPs in grapes, musts, and wines. MPs are commonly studied pyrazines in food science due to their contribution of aroma and flavor to numerous vegetables such as peas and asparagus. They are described as highly odorous compounds with a very low olfactory threshold. The grape varietals that exhibit green or herbaceous aromas that are characteristic of MPs are predominantly Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc, but include others. The most extensively studied MPs include 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, and 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine. It outlines the significance of methoxypyrazines in grapes, musts, and wines in terms of the concentrations that are capable of contributing their sensory characteristics to wines. This review discusses methods for analyzing MPs including gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (one or two dimension) and high-performance liquid chromatography, the appropriate extraction techniques, and the efficacy of these methods. Additionally, this review explores factors that affect pyrazine content of grapes, must, and wines, such as the effects of different viticultural practices, effects of light exposure and grape maturation, climate, soil, the multi-colored Asian lady beetle and the effects of different vinification processes.

  19. 葡萄籽油中植物甾醇的提取与鉴定%The Extraction and Identification of Phytosterols in the Grape Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽霞; 朱亿竹; 魏阳吉; 张也; 李景明

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a saponification and extraction process was used in extraction of grape seed oil and preparation of phytosterols the composition and content of phytosterols in the grape seed oil were analysed by CC-MS, with four wine grapes (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Long Yan, Chardonnay) seeds as material. There were six phytosterols were determined from grape seed oil (campesterol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, stigniastanol, fucosterol, 9,19-cyclolano-tan-3-ol,24-methylene-, (3,beta-)), the total phytosterols content in white grapes (Long Yan, Chardonnay )seed oil were higher than red grapes (Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon)seed oil. The content of beta-sitosterol is highest, followed by campesterol and stigmasterol, and the fucosterol were the lowest one in six phytosterols.%以4种酿酒葡萄(美乐、赤霞珠、龙眼、霞多丽)的种籽为原料,提取葡萄籽油,经皂化、萃取制得植物甾醇.采用GC-MS方法首次分析了葡萄耔油中植物甾醇的组成及含量,结果从葡萄籽油中检测到6种植物甾醇(菜油甾醇、豆甾醇、β-谷甾醇、岩藻甾醇、豆甾烷醇、环木菠萝烯醇),其中白葡萄品种(龙眼、霞多丽)籽油中总甾醇含量高于红萄萄品种(龙眼、霞多丽).在鉴定出的6种植物甾醇中,β-谷甾醇含量最高,其次是豆甾醇和菜油甾醇,岩藻甾醇含量最低.

  20. Evaluation of Differences on the Sensory Characteristics of Wine Produced from Non-Dried and Dried Grapes by Using Discriminative Sensory Test, Two out of Five

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANISA PEÇULI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight wines produced from Kallmet and Cabernet Sauvignon, from non-dried and dried grapes and in two years 2011 and 2013 were subjected of discriminative sensory test 2out of 5. The aim of the study was to confirm by human perception, the chemical data that shows differences between wines from non-dried and dried grapes. A group of 15 trained panelist after tasted the wines in a blind test were asked to group the wines in two groups according to their similarity. After a small break a visual evaluation took place. The panelists were asked which of the wines were more intense in color. Data showed that for the first test (2 out of 5 the panelist were able to differ with a high significance level between the wines from non-dried and dried grapes, for both varieties and for both year of production. The visual test also shows that for year 2011 the panelist differ between wines of Kallmet 9 of them evaluate wines from dried grapes as more intense and for wines of 2013, 10 panelist evaluate wines of dried Kallmet as more intense than non-dried. For Cabernet wines of this year 10 panelist evaluate the wines from non-dried grapes as more intense in color.

  1. Effect of Light Soil Drought on the Qualities of Grape Berry%轻度土壤干旱对赤霞珠果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 袁晨茜; 杨刘燕; 杨运良; 邢延富; 牛兴艳; 冀铮春

    2013-01-01

    通过避雨棚和断根沟措施,人为控制灌溉模拟土壤干旱,以5年生赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon)果实为试材,研究了轻度土壤干旱对赤霞珠葡萄果实品质的影响.结果表明,土壤干旱并不改变赤霞珠葡萄果实生长曲线,但对果实生长和品质具有明显作用;轻度土壤干旱下,赤霞珠葡萄果实单粒质量降低10.10%,有机酸含量降低12.50%,可溶性总糖增加10.64%,总酚增加21.01%,花色苷增加9.55%,从而有利于果实品质的形成.%In this paper, 5 years old grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) was used as materials, and the effect of light soil drought on the growth and fruit quality formation was studied by controlling irrigation through the prevent-rain shelter and root-cutting groove. The results showed that the growth pattern of berry was not changed by light soil drought, while the fruit quality was changed significantly. Compared to CK II, the single berry weight and organic acid content were decreased by 10.10% and 12.50%; meanwhile, the total sugar, total phenol, and anthocyanins concentration in treated berry were increased by 10.64%, 21.01%, and 9.55%, respectively. All the results indicated that the light soil drought could promote the quality formation of grape Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berry.

  2. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

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    Xiang-Yun Cui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый. Yan 73 and Pinot Noir had abundant anthocyanins, but only a few nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds. Gamay, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый contained only a few anthocyanins and flavonols. For a grape cultivar, the ratio of one anthocyanin content to total anthocyanin content did not change greatly from one year to the next, unlike for non-anthocyanins. Cluster analysis showed that except for Syrah and Yan 73, the phenolic profiles in the tested grape cultivars had no significant year-to-year variations.

  3. Composição do suco de uva caseiro de diferentes cultivares Composition of homemade grape juice from different varieties

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    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Um volume considerável de uva do grupo das americanas da Serra Gaúcha é destinado para a produção de suco de uva caseiro. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das cultivares Isabel, Bordô (Ives e Concord de Vitis labrusca e Cabernet Sauvignon de Vitis vinifera, na composição do suco de uva, elaborado na Embrapa Uva e Vinho na safra de 2003. Os sucos foram avaliados quanto às análises clássicas: densidade, °Brix, acidez total, acidez volátil, pH e relação °Brix/acidez total, efetuadas através de métodos físico-químicos. Os compostos voláteis etanol, metanol e aldeído acético foram determinados através da cromatografia gasosa. Os elementos minerais Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu e Zn foram analisados por absorção atômica, enquanto que o K, Na e Rb, por emissão de chama. O P foi determinado por colorimetria. Os resultados evidenciaram variabilidade entre os sucos das diferentes cultivares. O suco de Cabernet Sauvignon diferenciou-se dos demais pelos menores teores de metanol e etanol e pelos maiores de acidez volátil e Fe. Os sucos da uva Bordô e Concord apresentaram menor teor de acidez total e de Mn.A great amount of American grapes is employed to produce homemade juice in the Serra Gaúcha Region. The purpose of this work was to evaluated the effects of Vitis labrusca cultivars (Isabel, Bordô (Ives, Concord and a Vitis vinifera cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon, in the juice composition. The juice was prepared at Embrapa in Bento Gonçalves, RS, in the 2003 vintage. The juices had been evaluated as classic analysis: density, °Brix, total and volatile acidity, pH, °Brix total acidity ratio, made by the physical-chemical methods. The volatile components ethanol, methanol and acetaldehyde were determined by gas chromatography. The mineral elements Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn had been analysed by atomic absorption when the K, Na and Rb by flame emission. The results showed variability among juices from different grape

  4. Características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ na região norte do Paraná = Physic, chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera, cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente àVinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em julho de 2000, tendo o ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ como porta-enxerto. Para cada variedade foram utilizadas 20 plantas uniformes, conduzidas em latada em espaçamento de 4 x1,5 m. A maturação das uvas foi avaliada quanto à evolução de pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SST, acidez titulável (AT e relação SST/AT do mosto das bagas, a partir dos 50 dias aproximadamenteapós o florescimento, até 7 dias após colheita. Em função do número de cachos por planta, massa dos cachos e número de plantas por hectare, foram estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. O diâmetro e a massa das bagas foram também caracterizadas. Verificou-se que a uva ‘Tannat’ apresenta características químicas e produtivas adequadas para o processamento, sendo as principais características da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’: comportamento da maturação melhor ajustado à regressão cúbica; pH, teor de SST, AT e relação SST/AT do mosto de 3,3 e 3,2; 14,1 e 17,2°Brix; 0,76 e 0,70% de ácido tartárico e 18,7 e 29,6;estimativas da produção por planta, produtividade, massa média dos cachos, número de cachos por planta, diâmetro e massa das bagas de 9,5 e 6,1 kg; 15,9 e 10,1 t ha-1; 0,12 e 0,16 kg; 78 e 36 cachos por planta; 12,0 e 12,9 mm, respectivamente.The aim of this research was to determine the physic-chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in the north of Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard owned by Intervin® Cellar

  5. Effect of Pruning on chemical changes during fruit ripening of vitisvinifera l. var. cabernet sauvig

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    Ingrid Walteros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and grape fruit development is influenced by the presence of major changes at the biochemical level that lead to a correct ripening, determines the quality of musts and wines. As the pruning technique that regulates the quality of the fruit, we sought to know the effect of three types of pruning (short, long and mixed on the evolution of chemical components of quality during fruit ripening of Vitisvinifera L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, in the municipality of Sutamarchán (Boyacá. Since the beginning of veraison to maturity, every 15 days 20 berries were collected randomly to determine the behavior of the total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA and the technical maturity index (IMT. The results show that the SST, increased continuously as the berries ripen. Pruning mixed long and went from 12.5 to 21.2° Brix at harvest time. For its part, the ATT decreased with fruit development, the control (pruning cuts produced by ripening fruits with higher ATT in vintage was 7.6 g L-1. The IMT, increased significantly as a function of chronological time. Pruning cuts produced fruits with lower IMT, while pruning long had the highest value 3.40. Pruning long and mixed, to present appropriate values during ripening, provide a better quality of fruit for winemaking.

  6. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture. PMID:24279372

  7. Effects of phylloxera infestation on the root ultrastructure of grape cultivars with different resistance%根瘤蚜侵染对不同抗性葡萄品种根系超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜远鹏; 蒋恩顺; 翟衡

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同抗性葡萄品种对葡萄根瘤蚜Daktulosphaira vitifolia Fitch侵染后的组织结构响应.[方法]以砧木140Ru(Vitis rupestris×V.berlandieri)和栽培品种赤霞珠Vitis vinifera cv.Cabernet Sauvignon离体三级根及140Ru盆栽苗为试材接种根瘤蚜卵,接种两周后取刺吸位点组织作超薄切片并观察超微结构变化,取盆栽140Ru不同时期根结测定多酚含量.[结果]超微结构显示,砧木140Ru根系周皮层最外层细胞壁的厚度(1 031.25 nm)及周皮层细胞层数(6~7层)显著高于赤霞珠品种的周皮层细胞厚度(543.75 nm)及层数(3~4层),140Ru根系韧皮部酚类物质含量比赤霞珠高出35%;侵染后,砧木140Ru周皮层细胞第3层以内的细胞壁加厚并积聚大量的多酚类物质,140Ru葡萄新根被根瘤蚜侵染后多酚含量呈升高趋势,在接种20d时是对照的2.4倍;赤霞珠粗根被根瘤蚜侵染后薄壁细胞中细胞质变浓,出现大量淀粉粒,线粒体及内质网数量增多.[结论]砧木140Ru的周皮层组织结构较赤霞珠不利于根瘤蚜口针穿刺,被根瘤蚜侵染后发生了不利于根瘤蚜侵染取食的变化.%[ Aim ] To investigate the effects of phylloxera infestation on the root ultrastructure of grape cultivars with different resistance. [ Methods] Excised tertiary roots of rootstock 140Ru ( Vitis rupestris X V. Berlandieri) and Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and potted 140 Ru were inoculated with phylloxera eggs. After two weeks, tissues at the probing sites were collected to make ultrathin section and the transmission electronic microscope was used to observe the changes of ultrastructure, and potted 140Ru nodosities in different stages were collected to examine the phenol content. [ Results ] The outermost periderm cell wall in 140 Ru (1 031. 25 nm) was thicker than that in Cabernet Sauvignon (543. 75 nm) , and the number of periderm cell layers in 140Ru (6-7 layers) was more than that in Cabernet

  8. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can cause the legs to swell (chronic venous insufficiency). Taking grape seed extract by mouth seems to reduce symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency such as tired or heavy legs, tension, and ...

  9. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stop the growth of lactobacillus acidophilus in the intestinal tract and cancel its effects. Don't take grape and lactobacillus at the same time.Vitamin CEarly research suggests that people with high blood pressure who ...

  10. Identification of a plastid-localized bifunctional nerolidol/linalool synthase in relation to linalool biosynthesis in young grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Cai, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS) synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars ("Riesling", "Cabernet Sauvignon", "Gewurztraminer") with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  11. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  12. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study. PMID:25939071

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M.P.B.S.; de Mélo, Dângelly L.F.M.; Santana, Caroline A.; Pereira, Giuliano E.; Mendonça, Michelle O.C.; Gomes, Fátima C.O.; Oliveira, Evelyn S.; Barbosa, Antonio M.; Trindade, Rita C.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 105 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  14. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  15. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feige, Markus; Hampel, Gabriele; Kratz, Jens Volker; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Koenig, Helmut [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Weinforschung; Wagner, Andreas [Weingut Wagner, Essenheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  16. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  17. Changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking of Sauvignon wines

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Gracin, L.; Komes, Draženka; Ćurko, Natka; Lovrić, T.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the changes of the content of biogenic amines during winemaking and maturation processes of wines made from Vitis vinifera cv Sauvignon grapes from Slavonia region (vintage 2008). Biogenic amines were quantified using a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection after pre-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). Samples used in this study were obtained during production of Sauvignon wines in three...

  18. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  19. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  20. TRAMINER BLACK - NEWEST WINE AROMATHIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Newest breeding aromatic grape variety with colored pulp and juice is Traminer black bred in Athens Viticulture Institute (Greece P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and L.Maltabar in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian (Odessian black varieties (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with the European Traminer pink. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics related to the group of Western European varieties. Length of production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. Productivity is high. The average weight of bunch 200 grams. Characterized by a high resistance to cold, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with common varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Flower is hermaphrodite. Clusters are short or medium, conical, sometimes with wing, average density. Berry is small, round, blue-black coloring, with a thick waxy coating. Peel thick, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored, with a taste of Gewurztraminer. Content of sugar is very high: in the bushes on the stale grapes reaches more than 40%. Prolonged preservation of crop on bushes. Sort intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet wines and liqueurs, and is suitable for high-quality juices. When used in blends with other varieties, enhances coloration, completeness of taste and improves the bouquet of wine

  1. Characterization of Penicillium species isolated from grape berries by their internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) sequences and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of geosmin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; Garcia, Carole; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis; Labarère, Jacques

    2004-06-01

    Geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol), an earthy-musty compound, has been identified in wines and in grape juice, in which its presence is highly detrimental to the aromatic quality. Geosmin has a biological origin, and the analysis of rotten grape microflora has been done on two grape varieties (Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon) from six parcels of the Bordeaux region over 3 years (1999, 2000, 2001). Forty-three Penicillium-related species have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for their geosmin production. GC-MS analysis has demonstrated that the earthy odor was always correlated with the presence of geosmin. Phenotypic characterization of Penicillium spp. being ambiguous, a molecular characterization by rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) sequencing was performed for all strains. The results evidenced that all strains producing geosmin belonged to only one species, P. expansum, and that the other strains, not producing geosmin, belonged to three species: P. purpurogenum, P. thomii, and Talaromyces wortmanii.

  2. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  3. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Planococcus citri em diferentes estruturas vegetativas de cultivares de videira Biology and fertility life table of Planococcus citri in different vegetative structures of grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia e a tabela de vida de fertilidade de Planococcus citri, em folhas de videira das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Itália e Isabel, em bagas de uva 'Itália' e em raízes da 'Isabel' e dos porta-enxertos 101-14 e IAC-572. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: duração e viabilidade dos estágios de ovo e ninfa; e fecundidade e longevidade dos adultos. Em raízes do porta-enxerto IAC-572, a cochonilha não completou o ciclo biológico. Em bagas de uva 'Itália', o inseto completou a fase de ninfa, porém os adultos foram inférteis. Em folhas das diferentes cultivares, a duração média do período de ovo a adulto dos machos foi de 24,63 dias, com viabilidade de 32%, enquanto as fêmeas duraram 32 dias com viabilidade de 56%. Em raízes, a duração do ciclo biológico de fêmeas e machos foi de 32,45 e 29,50 dias, respectivamente. Em folhas, a fecundidade foi de 67,27, 66,09 e 53,33 ovos por fêmea, nas cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Isabel e Itália, respectivamente. Nas raízes foram obtidos 30,4 e 70,0 ovos por fêmea, no porta-enxerto 101-14 e na cultivar Isabel, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to study the biology and fertility life table of Planococcus citri in leaves of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Itália and Isabel, in berries of 'Itália', in roots of 'Isabel' and 101-14 and IAC-572 rootstocks. The following parameters were evaluated: duration and viability of the egg and nymph stages; and fertility and longevity of the adults. On berries of 'Itália', the insect completed the nymph phase, however the adults were infertile. On roots of the rootstock IAC-572, citrus mealybug was unable to develop. On leaves of the grape cultivars, the period of egg to adult males was 24.63 days, with viability of 32%, while females lasted 32 days with viability of 56%. On roots, the duration of the cycle of females and males was 32.45 and 29.50 days, respectively. For females

  4. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic study for varietal discrimination of grapes according to plant sterols content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Laura; Sampedro, M Carmen; Sánchez, Alicia; Delporte, Cédric; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-07-01

    Grapevine and derived products are rich in a wide range of compounds and its quality mainly depends on its metabolites, as a result of viticulture practices. Plant sterols, also called phytosterols (PS), are secondary metabolites regarded as bioactive substance present in grape berries and other plant-based food. The present study deals with a metabolomic approach focusing on phytosterols family in six varieties of Rioja grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Graciano, Garnacha, White Garnacha and Viura), in order to find significant differences among them. Liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry with a quadrupole-time of flight mass analyzer (LC-QTOF) was used to find as many metabolites as possible in the different grape berry fractions, and using statistics to help finding significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulp, peel and seeds in relation to the variety. The best chromatographic and detection conditions were achieved by gas phase ionization via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode. Furthermore, analysis with electrospray (ESI) is also needed for phytosterol derivatives confirmation. Putative compounds of interest in the analyzed samples were found by an automated compound extraction algorithm (Molecular Feature Extraction, MFE) and an initial differential expression from the data was created with the aid of commercial software. Once the data were collected, the results were filtered, aligned and normalized, and evaluating applying one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a 95% significance level. For sample class prediction, partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is used as a supervised pattern recognition method and excellent separation among the grape varieties is shown. An overall accuracy of 93.3% (pulp samples), 100.0% (peel) or 96.7% (seeds) in discriminating between grape varieties was achieved when comparing the different fractions. In general, 7 PS derivatives were identified with ID scores

  5. A field survey of grape sour rot on some grape cultivars%部分葡萄品种酸腐病田间发病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张夏兰; 李兴红; 蔡建波; 燕继晔; 胡盼; 耿文龙; 赵晓燕; 魏艳敏

    2012-01-01

    酸腐病是近年来在我国葡萄生产上严重发生的病害之一,引起中后期果穗腐烂,严重影响了葡萄的产量和质量.2010-2011年笔者调查了北京地区24个不同葡萄品种酸腐病的田间发生情况,并对病情指数进行了差异显著性和聚类分析,结果发现:11个酿酒葡萄品种聚为3类.第1类,‘小味尔多’、‘小芒森’和‘赤霞珠’病情指数最低(2.08~4.17);第2类,‘胡桑’、‘阿拉奈尔’和‘品丽珠’病情指数居中(5.83~9.17);第3类,‘长相思’、‘佳美’、‘雷司令’、‘梅鹿辄’和‘维奥尼’病情指数最高(16.25~20.00).13个食用葡萄品种也聚为3类.第1类,‘茉莉’、‘红伊豆’、‘巨峰’和‘黑奥林’发病最轻,病情指数最低(1.00~5.00);第2类,‘世纪无核’、‘玫瑰香’、‘龙宝’、‘黄意大利’、‘京蜜’、‘金香玉’和‘魏可’病情指数居中(7.00~10.67);第3类,‘里扎马特’和‘亚都蜜’,发病最重,病情指数最高(15.67~18.00).试验为葡萄酸腐病的田间防治提供了依据.%Sour rot has become one of the most serious diseases in many vineyards in China recently. It attacks ripening grape berries and has a damaging effect on grape yield and quality. In the years of 2010-2011, a survey of grape sour rot on 24 different grape cultivars was conducted in Beijing vineyards. These grape cultivars, based on their disease indexes, were classified and evaluated by significance and cluster analysis. It was shown that 11 wine cultivars could be divided into three groups: Group 1, including 'Petit Verdot', 'Petit Manseng' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon', had the lowest disease index (2.08-4.17); Group 2, including 'Roussanne' , ' Aranele' and 'Cabernet Franc', had medium disease index (5. 83-9.17); Group 3, including 'Sauvignon Blanc', 'Gamay, Riesling', 'Merlot' and 'Viognier', had the highest disease index (16.25 - 20.00). It was also shown that 13 table

  6. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Otero-Pareja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  7. MIR – NEWEST HIGHT QUALITY BLACK BERRY AROMATIC GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine black berry with painted pulp and juice grape variety called Mir was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by Zamanidi P., Troshin L. and Radchevsky P. in 2006 by crossing the Ukrainian variety of Odessa black (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with new Greek black berry variety Iliad. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period - 146-155 days. Strong growth of arms (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots - over 90. Productivity is very high: 20-30 t / ha. The average mass of clusters is 260 g. Characterized by high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Lobes, the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Bunch medium, often with tapered wing, the average density. Berry small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. The peel is medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice intensely colored. Sugar content is very high. Prolonged preservation of different crop on bushes. Variety intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties, it enhances color, flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  9. METHODOLOGY FOR FROST-RESISTANCE DETERMINING OF GRAPE VARIETIES (BASED ON EXAMPLE OF STAGE AND CHARACTER OF DAMAGING WINTER BUDS IN GRAPE BUSHES IN JANUARY 2015 IN ZAO “POBEDA” IN TEMRIUK DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuzok N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In January 2015, at the Vineyard and ZAO "Pobeda" in Temryuk District of the Krasnodar region, the thermometer dropped to minus 21,6 C, which resulted in significant damage to the central wintering buds. The article presents a method of determining the degree of damage of wintering buds. Based on the results of inspection of variety by sections divided into 3 groups. Group 1: saved between 40 and 72% central. This group includes the following 7 varieties : Pervenets Magaracha (uch. 64 Gibernal (uch. 74/3, Viorica (uch. 77, Riton (uch. 66, Riesling (uch. 82, Traminer (uch. 73/2, Chardonnay (uch. 73/3. Cutting of bushes should be carried out by the usual way. The task of cutting - compensate the loss of crops due to leaving the greater load. Group 2: Central buds was damaged nearly 70-85%, saved from 20 to 35% of replacement buds. This group includes Merlot (uch. 83, Tsitronyy Magaracha (uch. 69, Augustine (uch. 66, Saperavi (uch. 79, Chardonnay (uch. 74/1, Muscat white (uch. 73 Cabernet Sauvignon (uch. 80. During cutting should be left as much as possible of annual shoots and well-developed secondary shoots. Group 3: damaged more than 85% of central buds, replacement buds significantly damaged . To this group assigned Saperavi (uch. 80, Pinot blanc (uch. 74, Merlot (uch. 80/2, Moldova (uch. 70, Chardonnay (uch. 68, Moldova (uch. 22 Kaberne- Sauvignon (uch. 68, Moldova (uch. 38, Arkadia (uch. 78, Tsimlyansky black (uch. 68. Pre-cutting consists in removing all clearly dead and unusable parts of the bush (dried vines, stumps, annual shoots that will accelerate the development of shoots from the angular buds and resting buds. Considering the high plasticity of grape plants, can not only in accelerated way to restore the crown of bushes damaged by frost, but also get a crop in the current year, using special methods of agricultural technology

  10. SERRA - NEWEST HIGH QUALITY WINE MUSCAT GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED PULP AND JUICE

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    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Newest wine Muscat grape variety with colored pulp and juice Serra was breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by P.Zamanidi and L.Troshin in 2007 by crossing the Ukrainian Odessa black variety (Alicante Bouschet x Cabernet Sauvignon with the new Greek Muscat black berry Krimbas variety. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics it is included in the eco-geographical group of Black Sea Coast. Length of production period is 146-155 days. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. Percentage of productive shoots is over 90. Productivity is very high: 25-30 t / ha. Average weight is 350 g. Grapes characterized with high resistance to cold, drought and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, with the stamens and fully developed gynoecium. Cluster is medium, conical, sometimes with wing, medium density. Berry is small, round, blue-black, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense, durable. Pulp and juice are intensely colored, flavored with Muscat taste. Sugar content is very high, in the bushes at sun-dried bunches up to more than 40%. Prolonged preservation of crop on bushes. Variety is intended for manufacturing intensely colored dry red wines of excellent grade and high-quality sparkling, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines, and is suitable for the manufacture of high quality intensively colored juice with Muscat taste. When used in blends with other varieties increases color, full flavor and improves the bouquet of wine

  11. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  12. Preliminary study of the green algae chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) for control on the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in tomato plants and ectoparasite Xiphinema indexin grape seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleva, B; Bileva, T; Tzvetkov, Y; Barakov, P

    2005-01-01

    The alternative ecological methods require investigation of many organo-biological means for plant protection against dangerous root parasites such as root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria and some ectoparasites (Xiphinema index). The Bulgarian organic product - dry extract of green alga Chlorella vulgaris ("The Golden Apple"-Plamen Barakov) is the latest product, which in comparative aspect gives the best results. Series of laboratory and pot experiments are carried out with tomato (cv. Bele and cv. Ideal) and grape seedlings (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Different dosages of Chlorella from 0.5 g to 2 g per plant/pot are investigated. The first results show that even low dosages had double effect - on the one hand they suppress the parasite development and on the other hand they strongly stimulate plant growing. The very important conclusion is that Chlorella vulgaris ignores the negative influence of M. arenaria and X. index. These results give us opportunity for future model and field investigations of Chlorella vulgaris with the aim of its practical application.

  13. 葡萄籽超微粉在模拟人体肠胃环境中的吸收状况%Absorptive Situation of Grape Seeds Supermicro Powder in Simulated Stomach and Intestinal Circumstance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁春龙; 李华; 张予林; 李玲玲; 赵丽娟

    2011-01-01

    葡萄籽含有丰富的生物活性成分,具有极高的营养价值和保健作用.为了充分利用葡萄籽中的功能性成分,提高产品的附加值,将超微粉碎技术应用于葡萄籽的加工中,生产葡萄籽超微粉产品.为评价葡萄籽超微粉在人体中的吸收利用状况,做模拟肠、胃环境的吸收试验.试验结果表明:葡萄籽超微粉经模拟胃液消化3~5h,多酚、白藜芦醇溶出率:霞多丽60.87%~67.43%、23.65%~40.64%,赤霞珠60.48%~69.99%、20.63%~43.38%;经模拟肠液消化5~15 h,多酚、白藜芦醇溶出率:霞多丽1.96%~17.86%、17.51%~50.25%,赤霞珠3.38%~15.23%、14.02%~44.74%.葡萄籽多酚物质的消化吸收主要集中在胃环境中,白藜芦醇在肠、胃环境中的消化吸收几乎各占一半.%Grape seeds contain abundant active components, which have high nutritional and heath care value.In order to be useful grape seeds for increase new value-added products, the technology of super grinding was applied in the process of grape seeds and created a new products-supermicro powder of grape seeds.for the sake of evaluation the products, the absorptive experiment of the supermicro powder in simulated stomach and intestinal circumstance was carried out.The results were shown: After supermicro powder of grape seeds digested in simulated stomach juice for 3~5 h,the dissolved rate of polyphenols and resveratrol, Chardonnay were 60.87%~67.43%, 23.65%~40.64% respectively;Cabernet Sauvignon were 60.48%~69.99%, 20.63%~43.38%, respectively; digested for 5~15 h in simulated intestinal juice, Chardonnay were 1.96%~17.86%, 17.51%~50.25%, respectively; Cabernet Sauvignon were 3.38%~15.23%, 14.02%~44.71% respectively.It indicated that a majority of polyphenols and almost half of resveratrol of grape seeds were mainly dissolved in simulated stomach circumstance, and the others was dissolved in simulated intestinal circumstance.

  14. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  15. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  16. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  17. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties.

  18. Effect of skin contact and pressure on the composition of Sauvignon Blanc must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggu, Manu; Winz, Robert; Kilmartin, Paul A; Trought, Michael C T; Nicolau, Laura

    2007-12-12

    Early white winemaking operations are known to affect the extraction of grape skin compounds into the juice fraction, which will dictate their concentration in the resulting wine. Grape skin contact and the amount of pressure applied during grape pressing affect the extraction of varietal aromas located in the skins. Compounds such as the polyphenols and glutathione, with antioxidant properties involved in juice oxidation processes and white wine stability, are also affected. The present study evaluates how grape skin contact and the amount of pressure applied during grape pressing affect the levels of S-(3-hexan-l-ol)cysteine (3MH-S-cys, a key grape-derived precursor to the volatile thiol 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH), which is reminiscent of passion fruit aroma); 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP, with a capsicum-like descriptor); phenolic compounds; and glutathione in Sauvignon Blanc juice. The study was conducted using grapes obtained from commercial Marlborough (New Zealand) vineyards, using both commercial and laboratory grape-processing procedures. Immobilized metal ion chromatography was used to isolate the 3MH- S-cys precursor from the juices. The isolated precursor was then volatilized by trimethylsilylation and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). IBMP was analyzed by GC/MS after solvent extraction, and a high-performance liquid chromatography method was used for the quantification of phenolic compounds and glutathione. 3MH- S-cys levels were seen to increase in juice fractions obtained from a winery press operating at higher pressures. The increase was attributed to the cumulative effect of longer skin contact time and the amount of pressure applied. The highly water-soluble IBMP was less affected by the amount of pressure applied during commercial grape pressing. Additional information was generated by the specific assessment of skin contact and applied pressure during grape pressing in a laboratory trial. In this trial, a long (32

  19. Potássio em uvas II: análise peciolar e sua correlação com o teor de potássio em uvas viníferas Potassium in grapes II: analysis of petioles and their correlation with the potassium content of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Oliveira Fogaça

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi acompanhar a evolução da absorção de potássio pelas uvas durante o processo de maturação e verificar sua influência no pH, bem como tentar correlacionar ambas com os teores encontrados nos pecíolos na época da floração. Amostras das uvas foram coletadas durante o processo de maturação de três variedades: Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon e Merlot. Durante os dois anos de estudo, ocorreram variações nos teores de potássio absorvidos pelos frutos durante a maturação, sendo o aumento acompanhado pela elevação do pH; a redução no teor de potássio foi acompanhada pela estabilização dos valores de pH, fato também influenciado pela queda nos teores de acidez titulável. Sugere-se, assim, que os altos valores de pH encontrados nos vinhos elaborados com uvas destes vinhedos, em anos anteriores, estão relacionados com a absorção de potássio e a diminuição da acidez total durante a maturação da uva. A retirada de amostras peciolares na floração e trinta dias após mostrou-se um mecanismo eficiente na avaliação do teor de potássio nos tecidos próximos aos grãos. Dessa forma, a análise peciolar, além de ser utilizada para monitorar os níveis de potássio na planta e avaliar a necessidade de adubações e tratos culturais, pode servir de diagnóstico futuro para os teores de potássio nas uvas e nos vinhos.Grapes from three Vitis vinifera varieties (Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were analyzed over a two-year period to determine their potassium content, aiming to monitor this mineral content during the ripening process and evaluate its influence on pH values. Grape samples were harvested periodically during the berries’ development until their harvest. As expected, the grapes’ potassium content showed variations, i.e., high potassium content went hand-in-hand with increased pH values while low potassium content led to stabilized pH; this process was also affected by the

  20. 盐胁迫对酿酒葡萄叶片细胞结构及光合特性的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Mesophyll Cell Structures and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Leaves of Wine Grape (Vitis spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玲; 康文怀; 齐艳玲; 蔡爱军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究100mmol·L-1 NaCl胁迫下,葡萄酿酒品种‘赤霞珠’、砧木‘5BB’ 和砧穗组合苗‘赤霞珠/5BB’叶片细胞解剖结构和光合特性,为葡萄品种、砧木及砧穗组合苗耐盐性的筛选提供理论依据和技术方案.[方法]采用盆栽方法,当葡萄苗生长到高度约60 cm时,用100 mmol·L-1 NaCl处理30 d,随后测定叶片的叶绿素含量、光合作用参数及叶绿素荧光参数等指标,并用显微和透射电镜观察其细胞结构特征.[结果]100 mmol·L-1NaCl胁迫下,葡萄叶片表皮细胞、栅栏组织和海绵组织厚度增加,栅栏组织/海绵组织比降低;叶绿体长宽分别扩大1.3-1.5倍和1.3-2.0倍,类囊体肿胀变大;叶绿素含量降低,特别是叶绿素b(Chl b)下降明显;叶片光系统Ⅱ (PSII)潜在活性(Fv/Fo)、原初光能转换效率(Fv/Fm)和叶片净光合速率(Pn)均显著降低.3种类型苗木对NaC1胁迫的反应不同,100 mmol·L-1NaCl对砧木‘5BB’叶片细胞和叶绿体的结构、叶绿素含量和光合速率的影响程度最小,其次为砧穗组合苗‘赤霞珠/5BB’,而对品种‘赤霞珠’的影响最大.[结论]100mmol·L-1NaCl胁迫下,葡萄叶片厚度增加,叶绿素含量降低,最终导致PSⅡ潜在活性中心受损,光能转化效率和净光合速率明显降低.葡萄砧木‘5BB’有较强的耐盐能力,可一定程度提高酿酒葡萄‘赤霞珠’的耐盐能力.%[Objective] The changes of cell structures and photosynthetic characteristics in leaves of three grapes, cultivars 'Cabernet Sauvignon'(Vitis vinifera L.), rootstock '5BB' (Vitis berlandieri × Vitis riparia), and scion/rootstock combinations 'Cabernet Sauvignon/5BB', were investigated under salt stress conditions to offer a theoretical basis and technique reference for selecting salt-tolerant genes in grapevine cultivars, rootstocks and scion/rootstock combinations. [Method] In a pot culture experiment, grapevine plants were treated with NaCl at 0 and

  1. Evaluation of Fermentation Efficiency of Yeast Strains and their Effect on Quality of Young Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, A. K.; Singh, Pranay Nath; S. D. Sawant

    2011-01-01

    The yeast has important role in fermentation of wine grapes and wine quality. The fermentation of wine grapes affect by efficiency of particular yeast strain, sugar content, pH, available temperature, etc. To evaluate the efficiency of yeast strains (Premier Cuvee, RS-1, RS-2, RS-3 and natural), present study was conducted on two wine grape varieties viz.; Sauvignon Blanc (White) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Red). Efficiency of yeast strains was evaluated in terms of conversion rate of sugar into ...

  2. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE LABORATORY SELECTED AND ACTIVE DRIED SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE YEAST CULTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE BRANDY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Samples from different industrial grape cultivars were collected during the vintage season from the vineyard of the winery (the «Shabo» winery Company, located in the Odesa region, Ukraine). The following industrial cultivars of grapes were selected for the research: Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon, Riesling Rhenish, Aligote, Rkatsiteli, Bastardo, Traminer, Telti Kuruk, Grinosh. The grape cultivars were cultivated on the sandy soils in the district located between the Black ...

  3. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of green cover crops on vine productivity and on grape and wine composition. For two growing seasons, evaluations were done for three intercrops, two managements of the cover crops, and for a control treatment with weeds controlled by herbicides and mowing. A vineyard of 'Cabernet Sauvignon', located at 1,130 m altitude in a Haplumbrept soil, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil was used. Intercropping was done with a succession of the cover crops moha

  4. The effect of linoleic acid on the Sauvignon blanc fermentation by different wine yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casu, Francesca; Pinu, Farhana R; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Greenwood, David R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2016-08-01

    The level of linoleic acid in the Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juice affects the development of different aroma compounds during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118, including key varietal thiols such as 3-mercaptohexanol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA). However, it is still unknown if linoleic acid would affect in a similar way other commonly used S. cerevisiae wine strains. Here we investigated the effect of grape juice linoleic acid on the development of aroma compounds and other metabolites of SB wines using different wine yeast strains: EC1118, AWRI796 and VIN13. Linoleic acid clearly affected the levels of acetylated aroma compounds, several amino acids, and antioxidant molecules, independent of yeast strain, but the production of 3MH was affected by linoleic acid in a strain-specific manner. Moreover, the supplementation of deuterium-labelled 3MH also affected the production of varietal thiols in a strain-specific way. Linoleic acid reduced the acetylation process probably by inhibiting an acetyltransferase, an effect that was independent of the yeast strain. However, regulation of the 3MH biosynthesis is strain-specific, which suggests a mindful consideration not only towards the wine yeast but also to the linoleic acid concentration in the grape juice in order to obtain the desired wine aroma characteristics. PMID:27364827

  5. Pre-fermentation fining effects on the aroma chemistry of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc press fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Katie J; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Bouda, Flo; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In the wine industry, fining agents are commonly used with many choices now commercially available. Here the influence of pre-fermentation fining on wine aroma chemistry has been explored. Free run and press fraction Sauvignon blanc juices from two vineyards were fined using gelatin, activated carbon, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and a combination agent which included bentonite, PVPP and isinglass. Over thirty aroma compounds were quantified in the experimental wines. Results showed that activated carbon fining led to a significant (p<0.05) concentration decrease of hexan-1-ol and linalool in the experimental wines when compared to a control, consistent across all vineyard and fraction combinations. Other aroma compounds were also influenced by fining agent, even if vineyards and press fractions played a crucial role. This study confirmed that fining agents used pre-fermentation can influence wine aroma profiles and therefore needs specific tailoring addressing style and origin of grape. PMID:27132857

  6. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  7. APOLLON – THE NEW WINE HIGH QUALITY GRAPE VARIETY WITH BLACK BERRY Aполлон – новый высококачественный универсальный черноягодный сорт винограда

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal black-berry Apollo grape has been launched in Greece by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and A.Isachkin in 2003 with combinative selection - crossing of the Fi-lery Greek variety with the French Cabernet-Sauvignon. The duration of the production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth of arms is strong (2,1-3,0 m, the degree of maturation of the vines is high. Crop yields are very high - 35-40 t/ha. The aver-age mass of clusters is 430 g. It is characterized by high winter hardiness, drought-resistance and high resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varie-ties of Vitis vinifera. The flower is bisexual. Cluster is big or very big, conical with the wing, loose. Berries are medium or large, oval, blue-black in color, with a thick wax coating. The skin is thick. The pulp and juice - with varietal flavor. Sugar content is high. Notable for long saving the harvest in the bushes, well-kept in the cooler cells. The variety is meant for the fresh consumption and for manufacture of red dry, desert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high-quality juices

  8. Exogenous application of pectin-derived oligosaccharides to grape berries modifies anthocyanin accumulation, composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Daniel; Handford, Michael; Alcalde, José Antonio; Perez-Donoso, Alonso

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites synthesized in grape berry skins via the phenylpropanoid pathway, with functions ranging from skin coloration to protection against pathogens or UV light. Accumulation of these compounds is highly variable depending on genetics, environmental factors and viticultural practices. Besides their biological functions, anthocyanins improve wine quality, as a high anthocyanin content in berries has a positive impact on the color, total phenolic concentration and, ultimately, the price of wine. The present work studies the effect of the pre-veraison application of pectin derived oligosaccharides (PDO) on the synthesis and accumulation of these compounds, and associates the changes observed with the expression of key genes in the phenylpropanoid pathways. To this end, pre-veraison Cabernet Sauvignon bunches were treated with PDO to subsequently determine total anthocyanin content, the anthocyanin profile (by HPLC-DAD) and gene expression (by qRT-PCR), using Ethrel and water treatments for comparison. The results show that PDO were as efficient as Ethrel in generating a significant rise in total anthocyanin content at 30 days after treatment (dat), compared with water treatments (1.32, 1.48 and 1.02 mg e.Mv-3G/g FW respectively) without any undesirable effect on berry size, soluble solids, tartaric acid concentration or pH. In addition, a significant alteration in the anthocyanin profile was observed. Specifically, a significant increase in the relative concentration of malvidin was observed for both PDO and Ethrel treatments, compared with water controls (52.8; 55.0 and 48.3%, respectively), with a significant rise in tri-hydroxylated forms and a fall in di-hydroxylated anthocyanins. The results of gene expression analyses suggest that the increment in total anthocyanin content is related to a short term increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) expression, mediated by a decrease in MYB4A expression. A longer term increase in UDP

  9. Study on Best Harvest Time of Merlot Grape From Manasi County in Xinjiang%新疆玛纳斯县梅鹿辄葡萄最佳采收期的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫寅斌; 唐虎利

    2011-01-01

    The thesis studied the maturity and the phenols of Cabernet Sauvignon Grape during the ripping process from Manasi county in Xinjiang,in 2008.The results showed that:firstly,during the ripping process,with the continuing increase of the sugar content and the continuing decrease of the acid content,sugar and acid ratio was increasing gradually.Daily average increment of the reducing sugar was 2.94g/L,and daily average reduction of the total acid was 0.24g/L.when reaching the harvest time,the ratio of the Fructose and the Glucose content in grape is 0.8592,but the ratio of the Tartaric acid and the Malic acid content in grape is 1.1.Secondly,during the ripping process,the contents of total Phenols and the Tannin in grape juice was decreasing gradually,and daily average reductions were 0.118g/kg and 0.101g/kg respectively.However,the content of total Anthocyan in grape skin was increasing gradually,and daily average increment of it was 0.061g/kg.Thirdly,in order to get high quality dry wine,September 3 was the harvest time for Merlot Grape,the grape maturity was 31.2,the contents of total Phenols and the Tannin in grape juice and the content of total Anthocyan in grape skin were 0.553g/ kg,0.678g/ kg and 2.670g/kg respectively.%对新疆玛纳斯县2008年的梅鹿辄葡萄在成熟过程中进行成熟度、酚类物质等的研究。结果表明:1、在葡萄成熟过程中,随葡萄含糖量不断增加,含酸量不断减少,糖酸比逐渐增大。还原糖日均增量为2.94g/L,总酸日均减量为0.24g/L。达最佳采收时,葡萄中果糖与葡萄糖含量之比为0.8592,而酒石酸与苹果酸含量之比为1.1;2、在葡萄成熟过程中,葡萄汁中总酚和单宁含量逐渐减少,日均减量分别为0.118g/kg、0.101g/kg,而葡萄皮中总花色素苷含量逐渐增加,日均增量0.061g/kg;3、确定酿造优质干红葡萄酒时,梅鹿辄葡萄的最佳采收期为9月3日,葡萄成熟度31.2,葡萄汁中总酚、单

  10. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  11. Nitrogen catabolite repression modulates the production of aromatic thiols characteristic of Sauvignon Blanc at the level of precursor transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subileau, Maeva; Schneider, Rémy; Salmon, Jean-Michel; Degryse, Eric

    2008-08-01

    The free thiols 3-mercapto-hexanol (3MH) and its acetate, practically absent from musts, are liberated by yeast during fermentation from a cysteinylated precursor [S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-l-cysteine (Cys-3MH)] present in the grape must and contribute favorably to the flavor of Sauvignon white wines. Production of 3MH is increased when urea is substituted for diammonium phosphate (DAP) as the sole nitrogen source on a synthetic medium. On grape must, complementation with DAP induces a decrease of 3MH production. This observation is reminiscent of nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). The production of 3MH is significantly lower for a gap1Delta mutant compared with the wild type, during fermentation of a synthetic medium containing Cys-3MH as the precursor and urea as the sole nitrogen source. Mutants isolated from an enological strain with a relief of NCR on GAP1 produce significantly higher amounts of 3MH on synthetic medium than the parental strain. These phenotypes were not confirmed on grape must. It is concluded that on synthetic medium, Cys-3MH enters the cell through at least one identified transporter, GAP1p, whose activity is limiting the release of volatile thiols. On grape must, the uptake of the precursor through GAP1p is not confirmed, but the effect of addition of DAP, eventually prolonging NCR, is shown to decrease thiol production. PMID:18549408

  12. Complete genome sequence analysis of an American isolate of Grapevine virus E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence of an isolate of Grapevine virus E (GVE) collected from a red-berried wine grape cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) in Washington State was determined. The 7,568 nt long genome of GVE is similar in size and sequence identity with a GVE isolate from a wine grape cv. Shiraz fro...

  13. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

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    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  14. Evolution of the localisation and composition of phenolics in grape skin between veraison and maturity in relation to water availability and some climatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cadot, Yves; Chevalier, Michel; Barbeau, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have investigated the composition of phenolics in grape skin during grape maturation under various conditions of light exposure, water stress, nitrogen supply and mineral nutrition, but their localisation during berry development is not well known. In this study the composition and localisation of proanthocyanidins were monitored for three years on four plots known to induce a distinctive behaviour of the vine (Cabernet Franc). The composition of phenolics was dete...

  15. 基于香气成分含量对酿酒红葡萄品种的分类研究%Classification of the Red Wine Grapes Based on the Content of Aroma Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯力璇; 张京芳; 徐洪宇

    2012-01-01

    The aroma components in 26 different kinds of wine grape and the content of the important component part were identified by the headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry. This paper discussed the classification of wine grape according to the contents of aroma compounds with the cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results showed that; (1)49 kinds of aroma compositions were detected in 26 different kinds of wine grapes and were divided into 6 types, C6-al-cohols and aldehydes, alcohols (except C6-alcohols) , esters,aldehydes (except the C6-aldehydes) and ke-tones,terpenes,organic acids. (2)The results of clustering analysis showed that 26 different kinds of wine grape were classified into three categories. Among them,the first kind of wine grapes included 11 varieties, such as cabernet sauvignon. C6-alcohols and aldehydes compounds were major properties in the first category,and its total content up to 66. 4%. The second kind of wine grape includes 6 varieties, such as ruby cabernet. The contents of C6-alcohols and aldehydes and alcohols (except C6-alcohols) reached to 40. 73% and 30. 21% ,respectively. The third kind of wine grape included 9 varieties, such as merlot. The content of esters was the supreme aroma components in the third class and it account for 71. 06% of the total aroma components. And the organic acids was the lowest part in the three categories (0. 18% ,0. 08% and 0. 005% respectively). (3)The results of principal component analysis showed that the first six main components could represent its original information of variables in the first class of wine grape and the first four main components could represent their original information of variables in both the second and third classes of grape. (4)Based on the known aroma compounds,a discrimination model was established for assessing and ranking wine grape by discriminante analysis, and the accuracy of the model was 85.7%. This research showed

  16. Grape Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  17. Quantificação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato no processamento e conservação de vinhos de uvas viníferas e híbridas Quantification of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the processing and conservation of wines made of winegrapes and hybrid grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Maria Pesamosca Facco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os folatos compõem uma classe de vitaminas redescoberta nas últimas décadas pela sua importante associação com diversas funções, nos vários processos metabólicos no organismo humano. As principais fontes descritas na literatura são os vegetais, os cereais e as leveduras. Objetivou-se quantificar o 5-metiltetrahidrofolato (5-metilTFH em vinhos durante o processamento e conservação. Foram coletadas amostras de vinhos tintos das variedades viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot e Pinot noir, e das não viníferas Isabel (tinta e Niágara (branca na colheita, no final da fermentação alcoólica, e maloláctica e seguindo-se aos 4, 7, 12 e 24 meses de conservação a partir do início da fermentação. A técnica de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE foi utilizada para a separação, identificação e quantificação. Os resultados mostraram que os níveis de 5-metil-THF aumentaram consideravelmente durante a fermentação alcoólica e continuaram aumentando até o término da fermentação maloláctica. Os níveis mantiveram-se estáveis durante um período de 3 a 6 meses para o vinho branco e de 1 a 2 anos para os vinhos tintos, dependendo da variedade. Os vinhos tintos de viníferas se mostraram uma boa fonte de 5-metilTHF.Folates are a class of vitamins that have been rediscovered in recent decades because of their association with various metabolic processes in the human organism. The main sources of folates described the scientific literature are vegetables, cereals and yeasts. The purpose of this study was to quantify 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF in wines during wine production and aging. Red wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Pinot Noir wine grape varieties, and from Isabel (red and Niagara (white non-wine grape varieties were analyzed. The samples were analyzed at the beginning of fermentation, at the end of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, and periodically at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months of

  18. Wine Grapes at the Eastern Foot of Helan Mountain of Ningxia Experimental Study on Integration of Water and Fertilizer of Drip Irrigation%宁夏贺兰山东麓酿酒葡萄滴灌水肥一体化试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洁; 刘学军; 陆立国; 顾靖超; 武慧芳

    2016-01-01

    在宁夏贺兰山东麓葡萄种植基地,以5年生赤霞珠酿酒葡萄为供试材料,布置田间试验,针对葡萄需水需肥规律开展滴灌水肥一体化研究,分析不同灌溉定额及不同施肥量对葡萄产量和品质的影响,确定砾石土壤条件下酿酒葡萄灌溉制度。试验结果表明:随着灌溉定额增加可提高葡萄产量,当灌溉定额为3825 m3/hm2时,产量最大,但超过一定限度后,随灌溉定额增加产量出现下降趋势;增加施肥量在一定程度内可提升葡萄产量。不同施肥量、灌溉定额对单宁影响显著,变异系数分别为25.08及54.03,其他品质指标受其影响不显著,且灌溉定额对品质影响明显大于施肥量影响。减小灌溉定额可在一定范围内提高可溶性固形物含量,减小施肥量能显著降低滴定酸含量,单宁含量增加明显,有利于改善葡萄品质。%In eastern Ningxia Helan grape planting base,with 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon wine grape for the test material,layout-ed field experiment,then carried out the research on drip and integration of water and fertilizer with irrigation fertilizer requirement regularity of grape water demand,and analysised the different irrigation quota and the effect of different fertilizer on the yield and quality of grape,finally determined the wine grapes of the gravel soil irrigation system.Test results showed that with the increasing irrigation quotas can improve grape yields,when the irrigation quotas was 3 825 m3/hm2 ,the production reached a maximum,but beyond a certain limit,as irrigation increased the yield appeared a downward trend.Increased the amount of fertilizer applied to a certain extent could enhance the grape production.Effect of different fertilizer and irrigation quota on tannin significantly,variation coefficient was 25.08 and 54.03,the other quality indicators did not have a significant effect,qulity effect than fertilization and irriga-tion quota on impat

  19. 葡萄果实分支酸变位酶基因的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression of gene encoding chorismate mutase in grape berries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨; 陈灵婧; 李小溪; 王军

    2014-01-01

    莽草酸途径是连接糖代谢和次生代谢的主要桥梁,分支酸变位酶(Chorismate Mutase,CM)是控制碳同化物由莽草酸途径进入苯丙烷代谢途径的入口酶,在葡萄果实酚类物质积累中起着重要作用。本研究以赤霞珠葡萄(Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon)果实为试材,采用电子克隆和分子克隆相结合技术,获得两个编码分支酸变位酶同源基因,分别命名为VvCM1和VvCM2。这两个基因分别定位于4号和14号染色体上,其编码区全长分别为741 bp和963 bp,编码蛋白含246和320个氨基酸。VvCM1和VvCM2与其他植物中的同类酶在氨基酸水平上具有广泛的同源性。Real-time PCR分析显示,VvCM1和VvCM2基因在葡萄的各器官和组织中均有表达,VvCM1在果实中表达丰度最高,而VvCM2在茎中表达丰度最高。%Shikimate pathway connects primary carbohydrate metabolism with the biosynthesis of most secondary metabolites in plants. Chorismate Mutase (CM) is an entry enzyme from shikimate pathway into phenylpropanoid metabolism, which plays an important role in the accumulation of phenolic compounds in grape berries. In the present study, two CM cDNAs were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) and designated as VvCM1 and VvCM2. The cDNAs of VvCM1 and VvCM2 contained open reading frames of 741 bp and 963 bp, which encoded a polypeptide of 246 and 320 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 27.06 kDa and 35.2 kDa, respectively. The DNA sequences corresponding to the two isogenes both contain four introns and located on the chromosome 4 and 14, respectively. The sequence homology comparison showed that VvCM1 and VvCM2 had high homology of the amino acid sequences with other plant CM from the GenBank. Analysis by Real time-PCR showed that VvCM1 and VvCM2 were expressed in all the tested tissues. The transcript abundance of VvCM1 was the highest in grape berries and VvCM2 had the highest

  20. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  1. 24-表油菜素内酯对农药处理下葡萄叶片光合特性和抗逆性的影响%Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on photosynthetic characteristics and resistance system in grape leaves after pesticide treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小琴; 惠竹梅; 张晖; 高江曼

    2015-01-01

    质和丙二醛的积累以及提高解毒酶活性以促进百菌清降解,从而缓解农药对植株的伤害。%This study was conducted to determine the influences of exogenous EBR (24-epibrassinolide ) on the photosynthetic characteristics ,antioxidant systems and pesticide degradation metabolism of wine grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon ,and to explore EBR-induced alleviation of pesticide damage to the vines and its role in reducing pesticide residue .Using wine grape variety Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L .) potted seedlings as the experimental material , effects of EBR on the photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics ,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters ,reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde contents ,antioxidant substances content ,detoxification enzyme activities and chlorothalonil residue in grape leaf were investigated .In comparison to the control ,0 .1 mg·L-1 EBR treatment alone could improve photosynthetic characteristics in grape leaf , and chlorothalonil treatment (600 times diluent ) had an inhibiting effect . Compared with the CHT treatment ,EBR+CHT treatment could improve leaf net photosynthetic rate ( Pn) ,stomatal con-ductance ( Gs ) ,as well as intercellular CO2 concentration ( Ci ) significantly ,and it could also increase photosynthetic system II (PSII) ,photochemical conversion rate ( Fv/Fm) ,actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient ( qP) significantly .Compared with the control ,chlorothalonil treatment could cause significant in-crease of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) ,superoxide anion (O ·2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA ) contents in grape leaf ,while EBR+CHT treatment made them decreased by 33 .4% ,15 .8% and 6% respectively compared with CHT treatment and also it made glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents increased by 5 .6% and 18 .2% on average .Exoge-nous 0 .1 mg·L-1 EBR treatment alone and CHT treatment could both enhance activities of peroxidase (POD ) ,glu

  2. 甘肃河西走廊产区酿酒葡萄附生微生物区系分析%Epiphytic microflora of wine grapes in Hexi corridor of Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守一; 贠建民; 韩建平; 赵洪源; 邵晓庆

    2015-01-01

    Four cultivars ripen wine grapes,Cabernet Sauvignon,Cabernet franc,Cabernet Gernischt and Pinot noir,were chosen from three different production areas (Wuwei,Zhangye and Jiayuguan)in Hexi Corridor of Gansu in order to determine their epiphytic microbial flora and the microbe species.The results showed that the epiphytic microflora was composed of eleven strains of bacteria,ten strains of yeasts and fourteen strains of moulds.For the three production areas,the yeast colony count was the most,which reached 104 ~ 106cfu/g,the bacteria colony count reached 104 ~ 105 cfu/g,and the mould colony count reached 102~104 cfu/g.The original had a significant effect on the epiphytic microbial colony count,inclu-ding yeast,mould and bacteria,but the cultivars had no significant effect on the epiphytic yeast,mould and bacteria colony count.The pathogens of berries were also isolated and identified as Botrytis cinerea ,Alter-naria alternata ,Penicillium spp.%以甘肃河西走廊具有代表性的3个产地(武威、张掖、嘉峪关)的4个品种(‘赤霞珠’‘品丽珠’‘蛇龙珠’‘黑比诺’)成熟期酿酒葡萄为研究对象,通过对葡萄浆果表面附生微生物的筛查、分离纯化与鉴定,分析葡萄附生微生物区系组成及其种群.结果显示:河西走廊产区酿酒葡萄附生菌相由11株细菌、10株酵母和14株霉菌组成.3个产地成熟期酿酒葡萄附生酵母菌的数量最大,达104~106 cfu/g,附生细菌数量为104~105 cfu/g,附生霉菌的数量为102~104 cfu/g.酵母、霉菌、细菌数量受地域因素影响显著,但受葡萄品种因素影响不显著,且分离鉴定出灰葡萄孢霉(Botrytis cinerea )、交链孢霉(Alternaria alternata )和青霉属(Penicillium spp.)等主要病害菌.研究结果可为原料采收后的前处理阶段开展有害微生物控制及评价原料耐贮性提供理论依据,并为酿造葡萄酒优良菌株选育提供种质资源.

  3. Accumulation Characteristics of Volatile Compounds in Wine Grape Berries Grown in High Altitude Regions of Yunnan%云南高原区酿酒葡萄果实香气物质的积累规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓帆; 高媛; 韩梅梅; 彭振雪; 潘秋红

    2014-01-01

    Objective] Aroma is an important factor determining the quality of wine grape berries and wines. Terrior greatly affects the composition and concentration of volatiles. Study on aroma accumulation of grape fruit of Yunnan plateau region will not only help uncover the formation mechanism of grape flavor under the high altitude climate, but also provide some guidelines for the production of high-quality grape berries. [Method] Grape berries (Vitisvinifera L. Cabernet sauvignon) were collected from Meilishi (located at about 2 300 m above sea level) and Shuiri (about 2 900 m) vineyards of Deqin County, Yunnan Province in 2010 and 2011 vintages. Free volatile compounds were extracted using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) method. The extraction of glycosidically-bound volatiles was followed by the separation using Cleanert PEP-SPE column, the hydrolysis of glycosidase AR2000 and the adsorption of HS-SPME. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed via the technology of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These volatiles were classified into three groups according to their biosynthetic pathways, including fatty acid-derived, amino acid-derived and isoprene-derived volatiles, and the effects of vintage and grape-growing region on the accumulation of the three groups of volatiles were assessed.[Result]The accumulation of soluble solid and variation of pH in grape berries were affected scarcely by vintages, either for Meilishi or Shuiri vineyards, but volatiles showed a great difference in the concentration between vintages. Compared with the 2010-vintage berries, regardless of the vineyard altitude, the berry samples of the year 2011 contained significantly higher concentrations of free-form straight-chain aliphatic alcohols, acids and esters that were produced from fatty acid metabolism, as well as norisoprenoids (free and glycosidically-bound) and free terpenes that were all generated from isoprene metabolism. As for amino acid

  4. INFLUENCE OF VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAPES AND THE NATURE OF ALCOHOL AGENT ON LIQUEUR WINE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dergunov A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies revealed that the application of spirits as a strength agent of 91.0 - 96.6% in special wines contained more vitamin-like substances than wine, alcoholized with double-distilled water with 75% alcohol concentration. The highest marks for tasting wines were given to the options made with the use of rectified grain origin alcohol as an agent of alcohol. Application of double-distilled water wine leads to accumulation of unnecessarily high undesirable groups of compounds such as methanol and fusel oil, thereby reducing the quality of the wine. Organoleptic parameters were the best for selection of wines from Anapa ZOSViV - Dionysus and Krasnostop EPA, as well as - Cabernet Sauvignon. We can conclude that for the production of high-quality red dessert wines we need, along with the classic varieties, wider use of new autochthonous varieties using alcohol agents of rectified grain origin

  5. From grape to wine: Changes in phenolic composition and its influence on antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Mariana S; Fabani, María P; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Baroni, María V

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their relationship with the antioxidant capacity (AC) of samples taken along the winemaking process of three Vitis vinifera L. cv., Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grown in Argentina were studied. Forty-five compounds were identified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS, while the AC was determined by FRAP, ABTS and DPPH assays. Results show that phenolic composition and AC vary along the winemaking process and between varieties. Multiple regression analysis showed a high correlation between phenolic composition and AC of samples, being anthocyanins the main family with significant contribution to AC. In addition, quantitative differences in specific phenolic compounds help to explain differences in AC observed between varieties. A high phenolic content and bioactivity still remain in pomaces which support its use as an inexpensive source of antioxidants. PMID:27132844

  6. Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Grant R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Berries of grape (Vitis vinifera contain three major tissue types (skin, pulp and seed all of which contribute to the aroma, color, and flavor characters of wine. The pericarp, which is composed of the exocarp (skin and mesocarp (pulp, not only functions to protect and feed the developing seed, but also to assist in the dispersal of the mature seed by avian and mammalian vectors. The skin provides volatile and nonvolatile aroma and color compounds, the pulp contributes organic acids and sugars, and the seeds provide condensed tannins, all of which are important to the formation of organoleptic characteristics of wine. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling tissue-specific mRNA expression patterns, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on each tissue of mature berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0. In order to monitor the influence of water-deficit stress on tissue-specific expression patterns, mRNA expression profiles were also compared from mature berries harvested from vines subjected to well-watered or water-deficit conditions. Results Overall, berry tissues were found to express approximately 76% of genes represented on the Vitis microarray. Approximately 60% of these genes exhibited significant differential expression in one or more of the three major tissue types with more than 28% of genes showing pronounced (2-fold or greater differences in mRNA expression. The largest difference in tissue-specific expression was observed between the seed and pulp/skin. Exocarp tissue, which is involved in pathogen defense and pigment production, showed higher mRNA abundance relative to other berry tissues for genes involved with flavonoid biosynthesis, pathogen resistance, and cell wall modification. Mesocarp tissue, which is considered a nutritive tissue, exhibited a higher mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell

  7. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Manfroi

    2006-06-01

    , glycerol 9,3 g L-1, proline 669 mg L-1, anthocyanins 330 mg L-1, tannins 1.19 g L-1, color intensity 0.286, K 1,078 mg L-1, methanol 101.7 mg L-1, and summ of higher alcohols 450 mg L-1. The results found in the analysed wines showed similar results to parameters previously determined in Cabernet Franc wine from the same region elaborated from grapes cultivated in the pergola system. This makes evident that grapevines conducted in the lyre system are an alternative to produce quality red wine in the Serra Gaúcha region.

  8. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  9. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  10. Quantificação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato no processamento e conservação de vinhos de uvas viníferas e híbridas Quantification of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the processing and conservation of wines made of winegrapes and hybrid grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizete Maria Pesamosca Facco; Aline de Oliveira Fogaça; Carlos Eugenio Daudt; Helena Teixeira Godoy

    2007-01-01

    Os folatos compõem uma classe de vitaminas redescoberta nas últimas décadas pela sua importante associação com diversas funções, nos vários processos metabólicos no organismo humano. As principais fontes descritas na literatura são os vegetais, os cereais e as leveduras. Objetivou-se quantificar o 5-metiltetrahidrofolato (5-metilTFH) em vinhos durante o processamento e conservação. Foram coletadas amostras de vinhos tintos das variedades viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot e Pinot noir, e da...

  11. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  12. Técnicas enológicas de frío y enzimáticas aplicadas a la extractabilidad de Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon y Monastrell.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Pérez, Ana Adoración

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue aplicar diferentes técnicas enológicas para optimizar la extractabilidad de compuestos fenólicos y aromáticos, evaluando su influencia sobre la calidad de vinos tintos jóvenes. Objetivos parciales:  Aplicar técnicas prefermentativas a baja temperatura (maceración en frío, congelación del mosto con nieve carbónica y congelación de las uvas) y técnicas de maceración con enzimas (enzima comercial y enzima natural β-galactosidasa) en la vinificación de Syr...

  13. Efectos del déficit hídrico en el color de la baya y del vino, en la variedad de uva Cabernet sauvignon. Madrid.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Olga; Rodríguez Fernández, Lucía; Peiro Gangoso, Emilio; García García, Elisa; Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Existe una preocupación por las consecuencias que puede ocasionar a la viticultura el cambio climático, especialmente en zonas cálidas y secas. Estos cambios podrían tener importantes consecuencias tanto en la calidad de la uva como en el potencial de sus vinos. El objetivo del ensayo fue evaluar los efectos del déficit hídrico en el color de los vinos, ya que hoy en día resulta de carácter obligatorio mantener su intensidad y calidad constante, frente a la percepción del consumidor frente...

  14. Efectos de las diferentes estrategias de riego en la composición del vino y su perfil sensorial (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Cabernet sauvignon)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Olga; Baeza Trujillo, Pilar; Junquera González, Pedro; Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    La preocupación por las consecuencias que puede ocasionar a la viticultura el cambio climático, se ven reflejadas en muchos de los estudios que existen en los últimos años. En las actuales zonas de producción, estos cambios podrían tener importantes consecuencias, tanto en la calidad de la uva como en su potencial productivo. El objetivo marcado en este ensayo, consistió en evaluar como el déficit hídrico en climas secos afectó a la calidad y composición de sus vinos. El diseño experimental s...

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF GRAPE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Tagirova P. R.

    2014-01-01

    Technological methods of grape and derived semi-products processing are considered in the article. Husks, seeds and cuticle of grape are the important source of BAS due the high content of essential substances. Salt of tartaric acid, CO2 – extracts, grape oil, resveratol, vegetative flour are produced from the grape husks

  16. Anaerobic digestion of grape pomace: Biochemical characterization of the fractions and methane production in batch and continuous digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Jean H; Lendormi, Thomas; Hobaika, Zeina; Salameh, Dominique; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G; Lanoisellé, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have estimated the biogas and methane production from grape pomace (variety Cabernet Franc). The physical and chemical characteristics of the raw material were determined, and the structural polysaccharides were identified and analyzed by the Van Soest method. Batch anaerobic digestions were carried out to assess the methane production of the grape pomace, pulp and seeds. The obtained cumulative methane productions are 0.125, 0.165 and 0.052 Nm(3) kg COD(-1) for grape pomace, pulps and seeds, respectively. The effect of grinding on the methane potential of the substrates, as a mechanical pretreatment, was evaluated. We found that it increased the anaerobic biodegradability for grape pomace, pulp and seeds by 13.1%, 4.8% and 22.2%, respectively. On the other hand, the methane potential of the grape pomace was determined in a laboratory pilot plant (12L) continuously mixed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The corresponding biogas production was 6.43 × 10(-3) Nm(3) d(-1), with a methane content of 62.3%. Thus, the pilot plant's efficiency compared to that achieved in the batch process was 81.2%. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the biochemical content and methane production.

  17. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qing Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer” with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  18. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in strawberry and grape

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli; Aline Bertin; Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom; Marcos Botton

    2012-01-01

    A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas), em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas') e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'). A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16...

  19. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca) oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, D. S.; Menezes, M.; G. Gonçalves; Mukai, H.; Lenzi, E. K.; N. C. PEREIRA; Fernandes, P. R. G.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet) and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo) are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry result...

  20. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  1. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  2. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables.

  3. Accumulation of Flavanols, Expression of Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase Induced by UV-C Irradiation During Grape Berry Development%UV-C对葡萄果实发育过程中黄烷醇类多酚积累及隐色花色素还原酶表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 邢延富; 牛铁泉; 高美英; 牛兴艳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The effect of ultraviolet C on the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry during its development was studied. [Method] The 5-year old grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) was subjected to the regular UV-C irradiation during berry development, and the accumulation of flavanols, the enzyme activity of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), the transcriptional level and translation level of Vv larl and larl were determined by spectrophotometer, real time PCR, and Western Blot. [Result] The accumulation pattern of flavanols in grape berry during its development was not changed, whereas the accumulation of flavanols was promoted by UV-C irradiation, especially in the young berry. In addition, the activity of LAR, the key enzyme in the flavanols biosynthetic pathway, was induced by the UV-C irradiation. The synthesis of LAR1 and LAR2 new protein and the accumulation of Vv larl and larl mRNA induced by UV-C irradiation were also observed. [Conclusion] Results of the study indicated that the UV-C irradiation could induce the transcription of Vv larl and Vv larl, the synthesis of LAR1 and LAR2 new protein, the increase of LAR activity, and resulted in the accumulation of flavanols in berry.%[目的]阐明葡萄果实发育过程中,植株接受UV-C照射对果实中黄烷醇类多酚积累的作用.[方法]以5年生赤霞珠葡萄为试材,定期对植株进行UV-C照射,分别采用分光光度计法、Western Blot和Real time PCR法对黄烷醇类多酚积累及其生物合成关键酶bAR表达进行分析,从底物、酶活性、蛋白质含量及基因转录水平阐明UV-C对Vv lar1、lar2基因表达的影响.[结果]葡萄果实发育过程中,UV-C照射并未改变果实中黄烷醇类多酚的积累规律,但诱导黄烷醇类多酚积累,特别是在幼果期,UV-C照射明显诱导果实中黄烷醇类多酚的积累.UV-C照射诱导葡萄果实LAR酶活性升高,LAR1、LAR2蛋白含量增加,Vv lar1、Vv lar2转录增强

  4. Perception of mineral character in Sauvignon blanc wine: inter-individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Veronica Parr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the descriptors employed to characterize wine organoleptically, minerality is arguably one of the most enigmatic. The aim of the work described in this article was to delineate the nature of perceived minerality in Sauvignon wine, specifically its sensorial reality for experienced wine professionals from France and New Zealand. Participants evaluated 16 Sauvignon blanc wines (8 French; 8 New Zealand under three conditions, ortho-nasal olfaction, palate only (Nose-clip condition, and by full tasting (global perception. Data from the global condition only are reported here. Key results include: i that although there were quantitative differences in perception of minerality as a function of culture, there was substantial agreement conceptually between French and New Zealand participants in terms of the sensorial experience of minerality; and ii that perceived minerality associated significantly with other key wine descriptors, notably presence of citrus, stone-related characters (e.g., flinty or chalky/calcareous notes, and reductive notes, along with absence of Sauvignon varietal characteristics (passion fruit; green notes. Of particular interest, no significant, direct association was found between perceived sourness/acidity and minerality judgments for either culture.

  5. GRAPE-6A: A single-card GRAPE-6 for parallel PC-GRAPE cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushige, T; Kawai, A; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Kawai, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of GRAPE-6A, a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations. It was designed to be used with a PC cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE-6A. Such configuration is particularly effective in running parallel tree algorithm. Though the use of parallel tree algorithm was possible with the original GRAPE-6 hardware, it was not very cost-effective since a single GRAPE-6 board was still too fast and too expensive. Therefore, we designed GRAPE-6A as a single PCI card to minimize the reproduction cost and optimize the computing speed. The peak performance is 130 Gflops for one GRAPE-6A board and 3.1 Tflops for our 24 node cluster. We describe the implementation of the tree, TreePM and individual timestep algorithms on both a single GRAPE-6A system and GRAPE-6A cluster. Using the tree algorithm on our 16-node GRAPE-6A system, we can complete a collisionless simulation with 100 million particles (8000 steps) within 10 days.

  6. GRAPE-6A: A single-card GRAPE-6 for parallel PC-GRAPE cluster system

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Kawai, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and performance of GRAPE-6A, a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations. It was designed to be used with a PC cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE-6A. Such configuration is particularly effective in running parallel tree algorithm. Though the use of parallel tree algorithm was possible with the original GRAPE-6 hardware, it was not very cost-effective since a single GRAPE-6 board was still too fast and too expensive. Therefore...

  7. 7 CFR 925.4 - Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grapes. 925.4 Section 925.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.4 Grapes. Grapes means any variety of vinifera species table...

  8. 基于酚类物质的酿酒红葡萄品种特性分析%Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Red Grape Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 王晓宇; 田呈瑞; 赵旗峰; 马小河; 唐晓萍; 马婷婷; 马锦锦

    2015-01-01

    conical. There was a significant difference between the proportion of grape peels, seeds and pulps. The ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ with a higher quality was the first cultivar in China, its proportion of peels and seeds were the highest and reached 31.3%;whereas the proportion of peels and seeds of ‘Cabernet Gernischet’ was lower, only 10.62%, meanwhile the wine fermented by‘Cabernet Gernischet’ had a lower content of polyphenols and a supple texture. Titratable acid content of 20 varieties of grapes was 3.97-9.00 g·L-1 and the content of soluble solid was 14.5-25.4 g·L-1. Different grape varieties and different parts of the grape fruit (skin, seed and pulp) were significantly different in the polyphenols content. TPC (total phenolic content) of grape peel was 12-125 mg·100g-1FW (fruit fresh weight), TFA (total flavanol content) was 1-27 mg·100g-1FW; TPC of grape seed was 17-456 mg·100g-1 FW, TFA was 22-505 mg·100g-1FW, TPC of grape pulps was 1.24-3.24 mg·100g-1FW, that TPC in grape seed was 3-4 times of grape peel, TFA in the seed was 10 times more than the peel. Anthocyanin mainly existed in grape peels and the content of anthocyanin of grape peels was 1-34 mg·100g-1FW. Among the 20 varieties of grape, ‘Cabernet sauvignon’ exhibited the highest anthocyanin content, which was followed by ‘Ruby cabernet’, ‘Marselan’ and ‘Cabernet gernischet’. The grape cultivars such as ‘Marselan’ and ‘Cabernet sauvignon’ had higher phenolic compounds, meanwhile the grape cultivars such as ‘Cabernet gernischet’, ‘Heihuxiang’ and ‘Cinsaut cehco’ had lower phenols content. The content of phenolic compounds in different parts of various grapes was significantly different. The order was that grape seeds was the highest, followed by the grape skins, and the pulp was the lowest. The phenolic compounds content in pulp was much lower than that in skins and seeds, and pulp mainly contained phenolic acids. A total of 12 kinds of monomeric phenols in

  9. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  10. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  11. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  12. ONTARIO GRAPE PRODUCTION ECONOMIC IMPACT

    OpenAIRE

    Grier, Kevin; Martin, Larry J.; Stiefelmeyer, Kate

    2000-01-01

    This report was undertaken in order to measure the economic impacts of the grape industry on the Ontario economy and the impacts of maintaining the Wine Content Act at the 30% level. It will also provide an estimate of the benefits to grape growers and Ontario of increasing the requirements of the Wine Content Act to 75%. Specifically, the objectives are: 1. To determine the current contribution of the processing grape industry to the economy of Ontario. 2. To estimate the economic effects of...

  13. Effect of Soil Drought on Accumulation of Total Phenol in Different Parts of Grape Berry during Development%土壤干旱对葡萄果实发育过程中酚类物质时空积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 高瑞娟; 杨运良; 牛兴艳; 郜志栋; 冀铮春

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon') berry was used as materials,and the effect of soil drought on the spatial and temporal accumulation of total phenol in different parts of beery during development was studied.The high content of total phenol was found in the seed of young berry and stem of mature berry,respectively,indicating that no obvious effect of soil drought on the spatial accumulation pattern of total phenol.During development of grape berry,the content of total phenol in skin,flesh,and seed decreased,but an increased accumulation induced by soil drought was observed.Compared to CK Ⅰ,the content of total phenol in stem,skin,flesh,and seed respectively increased by 8.1 %,7.1%,8.9 %,and 8.1% in the young fruit stage (30 days after full bloom),and the parameters respectively increased by 6.3 %,8.0 %,19.0 %,and 7.0 % compared to CK Ⅱ.Meanwhile,the content of total phenol respectively increased by 6.8%,14.4%,46.1%,and -10.0 % compared to CK Ⅰ in stem,skin,flesh,and seed of mature berry,and respectively increased by 10.5%,33.8%,86.6%,and 28.7% compared to CKⅡ.The results suggested that soil drought could not change the temporal and spatial accumulation of total phenol,but could promote the accumulation of total phenol in different development stages,especially in mature stage.%以酿酒葡萄品种赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’)果实为试材,研究了葡萄果实发育过程中土壤干旱对果肉、果皮、种子和果梗中总酚时空积累的影响.结果表明,幼果期(花后30 d)种子中总酚含量最高,而成熟期(花后110 d)则果梗中含量最高,且土壤干旱(土壤相对含水量为田间最大持水量的60%±5%)对总酚的空间积累无明显影响.果实发育过程中,果皮、果肉和种子中总酚含量呈持续下降趋势,但土壤干旱导致幼果期果梗、果皮、果肉和种子中总酚含量分别比CKⅠ(不控制灌

  14. Effects of different soil textures on wine quality of Cabernet Gernischt%土壤质地对蛇龙珠葡萄酿酒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏安; 李记明; 姜文广; 高敏; 梁海忠

    2013-01-01

    With Cabernet Gernischt from Yantai region as the materials, the effects of four different soil textures, including sand, loam, clay loam and clay, on the wine quality were investigated. The physical-chemical parameters, color, phenols content, and sensory quality were evaluated and systematically compared. The results showed that the soil texture had significant effect on the berry and wine quality, and the grape in sandy loam had the better wine-making quality. Compared with clay loam and clay soils, the grape in vineyard of sand and loam soils had smaller berry size, looser cluster and its corresponding wine presented better color and sensory quality.%  以蛇龙珠葡萄为试材,分别选定了烟台地区砂土、壤土、粘壤土和粘土4种典型土壤质地进行研究,分析比较了4种土壤质地所产蛇龙珠葡萄的酿酒品质的差异。结果表明,土壤质地对蛇龙珠葡萄果实和葡萄酒品质影响较大,含砂石的壤土条件下葡萄酿酒品质较佳。砂土、壤土与粘壤土、粘土相比,生产出的蛇龙珠葡萄果实小,果穗疏松,酿出的葡萄酒酚类物质含量高,颜色深,感官品质较好。

  15. Relationship between sugar accumulation and sugar metabolism related enzyme's during Cabernet Sauvignon berries development%赤霞珠葡萄果实糖积累与糖代谢相关酶的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利梅; 王秀芹; 杨培培; 黄卫东; 战吉宬

    2011-01-01

    以赤霞珠葡萄果实为试材,在花后20~110 d.(每隔10d取样一次),测定和分析果实生长发育过程中糖分(葡萄糖、果糖、蔗糖)积累的动态变化,以及不同时期果实己糖激酶(HXK)、细胞壁酸性转化酶(CWlNV)和蔗糖合酶(SuSy)活性变化趋势.结果表明,赤霞珠葡萄果实整个发育过程中主要以积累葡萄搪和果糖为主,蔗糖含量极微;HXK活性与葡萄搪、果糖呈相反的变化趋势;葡萄糖和果糖含量低时,CWINV和SuSy的活性开始上升;反之,CWINV和SuSy的活性降低.相关性分析表明,蔗糖含量与葡萄糖、果糖含量显著相关,葡萄糖和果糖含量与CWINV和SuSy活性负相关.

  16. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon. Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m. The percentage of productive shoots is more than 90. The yield is very high: 25-30 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 250 g. It can be characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite. Cluster is medium, conical, sometimes with wings, medium density. Berry is small, round, blue-black color with a thick waxy coating. The skin is medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice are intensely colored. Very high sugar content. Variety is intended for the production of intensely colored dry red wines of excellent class, as well as high-quality sparkling wines, dessert, sweet and liqueur wines; suitable for the manufacture of high-quality strong colored juices. When used in blends with other varieties enhances color, full flavor and enhances the bouquet of the wine

  17. The natural product content of the selected Cabernet Franc wine samples originating from Serbia: a case study of phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejin, Boris; Stanimirovic, Bojana; Vujovic, Dragan; Popovic Djordjevic, Jelena; Velickovic, Milovan; Tesevic, Vele

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the content of selected phenolic natural products in the wine samples made of three new Serbian Cabernet Franc clones (Nos. 02, 010 and 012, respectively) and mother vine (used as the relevant standard) during the period 2008-2012. Compared with all other wine samples, the Cabernet Franc wine of the clone No. 010 was found to have the highest total content of polyphenolics (1.85 ± 0.02 g/L) and anthocyanins (178.55 ± 3.75 mg/L). In addition, its Folin-Ciocalteu index (36.86 ± 0.12) stood out among the examined samples. Finally, the same wine was enriched with ellagic and gallic acids (3.44 ± 0.29 and 27.46 ± 0.21 mg/L, respectively), catechin (135.16 ± 6.47 mg/L) and epicatechin (51.33 ± 2.33 mg/L), the natural products known to exert significant lipid-lowering effects. Taken all together, the clone No. 010 developed in Serbia may offer new Cabernet Franc wine with geographical indication. PMID:26766130

  18. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics with GRAPE and Parallel Virtual Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Nakasato, Naohito; Mori, Masao; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    1997-01-01

    We have developed Remote-GRAPE, a subroutine library to use the special purpose computer GRAPE-3A. The GRAPE-3A can efficiently calculate gravitational force between particles, and construct neighbor lists. All other calculations are performed on the host workstation (WS) which is directly connected to GRAPE. The use of GRAPE for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (GRAPE-SPH) can in principle greatly speed up the calculations on WS. However the current bottleneck of GRAPE-SPH is that its perform...

  19. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  20. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Tančinová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Zuzana Mašková; Soňa Felšöciová; Miroslava Císarová

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine) on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal ...

  1. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  2. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  3. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Zoran S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portions. Linear regression was used for calculation of the correlation between blue pixels and grape weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels and grape weight (R2=0.91 was obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend this simple technique for yield forecasting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP31063

  4. Investigation of the impact of grape cultivars on the grape brandies quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković Vesna; Palić Radosav; Živković Jelena; Mošić Ivana; Stanković Snežana; Stojanović Gordana

    2004-01-01

    The results of the four-year investigation of the grape cultivars impact of the first Yugoslav interspecies hybrids Lucija and Mediana on the grape brandies quality are presented. The experiment was carried out with reference to the standard grape cultivars Smederevka intended for production of grape brandies. Investigation covered a procedure for establishing parameters, which determine the quality of strong alcoholic beverages and organoleptic rating. Higher presence of methanol with refere...

  5. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Manfroi; Alberto Miele; Luiz A. Rizzon; Carlos I.N. Barradas

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta durante o ciclo vegetativo de 1995/1996. O experimento foi realizado em oito vinhedos localizados nos municípios de Bento Gonçalves e Monte Belo do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação, com duas repetições para cada vinhedo, os quais foram analisados por processos físico-químicos, espectrofotometria...

  6. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Kequan Zhou; Raffoul, Julian J.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera), one of the world's largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid ...

  7. The PCI Interface for GRAPE Systems: PCI-HIB

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, A.; Fukushige, T.; Taiji, M.; Makino, J.; Sugimoto, D.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a PCI interface for GRAPE systems. GRAPE(GRAvity piPE) is a special-purpose computer for gravitational N-body simulations. A GRAPE system consists of GRAPE processor boards and a host computer. GRAPE processors perform the calculation of gravitational forces between particles. The host computer performs the rest of calculations. The newest of GRAPE machines, the GRAPE-4, achieved the peak performance of 1.08 Tflops. The GRAPE-4 system uses TURBOChannel for the interface to the ho...

  8. 葡萄中碳黑曲霉的分离及其产生赭曲霉毒素A的研究%Study on the isolation ofAspergillus carbonarius and ochratoxin A production from wine grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何云龙; 梁志宏; 许文涛; 黄昆仑; 罗云波

    2009-01-01

    碳黑曲霉(Aspergillus carbonarius)是葡萄中产生赭曲霉毒素A(Ochratoxin A,OTA)的重要菌株.采集烟台赤霞珠(Cabernet sauvignon)葡萄,接种于孟加拉红培养基,从中分离到7株黑曲霉群(Aspergillus section black group)真菌,其中3株鉴定属于碳黑曲霉种,占黑色曲霉的43.8%.此3菌株分别接种在粮粒培养基上,静置培养,全部产生OTA,最高浓度达到1300μg/kg,而且,其中2株碳黑曲霉菌株在可可浆培养基上产生荧光,而从葡萄样品中未检出OTA.

  9. 酿酒葡萄加工废弃物中多酚含量和抗氧化性的分析%The Content & Antioxidant Activities of Polyphenol Extracted from Wine Grape Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浡; 李双石; 兰蓉; 王晓杰; 陈思

    2016-01-01

    The content and antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from Cabernet Sauvignon processing waste (skin, seeds, stems) by dif-ferent methods were analyzed. The results showed that, the content of polyphenol by organic solvent extraction was higher than that by other ex-traction methods, and the content of polyphenol from stems was higher than that from skin and seeds and its antioxidant activities were stronger accordingly.%通过对不同提取方法提取的酿酒葡萄赤霞珠加工废弃物(皮、籽、梗)的多酚含量进行测定,并分析提取多酚抗氧化性。结果表明,有机溶剂提取法提取含量高于其他方法的提取量。葡萄梗中总酚的含量相对高于葡萄皮与葡萄籽,并具有良好的抗氧化性。

  10. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  11. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  12. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  13. Climate signatures of grape harvest dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krieger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape harvest dates have been recorded in many European locations for several centuries, and potentially contain important information about past climate. In this study, we systematically analyse the relationship of grape harvest dates recorded in the Burgundy region (France with different climate data sets in order to understand the connection between climatic conditions and the time of harvest. The results point to a primary dependence of the grape harvest on the temperature from April to August. The strength of this connection depends on the winter to summer temperature relationship and increases over the last 100 years. The grape harvest date is also related to the winter temperature. This connection is non-stationary on interannual, but stable on decadal-to-multidecadal time scales. Therefore, the grape harvest date can be used for independent reconstructions of local April-to-August temperature on interannual time scales as well as remote winter temperature on decadal-to-multidecadal time scales.

  14. Relation between Grape Wine Quality and Related Physicochemical Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-Yue Chen; Yuan-Biao Zhang; Qiu-Ye Qian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate grape wine quality more objectively by reducing the error of traditional grape-wine-quality evaluation. On combining grape wine quality and physicochemical index of grapevine, we provided a grape-wine-quality evaluation model by grapevine’s physicochemical index in this study. Firstly, evaluations of the tasters are analyzed, for eliminating the disturbance caused by their individual difference. Then, relationship between grape wine and grapevines are anal...

  15. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  16. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine. PMID:10227191

  17. Differential absorption of metals from soil to diverse vine varieties from the Valley of Tulum (Argentina): consequences to evaluate wine provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabani, María P; Toro, María E; Vázquez, Fabio; Díaz, María P; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2009-08-26

    We report the effect of vine variety on the absorption of metals from soil and follow the variety from wine through juice, verifying which metals could be used to assess wine provenance. Eleven metals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 32 soils, 16 grapes juices, and 18 wines sampled from a single vineyard having four red grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Bonarda, Malbec, and Syrah). The K nearest neighbor method allows us to distinguish among different soils, juices, and wines. Linear discriminant analysis affords descriptors to point out differences, mainly Mg, Mn, Ca, K, and Na. Data analysis evidenced that some elements have equivalent concentrations in soil, juice, and wine, while others did not. Canonical analysis shows good correlation between grape juice and wine with their provenance soil. We suggest using Mg as a marker of wine provenance, while Mn could be used to evaluate differences between wine varieties associated with plant physiology.

  18. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  19. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  20. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  1. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov A. I.; Mikhaylovskiy S. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't ...

  2. NEW VARIETIES AND FORMATIONS OF GRAPES ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov A. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the modern wine growing, for fighting against root phylloxera an inoculation of European-Asian grapes varieties on rootstocks steady against this wrecker is used. In this article we present the information about the types of rootstocks of domestic and foreign breeding used in the modern branch of wine growing. The area of their use is described; the useful properties of rootstocks and their demerits are highlighted. The purpose of this work is creating new grapes rootstocks which wouldn't have the merits of existing rootstocks. The short description of the grapes rootstocks which were created in the Anapa Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking such as AZOS-1, AZOS-2, AZOS-3, AZOS-4, AZOS-5 and AZOS-6 is given in the article. It is indicated that these rootstocks have a high resistance to a leaf form of phylloxera, to chlorosis and to some other diseases of a grapes bush. They have the short period of vegetation, high quantity of standard cutting from hectare and other useful properties. In the article the description of a new formation of rootstocks grapes bushes of "AOS- 1" and "AOS-2" with a free trail shoots is given. This construction of grapes bush is developed by the Anapa's Zonal Experimental Station of wine growing and winemaking. We have also given all the advantages of this forming in comparison with other designs of grapes bushes. It is especially noted that use of this forming of bushes increases the productivity per men in the process of bushes scrap and preparation of cutting; the expenditures on the struggle against diseases and wreckers on the vineyards are reduced; the quantity standard of grapes cutting increases by 27-33%

  3. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  4. THE EFFECT OF PECTOLYTIC ENZYME TREATMENTS ON RED GRAPES MASH OF VRANEC ON GRAPE JUICE YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRO MOJSOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and industrial trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of pectolytic enzyme treatments on red grape mash of Vranec on grape juice yields. The red grape Vranec for laboratory trials were taken from private winery “Imako vino” Stip (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their laboratory. The red grape Vranec for industrial trials were taken from private winery “Tristo” Veles (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their winery. The grapes were weighed, destemmed, crushed and divided in 5 liters plastic reservoirs for laboratory trials, and for industrial trials were placed in a stainless steel fermentor (4t.. All treatments were performed in doublecate. Red grape mash made from Vranec were macerated for 6 hours at 18 to 20oC with addition of one commercial pectolytic enzymepreparation (Vinozym Vintage FCE, Rohapect VR-C and Trenolin Rot DF. After addition of SO2 (50ppm and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae NEUTRE SC (Lallemand, 2009(200 mg/kg grape, maceration time of 5 days (~25 oC was applied in order to study the effect of macerating enzymes on grape juice yields. After the maceration, the pomace was removed, in the obtained 4 different variations. Pectolytic enzyme preparation was not added to control trial. All treatments were performed in duplicate. Results of laboratory and industrial trials from our experiments, gives increased on free run juice yields by 4.85%-6.35% compared with non-treated mash of control trials.

  5. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  6. Ochratoxin A in dried grapes and grape-derived products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Ayse Sibel; Ozden, Sibel; Alpertunga, Buket

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a naturally occurring mycotoxin and widespread food contaminant which results in a probable human exposure. A total of 85 samples (50 dried grapes, 10 grape juices and 25 pekmez (boiled and concentrated grape juices) were collected from different supermarkets and traditional bazaars in Istanbul during 2008-2009. An analytical method based on immuno-affinity column for clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used to determine the OTA. Contamination frequencies were 8%, 20% and 88% with mean concentrations of positive samples of 1.15, 1.40 and 2.04 µg/kg for dried grapes, grape juices and pekmez samples, respectively. These levels were lower than the maximum levels as set by the European Commission (EC). However, 12 of 25 pekmez samples had higher levels than permitted by the European Union (EU) for safe consumption. PMID:24779935

  7. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlakov M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice varieties Aniuta, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska close to each other (50.93; 56.14; 51.23%. According to the percentage of glucose similar varieties Aniuta and Nizina (33 - 34.27%, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska (41.16 - 45.22%. Sort Jubilee Novocherkasska, had content in berries close fructose and glucose. Most of fructose (66.02% in berries variety Nizina. In berries studied cultivars organic acid content was: wine 3128 - 3861, malic 982 - 3753, citric 109 - 317, amber 3 - 115 mg / dm3. The highest concentrations of potassium and sodium cations are presented in berries varieties Aniuta: potassium - 1219 sodium - 35.13 mg / dm3 and cations magnesium and calcium in berries Jubilee Novocherkasska 46.75 and 73.64 mg / dm3. The lowest concentration of potassium and sodium cations observed in grape Vodograi, magnesium - from grape Aniuta, calcium - at grape Nizina. We studied grape bunches are large, not dense, beautiful, berries are large, harmonious taste. Tasting score fresh grapes varieties Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina, Jubilee Novocherkasska 7.6; 7.4; 7.8; 7.8 points respectively

  8. Grape Tomato Cultivar Evaluation for Northern Indiana, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Four grape tomato varieties were evaluated in a replicated trial at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana. A fifth grape variety and one cherry variety were observed in unreplicated plots. Yield, plant, and fruit characteristics are reported.

  9. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  10. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determine the minimum quality grade will be: (i) The United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table grape crop insurance provisions. 457.149 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.149 Table grape crop...

  11. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another use (i.e. table grapes), the production to count will be in accordance with section 12(c)(2(ii.... (e) Mature marketable grape production may be adjusted for quality deficiencies as follows: (1.... (2) Grape production that is eligible for quality adjustment, as specified in subsection...

  12. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., quality, and maturity of table grapes that are imported into the United States. Inspection by the Federal... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the...

  13. Antibacterial Effects of Grape Extracts on Helicobacter pylori▿

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Joseph C.; Huang, Guohui; Haley-Zitlin, Vivian; Jiang, Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities were determined by agar dilution, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cell proliferation assays following treatment with various grape extracts. Muscadine grape skin possessed the strongest activity, followed by grape synergy (skin and seed) and seed, suggesting that higher phenolic levels do not necessarily determine overall anti-H. pylori efficacy.

  14. GRAPE IN MEVLANA / MEVLANA’DA ÜZÜM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. R. Bahar AKPINAR

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the mystical meaningsattributed to fruit and grape in the works (Mesnevi andRubaiyyat) of Mevlana Celaleddin Rumi, and discussesthe relations between the symbolism of the unripe grape,grape, wine and vineyard, wine, drinking place, winebearer, drunken.

  15. Grape products and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christine D

    2009-09-01

    Oral diseases, including dental caries, periodontal disease, and tooth loss, affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Raisins contain polyphenols, flavonoids, and high levels of iron that may benefit human health. However, their oral health benefits are less well understood. We hypothesized that raisins contain antimicrobial phytochemicals capable of suppressing oral pathogens associated with caries or periodontal diseases and thus benefit oral health. Through antimicrobial assay-guided fractionation and purification, compounds identified with growth inhibition against oral pathogens were oleanolic acid, oleanolic aldehyde, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, betulin, betulinic acid, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, rutin, beta-sitosterol, and beta-sitosterol glucoside. Oleanolic acid suppressed in vitro adherence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm. When the effect of raisins and raisin-containing bran cereal on in vivo plaque acidogenicity was examined in 7- to 11-y-old children, it was found that raisins did not reduce the plaque pH decline below pH 6 over the 30-min test period. Compared with commercial bran flakes or raisin bran cereal, a lower plaque pH drop was noted in children who consumed a raisin and bran flake mixture when no sugar was added (P < 0.05). Grape seed extract, high in proanthocyanidins, positively affected the in vitro demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, suggesting its potential as a promising natural agent for noninvasive root caries therapy. Raisins represent a healthy alternative to the commonly consumed sugary snack foods.

  16. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  17. Desfolha em videiras americanas e viníferas na fase de pré-maturação dos frutos Defoliation of american and vinifera grapevines in the pre ripening of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2011-07-01

    2006/2007 harvesting. The experiment was disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications and four plants per plot. The following treatments were tested: T1 (no defoliation, T2 (removal of leaves located in the opposite side of the grapes, T3 (removal of leaves located under the grapes and T4 (removal of leaves located under and in the opposite side of the grapes. The Vitis labrusca received an additional treatment (T5 consisting of leaves removed above the grapes. These treatments were applied during the change of berries color for Concord, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes and in the beginning of berries softening for Niagara Branca grape. After the harvesting, the grapevine production, cluster weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH were evaluated. It was observed that the defoliation until the grapes height did not influence the quantity and quality of grapes. However, when the defoliation was carried out above the clusters, there was a delay in the maturation of american grapes. This condition shows that is not necessary a selective desfolation until the clusters height on grapevines, when it is realized during the initial fruit ripening phase.

  18. 75 FR 5879 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... to divert imported grapes from normal marketing channels for up to 60 days after their arrival at a U... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 925 and 944 Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in Regulatory Periods AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  19. Comparison of Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations from different appellations of origin and grape varieties by microsatellite analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Leonor; Machado, Sofia; Ramos, P; Alemão, F.; Gomes, P; Sousa, S.; Santos, Manuel A.S.; Duarte, F.L; Casal, Margarida; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    One hundred ninety two grape samples were collected during the 2006 harvest season in the Vinho Verde (grape varieties: Arinto, Alvarinho, Avesso, Loureiro, Touriga Nacional) Bairrada (grape varieties: Arinto, Baga, Castelão Francês, Maria Gomes, Touriga Nacional) Alentejo (grape varieties, Aragonês, Trincadeira, Touriga Nacional), Terras do Sado (grape variety Castelão) Bucelas (grape variety Arinto) and Estremadura (grape varieties: Arinto, Aragonês, Castelão, Trincadeira, Touriga Nacional)...

  20. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  1. Establishment of in vitro culture of grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of in vitro culture from shoot tip explants (meristemetic tissue) of grapes was investigated through tissue culture technique. These explants were collected from gene bank of Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources (IABGR), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. Fifteen accessions of grapes were surface sterilized and tested on 75% MS media for germination and initial growth parameters. Accession No. 020017 (Dakh-1) exhibited highest viability (100%), shoot length (4.12 cm) and nodes plant (3.8). Moreover, it was found that response of cultures to different treatments was dependent both on accession and treatment duration. In conclusion, this protocol proved to be useful in optimizing the dose and duration of the treatment of grape explants with the surface disinfectant. (author)

  2. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  3. Suppression of oxidative stress by grape seed supplementation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo-Kyong; Zhang, Xian-Hua; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seeds have a beneficial effect on human health. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of grape seeds on antioxidant activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control diet group (C), a high-fat diet group (HF), a 5% grape seed-supplemented control diet group (G), and a 5% grape seed-supplemented high-fat diet group (HG). Dietary supplementation with grape seeds reduced serum concentrations of lipid peroxides compared wi...

  4. Research on the effects of winter protection for grape with ecotype arch-tile units%酿酒葡萄园生态型弓瓦防寒效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映龙; 单守明; 平吉成; 张军翔

    2011-01-01

    Based on testing new type units of winter protection for wine grape, instead of burying earth soft which is traditional measure for cold prevention in winter, we studied influence of soil temperature on grape roots (Cabernet Sauvignon) by ecotype arch-tile units. Result showed that soil temperatures dealing with ecotype arch-tile units were higher than those with burying earth soil treatment, but not significant. In the spring, mortality of branches and tendrils with arch-tile units was slightly higher than that with burying earth soil treatment; Differences did not reach a significant level, but fracture rate of new shoots with arch-tile units is significantly lower than that with burying earth soil treatment. Therefore, under the experimental conditions, the effects of winter protection by ecotype arch-tile units equal to that of burying earth soil, ecotype arch-tile units were able to make over-wintering Cabernet grapes live safely.%为了探索能替代葡萄冬季埋土防寒措施的新型防寒装置,本试验以赤霞珠葡萄为材料,研究生态型弓瓦防寒装置对葡萄根系土层温度的影响,结果表明,弓瓦防寒装置处理的各土层温度高于埋土处理,但是差异不显著.在春季,弓瓦处理的枝蔓死亡率略高于埋土处理;差异没有达到显著水平,但是新梢折断率显著低于埋土处理,因此,在试验条件下,生态型弓瓦防寒装置的防寒效果和埋土防寒措施相当,可以使赤霞珠葡萄安全越冬.

  5. Evaluating the correlation between chemical and sensory compounds in Blaufränkisch and Cabernet Franc wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Balga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive physiological effects of the bioactive compounds of red wines have been known for a long time. Besides that, the polyphenolic compounds of red wines represent one of the most important factors for oenology. With a special chemical analysis, we discover the relationship between chemical and sensory compounds. In this way, we explore which compounds influence sensory properties. The phenolic compounds are the quality attributes of the wine. The analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out in two red wines: Cabernet Franc and Blaufränkisch. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these two wines and evaluate the connection between the two parameters. In addition, we also examined the influence of the polyphenolic content on sensory perception. The experiment was carried out in a cool climate wine region in Eger, Hungary, in vintage of 2008. We investigated the profile of phenolic contents in new and aged wines. Total polyphenolic content, anthocyanin, leucoanthocyanin and catechin were evaluated by spectrophotometer. Stilbenes were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  6. Balanço de energia e consumo hídrico de vinhedo de ‘Cabernet Franc’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de energia foi utilizado em vinhedo da uva para vinho ‘Cabernet Franc’, conduzido em espaldeira alta, para caracterizar a repartição do saldo de radiação (SR nos diferentes fluxos de calor: latente (LE, sensível e no solo. Em média LE representou aproximadamente 79% de SR. São apresentadas as variações horárias dos componentes do balanço de energia para dias: ensolarado e nublado. O consumo hídrico do vinhedo para os diferentes subperíodos fenológicos foi: poda-florescimento (99 mm, florescimento-início de maturação (249 mm e início de maturação-colheita (201 mm. Para o ciclo total (poda-colheita, o consumo hídrico obtido foi de 549 mm.

  7. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  8. In vitro cultures of grape tissues : new possibilities to study grape berry physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Breia, Richard; Serôdio, J.; Gerós, H.; Cunha, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Grape berries suffer important morphological, biochemical and physiological changes during its development and maturation. It is known that photoassimilates translocated from leaves serve as the major source of carbon and energy to support fruit needs, but recent findings revealed that, at least in the green phase, grape berries show high photosynthetic activity especially in the exocarp. The contribution of fruit photosynthesis for fruit growth and production of organic compounds is far from...

  9. Targeted analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Ricci, Arianna; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Dimovska, Violeta; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Phenolic composition of twenty-two Macedonian red wines, including ten autochthonous monovarietal Vranec wines produced with different yeasts for fermentation, and twelve wines from international varieties (Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon) from different wine regions was studied. All wines presented relatively high value of total phenols and antioxidant activity. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and among them, malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, followed by the petunidin derivatives, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative in all wines. The anthocyanin content was mainly affected by the grape variety and to a less extent by the yeast used in fermentation. In particular, the use of locally isolated yeasts affected higher amount of anthocyanins and phenolic acids compared to the wines fermented with commercial yeasts. Principal Component Analysis showed a satisfactory grouping of red wines according to the grape variety.

  10. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step. PMID:27451191

  11. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step.

  12. Determination of Monomeric and Polymeric Flavan-3-ols in Grape Berry by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%葡萄果实中黄烷-3-醇及其聚合体的HPLC检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 陈建业; 李景明; 万嗣宝; 孔维府; 黄卫东

    2006-01-01

    以'赤霞珠'葡萄果实(Vitis vinifera L.'Cabernet Sauvignon')为试材,采用LiChrospher 100 RP-18e色谱柱(250 mm×4.0 mm I.D.,5 μm),冰乙酸∶水溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱流速为1.0 mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长280 nm,成功地分离了(+)-儿茶素[(+)-catechin,CAT]、(-)-表棓儿茶素[(-)-epigallocatechin,EGC]、(-)-表棓儿茶素没食子酸酯[(-)-epigallocatechin gallate,EGCG]、(-)-表儿茶素[(-)-epicatechin,EC]和(-)-表儿茶素没食子酸酯[(-)-epicatechin gallate,ECG]等5种葡萄果实中最为重要的黄烷-3-醇及其衍生物,建立了一种快速、准确并可以同时测定葡萄果实中5种黄烷-3-醇及其衍生物的高效液相色谱法;此外,经TSK HW-50(F)柱分离纯化,间苯三酚存在下酸解后进行HPLC分析,建立了一种快速、准确测定葡萄果实中多聚黄烷-3-醇平均聚合度、平均分子量及其组成的方法.果实样品检测结果表明:黄烷-3-醇及其多聚体主要积累于果皮和种子中.

  13. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  14. Characterization of polyphenolic metabolites in grape hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The composition and content of polyphenolic compounds in the berries of 48 hybrid grapes (Vitis) were characterized for two consecutive years. A total of 48 polyphenolic compounds including 28 anthocyanins, 2 hydroxybenzoic acids, 6 hydroxycinnamic derivatives, 6 flavonols and 6 flavanols were ident...

  15. Sun drying of seedless and seeded grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    In this study, sun drying behaviour of seedless and seeded grapes was investigated. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of seedless and seeded grapes of berry size of 1.72 cm and 2.20 cm thicknesses from the initial moisture contents of 78.2% and 79.5% (w.b.) to final moisture content of around 22% (w.b.) were 176 and 228 h in open sun drying, respectively. The drying data were fitted to 12 thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models were compared using the determination of coefficient (R(2)), mean relative percent error (P), reduced chi-square (χ (2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The results showed that Midilli et al. model was found to satisfactorily describe the sun drying curves of seedless and seeded grapes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were estimated from Fick's diffusion model by 1.02 × 10(-11) and 1.66 × 10(-11) m(2)/s for seeded and seedless grapes. PMID:23572844

  16. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Geuna, Filippo;

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, I...

  17. NATURAL MICROFLORA OF WINE GRAPE BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts and bacterial species on grapes has been investigated in vineyards worldwide. For winemaking are very important three groups of microorganisms. First two includes acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria; they live and grow normally on grape surface. The third group includes more than 20 detectable genera of yeasts. There are three principal genera found on grapes Hanseniaspora uvarum (Kloeckera apiculata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Candida pulcherrima, and Candida stellata or new descripted Candida zemplinina. Aim of this study was investigate of number of three major groups of microorganisms which are important for grapes and winemaking. The number of bacteria on Acetobacter agar (AA ranged from 1.76 log CFU/mL to 2.80 log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria were counted on MRS agar and the number of detectable colonies ranged from 0.48 log CFU/mL to 2.06 log CFU/mL. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA was used for cultivation of yeast and the number of yeasts ranged from 2.47 log CFU/mL to 2.76 log CFU/mL. For identification of yeast species were used different types of agar media with acid base indicator bromocresol green. Identified 10 yeasts species includes to genus: Candida, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Candida, Debaromyces, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces. We identified only few bacterial species includes to genus Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Gluconobacter and Acetobacter.

  18. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  19. Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, Robert; Boespflug, Erin L; Fleck, David E; Stein, Amanda L; Wightman, Jolynne D; Shidler, Marcelle D; Sadat-Hossieny, Sara

    2012-06-13

    Polyphenol compounds found in berry fruits, in particular flavonoids, have been associated with health benefits including improvement in cognition and neuronal function with aging. Concord grape juice contains polyphenols, including anthocyanins and flavanols, and previous research has shown improvement in a number of human health conditions with grape juice supplementation. In the current study, older adult subjects with mild cognitive impairment consumed Concord grape juice or placebo for 16 weeks and were administered assessments of memory function and brain activation pre- and postintervention. Participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks. Relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects. These findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline. PMID:22468945

  20. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  1. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon; Alberto Miele

    2012-01-01

    The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nect...

  2. Effects of grape pomace on the antioxidant defense system in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang-Sook; Chung, Hae-Kyung; CHOI, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Myung-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    The effects of grape seeds extract and grape peels extract prepared from grape pomace on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, degree of lipid peroxidation in serum and liver tissue were investigated in rabbits fed on high cholesterol diet. New Zealand white rabbits were divided as follows ; 1) NOR (normal group); 2) CHOL (cholesterol group); 3) GSH (cholesterol + grape seed extract group); 4) GPE (cholesterol + grape peel extract); 5) GSP (cholesterol + grape seed powder); 6) GPP (cholesterol...

  3. Resistance of Grape Rootstocks to Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.; Walker, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Candidate grape rootstocks were selected through a rigorous screening program initiated with important sources of resistance to Meloidogyne pathotypes and to Xiphinema index in Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis species native to North America. Based on their rooting capability and horticultural characteristics, 200 candidates were selected from 5,000 progeny of multiple crosses between commercial grape rootstocks and wild grape species that exhibited resistance to nematodes. After a 15-year s...

  4. Design and Construction of Grape Theme Sightseeing Garden

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Jun; Yu, Yifei; Li, Jingchuan; Han, Ruifeng; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Taking the grape theme sightseeing garden of Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences for example, this article discusses the suitable edible and wine making cultivation varieties, vineyard frame and cultivation techniques in the grape theme sightseeing garden, from the perspective of planning and design. The garden landscape design and construction is integrated with sightseeing and garden visiting to highlight the theme of grape sightseeing garden, aimed at achieving purposes of sightseeing, pick...

  5. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  6. The State of Table Grape Varieties in R. Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovska, Violeta; Ivanova, Violeta; Ilieva, Fidanka; Sofijanova, Elenica; Kletnikoski, Petar

    2011-01-01

    In this work is given for surfaces and production of table grapes, conditions and the way on growing, the structure of the assortment, consumption of fresh grape (at home and export) as well as cold storage capacities and the possibility for storage. Analyses showed that R. Macedonia disposes with 7.424 ha vineyards with table grape, and average production in year is 71.588 t grapes. The consumption in the home market is 12.000 t (6 kg/citizen), and the export from 9.821 t (2004 year) to 1...

  7. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  8. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  9. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ∼400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV), at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of > 1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above. (authors)

  10. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  11. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obtained from a long-term grape growing. In addition, they have to be supported by histological and biochemical analyses.

  12. Effects of different soil condition on physiology and fruit quality of wine grapes%不同土壤条件对酿酒葡萄生理及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文超; 孙盼; 王振平

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The study was to elucidate the effect of different soil condition on physiology and fruit quality of wine grapes. [Method] 'Cabernet Shelongzhu' wine grape was used as experiment material to study the effect of soil conditions including the Yellow River silt, sandy loam with stone and aeolian sandy soil on grape sugar unloading , berry weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble sugar, pigment, tannin and grape leaf photosynthetic rate. [Result]The results showed that during period from grape berry color change to full ripening ~ sugar content of grapes increased in sandy loam with stone by 7%, 9% than that in the Yellow River silt and aeolian sandy soil. Grape pigment content and grape leaf photosynthetic rate were also the highest under the condition of sandy loam with stone . Total titratable acidity (8.28 g. L^(-1)) and berry weight (2.32 g) in the Yellow River silt were higher than in other soil, and the tannin content (1.15 mg·g^(-1) in seed and 0.30 mg·g^(-1) in skin ) in aeolian sandy soil was the highest. [Conclusion] The studies suggested that effects of different soil condition on fruit quality of wine grapes is sig- nificant, fruit quality grown in the sandy loam with stone is the best.%【目的】为了探索不同土壤条件对酿酒葡萄生理及果实品质的影响,【方法】以‘蛇龙珠’酿酒葡萄为试材,研究了宁夏贺兰山东麓地区,黄河淤土、含石的沙壤土和风沙土3种土壤对葡萄糖分卸载的影响,测定了不同土壤栽培条件下葡萄果实的单果质量、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、可溶性总糖、色素、单宁及葡萄叶片的光合速率。【结果】结果表明,在葡萄开始着色至葡萄完全成熟期间,在含石的沙壤土栽培条件下葡萄可溶性总糖含量(22.4%)比黄河淤土栽培条件下和风沙土栽培条件下分别高7%、9%;葡萄色素(5.14mg·g。)和叶片光合速

  13. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food...-dextrin. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with grape color extract may contain only those... nonbeverage food, except that it may not be used to color foods for which standards of identity have...

  14. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety names. 4.93 Section 4.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names §...

  15. Implementing quantum logic gates with GRAPE: principles and practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, B

    2012-01-01

    We briefly describe the use of GRAPE pulses to implement quantum logic gates in NMR quantum computers, and discuss a range of simple extensions to the core technique. We then consider a range of difficulties which can arise in practical implementations of GRAPE sequences, reflecting non-idealities in the experimental systems used.

  16. GENE POOL OF INDIGENOUS GRAPE VARIETIES AND INTRODUCENTS IN ABKHAZIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aiba V. S.; Troshin L. P.; Kravchenko R. V.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of results of the conducting surveys on screening and saving gene pool of indigenous grape varieties in the Republic of Abkhazia, which contributed to detection and identification of the 15 previously described in the literature of Abkhazian native grape varieties

  17. Changes in polyphenol content during production of grape juice concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The production of grape juice concentrate on an industrial scale was evaluated and samples from the main steps of processing have been collected and analyzed. The sampling steps included the selection and washing of grapes (Nevsehir Patlak variety), pressing in order to obtain the juice separate fro

  18. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  19. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  20. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  1. GRAPE-6: The massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical particle simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Junichiro; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Koga, Masaki; Namura, Ken

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture and performance of the GRAPE-6 system, a massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical $N$-body simulations. GRAPE-6 is the successor of GRAPE-4, which was completed in 1995 and achieved the theoretical peak speed of 1.08 Tflops. As was the case with GRAPE-4, the primary application of GRAPE-6 is simulation of collisional systems, though it can be used for collisionless systems. The main differences between GRAPE-4 and GRAPE-6 are (a...

  2. GRAPE-6: The massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical particle simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Makino, J; Koga, M; Namura, K; Makino, Junichiro; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Koga, Masaki; Namura, Ken

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the architecture and performance of the GRAPE-6 system, a massively-parallel special-purpose computer for astrophysical $N$-body simulations. GRAPE-6 is the successor of GRAPE-4, which was completed in 1995 and achieved the theoretical peak speed of 1.08 Tflops. As was the case with GRAPE-4, the primary application of GRAPE-6 is simulation of collisional systems, though it can be used for collisionless systems. The main differences between GRAPE-4 and GRAPE-6 are (a) The processor chip of GRAPE-6 integrates 6 force-calculation pipelines, compared to one pipeline of GRAPE-4 (which needed 3 clock cycles to calculate one interaction), (b) the clock speed is increased from 32 to 90 MHz, and (c) the total number of processor chips is increased from 1728 to 2048. These improvements resulted in the peak speed of 64 Tflops. We also discuss the design of the successor of GRAPE-6.

  3. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Ucchesu

    Full Text Available The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC, allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  4. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Edward William R Barlow

    2016-01-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four nor...

  5. THE TABLE GRAPE CULTIVATION AND MARKETING THEM TO I.N.C.D.B.H. STEFANESTI

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bădulescu

    2014-01-01

    Growing table grapes offers manufacturers a range of priorities, compared to growing grapes for wine. It should be considered that by making table grapes, obtaining income is recorded immediately. If several varieties are cultivated end cooking time staggered, these revenues are obtained over a period of time. Table grape varieties are more productive (15 to 17 t / ha), so the profit will be higher. For table grape varieties all depends on quality. If respected cultivation technology of these...

  6. Changes in grape phylloxera abundance in ungrafted vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Karen S; Hoffmann, Ary A; Powell, Kevin S

    2006-10-01

    To examine seasonal changes in the abundance of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), several sampling methods were tested at vineyards in Victoria, Australia. At a recently infested site, changes detected by root assessment, trunk trapping, and emergence trapping were closely correlated, although the largest numbers of grape phylloxera were obtained using traps that collected phylloxera emerging from soil. This trapping technique was further used to investigate changes in grape phylloxera numbers across three different sites from southeastern Australia as well as in three consecutive seasons at the same vineyard. Grape phylloxera numbers decreased as vines deteriorated; a single peak of emergence occurred in every summer. Size and timing of emergence peaks varied between sites and also between vine blocks within a site. The number of grape phylloxera trapped was correlated with degree-days. Monitoring soil temperature may provide a way of timing control options against grape phylloxera and a way of identifying peak periods when phylloxera detection surveys should be completed or when grape phylloxera are at the highest risk of spreading among vineyards. PMID:17066812

  7. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Grape Juice at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ravika; Jain, Ritu; Sharma, Krishna S.

    2015-04-01

    The complex permittivity of fresh juice of two cultivars of grapes, Sultania (green grapes) and Black Monukka (black grapes) was measured in terms of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor over the frequency range from 1 to 50 GHz and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60°C, by using the PNA network analyzer model E8364C and open ended coaxial probe 85070E. The Cole-Cole plots and dielectric constant vs. (angular frequency) dielectric loss factor and dielectric constant vs. dielectric loss factor/(angular frequency) regression lines at different temperatures were used in Debye approximation to predict relaxation frequency of molecules for the two cultivars of grapes in the low frequency and high frequency limits, respectively. It was observed that the acidic character of green grapes is responsible for the large amplitude vibrational peaks in dielectric loss factor - frequency curves, in the high frequency region at higher temperatures. On the other hand, excess of sugar in black grapes suppresses the activity of water molecules, thereby suppressing the vibrational peaks at higher frequencies. Different relaxation frequencies found for the two cultivars of grapes suggest that they have different molecular structure.

  8. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  9. Advances in table grape breeding in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, few grape cultivars related to Vitis vinifera existed 200 years ago, on account of Japan's high rainfall. Many V. labruscana and vinifera cultivars were introduced to Japan in the 19th century. Labruscana was grown instead of vinifera, mainly because of severe disease problems and a high incidence of berry cracking. Grape breeding for table use started in the 20th century, with the goal of combining the berry quality of vinifera with the ease of cultivation of labruscana. By 1945, three strategies were used: 1) crossing among introduced diploid vinifera and vinifera-related cultivars of Japanese origin, 2) interspecific crossing in tetraploid cultivars, and 3) interspecific crossing in diploid cultivars, resulting in 'Neo Muscat', 'Kyoho', and 'Muscat Bailey A'. Later, tetraploid interspecific crossing over generations developed many 'Kyoho'-related cultivars, including 'Pione', many of which have large berries, intermediate flesh texture between the two species, a labruscan or neutral flavor, and moderate disease resistance. Interspecific diploid crossing over generations developed 'Shine Muscat' in 2006, with large berries, crispy flesh, a muscat flavor, no cracking, seedless fruit by gibberellin application, and moderate resistance to downy mildew and ripe rot. PMID:27069389

  10. TABLE GRAPE PUNNET PACKAGING: THE INFLUENCE OF CHECK-WEIGHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit, R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of South Africas table grapes are exported to the EU and the UK. In recent years, pre-packaged table grapes are now preferred in many European supermarkets. This increased demand has resulted in stringent quality standards, including the specification of punnet mass. Locally, table grapes are packed manually using seasonal labour, who often have limited formal education. Punnets must conform to upper and lower mass limits, but many deviations occur due to human and machine error. Check-weighing proved effective in reducing out-of-specification punnets, but human and machine errors were still problem factors.

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Arginine in Grape Juice Using 8-Hydroquinoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; LIANG Xin-hong; ZHAO Rui-xiang; FENG Li-dan; LI Hua

    2008-01-01

    Arginine in grape juice can be metabolized by wine yeasts and malolactic bacteria to precursors of ethyl carbamate, known as carcinogen. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, fast, and accurate method for determining arginine in grape juice with Sakaguchi reaction by separating arginine with strong cation-exchange resins. Parameters were optimized including the concentrations of 8-hydroquinoline and sodium hydrobromite. The color stability lasted for 4 min, which is sufficient to finish the measurement. The method is simple, reproducible and accurate, and can be applied for quick measurement of arginine in grape juice to take necessary measures for controlling the level of ethyl carbamate.

  12. Design and Construction of Grape Theme Sightseeing Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; LIU; Yifei; YU; Jingchuan; LI; Ruifeng; HAN; Ying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Taking the grape theme sightseeing garden of Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences for example,this article discusses the suitable edible and wine making cultivation varieties,vineyard frame and cultivation techniques in the grape theme sightseeing garden,from the perspective of planning and design. The garden landscape design and construction is integrated with sightseeing and garden visiting to highlight the theme of grape sightseeing garden,aimed at achieving purposes of sightseeing,picking,appreciating the beautiful scenery,and enjoying palatable food.

  13. Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanausek, Margaret; Spears, Erick; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Wendel, Courtney; Slaga, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants.

  14. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various pro

  15. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses ...

  16. Comparison of formulae used in determination of graft compatibility in different grape- American grape rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeliha GÖKBAYRAK; SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Gökhan; Ali ERGÜL

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cultivars have to be grafted on American grape rootstocks due to phylloxera and nematode damages, which makes it obligatory to determine their graft compatibility in a vineyard. For this purpose, any of four formulae developed by Perraudine, Branas, Spiegel-Roy & Lavee and Onaran was inconclusive to reliably determine the compatibility of a scion/stock combination. Therefore, it is needed to compare these results with values of pruning weight, yield and quality analyses obta...

  17. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  18. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  19. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  20. Agrobiologocal and Technological Characteristics of Table Grape Cultivar Danlas White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Fazinić

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture has always been primarity directed towards growing wine cultivars white table grape cultivar growing was limited to very few highly valued cultivars which found their position in the big market.\

  1. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  2. PRICING ATTRIBUTES OF WINES FROM EMERGING SUPPLIERS ON THE BRITISH COLUMBIA MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica YOO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine British Columbia (BC wine consumers’ valuation of wine imported from emerging suppliers (Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia and Hungary using hedonic pricing technique. BC Liquor Distribution Branch retail sales data covering weekly sales of table wine imported into the province of British Columbia from all five countries for the period April 20th, 2002 to May 8th, 2004 are applied to estimate the influence of wine attributes on prices. The results indicate that grape variety, brand name, country of origin, and alcohol content are important factors influencing prices paid by consumers. In particular, Chilean white and red wines are associated with larger price premia as compared to Argentinean wines. Wines from Hungary, Bulgaria, and Croatia, although sold in large quantities in the BC market, are substantially discounted in comparison to New World wines. Cabernet Sauvignon fetches a higher price when blended with other varietals and Chardonnay appears to be popular and highly valued by consumers among white wines.

  3. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield.

  4. Biology and management of grape phylloxera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granett, J; Walker, M A; Kocsis, L; Omer, A D

    2001-01-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae), is a worldwide pest of grapevines. Its life cycle has sexual and asexual portions with forms that feed from leaf and root galls. Not all forms occur throughout the insect's range. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera cultivars; leaf forms predominate on other Vitis species characteristic of the American native range. Other conditions influence expression of the life cycle. Hosts and conditions similarly affect life table performance. Damage to grapevines is by secondary soilborne pathogens attacking the feeding site and by physiological interaction of the insect with the grapevine, though the latter has not been well studied. Resistant rootstocks derived from native American Vitis are the primary control tool. The insect varies genetically and relative to performance on hosts. Use of insecticides is limited in effect, and other control methods are not proven. More research on the biology, ecology, and management of phylloxera is needed. PMID:11112174

  5. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  7. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Felšöciová; Ľubomír Rybárik; Dana Tančinová; Zuzana Mašková; Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Asper...

  8. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Vasil Georgiev; Anthony Ananga; Violeta Tsolova

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among ...

  9. Analytical Methodology for Characterization of Grape and Wine Phenolic Bioactives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefova, Marina; Ivanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols are a large and complex group of compounds responsible for the characteristics, quality and colour of grape and wine, especially for red ones. Polyphenolic composition has been extensively studied and a large family of structures have been identified in grape and wine. These compounds can affect the appearance, taste, mouth-feel, fragrance and antimicrobial properties of wine. In addition, polyphenols were confirmed to be the key compounds responsible for the antioxidant potential...

  10. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  11. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples. PMID:26292165

  12. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples.

  13. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  14. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  15. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that...

  16. LEAF MORPHOMETRY OF KUBAN WILD-GROWING GRAPE LIANA Leaf morphometry of kuban wild-growing grape liana

    OpenAIRE

    Troshin L. P.

    2011-01-01

    Leaf morphometry of Kuban wild-growing grape liana has not been studied yet and there is no evidence of straight subspecies representatives location of Vitis vinifera silvestris Gmel. on the Kuban land. Though there have been suppositions about it in science since long ago [5]. With morphometric taxonomy appearance there was necessity of exact focusing on modern state of genotypic grape variety and biological leaf polymorphism for link identification silvestris – silvesatis - sativa

  17. The Governance of Grapes: The NSW Inquiry into the Wine Grape Market and Prices (2010) – An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Bligh; Dollery, Brian; Kortt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of the grape growing and wine making industries to Australia’s continued economic prosperity is under threat. While international market dynamics are often cited as the cause, the problem of oversupply and more specifically calls for government intervention were the focus of the recently completed NSW Legislative Council’s Standing Committee on State Development Wine Grape Market and Prices Inquiry (Catanzariti Inquiry, 2010a). This paper examines the process and outcomes of ...

  18. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations. PMID:26925621

  19. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  20. Comparative Study of Two Table Grape Varieties with Contrasting Texture during Cold Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ejsmentewicz, Troy; Balic, Iván; Sanhueza, Dayan; Barria, Romina; Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel; Prieto, Humberto; Defilippi, Bruno; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Postharvest softening of grape berries is one of the main problems affecting grape quality during export. Cell wall disassembly, especially of pectin polysaccharides, has been commonly related to fruit softening, but its influence has been poorly studied in grapes during postharvest life. In order to better understand this process, the Thompson seedless (TS) variety, which has significantly decreased berry texture after prolonged cold storage, was compared to NN107, a new table grape variety ...

  1. PPPM and TreePM Methods on GRAPE Systems for Cosmological N-body Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Kohji; Fukushige, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present Particle-Particle-Particle-Mesh (PPPM) and Tree Particle-Mesh (TreePM) implementations on GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-6A systems, special-purpose hardware accelerators for gravitational many-body simulations. In our PPPM and TreePM implementations on GRAPE, the computational time is significantly reduced compared with the conventional implementations without GRAPE, especially under the strong particle clustering, and almost constant irrespective of the degree of particle clustering. We carry...

  2. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Underutilized Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Pomace Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Faisal; Sultana, Mosammad Shahin; Kurnianta, Heri

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace is an abundant source of underutilized winery by-products. Polyphenols were extracted from grape pomace using cellulase and gluco-amylase enzymes. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu’s assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Both cellulase, and gluco-amylase digested grape pomace showed efficient radical scavenging activity. In addition, the total polyphenolic contents of cellulase digested grape pomace showed lower c...

  3. The Role of Contracts in Wine Grape Supply Coordination: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Iain

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the role of contracts in coordinating the supply of grapes between independent wine grape growers and wineries is examined. A review of technical issues that underpin the design and implementation of contracts provides insights into the wine industry. A review of the economics literature on contractual relations in the wine industry indicates that although grape contracts are important they are subject to a number of problems. In particular, the precise determination of grape qu...

  4. Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, Phenolic Compositions and Color Properties of Fresh Grape Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Ali; CANDEMİR, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Grape leaves have been consumed as fresh and canned for years. Stuffed grape leaves (dolma) is a traditional delicacy for Turkish, Balkan and Middle East nations. In this study; grape leaves from Sultani Çekirdeksiz (SÇ), Sultan1 (S1), Sultan7 (S7) Saruhanbey (SB) and Narince (N) grape cultivars were assayed for their total phenolics, total flavonoids, some phenolic compounds and color properties. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the samples were determined by Folin Ciocalteu an...

  5. EFFECTS OF EMILIANOS ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON FORMATION OF QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyanov A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapes are product of areas. Grape plant is very plastic and can grow on almost all types of soils except highly saline, fusion and wetlands. In studies of many authors, it was indicated the influence of different soil types and their properties on the growth of the vine plants, the quality of berries and their products. The object of study is soils and vines growing on them, laws and processes affecting the formation of grape production. Research methods are expeditions, field and laboratory. The article presents data on the effect of agrochemical soil properties (pH, solid residue, the amount of aqueous extract ions, chlorine ions, alkalinity (НSO3¯, calcium ion, magnesium ion, total carbonate, active carbonates, nitrate nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, exchangeable potassium , humus, humus reserves on the formation of the harvest of grapes and wine products (tasting score, the extract, the amount of phenolic compounds, the amount of organic acids, the amount of amino acids, metal ions, potassium ions, sodium metal, magnesium ions, calcium ions, the amount of metal ions. With the help of statistical data, we can establish the effect of weather conditions on the formation of 2009-2011 qualitative wines of Cabernet Sauvignon

  6. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  7. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, ‘Kyoho’ grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes. PMID:27487935

  8. [Antioxidant and antiradical properties of red grape wines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Muzychenko, G F; Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the antioxidant and antiradical capacity of red table wines. It is shown that the antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines due to the varieties of grapes and processing technologies. A correlation between the concentration of phenolic components of the complex and antiradical properties, as well as antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines has been established. Antioxidant and antiradical properties were higher in variants with the highest concentration of the most important components of a phenolic complex--catechins and tannins. Their greatest content has been identified in the wine materials Saperavi made on technologies which can extract components polyphenol complex not only from grape skin, and grape seed (seed) containing ellagitannins and gallocatechin (using Vinificator company Padovan; prepared by fermenting mash irrigation heated mash, using a fermentation mash by Fludase). Depending on the grape varieties and production technology, the antioxidant activity varied by more than 30%. These data indicate that the technology can increase the production of wine intravarietal (for grapes) antioxidant activity of 10 to 20%. PMID:26841558

  9. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  10. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  11. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.;

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at each of three...... daily meals (31.3 mg total phenolics, including 9.0 mg catechin). An increased activity of glutathione reductase and a borderline increase of glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes were observed after grape-skin intervention, while the intervention had no significant effect on superoxide...

  12. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.;

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at...... each of three daily meals (31.3 mg total phenolics, including 9.0 mg catechin). An increased activity of glutathione reductase and a borderline increase of glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes were observed after grape-skin intervention, while the intervention had no significant effect on...

  13. Antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of blackberry and grape wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Boban, Mladen

    2012-03-01

    In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  14. The Application of Grape Grading Based on PCA and Fuzzy Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Qiuye; Wang Yufei; Weixia Luan; Wang Guizhou

    2013-01-01

    This study grades the wine grape based on the data of physical and chemical indexes of wine grape and the quality of wine in 2012 CUMCM. Since the physical and chemical indexes of wine grape are numerous, we firstly adopt principal component analysis to select the main physical and chemical indexes which can represent most of the property of wine grape. Then, we take the comprehensive score of wine quality as the quality index of wine grape. Later, taking the contribution rate in principal co...

  15. Wages and wage elasticities for wine and table grapes in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Conradie, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    A survey of 190 wine and table grape farmers in the Western Cape puts the average wage for farm labour at R928 per month in 2003 and R1123 per month in 2004. Output per worker has doubled since 1983. On farms with grape harvesters, labour is 30 per cent more productive (48 ton/worker) than on farms where wine grapes are picked by hand (37 ton/worker). At 9.75 tons per worker, table grapes are four times as labour-intensive as wine grapes. Resident men dominate the workforce on wine farms, whi...

  16. Biochemical Analysis and in Vivo Hypoglycemic Activity of a Grape Polyphenol–Soybean Flour Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander.; Oren, Andrew; Lila, Mary Ann; Fridlender, Bertold; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can efficiently sorb, concentrate, and stabilize polyphenols, but not sugars, from Concord grape juice, to yield grape polyphenol-enriched DSF. Sorption of grape polyphenols to DSF particles was dependent on the ratio of DSF and grape juice concentrate used, but not time of mixing or pH. Depending on ratios of starting materials, 1 g of grape polyphenol-enriched DSF contained 1.6–10.4 mg of anthocyanins, 7.5–93.1 mg of proanthocyanidins, and 20.5–144.5 mg of total...

  17. The Symbolisms of Biblical Allusions in The Grapes of Wrath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韵

    2016-01-01

    The Grapes of Wrath is a spiritual pilgrimage. The main idea of the novel is to show generations of people try their best to survive, and feel the hardness and happiness during the procedure, which is same to the Holy Bible. From Genesis to Revelation, the Book narrates people continue to struggle for land, home, and braw life. This paper analyses the symbolisms of biblical allusions in The Grapes of Wrath from three aspects: the journey and the biblical prose style,Christian symbolism, and the biblical allusive images. This paper tends to prove that Christianity has great impact on the American literature, and American dream, wrath and hope lie in the novel.

  18. An electron spin resonance study of gamma-irradiated grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ESR spectra of the seeds, skins and stalks of unirradiated and γ-irradiated Cape black grapes have been obtained. In the spectra of all parts of the grape a single line (g ca. 2.004) is observed both before and after irradiation. New spectral features are observed after irradiation with doses of between 2 and 10 kGy. Some of these features decline in intensity over a period of several days. However, in the case of stalks, new spectral features are readily observed over the shelf-life of the fruit and in samples irradiated to a dose of only 2 kGy. (author)

  19. Clinical and Laboratory Investigation of Oral Allergy Syndrome to Grape

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is occasionally observed following consumption  of raw fruits  in  allergic adults. Since this  phenomenon  was  commonly  reported  in  Khorasan province of Iran; we intended to check if common  diagnostic tests could be applied for differential diagnosis of OAS to grapes.IgE reactivity of 84 patients with OAS to grape and 34 patients with OAS to other fruits were analyzed by in vivo and in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those of controls. The p...

  20. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  1. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  2. Effect of some nutrients on nutritional and physiological status of grape plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grape is as old as that of man and is intermingled with it; details of grape growing of figure in mosaics of fourth dynasty of Egypt(2440 B.C) and later the grape as commercial crop is assuming increasing importance. In addition; grapes are the world's biggest most widespread deciduous fruit crop. About one acre in every 125 cultivated acres in the world is in grapes and one person in every 100 works in more phase of the grape and products business. About 55% of the world grape production goes into wine and about 15% into raisins. The balance is grown mainly for the table grapes, juice and other products. The vinfera grape is predominate (Chiders, 1983). According to the statistics of FAO in 1989 the total acreage of grape vine was about 8, 424, 000 hectare which produced 59, 158, 000 metric tones of fruits. Nowadays, in A.R.E, grapes are considered the second fruit in egypt. The total area increased in last few years under the new land reclamation and different soil types, its total area reached about 118826 faddans produced about 786968 metric tons according to the last statistics of the ministry of agriculture in 1994. 25 tabs., 104 refs

  3. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  4. Evaluation on home storage performance of table grape based on sensory quality and consumers' satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changyang; Fu, Zetian; Xu, Mark; Trebar, Mira; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2016-03-01

    With continuous rise of table grapes consumption and increased public awareness of food safety, the quality control of grapes in storage after purchase is not sufficiently examined. Home storage constitutes the last and important stage in grape supply chain. Literature review shows that few researches on grape quality focus on the home storage stage compared with numerous researches reported on the quality control during postharvest and transportation process. This paper reports the performance evaluation of grape quality at home storage and consumers' satisfaction using integrated sensory evaluations. The internal attributes, including Texture, Taste and Odor of the table grapes and the appearance indices, Color and Cleanliness are examined. Key results show that during home storage, all the internal attributes decrease rapidly as time goes on, and cleanliness and color appear to be deteriorating in a lower speed. A comprehensive quality index was created to measure the quality of table grape which has high correlation with the Overall acceptability perceived by consumers. PMID:27570261

  5. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Draijer; Young de Graaf; Marieke Slettenaar; Eric de Groot; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentratio...

  6. 闪蒸品丽珠干红葡萄酒香气成分的GC/MS分析%GC/MS analysis of arolna compounds in Cabernet Franc wine made with flash evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴菊华; 崔彦志; 刘维维; 杨晓宽; 王莉; 张学峰

    2011-01-01

    采用溶剂萃取法提取闪蒸和传统品丽珠干红葡萄酒中的香气成分,经气相色谱-质谱联机分析,闪蒸干红酒鉴定出30种香气成分,包括16种酯、6种醇、3种萜烯类、4种酸和1种酮,传统干红酒鉴定出26种香气成分,包括14种酯、4种醇、4种萜烯类、2种酮、1种酸和1种醚.与传统品丽珠干红酒相比,闪蒸品丽珠干红酒酯类化合物相对含量提高29.43%,醇类化合物相对含量降低20.99%,葡萄酒香气更加浓郁、复杂、深沉.%The aroma compounds of Cabernet Franc wines made with flash evaporation and traditional technology were extracted by solvent extraction and analyzed by GC/MS method.The results showed that there were 30 aroma compounds in Cabernet Franc wine made with flash evaporation, including 16 esters, 6 alcohols, 3 terpones, 4 acids and 1 ketone; and there were 26 aroma compounds in Cabernet Franc wine made with traditional technology, including 14 esters, 4 alcohols, 4 terpenes, 2 ketones, 1 acid and 1 ether.Comparing with the wine made with traditional technology, the relative content of esters was increased by 29.43%, and the relative content of alcohol was reduced by 20.99% in Cabernet Franc wine made with flash evaporation.Besides, the aroma was stronger, more complex and heavy.

  7. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  8. 干旱对葡萄果实发育过程中黄烷醇类多酚积累及LAR表达的影响%The Effect of Drought on Flavanols Accumulation and LAR Expression During the Development of Grape Berry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 杨运良; 高美英; 牛铁泉; 邢延富; 牛兴艳

    2012-01-01

    以酿酒葡萄‘赤霞珠’(Vtis vinifera L.‘Cabemet Sauvignon’)为试材,采用避雨棚和断根沟措施,模拟土壤干旱,探讨了葡萄果实发育过程中干旱对果实中黄烷醇类多酚积累及其合成关键酶隐色花色素还原酶(1eucoanthocyanidin reductase,LAR)基因表达的影响。结果表明:土壤干旱导致葡萄单粒质量降低,纵、横径减小,促进黄烷醇类多酚积累,特别是在幼果期,土壤干旱明显促进黄烷醇类多酚的积累。Real.timePCR、Westernblot结果证实,土壤干旱促进VvLARl和VvLAR2转录,诱导果实中LARl、LAR2新蛋白合成,进而导致LAR酶活性增强,黄烷醇类多酚积累。%In order to understand the effects of soil drought on the accumulation of flavanols and the expression of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), the key enzyme of the flavanols biosynthesis in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, 5 years old grapevines ( Htis vinifera L.‘Cabemet Sauvignon' )were used as materials, and the soil drought was simulated during grape berry development by the controlling irrigation through the prevent-rain shelter and root-cutting groove. The results showed that the single berry weight, longitudinal and horizontal diameter were decrease, and the growth of grape berry was significantly inhibited by soil drought, which indicated that the prevent-rain shelter and root cutting groove were the effective measures to simulate soil drought. In addition, the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry during its development was induced by soil drought was also observed, especially in the young berry. Real-time PCR and Western blot results showed that the soil drought could induce the expression of VvLAR1, VvLAR2, the synthesis of LAR new protein, and increased the LAR enzyme activity, which resulted in the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry.

  9. GRAPE - A Balloon-Borne Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the development status of GRAPE (the Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), although GRAPE could also be employed in the study of other astrophysical sources. Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation will lead to a better understating of both emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. The azimuthal distribution of photon scatters from the plastic array into the central calorimeter provides a measure of the polarization fraction and polarization angle of the incident radiation. The design of the detector provides sensitivity over a large field-of-view (>pi steradian). The design facilitates the fabrication of large area arrays w...

  10. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  11. INNOVATIONS OF RUSSIAN VITICULTURE. 29. HARVESTING OF GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuzok N. V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the questions of a preliminary determination of vineyard yield, studying the dynam-ics of sugar content in berries, harvesting methods of handheld and mechanized grape harvesters. We have also presented color photographs of functioning har-vesters in the vineyards

  12. TABLE GRAPE VARIETIES CULTURE TO NRDIBH STEFANESTI, OVER TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Costescu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges, in the past decades extensive work has been done to improve the grape-vine, which yielded some remarkable results. The first concerns the improvement of grape-vines to NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges (then SCPVV Stefanesti were initiated by the breeder engineer Baditescu Margareta, improvement in the Laboratory in 1982, was its founder, who has dedicated so much to obtain new varieties by crossing sexual and clonal selection to. Improvement work was continued by researchers: Smaranda Julia, Smaranda George, Camelia Popa. After lengthy activity at SCDVV Stefanesti were obtained clones new to old varieties of wine, but also at the table. Thus, clonal selections have been approved for 13 red and white wines. For table varieties were approved Argessis and Golden Stefanesti varieties and clones Stefanesti, Muscat Adda 22 and Perlette 10. Varieties approved quality characteristics that allow for superior wines, varieties of wine for the table and the quality of the grapes is good looks for Romania to meet the demands of markets in developed countries. Spread production of new varieties of table grapes, can effectively contribute to the recovery in activity in wine country by increasing efficiency and profitability.

  13. Field Temperature and Anthocyanins in Merlot Grape Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    On field-grown vines, temperatures of 'Merlot' grape clusters were monitored and controlled from pre-veraison until harvest to produce a dynamic range of berry temperatures in both sun-exposed and shaded fruit. Ten combinations of temperature and solar radiation exposure were applied, and resulting ...

  14. Osmotic dehydration of yellow melon using red grape juice concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda Noemi Mamani CHAMBI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objectives of this work were to study the effect of fruit ripening on the melon osmotic dehydration at reduced pressure and to model the mass transfer of moisture during melon dehydration with grape juice concentrate and sucrose solution. The ripening level had no relevant effect over the physical characteristics of the final product, with soluble solids, moisture and water activity without significant differences. Besides, the mass loss and solute gain parameters did not show significant differences, and only the solute gain had few variations. The process of the osmotic dehydration with grape juice concentrate was the most effective one, with higher dehydration and lowest solutes gain compared to the process carried out with sucrose solution. The water effective diffusivity calculated by the Fick’s equation for the process conduced with grape juice was lower than the one obtained for the sucrose solution, according to different equilibrium moisture content calculated by Peleg’s equation. The dehydrated melon with grape juice concentrate showed reduced water activity (~ 0.92 and low moisture content (~ 58%.

  15. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type 7 CFR 51.880 through 51.914), or shall meet all the requirements... other types and sizes of containers as may be approved by the Committee for experimental or research... inorganic fertilizers or agricultural chemicals including insecticides, herbicides, and growth...

  16. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type) labeling. 4.23 Section 4.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine §...

  17. Interpreting the Grapes of Wrath from the Perspective of Marxism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余金燕

    2016-01-01

    as a quite important school of literary criticism, Marxism offers us a set of literary theories effective for textual analysis. This paper tries to apply the theories and methodology of Marxism literary criticism to interpreting the famous novel—the Grapes of Wrath, aiming at gaining a new interpretation of this novel.

  18. A Stylistic Analysis of The Grapes of Wrath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲

    2009-01-01

    As we known, stylistics plays an important role in analysis of the literary works, therefore, this paper applies the theory of the stylistics to The Grapes of Wrath so as to explore the language usege in process of creating the novel, that is, the mind of the writer. This can help the readers appreciate the art of literature.

  19. 葡萄籽多酚化合物抗氧化能力与抗癌细胞增殖活性的评价%Antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenolic compounds on cancer cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰兰; 张雅丽; 朱磊; 邓嘉进; 曲桂芹; 卢江

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenlic compounds on Petri-Dish cultured cancer cells. Methods: Three phenolic compound parameters(total phenols, flavonoids, and flavan-3-ols) and three antioxidant property parameters DPPH(2,2-diphenyi- 1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ABTS 2, 2-azino-di-(3-ethylben -zothialozine-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging and FRAP(ferric reducing antioxidant power), were measured. In-vitro cultured human liver cancer cells-HepG2 were treated with extracts of grape seed phenlic compounds in different concentration for 24 h, and were measured for proliferation ability by MTT assay. Results: Phenolic compounds,antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities were different among variant grape seed extracts. Large quantity of phenolic compounds were remained in grape pomace. V. vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon"had higher values of phenolic compounds, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities than V.rotundifolia "Noble". Conclusions: Grape seed phenolic extracts from both fresh fruit and pomace showed antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities.%目的:探讨葡萄鲜果及酿酒皮渣中葡萄籽提取物中的酚类化合物含量,抗氧化特性及对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。方法:乙醇法提取葡萄籽中多酚化合物,分光光度计法测定三大酚类化合物参数(总酚、类黄酮类、黄烷-3-醇类)及3种抗氧化性能参数(DPPH)及ABTS自由基清除能力,FRAP分析)。体外培养肝癌细胞HepG2,建立细胞模型,不同浓度的提取物作用于癌细胞后,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(MTT法)检测多酚提取物对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。结果:不同样品葡萄籽所含酚类化合物、抗氧化性能、抗癌细胞增殖能力均不同,酿酒皮渣的葡萄籽中仍含有大量的多酚化合物,其中欧亚种赤霞珠鲜果

  20. Efeito de três processos de vinificação sobre a composição química e a qualidade do vinho Cabernet Franc Effect of three processes of vinification on chemical composition and quality of Cabernet Franc wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de três processos de vinificação sobre a composição química e a qualidade do vinho Cabernet Franc, nas safras de 1987 a 1990. As vinificações foram realizadas em escala industrial, pelos processos clássico, de termovinificação e de maceração carbônica. Avaliaram- se teor alcoólico, acidez total, açúcares redutores, cinzas, extrato seco, compostos fenólicos e voláteis e elementos minerais. Procedeu-se, também, à análise sensorial dos vinhos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de componentes principais (ACP e à análise de variância, sendo que os três primeiros eixos explicaram 68,2% da variação total. Através da ACP, foi possível separar os vinhos de maceração carbônica dos outros dois processos de vinificação. As variáveis que apresentaram maior efeito na variação foram os álcoois superiores, os cátions e os compostos fenólicos. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que a maceração carbônica originou vinhos leves e com menor intensidade de cor, e a termovinificação e a vinificação clássica originaram vinhos com mais corpo, melhor qualidade e equilíbrio gustativo e maior tipicidade varietal.The effects of three processes of vinification on chemical composition and quality of Cabernet Franc wine were evaluated from the 1987 to the 1990 vintages. The vinifications were made in an industrial scale by the following processes: conventional vinification, thermovinification and carbonic maceration. The analyses performed were alcohol, total acidity, reducing sugar, ash, dry extract, phenolic and volatile compounds and mineral elements. The quality was evaluated by sensory analysis. Data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA and to analysis of variance, where the three first axes explained 68.2% of the total variation. The PCA permitted to separate the wines of carbonic maceration from the other two vinification processes. The variables presenting important

  1. Antioxidant effect of extract of the grape seed in streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousof Doostar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder as old as mankind and its incidence is considered to be high all over the world. Oxidative stress is strongly associated with development and the complications of diabetes. Antioxidant agents, especially with the origin of plants, are of more importance in the treatment of diabetic complications. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extract of the grape seed on antioxidants status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Material and methods: In this laboratory experimental study which conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz research center. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups including healthy control group, healthy group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg, diabetic control group and diabetic group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg. The experimental rats were treated in related groups for 12 weeks and at the end of experiment serum level of malonaldehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured in red blood cells. Statistically, comparison of the groups was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p< 0.05. Results: Diabetic rats showed significant increase in the value of MDA and a decrease in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Oral administration of grape seed extract resulted in significant reduction in the level of MDA and significant increase in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetes and show the anti-oxidative effect of grape seed extract

  2. Antioxidant activity of white grape seed extracts on DPPH radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćetković Gordana S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition and antioxidant activity of grape seed extract (GSE obtained from red grape varietes are very well documented, in contrast to the white varietes. This paper presents the results of polyphenols content of ethyl acetate extract of grape seeds, obtained from two white grape varieties, Italian Riesling and Župljanka, and their antioxidant activity on the stable DPPH radical. The influence of the addition of GSE to raspberry juice on the DPPH radical was also examined. Content of total polyphenols in GSEs ranged between 81.6 and 82.8% (w/w, and the contetn of flavan-3-ols between 66.2 and 91.0% (w/w. HPLC results showed that the most abundant components in the extract were (+-catechin and (--epicatechin for both grape varieties. All tested GSEs exhibited good antioxidant activity. IC50 values for the GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka were 0.79 and 0.95 mg sample/mg DPPH radical, respectivelly. Since the GSE of Italian Riesling possesed stronger antioxidant activity, it was used for further experiments. The IC50 value for raspberry juice was 4.18 mg raspberry juice/mg DPPH. The raspberry juice with addition of 0.60 μg/mL of GSE showed antioxidant activity of 39.2%. The same juice with the threefold concentration of vitamin C (1.81 μg/ml exhibited similar antioxidant activity (33.9%. Antioxidant activity of the same amount of juice without added antioxidants was lower (15.7%. The results showed that the GSE of white varietes could be considered as a good functional food ingredient.

  3. Validation of a nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and the accurate quantification by isotopic dilution of glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one in white grape juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Aurélie; Vialaret, Jérôme; Moniatte, Marc; Rigou, Peggy; Razungles, Alain; Schneider, Rémi

    2010-03-01

    A rapid nanoLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3-mercapto-hexan-1-ol (3MH) and 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one in grape juice using stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA). The analytes were extracted from must using a cation exchange resin and purified on C18 cartridges. They were chromatographically separated on a reverse phase column and finally analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM) using deuterated analogues as standards except for glutathionylated conjugate of 4MMP which was analyzed by external calibration. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization recommendations by determining linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect, repeatability, intermediate reproducibility, LODs and LOQs. Calibration for each precursor was determined by performing Lack-of-Fit test and the best fitting for 3MH precursors was a quadratic model whereas a linear model was better adapted for 4MMP precursors. All calibration curves showed quite satisfactory correlation coefficients (R(2)>0.995 for SIDA quantification and R(2)>0.985 for external calibration). Quantification by SIDA and external calibration allowed a high level of accuracy since the averaged value ranged from 80 to 108%. Quantification of aroma precursors was accurate and reproducible over five days since intermediate precision (same analyst, same sample and same apparatus), which was evaluated by the calculation of RSD was inferior to 16%. Limits of quantification for G3MH and G4MMP were closed to 0.50 and 0.07 nmol/L and as 4.75 and 1.90 nmol/L for Cys3MH and Cys4MMP respectively. This method was applied to the quantification of precursors into several types of grape juices: Melon B., Sauvignon, Riesling and Gewurztraminer. PMID:20122692

  4. Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equil

  5. Bioactive amines in Brazilian wines: types, levels and correlation with physico-chemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange C. Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of ten bioactive amines and the physico-chemical characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot wines from Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, vintage of 1999 were investigated. The physico-chemical characteristics varied significantly: pH from 3.80 to 4.07, total acidity from 67.7 to 85.3 meq/L, alcohol content from 11.45 to 12.46 mL/100 mL and total SO2 from 9.6 to 102 mg/L. Six amines were detected in every sample - spermidine, putrescine, histamine, tyramine, serotonine and phenylethylamine. Total amine levels ranged from 2.03 to 7.60 mg/L. Putrescine was the prevalent amine, contributing with 20 to 66% of total levels. The amine profile and total levels were affected to a greater extent by vinification practices compared to grape type. There was significant correlation between some amines and also between amines and the physico-chemical parameters. Histamine levels were well below limits recommended by several countries.Os teores de aminas bioativas e as características físico-químicas de Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc e Merlot da região de Bento Gonçalves, RS, safra de 1999, foram analisados. As características físico-químicas variaram significativamente: pH de 3,80 a 4,07; acidez total de 67,7 a 85,3 meq/L, teor alcoólico de 11,45 a 12,46 mL/100 mL e SO2 total de 9,6 a 102 mg/L. Seis aminas estavam presentes em todas as amostras - espermidina, putrescina, histamina, tiramina, serotonina e feniletilamina. Os teores totais de aminas variaram de 2,03 a 7,60 mg/L. Putrescina foi a amina predominante, contribuindo com 20 a 66% do total. O perfil de aminas foi mais afetado pela vinícola do que pelo tipo de uva. Houve correlação significativa entre aminas e também entre aminas e parâmetros físico-químicos. Os teores de histamina detectados são inferiores aos limites máximos estipulados para o vinho em outros países.

  6. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  7. Life history and assessment of grapevine phylloxera leaf galling incidence on Vitis species in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidart, María Valeria; Mujica, María Valentina; Bao, Leticia; Duarte, Felicia; Bentancourt, Carlos María; Franco, Jorge; Scatoni, Iris Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Grapevine phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) is a worldwide pest of Vitis species. It has forms that feed on leaves and roots. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivars, while leaf forms predominate on Vitis species from its native American range. Recently, high densities of D. vitifoliae infestations in leaves of V. vinifera in Brazil, Peru, and Uruguay have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the seasonal development of grape phylloxera, quantify infestation levels on V. vinifera leaves, and compare them with infestation levels on leaves of a rootstock of American origin. Studies were conducted in two vineyards in Uruguay from 2004-2007. Terminal shoots of 3309 C and Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tannat, Viognier, grafted onto resistant rootstock, were sampled weekly and leaves examined for gall presence and insect life stage. First galls were detected in early October; eggs began to appear within two weeks. Two oviposition peaks occurred by the end of December, and they coincided with bursts of shoot growth. On 3309C rootstock, oviposition peaks were more frequent than on the European cultivars. Based on thermal accumulation, D. vitifoliae could complete eight generations a year in Uruguay. Rootstock 3309C suffered the greatest damage but in some cases was similar to the European cultivars. Damage to Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Viognier were also high. There were no galls on Tannat. The 2005-2006 season was characterized by low infestation rates caused by a prolonged drought that affected vegetative growth. There were also differences between vineyards, where the vigorous plants suffering more damage. Leaf galling phylloxera incidence and damage were mainly associated to the cultivar but plant vigor and environmental factors also contributed to increase the incidence. PMID:23667822

  8. Acetobacter aceti fast identification by Real Time PCR in spoiled wine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a beverage that made from grape berries. However, without beneficial bacteria, we would not produce good wine. But very often wines contain acetic acid bacteria, which are undesirable in winemaking process. Acetic acid bacteria as known as a vinegar bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and ubiquitous bacteria. This study was focused on species of acetic acid bacteria, specifically Acetobacter aceti that make spoilage in wine.The aim of our study was the identification of Acetobacter aceti in spoiled red wine samples, with plate dilution method on agar plates and using sensitive Real-time PCR (qPCR method. We cultivated Acetobacter aceti on GYC agar at 30°C, 48h. The one of main objective in the present work was the test fast, sensitive and reliable technique such as quantitative Real-time PCR and detecting the presence of Acetobacter aceti in wine samples with positive Acetobacteraceti control on amplification plot and melting curve. The next objective before  qPCR analysis was DNA extraction from wine samples incubated for one week at 28°C aerobically. We used five different red wine samples for this experiment: Alibernet 2013, Blaufränkisch 2013, Cabernet Sauvignon 2013, Dunaj 2012 and Saint-Laurent 2012. Next we extracted DNA from wine samples and from pure Acetobacter aceti CCM 3620T strain purchased from Czech collection of microorganisms in Brno. Susceptibility ofAcetobacter aceti was varied in different isolates from 102 to 107 CFU.mL-1. The number of Acetobacter cells on GYC medium ranged from 4.05 to 4.83log CFU.mL-1 in differentwine samples.The higher number of Acetobacter cells (4.83 log CFU.mL-1 was found in Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 wine.

  9. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth.

  10. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  11. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  12. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth. PMID:26776019

  13. PPPM and TreePM methods on GRAPE systems for Cosmological N-body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, K; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Fukushige, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    We present Particle-Particle-Particle-Mesh (PPPM) and Tree Particle-Mesh (TreePM) implementations on GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-6A systems, special-purpose hardware accelerators for gravitational many-body simulations. In our PPPM and TreePM implementations on GRAPE, the computational time is significantly reduced compared with the conventional implementations without GRAPE, especially under the strong particle clustering, and almost constant irrespective of the degree of particle clustering. We carry out the survey of two simulation parameters, the PM grid spacing and the opening parameter for the most optimal combination of force accuracy and computational speed. We also describe the parallelization of these implementations on a PC-GRAPE cluster, in which each node has one GRAPE board, and present the optimal configuration of simulation parameters for good parallel scalability.

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  15. Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa Soto; Elena Falqué; Herminia Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sou...

  16. Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics.

  17. MULTI-RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN GRAPES IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Pujeri, U. S.; A.S.Pujari; S. C. Hiremath; M.S.Yadawe

    2010-01-01

    Fruit samples of grapes were analyzed for pesticide residues, employing multi-residue analysis by gas- liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS/ LCMS/ MS). All the fruit samples showed the presence of pesticide residues with one or other group of pesticides. Some of the grape samples contain more than the minimum residue limit. The increasing interest in the study of pesticides in grapes is justified from an enological point of view, since some pesticides can interfere with fermentativ...

  18. An analysis of relationship between food safety and pesticides usages of grape growers in Manisa province

    OpenAIRE

    Karabat Selçuk; Atis Ela

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in Manisa which has the largest vineyard areas and grape production of Turkey. In this research, awareness of environment and pesticide using attitudes of growers and effects on food safety of pesticides were investigated. Main data of the study was collected by survey from 117 grape growers which are settled in Manisa province where sultana production is very widespread. Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), for reaching quality raisin and table grape target, ...

  19. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur; Giuliano Elias Pereira; Juliana Alvarenga Alves; Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quanti...

  20. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Dilara Konuk; Figen Korel

    2015-01-01

    Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C) were determined...

  1. Influence of Soil and Irrigation Management on the Quality of Seedless Crimson Table Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, R.; Agulheiro, C; Shahidian, S.; Vaz, M.; Rato, A.; Vieira, F; Valverde, P.

    2014-01-01

    The market for table grapes is moving into mass production of specialty seed-less grapes in covered areas, aiming at obtaining premium prices with early or late production of high quality products. Production of quality seedless grapes is not straightforward since it is requires the correct combination of various independent characteristics, such as color, sugars, size and quantity at the right moment for successful harvesting and marketing. The present study was carried out at...

  2. Acceleration Method of Neighbor Search with GRAPE and Morton-ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, T. R.; J. Koda

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new method to accelerate neighbor searches on GRAPE, i.e. a special purpose hardware that efficiently calculates gravitational forces and potentials in $N$-body simulations. In addition to the gravitational calculations, GRAPE simultaneously constructs the lists of neighbor particles that are necessary for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). However, data transfer of the neighbor lists from GRAPE to the host computer is time consuming, and can be a bottleneck. In fact, the da...

  3. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu FM; Du B; Li J

    2015-01-01

    Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems) poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphen...

  4. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Soural; Naděžda Vrchotová; Jan Tříska; Josef Balík; Štěpán Horník; Petra Cuřínová; Jan Sýkora

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. ...

  5. Terpene evolution during the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Siebert, Tracey; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward William R; Howell, Kate

    2016-08-01

    The flavour of wine is derived, in part, from the flavour compounds present in the grape, which change as the grapes accumulate sugar and ripen. Grape berry terpene concentrations may vary at different stages of berry development. This study aimed to investigate terpene evolution in grape berries from four weeks post-flowering to maturity. Grape bunches were sampled at fortnightly intervals over two vintages (2012-13 and 2013-14). In total, five monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenes, and four norisoprenoids were detected in grape samples. The highest concentrations of total monoterpenoids, total sesquiterpenes, and total norisoprenoids in grapes were all observed at pre-veraison. Terpenes derived from the same biosynthetic pathway had a similar production pattern during berry development. Terpenes in grapes at harvest might not necessarily be synthesised at post-veraison, since the compounds or their precursors may already exist in grapes at pre-veraison, with the veraison to harvest period functioning to convert these precursors into final products. PMID:26988525

  6. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF SHKODA GRAPE AND ITS SELECTION OF USAGE DIRECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Герус, Л. В.; Калмикова, I. С.; Ковальова, I. А.; Федоренко, M. Г.

    2014-01-01

    The study of Shkoda grape of the new generation of selection of the National Research Center “Institute of Winegrowing and Winemaking named after V. E. Tairov” was conducted to identify the suitability of this sort to consume it fresh and use it in the winemaking.The  characteristics of Shkoda grape was given compared with wide district Karaburnu grape for table use in Odessa Region and sorts of a new selection grape – Arkadia, Flora, Muscat Pearl, Kardishakh. The mechanical analysis of the g...

  9. Grape juice quality control by means of ¹H nmr spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva Grandizoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of ¹H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single ¹H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration.

  10. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Garcia-Jares; Alberto Vazquez; Juan P. Lamas; Marta Pajaro; Marta Alvarez-Casas; Marta Lores

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot b...

  11. The program structure designing and optimizing tests of GRAPES physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU GuoQiang; WANG ShiYu; CHEN DeHui; XUE JiShan; SUN Jian; SHEN XueShun; SHEN YuanFang; HUANG LiPing; WU XiangJun; ZHANG HongLiang

    2008-01-01

    According to the modularization and standardization of program structure in Global/Regional Assimi-lation and Prediction System (GRAPES), the plug-compatible and transplantable regional meso-scale and global middle-range physics software package is established, The package's component integrality is comparative with the other advanced models physics. A three-level structure of connecting GRAPES physics and dynamic frame has been constructed. The friendly interface is designed for users to plug in their own physics packages. Phenomenon of grid-point storm rainfall in numerical prediction is analyzed with the numerical tests. The scheme of air vertical velocity calculation is improved. Opti-mizing tests of physics schemes are performed with the correlative parameters adjusting. The results show that the false grid-point storm rainfall is removed by precipitation scheme improving. Then the score of precipitation forecast is enhanced.

  12. New grape stems-based liqueur: Physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana; Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Pinto, Joana; Cunha, Maria; Rosa, Eduardo; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    A number of traditional liqueurs are obtained by maceration of red fruits in aqueous ethanol liquor, namely sloe berries or sour cherry. On the other hand, the exploration of residual plant material derived from the winery industry (grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems), which has been regarded as an interesting source of colored and uncolored (poly)phenols, could lead to an industrial alternative to the traditional distilled spirits produced, with valuable physicochemical and phytochemical properties. In the present work, vinification residues (grape stems) were used to produce a new beverage. The evaluation of the physic-chemical characteristics and phytochemical composition as well as the evolution of the determined parameters during maceration (90 and 180 days) allowed a number of interesting bioactive compounds to be identified. This new beverage is a liqueur with a high retention of phenolic compounds (ortho-diphenols, flavanols, flavonols, and anthocyanins), with interesting physic-chemical characteristics, that revealed significant antioxidant activity. PMID:26213054

  13. Application of pollen treated with ionizing radiation in grapes breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problem concerning the priority of investigations into transformation inducing using plant pollen irradiation method is raised. Data on investigations into grape predominant type pollen irradiation with rigid 1-100 Gy dose gamma rays are considered. Using grape seedling morphological index analysis it is shown that gene transformation inducing is possible using high dose pollen irradiation for cross pollination process. Advantages of the given method are indicated: application of irradiated pollen for pollination allows one to transmit certain characters to progeny at some stages - without impregnation (1); with pollen irradiation dose increase the number of male plant characters transmitted to progeny is reduced (2); deep recessive characters of one of the parent plants can be manifested in progeny or valuable neoplasms can even occur

  14. Influence of gamma radiation on grapes color during storage period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Araujo, Michel M.; Silva, Priscila V.; Silveira, Ana P.M.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: agsantillo@gmail.com, e-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    In general food contains some components that are very sensible to irradiation processing and if radiation dose is higher, can cause some harmful transformation in taste, odor and flavor in these foods, present in very lower concentrations, regulating their appearance and nutritious value. The ionizing radiation application in order to preserve and disinfect food is used for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms, extending the shelf life and reducing the loss of crops during storage of the product. The genus Vitis is the main representative of the Vitaceae family due to the nutritional importance of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.), widely consumed 'in natura'. The V. vinifera produces a fruit of great nutritional value to humans. The quality and acceptance of products are associated with sensory parameters such as color, which is the primary criterion for acceptance by the consumer. Anthocyanins are generally unstable when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. The flavonoids are largely distributed in nature and are responsible for most of blue, purple and all shades of red colors. In vines, these compounds are responsible for the color of the grape skin and are also found in the flesh of some varieties of grapes. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on color of grapes at different days of storage. The irradiation will be in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 0 and 4.5 kGy. The samples will be stored at room and refrigerated temperature for 21 days. The evaluation of color will be analyzed through 'L', 'a' and 'b' parameters. (author)

  15. Influence of gamma radiation on grapes color during storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general food contains some components that are very sensible to irradiation processing and if radiation dose is higher, can cause some harmful transformation in taste, odor and flavor in these foods, present in very lower concentrations, regulating their appearance and nutritious value. The ionizing radiation application in order to preserve and disinfect food is used for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms, extending the shelf life and reducing the loss of crops during storage of the product. The genus Vitis is the main representative of the Vitaceae family due to the nutritional importance of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.), widely consumed 'in natura'. The V. vinifera produces a fruit of great nutritional value to humans. The quality and acceptance of products are associated with sensory parameters such as color, which is the primary criterion for acceptance by the consumer. Anthocyanins are generally unstable when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. The flavonoids are largely distributed in nature and are responsible for most of blue, purple and all shades of red colors. In vines, these compounds are responsible for the color of the grape skin and are also found in the flesh of some varieties of grapes. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on color of grapes at different days of storage. The irradiation will be in 60Co source at doses of 0 and 4.5 kGy. The samples will be stored at room and refrigerated temperature for 21 days. The evaluation of color will be analyzed through 'L', 'a' and 'b' parameters. (author)

  16. Ecofeminism in Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 张云霞

    2014-01-01

    John Steinbeck is one of the greatest American writers. Steinbeck can be regarded as the“common people writer”because of his depict of the common people’s miserable and gloomy life. The Grapes of Wrath is one of the most important works in American history. For years, critics have analyzed it from different aspect. This essay aims to analyze it from the perspective of ecofeminism so as to show a different meaning of the work.

  17. Talking about economics using "The grapes of Wrath”

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Paulo

    2003-01-01

    A hundred years after John Steinbeck's birth, I found in this date a good reason to approach The Grapes of Wrath as an introductory suggestion to some concepts of Economics to the students of the Social Communication Course of the University of Minho. These students present a diversified cultural baggage, but, however, they acknowledge a deep lack of specific preparation in the quantitative domains, which can unchain some previous aversion to subjects such as Statistics or Economics. With the...

  18. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; Xue, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly ...

  19. Grapes and crepes: a parody based on architextuality

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Ramos

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the Simpsons' reframing of the book The Grapes of Wrath (1939) by John Steinbeck. Parody is discussed as an effect of language and the article also raises questions about animation as a means to redefine, subvert and challenge orthodox views of the human experience in different cultures and, in this case, especially applied to the North American culture. This Simpsons episode, which aims to parody the lifestyle of a North American middle class family, satirizes aspects o...

  20. GRAPE WINES, PROBLEMS OF THEIR QUALITY AND REGIONAL ORIGIN EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yakuba, Yu. F.; Kaunova, A. A.; Temerdashev, Z. A.; Titarenko, V. O.; Halafjan, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of articles and normative documents for quality control and regional origin of wines was carried out. Chemical composition of the grapes and the wine has been considered, qualitative and quantitative changes during vinification, maturation and aging of wine were shown. The basic group of compounds contents and ratios which determine the qualitative characteristics of wines, as well as have an important role in the formation of aroma and taste of the drink was found. The prerequis...

  1. Potential ergogenic activity of grape juice in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; Tavares, Renata Leite; Toscano, Luciana Tavares; Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira da; Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro de; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that certain food products have ergogenic potential similar to that of sports supplements. The present study aimed to investigate the potential ergogenic effect of integral purple grape juice on the performance of recreational runners. Twenty-eight volunteers of both sexes (age, 39.8 ± 8.5 years; peak oxygen consumption, 43.2 ± 8.5 mL/(kg·min)) were randomized into either a group that received grape juice (grape juice group (GJG), n = 15; 10 mL/(kg·min) for 28 days) or a group that received an isocaloric, isoglycemic, and isovolumetric control beverage (control group (CG), n = 13). A time-to-exhaustion exercise test, anaerobic threshold test, and aerobic capacity test were performed, together with assessments of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, immune response, and muscle injury, performed at baseline and 48 h after the supplementation protocol. The GJG showed a significant increase (15.3%) in running time-to-exhaustion (p = 0.002) without significant improvements in either anaerobic threshold (3.6%; p = 0.511) or aerobic capacity (2.2%; p = 0.605). In addition, GJG exhibited significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (38.7%; p = 0.009), vitamin A (11.8%; p = 0.016), and uric acid (28.2%; p = 0.005), whereas α-1-acid glycoprotein significantly decreased (20.2%; p = 0.006) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels remained unchanged. In contrast, no significant changes occurred in any of these variables in the CG. In conclusion, supplementation with purple grape juice shows an ergogenic effect in recreational runners by promoting increased time-to-exhaustion, accompanied by increased antioxidant activity and a possible reduction in inflammatory markers. PMID:26288392

  2. Estimation of water diffusivity parameters on grape dynamic drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Inês N.; Miranda, João M.R.; Brandão, Teresa R. S.; Cristina L.M. Silva

    2010-01-01

    A computer program was developed, aiming at estimating water diffusivity parameters in a dynamic drying process with grapes, assessing the predictability of corresponding non-isothermal drying curves. It numerically solves Fick’s second law for a sphere, by explicit finite differences, in a shrinking system, with anisotropic properties and changing boundary conditions. Experiments were performed in a pilot convective dryer, with simulated air conditions observed in a solar dryer, for modellin...

  3. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and one unidentified genus Mycelium sterillium without creation fruiting bodies. The most frequent were genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The most frequent Aspergillus species was Aspergillus section Nigri (100 % and Penicillium species was Penicillium chrysogenum (50 %. The largest number of isolates belonged to Alternaria (275 isolates, Cladosporium (114 isolates and Penicillium (92 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 42 %, 19.6 % and 15.8 %, respectively. The selected isolates – Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1, G1 and cyclopiazonic acid producing ability. Out of 11 strains 54 % produced at least one mycotoxin. In our research ochratoxigenic microfungi (some species of Aspergillus section Nigri were found in grape samples but without production of OTA.

  4. Preservation effect of high energy electron beam on kyoho grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoho grapes were kept in cold storage of-0.5 degree C ∼ 0.5 degree C, RH 85% ∼ 95% after irradiation of 400, 700, 1000, 1500, 2500 Gy and SO2 treatment, and the antiseptic effect and storage quality were studied. The result showed that high energy electron beam could control the growth of bacteria, mould, yeast, coliform, alleviate the deterioration of grapes during storage. Irradiation below the dose 1000 Gy can decrease the respiration intensity, prevent the decreasing of titratable acid, ascorbic acid content, and keep higher activity of SOD enzyme. The Vc content was 3.79 mg /100 g after 700 Gy irradiation 90 days, the titratable acid and total soluble sugar content were 0.348%, 11.44%, and the activity of SOD was 14.89 U /g, which was higher than the control significantly (P 2 bleaching spot. Integrate the effects on microorganism control and grape quality, treatment of 700 Gy had the best preservation effect in this study. After preserved for 98 d, the good fruit rate of 700 Gy treatment was 93.33% , significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). (authors)

  5. Assessment and utilization of spontaneous sport mutant of grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous sport mutant of Fujiminori was discovered in grape garden of Xiaying county at Ningbo city in 1993. The biological, botanical characteristics and fruit quality trait (such as total soluble solid, titratable acid, total water soluble sugar, reducing sugar, free Vc, organic acid and aroma etc.) of the mutant were continuously investigated from 1994 to 1999. The results showed that the sport mutant grew more vigorously, having multiple-bearing capacity in the year cycle. Fruit quality determination demonstrated that total soluble sugar, reducing sugar, soluble solids content and aroma contents of the mutant were higher than those of maternal plant in different degree, while titratable acid content of mutant was deceased. Meanwhile, it was also found that the berries of mutant are firmer and have longer storage life. The RAPD analysis of the genomic DNAs extracted from the young leaves of the spontaneous sport mutant indicated that there were some differential bands in the PCR amplified products using the arbitrary primers, which indicated the genotype diversity happened in the spontaneous mutation of grape.The mutant had been successfully developed the new grape variety named as 'Yongyou No. 1' via selection breeding method. The variety was approved by Ningbo Science and Technology Bureau in 1999 and was rapidly planted at other regions, such as Fenghua County, Yuyao County, Cixi County, Ninghai County, Shaoxing City, Jiaxing City and Hangzhou City, etc. Due to its high quality and productivity, it exhibits the extensive application potential in the future. (author)

  6. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity.

  7. 不同酶和酵母对干红葡萄酒香气影响的差异分析%Effection of different yeasts and maceration enzymes on aromatic components of cabernet gernischt red wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何英霞; 蒋玉梅; 李霁昕; 米兰; 马腾臻; 杭洁; 陈玉蓉; 胡妍芸

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide technical support for the production of high-aroma quality wine in Gansu Hexi Corridor, the volatile compounds of Cabernet Gernischt red wine were analyzed by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, three maceration enzymes (EX-V, EX and HC), two yeast strains (BDX and D254) were used to prepare samples respectively and the volatile compounds of samples were compared and analyzed. The results showed that 75 compounds were identified in Cabernet Gernischt red wine, in which esters, alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes were the major compounds;56、46 and 44 compounds were identified in samples added with EX, EX-V and HC maceration enzymes respectively, while 44 and 50 compounds were identified in fermented wine by D254 and BDX yeasts. The total concentration of volatile compounds in EX-V an d D254 samples was significantly higher than EX、HC and BDX samples, the differences of aroma compounds among Cabernet Gernischt wine fermented by different maceration enzymes and yeast strains were not obvious, while the trace aroma compounds were significantly different. The aroma contribution of compounds depends on odor activity value, i.e., OAV (concentration:the threshold value). According to OAVs, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl caprylate , ethyl caprate, Hexanol, phenethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol contribute much to main aroma compounds of Cabernet Gernischt red wine. It was generally recognized that aroma substances could contribute to the overall aroma when its concentration reached at 20%of threshold (OAV>0.2), and 20 compounds were identified as OAV>0.2 in the tested Cabernet Gernischt red wine, β-damascenone and geraniol could provide lemon, orange and other fruit flavor, phenethyl alcohol gived flavor of rose to wine, hexanol gived grass to wine , ethyl butyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl caprylate gived flavor of pear, banana

  8. Developing and testing a diagnostic probe for grape phylloxera applicable to soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Karen; Powell, Kevin; Mckay, Alan; Hartley, Di; Herdina; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Schiffer, Michele; Hoffmann, Ary

    2008-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera Phylloxeridae) is a damaging pest of grapevines (Vitis spp.) around the world, and the management of this pest requires early detection of infestations. Here, we describe the development and validation of a sensitive DNA test for grape phylloxera that can be applied to soil. Species-specific primers were developed for grape phylloxera in the internal transcribed space region 2, and their specificity was confirmed after thorough screening by using a wide range of vineyard organisms and aphid genera. Preliminary testing of the detection limits of the grape phylloxera-specific primers was conducted using field-sourced soil types spiked with a known number of grape phylloxera. The assay was converted to a real-time polymerase chain reaction format (TaqMan MGB). This assay, in combination with DNA extraction from soil, can detect phylloxera crawlers added to soil. The assay was evaluated in the field at a recently detected grape phylloxera infestation site from the Yarra Valley in Victoria, Australia. The DNA assay proved to be substantially more sensitive than a standard ground survey for detecting grape phylloxera presence on vine roots in the infested vineyard. Moreover, unlike the ground survey, the assay provided quantitative information on grape phylloxera infestations, because grape phylloxera DNA concentrations in samples from vines closely matched the numbers of grape phylloxera crawlers collected with emergence traps placed at the base of vines. Unlike other detection techniques, the method can be applied at any time of the year, and it can be potentially modified to provide specific information on the virulence levels of the particular grape phylloxera genotypes responsible for any new infestations. PMID:19133477

  9. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Paola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of grape skin and seeds on liver fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Mi-Ok; Moon, Jeon-OK

    2010-01-01

    Grape is one of the most popular and widely cultivated fruits in the world. Although grape skin and seeds are waste product of the winery and grape juice industry, these wastes contain large amounts of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, and anthocyanidins, which play an important role as chemopreventive and anticancer agents. We evaluated efficacies of grape skin and seeds on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Treatment with DMN significantly increase...

  11. Origin of (-)-geosmin on grapes: on the complementary action of two fungi, botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; Chamont, Sophie; Blancard, Dominique; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe

    2005-08-01

    One of the consequences of rot on grapes is the development of volatile compounds giving fungal, mouldy or earthy odours. Among these compounds, (-)-geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol), a powerful aromatic compound with an earthy smell is a persistent defect in grape juice and wines made with at least partially rotten grapes. A microbiota analysis of rotten grapes containing (-)-geosmin was carried out on sites from four French regions from 1999 to 2002, to clarify the involvement in geosmin appearance of Streptomyces spp. and Penicillium spp., two types of microorganisms present on grape, that are known for their ability to produce geosmin. In earthy grapes, Botrytis cinerea was largely present. Different species of Streptomyces were also isolated, but their pH sensitivity was an extremely limiting parameter for their development on grape juice, grapes or stem, and consequently for their potentiality to generate geosmin in the vineyard. Penicillium expansum, producing geosmin on a model medium, was omnipresent. Penicillium carneum, which is also a geosmin producer, was represented by a single colony during the 4 years of this study. P. expansum alone was able to produce geosmin on a model medium but not on grapes. However, after 7 days' pre-culture of some B. cinerea strains on grape juice, this juice became favourable to geosmin production by P. expansum. We demonstrated the necessary and complementary action of B. cinerea and P. expansum in geosmin production in grape juice and in crushed grape berries.

  12. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  13. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  14. Grape Juice as a Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A; Mangan, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as a bait for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice bait with established A. suspensa protein-based baits (ammonium acetate + putrescine lures, or torula yeast) or wine, a bait found previously to be attractive to Z. indianus. Effects of different preservatives (polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, proxel, or sodium tetraborate) and bait age were also tested. Traps with grape juice baits captured more A. suspensa than unbaited traps, but more were captured in traps with grape juice plus preservative baits and the highest numbers were captured in traps containing the established protein-based baits. In contrast, grape juice baits without preservative that were prepared on the day of deployment (0 d) or that were aged for 3-4 d in the laboratory captured the highest numbers of Z. indianus, while solutions that were aged in the laboratory for 6 or 9 d captured fewer. Although these studies found that aqueous grape juice is a poor bait for A. suspensa, we found that actively fermenting aqueous grape juice may be an effective bait for Z. indianus.

  15. Mycotoxins in grapes and wine in Europe: Occurence, factors affecting the occurence and related toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission has established maximum levels for ochratoxin A in wine and grape products, using occurrence data up to 2001 and toxicity data up to 2006. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins in grapes and wine produced in Europe in the period 1

  16. ‘BRS MAGNA’ – a novel grape cultivar for juice making, with wide climatic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ritschel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Magna’ is a-novel cultivar to make grape juice, which presents intermediate productive cycle and wide climatic adaptation, released as an alternative to improve the color, the sweetness and the flavor of grape juice in Brazil.

  17. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  18. THE TABLE GRAPE CULTIVATION AND MARKETING THEM TO I.N.C.D.B.H. STEFANESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bădulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing table grapes offers manufacturers a range of priorities, compared to growing grapes for wine. It should be considered that by making table grapes, obtaining income is recorded immediately. If several varieties are cultivated end cooking time staggered, these revenues are obtained over a period of time. Table grape varieties are more productive (15 to 17 t / ha, so the profit will be higher. For table grape varieties all depends on quality. If respected cultivation technology of these grapes, then it will get a good harvest and a good price. This paper presents the results obtained Ştefăneşti -Arges vineyard productivity, quality and quantity production of grape varieties: Argessis, Canner, Muscat Hamburg and Victoria. In the period 2011-2013 these varieties registered commercial maturity amounts of sugars between 127,9-155,2 g/l was staggered harvest period from 15.08, up to 25.10. Variety Argessis noted the largest production cargo 17 t/ha and most enjoy table part of the grapes.

  19. Development of Table and Raisin Grapes With High Anthocyanins Using a Leaf Disk Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthocyanins are considered an excellent source of antioxidant phytochemicals for health benefits. The majority of wine, table and raisin grapes have anthocyanins only in their colored skin. Anthocyanin content of grapes would be increased if their flesh also contained anthocyanins. Rubired wine ...

  20. Wine Grape Production: A Promising Enterprise for Small Scale Enterprises in North Carolina?

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson-Moore, Kenrett Y.; Bynum, Jarvetta S.; Mosley, Jannety M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate wine grape production as a promising enterprise for small scale enterprises in North Carolina. Although results indicate that wine grape production is an ideal alternative enterprise for small scale producers, growers will have to wait at least 15 years to receive a complete return on the initial investment.

  1. Generation of Valuable Nanomaterials Using Biodegradable Waste: Rags to Riches Story of Red Grape Pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our sustainable research endeavors pertaining to environmental remediation, we envisioned utilizing winery waste, red grape pomace, as a primary source for the dual role of reduction of inorganic salts and capping of the ensuing nanomaterials This study shows that red grape po...

  2. The influence of virus diseases on grape polyphenols of cv. 'Refosk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors can modulate the synthesis of polyphenols in the plants. Cv. 'Refosk' was used to show the influence of the GLRaV-1 and rugose wood (RW) on the polyphenols in grape. The infection shifted polyphenols from seeds to grape skins but had no impact on anthocyanins

  3. SAPPORO: A way to turn your graphics cards into a GRAPE-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Gaburov; S. Harfst; S. Portegies Zwart

    2009-01-01

    We present Sapporo, a library for performing high precision gravitational N-body simulations on NVIDIA graphical processing units (GPUs). Our library mimics the GRAPE-6 library, and N-body codes currently running on GRAPE-6 can switch to Sapporo by a simple relinking of the library. The precision of

  4. PTR-MS monitoring of volatiles fingerprint evolution during grape must cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitri, G.; Ruth, van S.M.; Sacchetti, G.; Piva, G.; Alewijn, M.; Arfelli, G.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of processing temperature on the evolution of volatiles during grape must concentration upon cooking. The evolution of the volatiles fingerprint of grape must heated at 80, 90, and 100 °C was studied by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectromet

  5. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher M; Wallingford, Anna K; Chen, Jianchi

    2013-01-01

    The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) causes Pierce's disease (PD), an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after 6 months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected vs. non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor. PMID:24376452

  6. Grapevine rootstock effects on scion sap phenolic levels, resistance to Xylella fastidiosa infection, and progression of Pierce’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Wallis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Xf causes Pierce’s disease (PD, an important disease of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L.. Grapevine rootstocks were developed to provide increased resistance to root disease, but rootstock effects on cane and vine diseases remain unclear. Grapevines that consisted of Cabernet Sauvignon or Chardonnay grafted to 13 different rootstocks were inoculated with Xf and evaluated for PD severity and Xf titer after six months. A subset of six rootstock/scion combinations had xylem sap phenolic levels assessed in non-infected and Xf-infected grapevines. Vigor also was analyzed by measuring root lengths and masses. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 101-14MG, 1103P, 420A, or Schwarzmann had reduced PD severity compared to Cabernet Sauvignon grafted to 110R, 5BB, or SO4. Chardonnay grafted to Salt Creek or Freedom had reduced PD severity compared to Chardonnay grafted to RS3 or Schwarzmann. Chardonnay grafted to RS3 had greater Xf titer than Chardonnay grafted to 101-14MG, Freedom, or Salt Creek. No other differences in Xf titer among rootstocks were observed. Of the six scion/rootstock combinations which had xylem sap phenolics analyzed, Chardonnay/ RS3 had the highest levels of most phenolics whereas Cabernet Sauvignon/101-14MG had the lowest phenolic levels. However, Chardonnay/101-14MG, which had mild PD symptoms, had greater sap levels of caftaric acid than other scion/rootstock combinations. Sap levels of caftaric acid, methyl salicylate, a procyanidin trimer, and quinic acid were greater in Xf-infected versus non-infected grapevines. Chardonnay on 101-14MG or Salt Creek had greater root mass than Chardonnay on RS3. Cabernet Sauvignon on 101-14MG had greater root mass than Cabernet Sauvignon on 110R. These results identified rootstocks with the capacity for reducing PD symptom progression. Rootstocks also were shown to affect Xf titer, xylem sap phenolic levels, and plant vigor.

  7. LACTIC ACID AND ACETIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was the identification of red wine microbiota during the fermentation process using a classical microbiological method and real-time PCR. The changes in different groups of microorganisms were monitored in total counts of bacteria, Lactobacillus cells and Acetobacter cells. Microbiological parameters were observed during the current collection and processing of wine in 2012. Samples were taken during the fermentation process in wine enterprises and were storaged with different conditions. During this period were examined 4 bottles of wine berween Cabernet Sauvignon and Frankovka modra. The total counts of bacteria ranged from 4.98±0.08 in the wine Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C of storage to 5.63±0.13 log CFU.ml-1 in the wine Cabernet Sauvignon at 25 °C of storage. The number of lactobacilli ranged from 2.18±0.10 in the Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C to 2.49±0.04 log CFU.ml-1 in the Frankovka modra wine at 25 °C of storage and the number of Acetobacter cells ranged from 4.21±0.04 in the Cabernet Sauvignon at 4 °C of storage to 4.52±0.15 log CFU.ml-1 in Cabernet Sauvignon at 25 °C of storage. The presence and sensitivity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter orleaniensis were detected using Real time PCR.

  8. Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

    2002-01-30

    Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

  9. WORKS AND OPERATIONS IN GREEN FOR TABLE GRAPES TO OBTAIN QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bădulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Table grapes are fruit "first consume eyes", therefore, if these varieties is very important commercial aspect of grapes, which has a decisive influence on consumer decision. If wine grape varieties, is less important commercial aspect, the basic chemical composition of grapes. To obtain beautiful, high-quality grapes must grow varieties suitable to practice the technology performance culture in which work and green jobs have a very important role. Green works and operations comprise a complex of phyto running during the growing vines. This paper includes the results of research carried out in plantations belonging INCDBH Ştefăneşti in 2011-2013 and refers to the quality characteristics of varieties Muscat d'Adda, Victoria, Augusta and Canner.

  10. Experimental investigation and empirical correlations of thin layer drying characteristics of seedless grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical model for a grapes drying chamber based on the energy balance equations for the drying air and the drying product is presented. The drying constant (k) is determined from the drying experiments of the seedless grapes. The characteristic constants c and n in Henderson's equation are also obtained using the experimental results. The empirical values of the constants K, n and c are employed for calculating the system thermal performance such as the temperature distribution and drying curves. This work presents two empirical equations for the equilibrium moisture content (M e) and the latent heat of vaporization (L) of the grapes. A test rig has been designed and constructed to obtain the experimental data used to derive the empirical equations. These two formulae are very important to evaluate the drying rate of the grapes at particular conditions and also to calculate the correct values of the latent heat of grapes as a function of the equilibrium moisture content

  11. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  12. Determination of tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, K; Simat, T J; Steinhart, H; Christoph, N; Köhler, H J; Schwab, A

    1999-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolites, especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are considered as potential precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP), an aroma compound which causes the "untypical aging off-flavor" (UTA) in Vitis vinifera white wines. In this study RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Trp and Trp-metabolites in 39 grapes, 22 grape musts and 16 wines, to which different viticultural conditions (ripeness, pruning, strip of leaves, soil condition) have been applied. A sensitive and selective determination was achieved after solid phase extraction using an anion exchange material. Only traces of Trp-metabolites could be determined in the examined grapes and grape musts, but their amounts increased significantly during fermentation, whereas the amount of Trp decreased. Different viticultural measures, besides the time of grape harvest, showed no significant influences on the amount of Trp and Trp-metabolites.

  13. Speaking into Poetry, Light Sauvignon Language --Read MENG Hao-ran's Poetry%口语入诗 语淡味浓——解读孟浩然的几首七绝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云长

    2011-01-01

    孟浩然是唐代第一个大量写山水田园诗的人,与王维齐名,世称"王孟"。孟浩然的诗清新俊逸,流畅华美,广为流传。有些诗作口语入诗,语淡而味浓,彰显其浓厚的生活底蕴与超脱闲适,隐逸自安的情怀。%MENG Hao-ran was the first people to write nature poetry in Tang Dynasty, par with WANG Wei. The poetry of MENG was fresh toshihaya, smooth gorgeous and widespread. Some verses speaking into poetry and light sauvignon language, showed great living heritage and leisure, safely and feelings of self-seclusion.

  14. Caracterização fenológica e exigência térmica de diferentes variedades de uvas viníferas em São Joaquim, Santa Catarina - Brasil Phenological characterization and thermic requirement of distinct grapevines varieties in São Joaquim, Santa Catarina - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas viníferas nas regiões de elevada altitude do estado de Santa Catarina é recente e há poucas informações disponíveis a respeito das características fenológicas e das exigências térmicas para as variedades utilizadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o comportamento fenológico e determinar as exigências térmicas das variedades Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc e Sangiovese. A área experimental foi instalada na Estação Experimental da EPAGRI, localizada em São Joaquim (28°17'39"S; 49°55'56"W, altitude 1.415m. Os estádios fenológicos avaliados foram início da brotação, floração, mudança de cor das bagas e maturidade nos ciclos produtivos de 2004/05, 2005/06 e 2006/07. A exigência térmica das variedades foi calculada empregando-se o somatório de graus-dia, considerando-se temperatura-base para a videira de 10°C. Na colheita, a maturação tecnológica foi determinada através das análises de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável e pH. O ciclo das variedades viníferas avaliadas na região de São de Joaquim é mais longo do que o observado em outras regiões produtoras do Brasil. A duração térmica é um bom indicador de desenvolvimento das fases do ciclo da videira. Para as regiões com altitude acima de 1.300m, deve-se dar preferência para o plantio de variedades com ciclos entre 15 de setembro até 15 de abril.The grapevine production in high altitude regions of southern Brazil is recent and there is little information about the phenological stages and thermal requirements of different grape varieties. The objective of this study was to determine the phenology and thermal requirements of Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc and Sangiovese. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of São Joaquim, EPAGRI, (28°17'39" S; 49°55'56" W, altitude 1,415 meters. The

  15. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  16. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  17. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  18. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  19. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  20. Anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Bo; Choi, Soo-Kyong; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in grape skin, grape products, and peanuts as well as red wine, has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of resveratrol-amplified grape skin extracts on adipocytes. The anti-obesity effects of grape skin extracts were investigated by measuring proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The effect of grape skin ethan...

  1. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  2. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries.

  3. Effects of intercropping vines with tobacco and root extracts of tobacco on grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-yue; SU Jun-ping; LIU Wei-wei; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of grape-tobacco intercropping patterns on populations of grape phyl oxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, as wel as on the growth and development of the infested vines were evaluated in the ifeld and the impact of an aqueous tobacco root extract on grape phyl oxera was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. The aqueous tobacco root extract exhibited biological activity against this pest. The egg mortality, nymph mortality, development period, life span and female fecundity were signiifcantly affected. In the ifeld trial, grape phyl oxera populations were clearly lower as compared to the monoculture pattern. However, the rates of newly developed roots and newly infested grape roots were signiifcantly higher and lower, in intercropping patterns than in the vine monoculture, respectively. The grape phyl oxera population number on the grape roots decreased each year, and the vine trees gradual y renewed upon continuous intercropping with tobacco over three years. These results conifrmed that intercropping grapes with tobacco can effectively control grape phyl oxera in an infested vineyard. The results also indicated that additional crops could be intercropped with grapes and are effective against grape phyl oxera, which should be explored as an integrated approach for control ing the pest.

  4. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  5. An in Vitro Assessment of Interaction Between Grape Phylloxera and Indole Acetic Acid Treated Grape Plants Daktulosphaira Vitifolia (FITCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the Life table of local strain of grape phylloxera was determined to evaluate the relationship between indole acetic acid (IAA) and phylloxera on our local variety Helwani. The study was carried out by applying in vitro dual culture system. The results showed that there was a great variation in mean developmental time, female longevity, number of laid eggs and egg distribution between all IAA concentrations and plant ages. Based on the tested biological parameters of phylloxera, (Helwani) would be unsuitable host for such destructive insect as it became older and when 2mg/1 of IAA was applied to in vitro culture media. (author)

  6. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  7. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage.

  8. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage. PMID:25346603

  9. Etiology of UV-C-induced browning in var. Superior white table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, Rocío; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2005-07-27

    White table grapes, var. Superior, were treated with UV-C light after harvest to increase stilbenes concentration, especially trans-resveratrol (RES), because this may be of relevance to the health-promoting properties assigned to these compounds. However, irradiated grapes also developed some browning on the surface on the third day of storage at 22 degrees C, with the subsequent detriment in the sensorial quality of the fruit. Possible causes for browning development during storage were investigated. The phenolic-related oxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), were not specifically activated, and no new isoforms appeared upon UV-C treatment. UV-treated grapes had lower content of chlorophyll b than control grapes on the fourth day of storage, concomitant with the increase of pheophytins (chlorophyll degradation derived compounds). Microscopy data showed lower fluorescence emission in chloroplasts from the UV-treated samples, which may explain the decrease of chlorophylls content in the corresponding grape berries extracts. In addition, microscopy images showed cell wall thickening in the skin tissue of UV-treated grapes which could be considered as a general wound response in plant tissues. These results suggest that the development of browning in Superior white grapes after UV-C treatment is not closely related with the evolution of oxidative enzymes during storage and may be mainly due to the decrease of chlorophylls content. PMID:16028986

  10. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara Konuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C were determined. When comparing the fresh grape seeds with the corresponding dehydrated samples, it was shown that the drying operation led to reduction of total phenolic contents and the total phenolic contents decreased with an increase of the drying temperature. According to ABTS radical scavenging method, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC was found to be highest for fresh grape seeds and presented lower values for grape seeds dried at three different temperatures. As a result of the study, it was demonstrated that grape seed is a powerful antioxidant source and it has still high antioxidant activity after drying process. However, drying at low temperatures was put forward to be advantageous in order to reduce the losses of phenolic components.

  11. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  12. MULTI-RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN GRAPES IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S.Pujeri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit samples of grapes were analyzed for pesticide residues, employing multi-residue analysis by gas- liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS/ LCMS/ MS. All the fruit samples showed the presence of pesticide residues with one or other group of pesticides. Some of the grape samples contain more than the minimum residue limit. The increasing interest in the study of pesticides in grapes is justified from an enological point of view, since some pesticides can interfere with fermentative microflora used in wine production, as well as affect consumer safety. There were no significant differences between some pesticide levels found in the whole grape (skin and pulp and in the grape skin. Chlorpyriphos, captan, dichlorovos, oxyfluorfen, fipronoil, 4- bromo-2-chlorophenol and indoxycarb were detected. Nevertheless, consumer intake of pesticides from grapes studied in this work should be decreased as a result of water washing of the grapes. In this paper, multiresidue determination of pesticides using GCMS/ LC-MS/MS are discussed.

  13. USING A GRAPE HARVESTER IN SUPER-INTENSIVE OLIVE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellomo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. In this type of olive cultivation, trees were grown with a central axis mode and a tree distance of 4,00x1,50 m. A “Braud” grape harvesting machine for espalier vineyards was used in an experimental olive grove in Cassano delle Murge. On the basis of harvesting tests it was possible to verify that the harvesting machine is able to detach the almost all the product with an operative work capacity of 0,5 ha/h. An evaluation of harvesting cost was carried out to determine the minimum convenience growing surface, and also to estimate the increase in income per hectare which could be achieved using mechanised harvesting as opposed to manual harvesting. Moreover, in order to determine the economic limits of using the grape harvester, its performance was compared with that of other harvesting machines used in both super-intensive and traditional plantations.

  14. Diazinon residues and degradation kinetics for grapes under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Ehssan; Talebi, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    The dissipation of diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl phosphorothioate) in grapes was investigated to determine its pre-harvest interval (PHI). Diazinon was applied to grapes at the recommended dosage (0.9 g a.i. L(-1)) and twice the recommended dosage (1.8 g a.i. L(-1)) three times, at the fruit formation stage, the sour stage, and the ripening stage, in a field trial with three replications. Samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 15, 20, 26 and 32 days after spraying. The residue was extracted using a water/methanol/acetonitrile (1:1:1, v/v/v) solvent and solid phase extraction was employed for cleanup. Quantitative analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The dissipation trend for the recommended dosage and twice the recommend dosage followed the simple first-order kinetic model (SFOK) (DT(50) = 3.29 days, DT(90) = 11 days, PHI = 13.5 days) and first-order double-exponential decay (FODED) model (DT(50) = 1.08 days, DT(90) = 5.82 days, PHI = 15.29 days), respectively. The average initial deposit of diazinon at the recommended dosage was 9.04 mg kg(-1)and for twice the recommended dosage was 27.38 mg kg(-1)and it dissipated rapidly within days of spraying. PMID:23374043

  15. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the anthocyanin rich extract of grape skin. Grape skin anthocyanin (GSA neutralized free radicals in different test systems, such as 2,-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays, to form complexes with Fe2+ preventing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, GSA decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in isolated mitochondria thus inhibiting 2',-7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH oxidation. In an in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were administered GSA, at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg per kg per day orally for 30 consecutive days. Herein, we demonstrate that GSA administration significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes in mice sera, livers, and brains. Furthermore, GSA inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the in vitro assay with an IC50 value of 363.61 µg/mL. Therefore, GSA could be an excellent source of antioxidants and its inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest with regard to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  16. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  17. The clone selection studies on Siyah Gemre grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilli Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V. vinifera L.cv. “Siyah Gemre” is an important table grape variety of Mediterranean Region in Turkey. It is late sea- son, medium bunch density, round berry, red-black colored and seeded. The study was carried out to make clone selection for increasing the yield and quality in “Siyah Gemre” grape variety The project was completed in two stages. First one was selection nominees of mother clone vine and second was establishing of clonal collection vineyard. The first stage studies were carried out at grower vineyards of İsparta, Turkey surroundings where “Siyah Gemre” is grown wide spread, between 2001 and 2003. Clonal nominees were selected by using counting the cluster and shoot at the end of the project. After that, the clonal collection vineyard was established with spacing 3.0 m × 1.65 m in 2004. Twelve vines of each clonal nominees were grafted onto 110R rootstock. In the study the values of yield, number of cluster, weight of cluster, 100 berry weight, index of maturity, sensory analysis, weight of pruning and bud productivity were evaluated between 2007–2012. At the end of this study, according to the values of total point, five clone nominees were selected and among their 3, 19, 24 numbered clones were chosen in terms of total sensory analysis score, yield and stability, cluster and berry properties respectively.

  18. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  19. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS radio occultation (RO observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3 satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  20. Maturation evolution of chardonnay grape for juice preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the maturation of the “Chardonnay” grape variety for the preparation of juices and its adequacy to the current legislation. Grapes from the 2015 harvest from São Lourenço do Sul-RS were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, with the treatment factor being the maturation stages. The physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity, soluble solids, relative density, total sugar, alcohol content, volatile acidity and SS/TA ratio were carried out in EPAGRI – Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina, in the Videira Experimental Station (Videira SC/Brazil. Statistical analysis of the maturation stages was given by linear regression models. When comparing the maturation points of 17∘Brix and 19∘Brix to 15∘Brix, volatile acidity and alcohol content did not fit to the model, while the other tested variables fit properly. Elaborated juices had a decrease in titratable acidity and percentage increments for soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and total sugars for the harvest points at 17 and 19∘Brix. For 15∘Brix and 17∘Brix, nonconformity was observed with the identity and quality standards in relation to soluble solids and SS/TA ratio and relative density. At maturation point 19∘Brix all variables were found to be consistent.

  1. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients. PMID:26868559

  2. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  3. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Garcia-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo. The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately.

  4. Grape yield and quality of the grapevine cultivar limberger treated with plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Slavica R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of foliar application of paclobutrasol (PK, chlorcholinechloride (CC and gibberellic acid (GA3 on grape yield and quality of the grapevine cultivar Limberger were studied. PK and CC strongly inhibited shoot growth. The number of berries per bunch, bunch weight and grape yield per m2 were increased. At the same time, sugar content of must was either reduced (CC2000 or retained at the level of control (PK1000, CC1000. The GA150 treatment resulted in lower grape yield. At the concentration of GA3 100mg/l no significant increase in yield was found, whilst sugar content of must was significantly increased.

  5. A mechanistic approach to methylene blue sorption on two vegetable wastes: Cork bark and grape stalks

    OpenAIRE

    M. Àngels Olivella,; Núria Fiol,; Florencio de la Torre,; Jordi Poch,; Isabel Villaescusa

    2012-01-01

    Two vegetable wastes, cork bark and grape stalks, were investigated for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, dye concentration, pH, and temperature on sorption were studied relative to adsorption on a commercially-activated carbon. The highest adsorption yield was obtained within the pH range 5 to 10 for grape stalks and 7 to 10 for cork bark. The sorption kinetics of dye onto activated carbon and grape stalks was very fast. Kinetics data were fitt...

  6. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    ). However, no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes...... was 3.9 mu g day(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients...

  7. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  8. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen;

    2007-01-01

    , no significant effect was found for organophosphorus pesticides and pyrethroids, whereas the number of samples with residues of benzilates, phenylamids and triazoles was insufficient to demonstrate any significant effects. An intake calculation showed that the average intake from Italian grapes was 3.9 mu g day......(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients, the exposure were...

  9. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  10. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália. PMID:26911161

  11. Biological control of grape crown gall by strain f2/5 is not associated with agrocin production or competition for attachment sites on grape cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, T J; Reid, C L; Tagliati, E; Bazzi, C; Süle, S

    1997-07-01

    ABSTRACT Agrocin-minus mutants of nontumorigenic Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 controlled grape crown gall as well as the wild-type strain, indicating that agrocin is not a major factor in the mechanism of biological control. Relative levels of attachment to grape cells by tumorigenic and biocontrol strains were also measured. Attachment of tumorigenic strains (CG49 and K306) and biological control strains (F2/5 and agrocin-minus mutant 1077) was often reduced when mixtures of the strains were applied. However, high populations (10(3) to 10(5) CFU/ml) of all strains attached following mixed inoculations, suggesting that competition for attachment sites is also not a factor in the mechanism of biological control. Transfer of T-DNA to grape by CG49 was prevented or greatly inhibited in the presence of F2/5 or 1077 as measured by expression of the GUS reporter gene. The Ti plasmid virulence genes, however, were induced by exudates from grape shoots that had been inoculated with F2/5. Sonicated and autoclaved preparations of F2/5 and 1077 did not control crown gall or inhibit T-DNA transfer. Control by F2/5 is specific to grape, since gall formation on tomato, sunflower, and Kalanchoe daigremontiana were not inhibited. PMID:18945092

  12. Profiling the Hydrolysis of Isolated Grape Berry Skin Cell Walls by Purified Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-09-23

    The unraveling of crushed grapes by maceration enzymes during winemaking is difficult to study because of the complex and rather undefined nature of both the substrate and the enzyme preparations. In this study we simplified both the substrate, by using isolated grape skin cell walls, and the enzyme preparations, by using purified enzymes in buffered conditions, to carefully follow the impact of the individual and combined enzymes on the grape skin cell walls. By using cell wall profiling techniques we could monitor the compositional changes in the grape cell wall polymers due to enzyme activity. Extensive enzymatic hydrolysis, achieved with a preparation of pectinases or pectinases combined with cellulase or hemicellulase enzymes, completely removed or drastically reduced levels of pectin polymers, whereas less extensive hydrolysis only opened up the cell wall structure and allowed extraction of polymers from within the cell wall layers. Synergistic enzyme activity was detectable as well as indications of specific cell wall polymer associations.

  13. An analysis of relationship between food safety and pesticides usages of grape growers in Manisa province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabat Selçuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Manisa which has the largest vineyard areas and grape production of Turkey. In this research, awareness of environment and pesticide using attitudes of growers and effects on food safety of pesticides were investigated. Main data of the study was collected by survey from 117 grape growers which are settled in Manisa province where sultana production is very widespread. Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, for reaching quality raisin and table grape target, conventional and environment friendly pesticides preference priorities were estimated. The AHP was applied to determine conventional and environment friendly pesticides usages of grape growers related to food safety. As a conclusion, it is understood that this target could be reached with 66.8% using environment friendly pesticides.

  14. Oxidation phenomena and color properties of grape pomace on nitrite-reduced meat emulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Fatemeh; Zeynali, Fariba; Hoseini, Ebrahim; Behmadi, Homa; Savadkoohi, Sobhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of different levels of red grape pomace (1 and 2%, w/w) on the color changes, lipid oxidation (TBARS), antioxidant activity, microbial counts, total phenol content and sensory attributes of the sausages formulated with various levels of sodium nitrite (30, 60 and 120mg/kg). It was found that the addition of grape pomace (1%, w/w) in combination of reduced nitrite levels to the beef sausage samples reduced TBARS content and the degree of lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity and total phenol contents were further evaluated based on DPPH scavenging activity method. A significant reduction in lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of systems containing grape pomace was observed, following by an increase in the oxidative stability and the radical scavenging activity. Acceptability of beef sausages was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the addition of grape pomace and had relatively greater scores from a sensory point of view. PMID:27424305

  15. Climatic and economic parameters of the grape-wine simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Károly Szenteleki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of grape-wine product line models is depending mainly on the accuracy of the parameter estimations based on experts’ opinion. However, model parameter estimations can be based also on newly developed climatic data bases as well as other information systems concerning product lines. In this study we introduce a grape-wine simulation product line model with a new data base system of climatic parameters organized spatially for grape growing sites. The presented development plan makes a proposal for creating and maintaining an “Integrated Information System in the Grape-Wine Sector” (VINNET that enables an easier, more effective and more cost efficient collective platform leaning on the current systems. The system can serve a more accurate estimation of economic parameters that are necessary for simulation modelling.

  16. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks: Ru140, R99 and 3309C and one local variety ''Helwani'' which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety Helwani, was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. There was a positive effect of IAA on the resistance of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). (author)

  17. Advance on the bioactivity and potential applications of dietary fibre from grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Zheng, Lihong; Li, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The winemaking grape pomaces are rich in bioactive phytochemicals and dietary fibre (DF). DFs are phenolic-rich DF matrix and are dietary supplement with benefits on human health. As a result of the increased attention to sustainability of winemaking by-products, efforts have been made to use grape pomace in different bio-industries. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the bioactivity and potential applications of DF from grape pomace, as well as the chemical compositions of DF. Furthermore, the biological activities of DF such as, anti-cancer activity, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, improving gastrointestinal health activity, anti-apoptotic activity, preventing cardiovascular disease activity, anti-hypercholesterolemic activity, are discussed. Finally, the possible applications and future prospects of grape pomace DF in various fields are also summarised. PMID:25976812

  18. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-05-01

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  19. THE CHOICE OF TOURISTIC DESTINATIONS DURING THE MATURATION PERIOD OF GRAPES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape growing by everything that it means, in Romania - the high number of the big viticultural unities and their geographical repartition for the whole country, the landscape diversity created into the viticultural unit, the wine cellars and so on – is relevant for the touristic activity. To the most favourable period of the viticultural tourism in Romania, activity that takes place in the same time with the agricultural one corresponds to the maturation phase of the grapes, regardless of the fact that the grapes are forfood or wine, between the end of july and the end of October.Regarding this type of tourism, certain preferences for food grapes, for sorts for wine, tasting of wines, including unruffled and frothy DOC, usually at the level of viticultural center or field, would impede the aleatory choice of the touristic destination and of the period, that is why it is imperative for the tourist to be informed.

  20. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of grape pomace: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Mehmet; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Yanik, Jale

    2014-06-01

    Grape pomace was treated by hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-275°C) and torrefaction (nitrogen atmosphere, 250 and 300°C), with mass yield of solid product (char) ranging between 47% and 78%, and energy densification ratio to 1.42-1.15 of the original feedstock. The chars were characterised with respect to their fuel properties, morphological and structural properties and combustion characteristics. The hydrothermal carbonization produced the char with greater energy density than torrefaction. The chars from torrefaction were found to be more aromatic in nature than that from hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization process produced the char having high combustion reactivity. Most interesting was the finding that aqueous phase from hydrothermal carbonization had antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study showed that HTC appears to be promising process for a winery waste having high moisture content.

  2. Calorific evaluation and energy potential of grape pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Patrik; Ludín, David; Rutkowski, Kazimierz; Krakowiak-Bal, Anna; Trávníček, Petr; Zemánek, Pavel; Turan, Jan; Višacki, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    This article deals with energetic evaluation and potential of pomace - a waste product originating during production of grape wine. Calorimetric analysis of 19 grapevine varieties was performed in 2013 and 2014. The aim was to specify their combustible limit and the gross calorific value. The evaluations were performed on pristine pomace, pomace without seeds, and only on seeds themselves. The results obtained imply that pomace is an interesting energetic resource with a gross calorific value of 16.07-18.97 MJ kg-1. Lower calorific values were detected in pomace after seed separation ie 14.60-17.75 MJ kg-1; on the contrary, seeds alone had the highest calorific values of 19.78-21.13 MJ kg-1. It can be assumed from the results of energetic evaluation of pomace in Czech Republic conditions that, by purposeful and efficient usage of pomace, 6.4 GWh of electric energy and 28 GWh of thermal energy can be generated.

  3. Grapes and crepes: a parody based on architextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ramos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Simpsons' reframing of the book The Grapes of Wrath (1939 by John Steinbeck. Parody is discussed as an effect of language and the article also raises questions about animation as a means to redefine, subvert and challenge orthodox views of the human experience in different cultures and, in this case, especially applied to the North American culture. This Simpsons episode, which aims to parody the lifestyle of a North American middle class family, satirizes aspects of that society through subtle jokes and puns. In the referred episode, The Crepes of Wrath, there is an intertextual relationship with a novel by John Steinbeck and then it is possible to ask: How is such intertextual relationship constructed?

  4. EVOLUÇÃO DA ACIDEZ DURANTE A VINIFICAÇÃO DE UVAS TINTAS DE TRÊS REGIÕES VITÍCOLAS DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. RIZZON

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available A acidez dos vinhos influencia sua estabilidade e coloração, constituindo-se numa das características gustativas mais importantes. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez total e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de K da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três variedades tintas (Merlot, Cabernet Franc e Cabernet Sauvignon cultivadas em três regiões vitícolas do Rio Grande do Sul (Bento Gonçalves, Sant'Ana do Livramento e Pinheiro Machado. Os vinhedos utilizados eram uniformes, apresentando os mesmos sistemas de condução (espaldeira e de poda e enxertados sobre o porta-enxerto SO4. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação na safra de 1995, sendo avaliadas a evolução do pH, acidez total, ácido tartárico e K em cinco fases da vinificação: 1. imediatamente após o esmagamento da uva; 2. na descuba; 3. após a fermentação alcoólica; 4. após a fermentação maloláctica; 5. após a estabilização tartárica. Os resultados mostraram que os vinhos de Sant'Ana do Livramento apresentaram acidez total inferior aos demais vinhos, mostrando durante a vinificação os maiores acréscimos de pH. A evolução da acidez esteve bastante associada aos teores de K e de ácido tartárico encontrados inicialmente no mosto.The acidity influences the wine stability and coloration and it is one of the most important sensory attributes of wines. The total acidity and the pH vary with the salification of tartaric acid and the K content in grapes. This work evaluated the acidity evolution during vinification of three red grape varieties (Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon from three viticultural regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The vineyards were uniforms and with the same trellising and pruning systems and grafted on the SO4 rootstock. The wines were elaborated by the microvinification process in

  5. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF FRUIT JUICES ON GRAPE MUST FOR NATURAL BEVERAGE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    L. Chiusano; M.C. Cravero; Borsa, D.; C. Tsolakis; G. Zeppa; V. Gerbi

    2015-01-01

    The consumer attention for products with healthy properties is increased in time, and fruit juices, for their ease of consumption, can satisfy this demand providing them bioactive compounds.The grape juice has numerous health benefits demonstrated by several studies such as, among other, the antioxidant activities and the positive functions of their phenolic compounds. This workis aimed at blending grape and others fruits in a new fruit juice made only with natural ingredients of local produc...

  6. Nematode and Grape Rootstock Interactions Including an Improved Understanding of Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    McKenry, M. V.; Anwar, Safdar A.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen cultivars of grape were screened over a two-year period in the presence or absence of 10 different nematode populations. Populations of Meloidogyne spp., Xiphinema index, and Mesocriconema xenoplax developed more rapidly and caused greater damage than populations of X. americanum and Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Populations of mixed Meloidogyne spp. having a history of feeding on grape were among the fastest developing populations. Tolerance to nematode parasitism appeared to be based o...

  7. Systems biology of vintage and terroir: adding some flavor to the wine grape transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, Hildegarde; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Abstract High-throughput genomic tools provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the impact of environmental variables on complex phenotypes at the genome scale. We welcome the establishment of an experimental framework that uses omics approaches to determine the effect of the climate and viticultural practices on the grape berry physiology. However, in this commentary, we argue that genomics and genetics studies of wine grapes need to be integrated with descriptive sensory analysi...

  8. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-08-28

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75{+-}1.55 {mu}m versus after supplementation: 70.25{+-}1.31 {mu}m; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.

  9. Advanced Knowledge of Three Important Classes of Grape Phenolics: Anthocyanins, Stilbenes and Flavonols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Bavaresco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics. Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grapes and wines and confer organoleptic characteristics on the wine. They are used for chemotaxonomic studies and to evaluate the polyphenolic ripening stage of grape. They are natural colorants, have antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activity, exert protective effects on the human cardiovascular system, and are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Stilbenes are vine phytoalexins present in grape berries and associated with the beneficial effects of drinking wine. The principal stilbene, resveratrol, is characterized by anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity. Resveratrol dimers and oligomers also occur in grape, and are synthetized by the vine as active defenses against exogenous attack, or produced by extracellular enzymes released from pathogens in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids with photo-protection and copigmentation (together with anthocyanins functions. The lack of expression of the enzyme flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase in white grapes restricts the presence of these compounds to quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives, whereas red grapes usually also contain myricetin, laricitrin and syringetin derivatives. In the last ten years, the technological development of analytical instrumentation, particularly mass spectrometry, has led to great improvements and further knowledge of the chemistry of these compounds. In this review, the biosynthesis and biological role of these grape polyphenols are briefly introduced, together with the latest knowledge of their chemistry.

  10. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75±1.55 μm versus after supplementation: 70.25±1.31 μm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels

  11. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  12. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Mattes, Richard D.; Hendrickson, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  13. Evaluation of fungicide programs for management of Botrytis bunch rot of grapes: 2010 field trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Ian S.; Eynard, James; Gubler, W D

    2010-01-01

    Bunch rot of grapes is caused by Botrytis cinerea, a fast-growing pathogen infecting numerous crops of commercial value. Bunch rot can potentially lead to a reduction in the yield and quality of table, raisin, and wine grapes, with high economic losses in some locations or years (Flaherty et al. 1992). Botrytis overwinters as sclerotia in mummified berries on the ground or on canes. The disease can first appear as shoot blight following frequent spring rains; flowers can become infected durin...

  14. Application of Grape Pomace as a Natural Food Preservative and Source of Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Andonovic, Zorana; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Tasev, Krste; Beleski, Klime

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is utilization of the grape pomace piled up as a waste after winemaking and its application in producing biodiesel. Furthermore, a novel yoghurt product was produced, enriched with antioxidants, such as polyphenolics from the grape pomace and berries in order to improve its nutritional value, contributing to food preservation and significantly reducing the risk of diseases. In fact, for the first time we engaged these compounds in preparation of a new yoghurt product, ...

  15. A real-options analysis of wine grape farming in north west Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Emayenesh; Chan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a use of a real-options valuation methodology to analyse wine grape farm investment under price and yield uncertainty. Revenue levels to incentivise entry and exit were calculated for three different sizes of wine grape farms in North West Victoria. The modelling identified lower exit and higher entry triggers than indicated by conventional net present value calculation. The wide gap of estimated indeterminacy in farm investment highlights the intertwined influence of numer...

  16. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.

  17. Phenolic composition of the Brazilian seedless table grape varieties BRS Clara and BRS Morena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-08-10

    The detailed phenolic composition (anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, and flavan-3-ols) in the skin and flesh of the new BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless table grapes has been studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The two grapes, especially BRS Morena, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly located in their skins and qualitatively not different from those found in Vitis vinifera grapes. In addition, BRS Morena (a teinturier variety) showed qualitatively different phenolic compositions in its skin and flesh, mainly affecting the anthocyanin and flavonol profiles. Consistent with high phenolic contents, high antioxidant capacity values were registered for both grape varieties, especially for BRS Morena. Proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acids were the major phenolic compounds found in BRS Clara and were also important in BRS Morena, although anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds in the latter case. These results suggest that the entire grapes, including the skin, may potentially possess properties that are beneficial to human health. In this context, the BRS Morena grape can be considered as a high resveratrol producer.

  18. Microbial biogeography of wine grapes is conditioned by cultivar, vintage, and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Thorngate, John H; Richardson, Paul M; Mills, David A

    2014-01-01

    Wine grapes present a unique biogeography model, wherein microbial biodiversity patterns across viticultural zones not only answer questions of dispersal and community maintenance, they are also an inherent component of the quality, consumer acceptance, and economic appreciation of a culturally important food product. On their journey from the vineyard to the wine bottle, grapes are transformed to wine through microbial activity, with indisputable consequences for wine quality parameters. Wine grapes harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the surrounding environment, many of which are recognized for their role in grapevine health and wine quality. However, determinants of regional wine characteristics have not been identified, but are frequently assumed to stem from viticultural or geological factors alone. This study used a high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing approach to demonstrate that regional, site-specific, and grape-variety factors shape the fungal and bacterial consortia inhabiting wine-grape surfaces. Furthermore, these microbial assemblages are correlated to specific climatic features, suggesting a link between vineyard environmental conditions and microbial inhabitation patterns. Taken together, these factors shape the unique microbial inputs to regional wine fermentations, posing the existence of nonrandom "microbial terroir" as a determining factor in regional variation among wine grapes.

  19. Evidence of vintage effects on grape wines using 1H NMR-based metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Van Den Berg, Frans; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2009-08-19

    The chemical composition of grape wines varies with grape variety, environmental factors of climate and soil, and bacterial strains, which can each affect the wine quality. Using (1)H NMR analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data sets, we investigated the effects of grape vintage on metabolic profiles of wine and the relationship between wine metabolites and meteorological data. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear differentiation between Meoru wines that were vinified with the same yeast strain and Meoru grapes harvested from the same vineyard but with a different vintage. The metabolites contributing to the differentiation were identified as 2,3-butandiol, lactic acid, alanine, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), choline, and polyphenols, by complementary PCA loading plot. Markedly higher levels of proline, lactic acid and polyphenols were observed in the 2006 vintage wines compared to those of 2007 vintage, showing excellent agreement with the meteorological data that the sun-exposed time and rainfall in 2006 were approximately two times more and four times less, respectively, than those in 2007. These results revealed the important role of climate during ripening period in the chemical compositions of the grape. This study highlights the reliability of NMR-based metabolomic data by integration with meteorological data in characterizing wine or grape.

  20. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539