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Sample records for cabernet sauvignon grape

  1. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

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    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  2. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

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    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  3. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

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    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  4. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

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    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  5. Characterization and multivariate classification of grapes and wines of two Cabernet Sauvignon clones

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    Vívian Maria Burin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess and characterize two clones, 169 and 685, of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and to evaluate the wine produced from these grapes. The experiment was carried out in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil, during the 2009 harvest season. During grape ripening, the evolution of physical-chemical properties, phenolic compounds, organic acids, and anthocyanins was evaluated. During grape harvest, yield components were determined for each clone. Individual and total phenolics, individual and total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for wine. The clones were also assessed regarding the duration of their phenological cycle. During ripening, the evolution of phenolic compounds and of physical-chemical parameters was similar for both clones; however, during harvest, significant differences were observed regarding yield, number of bunches per plant and berries per bunch, leaf area, and organic acid, polyphenol, and anthocyanin content. The wines produced from these clones showed significant differences regarding chemical composition. The clones showed similar phenological cycle and responses to bioclimatic parameters. Principal component analysis shows that clone 685 is strongly correlated with color characteristics, mainly monomeric anthocyanins, while clone 169 is correlated with individual phenolic compounds.

  6. [Effects of different drip irrigation modes on root distribution of wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' in desert area of Northwest China].

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    Mao, Juan; Chen, Bai-Hong; Cao, Jian-Dong; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Hai; Wang, Yan-Xiu

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of different drip irrigation modes on the wine grape root distribution is the basis of formulating fertilization, irrigation, and over-wintering management practices for wine grape. Taking the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" as test material, this paper studied the effects of different water-saving irrigation modes (drip irrigation under straw mulching, drip irrigation under plastic mulching, double-tube drip irrigation, and single-tube drip irrigation) on the root distribution of wine grape in the desert area of Northwest China, with the conventional furrow irrigation as the control. The root system of the "Cabernet Sauvignon" was distributed from 0 to 70 cm vertically, and from 0 to 120 cm horizontally. With double-tube drip irrigation, the root amount was the largest (138.3 roots per unit profile), but the root vertical distribution scope was narrowed by 20 cm, as compared to the control. Drip irrigation with straw mulching increased the root amount significantly, and increased the root horizontal distribution scope by 9.1%, as compared to the control. No significant difference was observed in the root number and root horizontal distribution scope between the drip irrigation under plastic mulching and the control, but the root vertical distribution scope with the drip irrigation under plastic mulching decreased by 20 cm. Single-tube drip irrigation increased the root number significantly, but had lesser effects on the root vertical or horizontal distribution, as compared to the conventional irrigation. It was suggested that the drip irrigation under straw mulching could be the best water-saving practice for the wine grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" in the study area.

  7. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

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    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water deficit has significant effects on grape berry composition resulting in improved wine quality by the enhancement of color, flavors, or aromas. While some pathways or enzymes affected by water deficit have been identified, little is known about the global effects of water deficit on grape berry metabolism. Results The effects of long-term, seasonal water deficit on berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, a red-wine grape, and Chardonnay, a white-wine grape were analyzed by integrated transcript and metabolite profiling. Over the course of berry development, the steady-state transcript abundance of approximately 6,000 Unigenes differed significantly between the cultivars and the irrigation treatments. Water deficit most affected the phenylpropanoid, ABA, isoprenoid, carotenoid, amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways. Targeted metabolites were profiled to confirm putative changes in specific metabolic pathways. Water deficit activated the expression of numerous transcripts associated with glutamate and proline biosynthesis and some committed steps of the phenylpropanoid pathway that increased anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon. In Chardonnay, water deficit activated parts of the phenylpropanoid, energy, carotenoid and isoprenoid metabolic pathways that contribute to increased concentrations of antheraxanthin, flavonols and aroma volatiles. Water deficit affected the ABA metabolic pathway in both cultivars. Berry ABA concentrations were highly correlated with 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 transcript abundance, whereas the mRNA expression of other NCED genes and ABA catabolic and glycosylation processes were largely unaffected. Water deficit nearly doubled ABA concentrations within berries of Cabernet Sauvignon, whereas it decreased ABA in Chardonnay at véraison and shortly thereafter. Conclusion The metabolic responses of grapes to water deficit varied with the cultivar and fruit pigmentation

  8. Regulated deficit irrigation alters anthocyanins, tannins and sensory properties of cabernet sauvignon grapes and wines.

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    Casassa, Luis Federico; Keller, Markus; Harbertson, James F

    2015-04-29

    Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS), yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD) regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED) regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD) regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis) was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry) was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  9. Regulated Deficit Irrigation Alters Anthocyanins, Tannins and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes and Wines

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    Luis Federico Casassa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI regimes were applied to Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, which were analyzed for phenolics and also made into wine over three consecutive growing seasons. Relative to an industry standard regime (IS, yield was reduced over the three years by 37% in a full-deficit (FD regime and by 18% in an early deficit (ED regime, whereas no yield reduction occurred with a late deficit (LD regime. Relative to IS, skin anthocyanin concentration (fresh weight basis was 18% and 24% higher in ED and FD, respectively, whereas no effect was seen in LD. Seed tannin concentration was 3% and 8% higher in ED and FD, respectively, relative to the other two RDI regimes, whereas seed tannin content (amount per berry was higher in IS than in FD. There were no practically relevant effects on the basic chemistry of the wines. The finished wines showed concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins that generally mirrored observed differences in skin and seed phenolic concentrations, although these were amplified in FD wines. Descriptive sensory analysis of the 2008 wines showed that FD wines were the most saturated in color, with higher purple hue, roughness, dryness and harshness, followed by ED wines, whereas IS and LD wines were less saturated in color and with higher brown and red hues. Overall, FD and ED seemed to yield fruit and wine with greater concentrations of phenolics than IS and LD, with the additional advantage of reducing water usage. However, these apparent benefits need to be balanced out with reductions in crop yields and potential long-term effects associated with pre-véraison water deficits.

  10. Phenolic composition of Merlot and Cabernet-Sauvignon grapes from Bordeaux vineyard for the 2009-vintage: Comparison to 2006, 2007 and 2008 vintages.

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    Lorrain, Bénédicte; Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-06-15

    Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot skin and seed extracts from Bordeaux grapes were investigated to determine both grape variety and vintage effect on phenolic composition. The total content of polyphenols and tannins in Merlot seeds was higher than that of Cabernet-Sauvignon allowing to discriminate the varieties. HPLC analyses underlined significant differences in the absolute concentration of proanthocyanidins amongst the two varieties and in their composition: mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) and percentage of galloylation of seed extracts were good indicators of grape variety. The vintage effect on the phenolic composition was confirmed for 2009 in comparison to previous vintages. Low values of mDP and concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins were found in 2009 seeds and skins. The climatic conditions of 2009 (high rainfall before flowering followed by a strong hydric stress during berries development until ripening) let us hypothesise a lower activation of flavonoid pathway.

  11. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

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    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  12. Comparison on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot Wines from Four Wine Grape-Growing Regions in China

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    Bao Jiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities in the Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from four wine grape-growing regions in China were measured by different analytical assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, superoxide radical-scavenging activity (SRSA and the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total flavanols and total anthocyanins were determined. The results showed that the contents of phenolic compounds and the levels of antioxidant activity in the wine samples greatly varied with cultivar and environmental factors of vine growth. The contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Yuquanying region of Ningxia were significantly higher than other three regions, followed by the wines from Shacheng region of Hebei, and these parameters were the lowest in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines from the Changli regions of Hebei and Xiangning region of Shanxi. Taken together, a close relationship between phenolic subclasses and antioxidant activity was observed for the wine samples. Moreover, there were significant discrepancies in the individual phenolic composition and content of four regional Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines, among which the individual phenolic compounds (catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, laricitrin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with the antioxidant capacity in present study, especially for catechin and epicatechin.

  13. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

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    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines.

  14. Phenolic Fractions from Muscadine Grape "Noble" Pomace can Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Better than those from European Grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" and Induce S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

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    Luo, Jianming; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Shengyu; Peng, Xichun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-03-22

    Tons of grape pomace which still contained a rich amount of plant polyphenols, is discarded after winemaking. Plant polyphenols have multi-functional activities for human body. In this study, polyphenols of pomaces from Muscadinia rotundifolia "Noble" and Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon" were extracted and fractionated, and then they were analyzed with LC-MS and the inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells were compared. The inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells of fractions from "Noble" was further evaluated. The results showed that polyphenols from 2 grape pomaces could be separated into 3 fractions, and ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins were only detected in fractions from "Noble" pomace. All 3 fractions from "Noble" pomace inhibited MDA-MB-231 better than MCF-7. But fraction 2 from "Cabernet Sauvignon" inhibited MCF-7 better while fraction 1 and fraction 3 inhibited both 2 cells similarly. Moreover, the fractions from "Noble" pomace rather than "Cabernet Sauvignon" can inhibit MDA-MB-231 better. Finally, fractions from "Noble" pomace can induce S-phase arrest and apoptosis on MDA-MB-231. These findings suggested the extracts from grape pomace especially those from "Noble," are potential to be utilized as health beneficial products or even anti-breast cancer agents.

  15. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries

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    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories “stress responses,” “protein metabolism” and “secondary metabolism,” highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to “transport,” “hormone” and “cell wall” might contribute to the

  16. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

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    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-10-19

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  17. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  18. Tannin composition of cabernet-sauvignon and merlot grapes from the bordeaux area for different vintages (2006 to 2009) and comparison to tannin profile of five 2009 vintage mediterranean grapes varieties.

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    Chira, Kleopatra; Lorrain, Bénédicte; Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-02-11

    The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009). The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise). The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009) revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  19. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

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    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes.

  20. Study on Sugar Content Change of Cabernet Sauvignon Grape( Vitis vinifera L.Cv.' Cabernet Sauvignon' ) during Coloring Stage in Arid Areas and Its Mathematical Model%干旱区赤霞珠葡萄着色期含糖量变化及其数学模型研究

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    郭绍杰; 陈恢彪; 李铭; 李鹏程; 苏学德

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the sugar content change law of Cabernet Sauvignon grape during coloring stage in Arid Areas, and simulating its mathematical model. [ Method ] The sugar content of Cabernet Sauvignon grape in Arid Areas during coloring stage were determined. [ Result ] The results show that Cabernet Sauvignon grape' s soluble solids content has two distinct increase stages, of which phase 1 is the fastest growing, soluble solids content represents 27. 1% of the total sugar content, and the sugar average daily increase amount is 0. 32%. The sugar content when using U-shaped frame increases 0. 2 -0. 5 percentage point than trellis. Mathematical model validation shows that the increase of Cabernet Sauvignon shape sugar content fits the basic laws of linear regression equation. [ Conclusion] The study provides a theoretical basis for confirming the suitable harvesting time and high efficiency and high yield production of vinifera.%[目的]研究干旱区赤霞珠葡萄(Vitis vinifera L.cv.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’)着色期含糖量的变化规律,并拟合其数学模型.[方法]对干旱区栽培的赤霞珠葡萄,在着色期进行定期多点测定含糖量.[结果]赤霞珠葡萄可溶性固形物含量的增加有2个明显不同的阶段,其中以第1阶段增长最快,可溶性固形物增量占采收时总合糖量的27.1%,日均增糖量为0.32%,为葡萄果实快速增糖期.而且U型架比篱架含糖量增加0.20~1.50个百分点.数学模型验证表明,赤霞珠葡萄含糖量增加的规律符合直线回归方程.[结论]该研究可为确定葡萄适宜的采收期,为酿酒葡萄的优质高效丰产提供理论依据.

  1. Sequence-based Analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Must Mycobiome in Three South African Vineyards Employing Distinct Agronomic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setati, Mathabatha E.; Jacobson, Daniel; Bauer, Florian F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as “microbial terroir.” The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA) Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6) than the conventional (H = 2.1) and integrated (H = 1.8) vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi. PMID

  2. Sequence-based analysis of the Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon grape must mycobiome in three South African vineyards employing distinct agronomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHABATHA EVODIA SETATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent microbiomic research of agricultural habitats has highlighted tremendous microbial biodiversity associated with such ecosystems. Data generated in vineyards have furthermore highlighted significant regional differences in vineyard biodiversity, hinting at the possibility that such differences might be responsible for regional differences in wine style and character, a hypothesis referred to as microbial terroir. The current study further contributes to this body of work by comparing the mycobiome associated with South African (SA Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in three neighboring vineyards that employ different agronomic approaches, and comparing the outcome with similar data sets from Californian vineyards. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the mycobiomes associated with the grapes from these vineyards. The data revealed approximately 10 times more fungal diversity than what is typically retrieved from culture-based studies. The Biodynamic vineyard was found to harbor a more diverse fungal community (H = 2.6 than the conventional (H = 2.1 and integrated (H = 1.8 vineyards. The data show that ascomycota are the most abundant phylum in the three vineyards, with Aureobasidium pullulans and its close relative Kabatiella microsticta being the most dominant fungi. This is the first report to reveal a high incidence of K. microsticta in the grape/wine ecosystem. Different common wine yeast species, such as Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Starmerella bacillaris dominated the mycobiome in the three vineyards. The data show that the filamentous fungi are the most abundant community in grape must although they are not regarded as relevant during wine fermentation. Comparison of metagenomic datasets from the three SA vineyards and previously published data from Californian vineyards revealed only 25% of the fungi in the SA dataset was also present in the Californian dataset, with greater variation evident amongst ubiquitous epiphytic fungi.

  3. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

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    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  4. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  5. Structural and biochemical changes induced by pulsed electric field treatments on Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry skins: impact on cell wall total tannins and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholet, Céline; Delsart, Cristèle; Petrel, Mélina; Gontier, Etienne; Grimi, Nabil; L'hyvernay, Annie; Ghidossi, Remy; Vorobiev, Eugène; Mietton-Peuchot, Martine; Gény, Laurence

    2014-04-02

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is an emerging technology that is arousing increasing interest in vinification processes for its ability to enhance polyphenol extraction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PEF treatment on grape skin histocytological structures and on the organization of skin cell wall polysaccharides and tannins, which, until now, have been little investigated. This study relates to the effects of two PEF treatments on harvested Cabernet Sauvignon berries: PEF1 (medium strength (4 kV/cm); short duration (1 ms)) and PEF2 (low intensity (0.7 kV/cm); longer duration (200 ms)). Histocytological observations and the study of levels of polysaccharidic fractions and total amounts of tannins allowed differentiation between the two treatments. Whereas PEF1 had little effect on the polyphenol structure and pectic fraction, PEF2 profoundly modified the organization of skin cell walls. Depending on the PEF parameters, cell wall structure was differently affected, providing variable performance in terms of polyphenol extraction and wine quality.

  6. Desfolha parcial em videiras e seus efeitos em uvas e vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon da região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Partial de foliation on vines and its effects on Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hermann Pötter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A desfolha no vinhedo tem como principais objetivos aumentar a radiação solar e a aeração na região dos frutos, para melhorar a coloração e a maturação das uvas tintas, além de reduzir a incidência de podridões, visando, com isso, obter vinhos de qualidade superior. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da desfolha nos parâmetros físico-químicos das uvas e dos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Dom Pedrito, região da Campanha, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As uvas foram colhidas em março de 2008, sendo provenientes de um vinhedo comercial cultivado em espaldeira. A desfolha foi realizada na base dos ramos, somente no lado que recebe o sol da manhã, com intensidade de aproximadamente 20%, no estádio fenológico grão "ervilha". As microvinificações foram feitas com controle de temperatura, em tanques de vidro em triplicata, com oito dias de maceração. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com desfolha apresentou mostos com pH significativamente mais baixo e maior acidez total. As cascas das uvas e os vinhos do tratamento com desfolha apresentaram aumento significativo no teor de polifenóis totais. A desfolha também propiciou vinhos com maior intensidade de cor, antocianinas totais, extrato seco e açúcar redutor, e menor teor de nitrogênio. Nos vinhos, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para acidez total e volátil, pH, álcool, densidade, extrato seco reduzido e teor de potássio. Conclui-se que a prática da desfolha em vinhedos da região da Campanha melhora a qualidade dos vinhos.The practice of partial defoliation in vineyards has as main objectives increase sunlight and ventilation for the fruit, aiming to improve color and maturity in red grapes and helping to reduce fungal diseases, which should result in better wine quality. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of partial defoliation on the quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from Dom

  7. 植物生长调节剂对赤霞珠葡萄果实品质的影响%Effect of plant growth regulator on the quality of Cabernet sauvignon grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍珊珊; 惠竹梅; 马立娜; 栾丽英

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】The study was to understand the effect of exogenous ABA,GA3 and 6-BA with different concentrations on the quality of Cabernet sauvignon grape,and to provide some theoretical evidence to improve wine grape.【Method】In this experiment,different concentrations of exogenous abscisic acid(ABA),gibberellin(GA3) and 6-Benzylaminopurine(6-BA) were respectively applied on vinifera wine grape Cabernet sauvignon.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous ABA,GA3 and 6-BA on the quality of the grape.【Result】The results showed that:during grape ripening,sugar,total anthocyanin and flavonoid contents in the grape berries significantly increased with total acid,tannin and total phenolics significantly reduced after applied with 100,200 mg/L ABA.After applied with 100,200,400 mg/L GA3,sugar,total anthocyanin and flavonoid contents in general increased in the grape berries,in contrast total acid,tannin and total phenolics reduced.But there were no significant differences in sugar and total acid contents.The flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents of grape berries significantly increased,while tannin and total phenolics significantly reduced after applied with 400 mg/L GA3.The total sugar content of Cabernet sauvignon fruit slightly increased with different concentrations of 6-BA treatment,but there were no significant differences.After applied with 400 mg/L 6-BA,total anthocyanin and flavonoid contents particularly increased in the grape berries,in contrast tannin and total phenolics particularly reduced.【Conclusion】100,200 mg/L ABA particularly promoted some indexes of grape,and improved the quality of the grape.400 mg/L GA3 treatments had a stimulative effect on the coloring of grape.400 mg/L 6-BA can obviously inhibit the coloring of grape.%【目的】研究不同质量浓度ABA、GA3和6-BA处理对赤霞珠果实品质的影响,为利用植物生长调节剂改善酿酒葡萄果实品质提供理论依据。

  8. Characterisation of Vranec, Cabernet sauvignon and Merlot wines based on their chromatic and anthocyanin profiles

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    Dimitrovska Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines of three different grape varieties, Vranec, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were examined for their characterisation in terms of anthocyanin and chromatic profiles, total polyphenols and antioxidant potential. Total, monomeric, polymeric and copigmented anthocyanins were determined by spectrophotometry and the individual anthocyanin compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Chromatic profile was evaluated according to colour density, hue, % red, % blue, % yellow and brilliance (% dA. The established data were submitted to analysis of variance and principle component analysis in order to evaluate their potential for differentiation of wines according to variety and vintage. Vranec wines have shown distinctive characteristics, with the highest content of anthocyanins and values of colour intensity, % red and % dA, compared to the other two studied varieties. The content of petunidin-3-glucoside, peonindin-3-glucoside and anthocyanin acetates were established as possible markers for differentiation of Vranec wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. However, none of the assayed parameters could be used for differentiation of Cabernet Sauvignon from Merlot wines. It was observed that wine age limits successful classification of the wines by variety according to anthocyanins. The chromatic parameters allowed distinguishing of young (aged up to 1 year from old Vranec wines.

  9. Effects of different single plant loading on growth and fruit quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes%不同单株负载量对赤霞珠葡萄生长及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施明; 王佳; 康超; 王昊; 南雄雄; 李永华

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore different single plant loading on growth and fruit quality of wine grapes, using Cabernet Sauvignon wine grape as experiment materials, different single plant loading experiments were set in sandy soil and irrigation-silting soil of the eastern foot of Helan Mountain. Single fruit mass, total soluble sugar content, titratable acid content, leaves nutrient elements and mass of 100 fresh or dry leaves were determined under different single plant loading levels. The results showed that ratio of fresh mass to dry mass of 100 leaves in Cabernet Sauvignon was decreased ifrstly, and then increased in both the sandy soil and the irrigation-silting soil, with single plant loading increased. Contents of N, P and K in leaves and leaf stalks was decreased in the two kinds of soils, as single plant loading increased. But variation extent of K content in leaf stalk was larger in the sandy soil, and K content in leaf stalk in the single plant loading ifve bunches treatment was 87.31% higher than that in the single plant loading 25 bunches treatment. Under the condition of single plant loading 15 bunches, soluble sugar content in six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapes reached 23.33%, single fruit mass was the minimum (1.36 g), and single bunch mass was the maximum (228.3 g) in the sandy soil. In the irrigation-silting soil, single fruit mass was minimum (1.35 g), total soluble sugar content was middle (17.94%), and ratio of sugar to acid was 24.24 under the condition of single plant loading 10 bunches treatment. Reasonable loading level signiifcantly inlfuenced fruit quality of wine grape, single plant 15 bunches was the reasonable loading level of six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in the sandy soil, and single plant 10 bunches was the reasonable loading level in the irrigation-silting soil.%为了探索不同的单株负载量对酿酒葡萄生长及果实品质的影响,以赤霞珠酿酒葡萄为试材,设置了宁夏贺兰山东麓地区砾质沙

  10. 不同成熟度赤霞珠葡萄所酿酒香气质量分析%Aroma Quality Analysis of Wines from Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes with Different Maturities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段雪荣; 陶永胜; 杨雪峰; 兰圆圆; 徐川

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To reveal the change pattern of wine aroma quality from grapes during ripening, Cabernet Sauvignon grapes with different °Brixs were selected to make wine. Method: Volatile compounds of sample wines were extracted by micro-extraction with dichloromethane, and then collected dichloromethane was injected to GC-MS to detect volatiles. Meanwhile, sensory analysis of sample wines was realized by panelists trained with wine tasting practice. Re sult: Forty four volatile compounds were quantified in sample wines and twenty ones were active. From °Brix 17.0 to 22.0, wines from much riper grapes had less content of aromatic esters, but active esters were constant. With the development of grape maturity, the wine had much higher contents of active higher alcohols, terpenols and β-damascenone, especially for wine from °Brix 20.6. Contents of furans and other trace compounds were not dependent on grape maturity. Sensory analysis showed that wine from °Brix 20.6 had highest aroma score, while visual and taste scores of wine increased with the development of maturity. Conclusion: From °Brix 17.0 to 22.0, the wine from Cabernet Sauvignon with maturity of °Brix 20.6 has more active odorants and give the best aroma quality.%目的:选择不同成熟度的赤霞珠葡萄做酿酒试验,研究葡萄成熟过程中所酿酒香气质量的变化规律.方法:样品香气成分采用二氯甲烷萃取,GC-MS检测分析,同时进行样品酒的感官分析.品尝员均经过葡萄酒品尝学的感官分析训练.结果:从供试酒样中共分析得到44种挥发性成分,其中21种具有气味活性.在°Brix 17.0~22.0范围,成熟度较高的原料所酿酒芳香酯总量下降,但有活性的芳香酯随成熟度变化不大;有活性的高级醇、萜烯醇和去甲类异戊二烯化合物随原料成熟度增加在酒中含量增加,其中°Brix 20.6所酿酒中上述活性香气成分总量最高;呋喃类等其他微量香气成分的含量变化与原料成

  11. Effects of different single loading on cold resistance of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes in Helan mountain east region%负载量对贺兰山东麓赤霞珠葡萄抗寒性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施明; 王佳; 康超; 王昊; 王金涛

    2015-01-01

    为了探索不同的单株负载量对酿酒葡萄枝条抗寒性的影响,以宁夏贺兰山东麓地区砾质沙土和灌淤土6年生赤霞珠酿酒葡萄为试材,测定了单株5穗、10穗、15穗、20穗、25穗负载量水平下一年生葡萄枝条的相对电导率、半致死温度、可溶性糖、脯氨酸及翌年葡萄枝条萌芽率及果枝比等指标。结果表明:两地6年生赤霞珠葡萄枝条的抗寒性随着单株负载量的增加有先增加后降低的趋势。灌淤土上6年生赤霞珠负载处理10穗的半致死温度最低为-16.15℃,砾质沙土上6年生赤霞珠负载处理15穗半致死温度最低为-22.18℃,因此控制合适的负载量有利于酿酒葡萄安全越冬。在相同低温、相同负载处理条件下,砾质沙土上赤霞珠枝条可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量高于灌淤土上赤霞珠枝条。%In order to explor different single loading on cold resistance of wine grapes, six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon wine grape was used as experiment material to study the effect of different single loading including the sandy soil and irrigation-silting soil in Helan mountain east region, and the electrical conductivity, semi-lethal temperatures(LT50), soluble sugar, proline, as well as the bud germination rate and fruit-shoot ratio of annual branches were measured. The results showed that the annual branches of different region had a tendency with increase single loading, cold resistance increase first and then decrease. Under the condition of single loading 10 clusters treatment, the semi-lethal temperatures(LT50) of annual branches in irrigation-silting soil was as low as-16.5℃, which the other was minimum-22.18℃in the sandy soil with the single loading 15 clusters, so controling the appropriate single loading could improve the safety of wine grapes during its living through the winter. Under the condition of same temperature and loading treatment, the content of soluble sugar and proline of

  12. 葡萄、葡萄皮%grape fruit,skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2006-01-01

    @@ 又名 Black Grape Raisins, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Calzin, Chardonnay, Emperor, Enocianina,Flame Seedless, Grape, Grapes, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Merlot, Petite Sirah, raisins, Red Globe, Red Malaga, sauvignon Blanc, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless,wine Grapes.

  13. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes.

  14. 赤霞珠葡萄自然发酵过程中的酿酒酵母筛选及其发酵特性%Screening of S.cerevisiae Strains in Natural Fermentation Process of Cabernet Sauvignon Grape and Study of Their Fermenting Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程仕伟; 韩鹏; 赵慧; 屈慧鸽; 于英; 沈志毅; 李记明

    2015-01-01

    In the experiments, indigenous S.cerevisiae strains were screened from naturally fermented Cabernet Sauvignon grape from Yantai by use of rose Bengal medium, and then 9 strains were obtained through the identification of WL medium. All strains underwent fermenting performance and tolerance measurement including alcohol, SO2, citrate and high concentration glucose. Finally, three strains were used to pro-duce Cabernet Sauvignon dry red wine. The results suggested that, strain YCF2 had satisfactory fermenting indexes and some of the indexes were superior to commercial yeast strains. Accordingly, it had potential application values in grape wine-making industry.%采用孟加拉红选择性培养基筛选烟台产区赤霞珠葡萄自然发酵醪液中的酵母菌,并经WL培养基鉴定获得9株酿酒酵母。酿酒酵母经发酵性能和耐受能力(酒精度、SO2、酸、高糖)测定,选育3株酵母用于酿造赤霞珠干红葡萄酒,结果显示,菌株YCF2的发酵指标较好,部分指标优于商品化酿酒酵母,具备工业化发酵应用潜力。

  15. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical Phenology, production and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' grapevines in subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.The objective of this study was to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced in a subtropical climate for red winemaking. The experimental area was located in a commercial vineyard belonging to the Intervin® Winery, in Maringá, PR. The grapevines were trained in a pergola system in a 4.0 x 1.5 m spacing, grafted on 'IAC 766 Campinas' rootstock. The evaluations started from the pruning held in late winter during four crops (2003, 2004

  16. Mesoporous materials as fining agents in variety Cabernet Sauvignon wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Georgiana-Diana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative oenological products and techniques constantly need to be optimized in order to produce high quality wines that are able to fulfill the demanding consumers, with a pleasant colour, astringency, bitterness and a balanced organoleptic profile. New mesoporous materials with viability and environmental safety characteristics, might be a feasible alternative to the use of bentonite, while nowadays in the winemaking there is a major challenge caused by wastes derivate mainly from wine clarification stages. This study was aimed at investigating the influence of conventional (bentonite and activated coal and alternative (MCM-41, SBA-15, KIT-6 fining agents on enological parameters, colour, as well as on the antioxidant activity of a Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Our results show that mesoporous materials, KIT-6 and SBA-15 (6 g/L present the highest reduction on antioxidant activity with 23.08% and 24.41%, while bentonite and activated coal (1.5 g/L reduced with 20.72%, respectively 33.18%. Cluster analysis performed with the values of antioxidant activity differentiated wines treated with activated carbon from other wines.

  17. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  18. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  19. 单行倒L型整形下赤霞珠葡萄负载量对果实品质的影响%Effects of Fruit Loading on Grape Quality with Single Inverted L-Type Shape Shaping Method of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰玮; 张军翔

    2016-01-01

    以酿酒葡萄品种六年生赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet sauvignon)为试材,通过设置250、350、450、550 kg/667 m24个负载量水平,研究不同负载量对单行倒L型整形下赤霞珠葡萄生长发育及果实品质的相关影响。结果表明,随着赤霞珠负载量的增加,赤霞珠单叶面积、新梢生长量和果实百粒重显著降低,果实主要品质指标还原糖、花色苷、总酚含量及糖酸比显著降低,总酸含量升高,单宁含量和pH呈现先升高后降低的变化趋势,不同负载量对类黄酮含量的影响没有明显的变化规律。%Using 6-year-old Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet sauvignon grapevine as the tested material, the effects of different load with single inverted L-type shape shaping method on its growth development and fruit quality were study by setting, four different fruit loads including 250, 350, 450 and 550 kg/667 m2. The results showed that with the increase of fruit loads, the leaf area, shoot growth and hundred-grain weight of grape decreased, the reducing sugar content, anthocyanin content, total phenol content and sugar-acid raito decreased, while the total acid content increased, the tannin content and pH increased firstly and then decreased; but the flavonoid content had no obvious change.

  20. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor; Miele Alberto

    2002-01-01

    A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera) da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinho...

  1. Transcriptional expression of Stilbene synthase genes are regulated developmentally and differentially in response to powdery mildew in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ru; Ge, Hui; Howard, Susanne; Qiu, Wenping

    2012-12-01

    Stilbenic compounds are natural phytoalexins that have antimicrobial activities in plant defense against pathogens. Stilbene synthase (STS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of stilbenic compounds. Grapevine genome contains a family of preliminarily annotated 35 STS genes, the regulation of each STS gene needs to be studied to define their roles. In this study, we selected eight STS genes, STS8, STS27/31, STS16/22, STS13/17/23, and applied quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to characterize their transcriptional expression profiles in leaf tissues upon infection by the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr. Their transcripts were also compared in young and old leaves as well as in the berry skin at five developmental stages in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and Vitis aestivalis 'Norton'. The results showed that transcripts of selected STS genes increased significantly in Cabernet Sauvignon leaves at 24 and 48 h post inoculation with PM spores and remained unchanged in Norton leaves in response to the PM infection. Transcripts of STS8, STS27/31 and STS13/17/23 were more abundant in the old leaves of Norton than in Cabernet Sauvignon. STS genes showed lower expression levels in young leaves than in old leaves. Transcript levels of the eight STS genes increased drastically in the berry skin of Cabernet Sauvignon and Norton post véraison. In addition, the content of trans-resveratrol in the berry skin rapidly increased post véraison and reached the highest level at harvest. These assays demonstrated that individual STS genes are regulated differentially in response to PM infection and during development in the two grape varieties. The present study yields basic knowledge for further investigation of the regulation and function of each STS gene in grapevine and provides experimental evidences for the functional annotation of the STS gene family in the grapevine genome.

  2. Combination of RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements

    OpenAIRE

    Carlota Salinas; Manuel Armada; Javier Sarria; Roemi Fernández; Héctor Montes

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camer...

  3. 不同根区交替滴灌方式对赤霞珠葡萄幼苗根冠生长的影响%Effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on growth of root and shoot of Cabernet Sauvignon grape seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于坤; 郁松林; 刘怀锋; 王文静; 白泽晨; 孙军利

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of its own subsurface drip irrigation with tank system, effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on grape seedling growth were explored, and the best drip irrigation mode and method was selected that was suitable for wine grape production in arid and semiarid areas of China. The experiment usedVitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ as materials and used conventional drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation with tank system(SDI) (independent design) as the basis of engineering technology .Under bag control experimental condition, four kinds of partial-root zone alternative controlled drip irrigation methods were designed as follows: SDI-DI (SDI was on the left side, DI was on the right side) SDI-SDI (both sides were SDI), DI-SDI (DI was on the left side, SDI was on the right side), DI-DI (both sides were DI).Effects of alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation on shoot biomass, root distribution, root vigor and leaf physiological function of Cabernet Sauvignon seedling were discussed. The ratio of root to shoot was at optimum level (1-1.3) and shoot biomass accumulation were not significantly affected by SDI-SDI、DI-SDI、DI-SDI under the same irrigation conditions . The ratio of root and shoot was increased, plant experienced drought stress more intense and plant growth was limited by DI-DI. Horizontal root number on the left and right of DI-SDI and SDI-DI had great differences, and root number on the right was 13.3%、10.5%、14.0%、22.1% more than that on the left ,while horizontal root number on both sides of DI-DI and SDI-SDI had small differences. Root penetration was promoted and root activity in the depth of soil layer 20-60 cm was improved by SDI-DI and DI-SDI. In the depth of soil layer 0-20 cm ,Root average diameter on the left side of SDI-DI and SDI-SDI were significantly higher than that of DI-DI and DI-SDI, and root surface area, root volume on the left side of SDI-DI and SDI-SDI were lower than DI-DI and DI

  4. 摘叶与铺反光膜对赤霞珠葡萄结果部位叶片光合性能的影响%Effects of Leaf Picking and Paving Reflecting Film on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Leaves in Setting Fruit Position in Cabernet sauvignon Grapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳春; 杜国强; 师校欣; 李明媛

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effect of picking leaves,paving reflecting film and leaf picking combined with paving reflecting film on photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of Cabernet sauvignon grapes. [Method] With 7-year-old C. sauvignon grapes as the test materials,3 treatments of picking the leaves around the fruit,paving the silver reflecting film and leaf picking combined with paving reflecting film were set up and the conventional management plants were taken as the CK. The leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn),stomatal conductance (Gs),intercellular CO2 concn(Ci). and light intensity of 4 treatments were measured,resp.. [Result] The treatments of picking leaves and paving reflecting film all increased the Pn of leaves in setting fruit position of grapes. Compared with CK,Pn of leaves with picking leaf treatment was increased by 28.3%,and that with paving reflecting film treatment was increased by 72.6%. Compared with the treatment of paving reflecting film or picking leaves,there was no significant additive effect with paving film + picking leaves treatment. There was a certain influence of paving reflecting film and picking leaves treatment on leaf Gs and the effect of picking leaves was great. There were some differences on the Ci. of leaves at different times in all treatments. [Conclusion] In general,paving reflecting film had a better effect than that of leaf picking.%[目的] 研究摘叶、铺膜以及摘叶结合铺膜处理对赤霞珠葡萄叶片光和性能的影响.[方法] 以7年生赤霞珠葡萄为试材,设摘除果穗周围叶片、树冠下铺银色反光膜、树冠下铺银色反光膜+摘叶3个处理,以常规管理株为对照,分别测定4个处理的叶片光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)和细胞间隙CO2浓度(Ci)以及光照强度.[结果] 摘叶和铺膜处理均可提高葡萄结果部位叶片的光合速率,其中摘叶处理比对照提高28.3%,铺膜处理比对照提高72.6%;铺膜+摘叶处理相对于铺膜或摘

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe S.; Santos, Anderson R.L.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br, E-mail: aleiras@ird.gov.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Oenology has as its main purpose the continuous improvement of wine quality without jeopardizing its proprieties, and the intent is to make these improvements using innovative new technologies. The objective of the present work is to assess the effect of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical properties of Cabernet Sauvignon that may lead to changes in wine quality, aging process and other related characteristics. The samples used for this process were irradiated using an Argonaut reactor powered at 340 Watts and with a thermal neutron fluency of 10{sup 9} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. For irradiation experiments, the samples were put into the reactor chamber until the reactor reached criticality and for an additional 30 minutes while receiving radiation. The analyzed data included density, alcoholic, ashes and spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance at wavelengths of 420, 520 and 620 nm. Increased absorbance values at 420 nm indicate an increase in tannin composition of the wine and therefore a higher level of oxidation. Intriguingly, a rise in absorbance was also observed at 520 nm for the same test samples; which is inconsistent with published data on irradiated cachaca that showed that anthocyanin levels dropped at 520 nm after irradiation. In summary, for measurements made at a fluency of 109 n/cm{sup 2}.s for 30 min, the effects were minimal, which requires a higher dose to have better effects. Future studies should evaluating dosing effects of irradiation on improving the quality of the Cabernet Sauvignon. (author)

  6. Partial shading of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz vines altered wine color and mouthfeel attributes, but increased exposure had little impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyne, Venetia L; Downey, Mark O; Mazza, Marica; Bastian, Susan E P

    2007-12-26

    Few studies have investigated the impact of vine shading on the sensory attributes of the resultant wine. This study examines the effects of canopy exposure levels on phenolic composition plus aroma, flavor, and mouthfeel aspects in wine. Wines were made from Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to different levels of canopy exposure in a commercial vineyard in the Sunraysia region, Victoria, Australia. Canopy exposure treatments included control (standard vineyard practice), exposed (achieved with a foliage wire 600 mm above the top cordon), highly exposed (using a foliage wire with leaf plucking in the fruit zone), and shaded treatment (using 70% shade-cloth). Spectral and descriptive analyses showed that levels of anthocyanins, other phenolics, and perceived astringency were lower in wines made from shaded fruit; however, the reverse was generally not observed in wines of exposed and highly exposed fruit. Descriptive analysis also showed wines from the shaded fruit were different from other treatments for a number of flavor and aroma characters. These findings have implications for vineyard management practices.

  7. Combination of RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of cabernet sauvignon grapevine elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roemi; Montes, Héctor; Salinas, Carlota; Sarria, Javier; Armada, Manuel

    2013-06-19

    This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting.

  8. Combination of RGB and Multispectral Imagery for Discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Salinas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sequential masking algorithm based on the K-means method that combines RGB and multispectral imagery for discrimination of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine elements in unstructured natural environments, without placing any screen behind the canopy and without any previous preparation of the vineyard. In this way, image pixels are classified into five clusters corresponding to leaves, stems, branches, fruit and background. A custom-made sensory rig that integrates a CCD camera and a servo-controlled filter wheel has been specially designed and manufactured for the acquisition of images during the experimental stage. The proposed algorithm is extremely simple, efficient, and provides a satisfactory rate of classification success. All these features turn out the proposed algorithm into an appropriate candidate to be employed in numerous tasks of the precision viticulture, such as yield estimation, water and nutrients needs estimation, spraying and harvesting.

  9. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites.

  10. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  11. Comportamento vegetativo e produtivo de videiras 'Cabernet sauvignon' cultivadas sob cobertura plástica Vegetative growth and yield of 'Cabernet sauvignon' grapevine under overhead plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cobertura plástica no cultivo de videira encontra-se em expansão no Rio Grande do Sul, por ser uma alternativa que visa a proteger as plantas da precipitação pluvial e do granizo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os impactos de uma cobertura plástica translúcida e impermeável sobre a fenologia, o crescimento (de ramos, folhas, cachos e bagas e a produtividade em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L., com cinco anos de idade, conduzidas em sistema 'Y', sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento, conduzido no município de Caxias do Sul-RS, seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, tendo os tratamentos sem e com cobertura plástica, com quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. As alterações microclimáticas impostas pela cobertura plástica não foram expressivas para alterar a fenologia da videira. As plantas cultivadas sob cobertura plástica apresentaram maiores valores de comprimento e massa fresca de ramos e de área, e massa seca foliar em comparação às plantas descobertas. O peso e o diâmetro de bagas foram superiores nas videiras cobertas apenas no início do ciclo e não diferiram próximo da colheita. As demais variáveis analisadas não foram afetadas pela cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica interferiu no crescimento vegetativo das plantas, mas não afetou a produção.There is an increasing adoption of overhead plastic covering for grapevines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, to protect the plants from rain and hail storms. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of overhead plastic covering with a translucent and water-proof plastic film on phenological, growth (of branch, leaves, clusters, and berries, and yield attributes of five years old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. on Paulsen 1103 rootstock raised as 'Y' management system. The experiment was carried out in Caxias do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, and followed a

  12. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh

    2014-07-01

    A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen.

  13. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  14. Characterization of NPR1 Genes from Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-ming; NI Xi-lu; MA Hui-qin; Wenping Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) plays a significant role in the defense responses of plants to pathogens by regulating the expression of defense-related genes. In the present study, we isolated two NPR1 genes from Vitis aestivalis cv. Norton and Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, which were referred to as VaNPR1.1 and VvNPR1. 1-CS, respectively. They encode a protein of 584 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 64.8 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.74. The predicted amino acid sequences of VaNPR1.1 and VvNPR1.1-CS differ by only one amino acid. Over-expression of VaNPR1.1 gene in Arabidopsis npr1-1 mutant plants restores the transcriptional expression of AtPR-1 gene, though not to the full scale. This result demonstrated that a grapevine VaNPR1.1 possesses a similar function to the Arabidopsis NPR1 in the regulation of defense-related genes. Over-expression of VaNPR1.1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plant increased tolerance to salinity, but had no effect on the drought tolerance. We conclude that VaNPR1.1 is a functional ortholog of AtNPR1 and also involved in grapevine’s response to the salt stress.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation in the physico-chemical characteristics of red wine Cabernet Sauvignon; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas caracteristicas fisico-quimicas do vinho tinto Cabernet Sauvignon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Leiras, Anderson; Wagner, Walsan, E-mail: fellipe.souzadasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The oenology in the current days is increasingly aimed obtain improvements on wine quality produced without there the deterioration of characteristics of the same, using new technologies for such order. The objective of present work will be the application of the radiation ionizing in wines Cabernet Sauvignon, with the interest of analyzing its effects on physic-chemical characteristics of this wines, such as quality, aging and etc. Were analyzed the following strands: degree alcoholic; dry extract; density and absorbance with spectrometer (420, 520 and 620 nm). (author)

  16. Stimulation of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from anther culture of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cl Mauro, M; Nef, C; Fallot, J

    1986-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis and subsequent diploid plants have been obtained from anthers of Vitis vinifera Cabernet-Sauvignon, a cultivar so far considered as recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration. Anthers enclosing microspores near the first pollen mitosis were found to be the most responsive. However, from a practical point of view anther length proved to be an easier criterium for determining the optimal physiological anther stage. Calli derived from the anther somatic tissues produced embryoids only when cultured on a medium supplemented with casein hydrolysate. Glutamine and adenine were found to stimulate this embryoid production. Evidence is presented that early removal of cotyledons increases the frequency of normal development of embryoids into plantlets.

  17. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  18. Investigation and Sensory Characterization of 1,4-Cineole: A Potential Aromatic Marker of Australian Cabernet Sauvignon Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalick, Guillaume; Tempère, Sophie; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Deloire, Alain; de Revel, Gilles; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-10-21

    This work reports the quantitation and sensory characterization of 1,4-cineole in red wine for the first time. A headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was developed to quantitate 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole in 104 commercial Australian red wines. 1,4-Cineole was detected in all of the wines analyzed, with concentrations ranging from 0.023 to 1.6 μg/L. An important varietal effect was observed, with concentrations of 1,4-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon wines (mean of 0.6 ± 0.3 μg/L) significantly higher than in Shiraz (0.07 ± 0.04 μg/L) and Pinot Noir (0.2 ± 0.2 μg/L) wines. Regional variations of both cineole isomer concentrations have been measured between wines originating from different Australian regions. Sensory studies demonstrated that the addition of 0.54 μg/L 1,4-cineole in a Cabernet Sauvignon wine, to produce a final concentration of 0.63 μg/L, was perceived significantly by a sensory panel (p wines and may be potential markers of regional typicality of these wines.

  19. Study on the taste compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon red wine from different regions%不同产区赤霞珠红葡萄酒呈味特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超宇; 贾士儒; 王方; 李宁; 王磊

    2013-01-01

    Flavor compounds, mainly composed of aromatic compounds and taste compounds, were important indexes to measure the wine quality. The taste characteristics of Sauvignon Cabernet red wines from different regions were discussed by the data statistical analysis of the taste components in red wines from different regions. The results showed that the Cabernet Sauvignon red wines from four domestic major grape regions had different characteristics and the flavor characteristics had certain differences.%葡萄酒的风味物质是衡量葡萄酒品质的一个重要指标,它主要由呈香物质和呈味物质组成。本文通过对不同产区的赤霞珠红葡萄酒呈味成分的数据统计分析,探讨不同产区赤霞珠红葡萄酒的呈味特征。结果显示,来自国内四大葡萄产区的赤霞珠红葡萄酒各有特点,其风味特征有一定的差异。

  20. The Influence of Prefermentative Addition of Gallic Acid on the Phenolic Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Bo; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid in Cabernet Sauvignon red winemaking was performed. The influence of gallic acid addition on wine phenolic composition, the ratio of copigmentation, and the color parameters were monitored throughout the winemaking process. The results showed that the prefermentative addition of gallic acid enhanced the extraction of total anthocyanins and the copigmentation effect, producing wines with more darkness, redness, yellowness, and saturation. Moreover, the addition of gallic acid contributed to the concentration of total phenolic acids. However, it had a negative effect on the concentrations of flavonols and flavan-3-ols in the final wines. Thus, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid at appropriate levels might be a promising enological technology to obtain wines with high color quality and aging potential.

  1. IRRADIAÇÃO UV-C EM CULTIVARES DE UVAS NIÁGARA BRANCA, TREBBIANO, ISABEL E CABERNET SAUVIGNON

    OpenAIRE

    Taísa Ceratti Treptow

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho avaliou a irradiação UV-C em tecidos vegetais de ráquis com e sem bagas, e bagas com pedúnculo de Vitis vinifera e Vitis labrusca. Nas bagas da cv. Isabel, foram analisados os compostos voláteis nos dias 2, 5 e 10 de armazenamento a 20 C e sobre o efeito da irradiação UV-C no 5 dia de armazenamento. Os experimentos basearam-se em quatro tratamentos de irradiação UV-C (0, 1, 2 e 3 kJ m-2), com quatro cv. (Niágara branca, Trebbiano, Isabel e Cabernet sauvignon) e tempos de avaliaç...

  2. Metabolite and transcript profiling of berry skin during fruit development elucidates differential regulation between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz cultivars at branching points in the polyphenol pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Degu, Asfaw; Hochberg, Uri; Sikron, Noga; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Ghan, Ryan; Plaschkes, Inbar; Batushansky, Albert; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Mattivi, Fulvio; Delledonne, Massimo; Pezzotti, Mario; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Grant R Cramer; Fait, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background Grapevine berries undergo complex biochemical changes during fruit maturation, many of which are dependent upon the variety and its environment. In order to elucidate the varietal dependent developmental regulation of primary and specialized metabolism, berry skins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz were subjected to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolite profiling from pre-veraison to harvest. The generated d...

  3. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Anthocyanins were released from skins during the early phases of the enzymatic treatments, but were then degraded during further enzymatic treatment; flavonols underwent transformation from glycosylated (rutin) to deglycosylated (quercetin) during...

  4. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  5. Principal component regression analysis of the relation between CIELAB color and monomeric anthocyanins in young Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Wen-Na; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Zheng, Cheng-Rong; Chen, Hai-Yan; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2008-11-17

    Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR), a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu) had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu) had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

  6. Evaluation of a model to Simulate Net Radiation Over a Vineyar cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Evaluación de un Modelo para Simular el Flujo de Radiación Neta Sobre un Viñedo cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carrasco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation (Rn is the main energy balance component controlling evaporation and transpiration processes. In this regard, this study evaluated two models to estimate Rno above a commercial vineyard (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in Pencahue Valley, Maule Region (35º22’ S; 71°47’ Wl; 75 m.a.s.l.. An automatic meteorological station (AMS was installed in the central part of the vineyard and used to measure Rn, solar radiation (Rsi, air temperature (Ta, canopy temperature (Tf and relative humidity (RH. On a 30 min interval, results indicated that model Rne1 (assuming Ta ≠ Tf and model Rne2 (assuming Ta = Tf were able to estimate Rn with a mean absolute error (MAE of less than 40 W m-2 and root mean square error (RMSE of less than 61 W m-2. On daily intervals, the two models estimated Rno with MAE and RMSE values of less than 1.68 and 1.75 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. In global terms, the models presented errors below 9 and 11% on 30 min and daily intervals, respectively. Furthermore, this study indicated that the incorporation of canopy temperature did not improve the Rno estimation substantially, in spite of having a temperature gradient (dT = Tf - Ta between -3 and to 4ºC. These results suggest that an Rne2 model could be used to estimate Rno using Rsi, Ta and RH measurements.El flujo de radiación neta (Rn es el principal componente del balance de energía que determina los procesos de evaporación y transpiración. En este contexto, este estudio evaluó dos modelos para estimar Rno sobre un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon comercial ubicado en el Valle de Pencahue, Región del Maule (35º22’ S; 71º47’ Oeste; 75 m.s.n.m.. Para esto, se ubicó una estación meteorológica automática (AME en la parte central del viñedo para medir Rn, radiación solar (Rsi, temperatura del aire (Ta, temperatura del dosel (Tf y humedad relativa (HR. En intervalos de tiempo de 30 min, los resultados indicaron que el

  7. Inactive dry yeast application on grapes modify Sauvignon Blanc wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Antalick, Guillaume; Buica, Astrid; Coetzee, Zelmari A; Brand, Jeanne; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the potential to improve wine aroma by applying two inactive dry yeast products (IDYs) at the onset of ripening on Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Both products led to increased reduced glutathione concentrations in the grape juice and corresponding wines, as well as differences in individual higher alcohol acetates (HAAs) and ethyl esters of straight chain fatty acids (EEFAs) at the end of fermentation. After two months of storage, a significantly slower decrease of EEFAs and to a lesser extent of HAAs was found for wines made from grapes with IDY applications. These wines also resulted in significantly slower synthesis of ethyl esters of branched acids, whereas varietal thiols were altered in a product-specific manner. The modifications in the wine chemical composition were also sensorially corroborated. This study showed that vineyard additions of IDY products directly on the grapes at the onset of ripening have a subsequent benefit to the production and preservation of aroma in wines.

  8. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Tannat' (Vitis vinifera L., em clima subtropical, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR, e as videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas', em espaçamento 4,0 x 1,5m. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação, realizadas no fim do inverno, durante quatro safras consecutivas (2003, 2004, 2005 e 2006. Foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade, sendo avaliada a duração em dias das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do pH, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável (AT do mosto das bagas. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 130,3 dias, enquanto da 'Tannat' foi de 131,3. As estimativas médias da produção por planta e da produtividade foram, respectivamente, de 4,5 kg e 8,9 t ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 7,3 kg e 12,1 t ha-1 para a 'Tannat'. Os teores médios de pH, SST e AT foram, respectivamente, de 3,3; 14,5 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 3,3; 17,7 ºBrix e 1,1% de ácido tartárico para a 'Tannat'.

  9. Intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho na composição da uva Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada durante quatro anos, num vinhedo de Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L., em Bento Gonçalves-RS. O objetivo foi determinar o efeito das intensidades da poda seca e do desbaste de cacho em variáveis relacionadas aos componentes de produção da videira e à composição do mosto de uva. Os tratamentos consistiram em dois níveis de poda seca - curta e longa - e quatro de desbaste de cacho (% - 0; 25; 50 e 75 -; com cinco repetições. O delineamento experimental foi o em blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas. Os resultados mostram que a poda seca e o desbaste de cacho tiveram efeito altamente significativo na produtividade do vinhedo que, na média dos quatro anos, variou de 10.971 kg/ha − poda curta, 75% de desbaste − a 32.819 kg/ha − poda longa, 0% de desbaste. Houve, também, efeito significativo na produtividade por gema, peso de ramos podados por gema e por hectare, área foliar/peso fresco do fruto e produtividade/peso de ramos podados. Entretanto, o efeito nas variáveis relacionadas a açúcar e acidez do mosto da uva foi pouco expressivo. O componente 1 da análise de componentes principais discriminou o tratamento poda curta a 75% de desbaste de cacho dos tratamentos poda longa-0% de desbaste e poda longa-25% de desbaste.

  10. Influência da maceração carbônica e da irradiação ultravioleta nos níveis de trans-resveratrol em vinhos de uva cabernet sauvignon Influence of the carbonic maceration on the levels of trans-resveratrol in cabernet sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Michelin Bertagnolli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O consumo moderado de vinho reduz significativamente os riscos de doenças cardiovasculares. Este efeito é atribuído aos polifenóis presentes no vinho, em especial ao resveratrol (3,5,4'-triidroxiestilbeno, que é uma fitoalexina encontrada em várias partes da videira, principalmente na casca da uva, assim como em outras espécies de plantas. Uvas da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon foram submetidas à irradiação com luz ultravioleta e maceração carbônica e após fermentadas. Procedeu-se à coleta de amostras durante todo o experimento, as quais foram posteriormente analisadas quanto ao teor de trans-resveratrol através da Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Os resultados do trabalho demonstram que a evolução do conteúdo de trans-resveratrol foi ascendente durante as fases da fermentação. Diferenças ocorreram no final da fermentação, em que as amostras de vinhos com maceração carbônica apresentaram leve declínio, possivelmente pela atmosfera de CO2 na qual ficaram armazenadas, inibindo a formação do resveratrol. Ao final da fermentação principal a concentração de trans-resveratrol foi de 15 mg.L-1 em todos os tratamentos, chegando a 1,5 mg.L-1, em média, no final do período de estocagem.The moderate consumption of wine reduces the risks of heart diseases significantly. This effect is attributed to the polyphenols found in the wine, in special to resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihidroxistilbene that it is a phytoalexin found in the various parts of the vine, including in the skin of the grape, as well as in other species of plants. Grapes of cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon had been submitted to the irradiation with ultra-violet light and carbonic maceration and after fermented. It was proceeded all collection from samples during the experiment, which later had been analyzed how much to the concentration of trans-resveratrol using the Liquid Chromatography of High Efficiency. The of the content of trans-resveratrol was ascendent

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and

  12. Aplicação de taninos enológicos na elaboração de vinho Cabernet Sauvignon e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade sensorial Application of enological tannins in the development of Cabert Sauvignon and their effects on the sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do uso de taninos enológicos na composição sensorial do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, safra 2004. Trata-se de uma cultivar que se destaca no Brasil pela importância na produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Porém, em algumas safras, possui dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, o que dificulta a elaboração de vinhos com o perfil sensorial desejado pelos consumidores. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está o manejo do vinhedo, aliado a ajustes tecnológicos nas etapas de elaboração do vinho. Para tal, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0g hl-1, 10,0g hl-1, 20,0g hl-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, descuba, e após a fermentação malolática. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se análises sensoriais, em relação aos atributos ligados aos perfis olfativos e gustativos, com análise de oito descritores olfativos e nove descritores gustativos, além de um conceito geral. Assim, verificou-se que os taninos enológicos imprimiram algumas diferenças, principalmente no perfil aromático dos vinhos, que apresentaram acréscimo de qualidade quando tratados com os taninos enológicos. Da mesma maneira, houve superioridade olfativa e gustativa nos vinhos que receberam tratamentos com taninos na etapa de maceração.The objective of this research was to study the effect of enological tannins in the sensory composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The study was conducted in Bento Gonçalves, RS, with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, harvest 2004. This is a cultivar that stands out in importance in Brazil for the production of red wines. However, in some crops there are difficulties for a proper maturation, which hampers the development of wines with the sensory profile desired by consumers. Among the strategies to minimize this problem

  13. 赤霉素处理对赤霞珠葡萄果实和葡萄酒品质的影响%Influence of Gibberellins Treatment on Berry and Wine Quality of Cabernet Sauvignon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊蕊; 王霄倩; 管雪强

    2015-01-01

    The influence of gibberellins treatment with different concentrations on berry and wine quality was investigated in 4 years old wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernat Sauvignon). The results showed that:the single berry weight and sugar content were increased after spraying with gibberellins one week before blossom, while the total acid content decreased. Moreover, the content of total phenols, tartaric acid ester and flavonol in berry skin was increased significantly. However, the total acid content in wine increased after spraying with different gibberellins, though the pH value decreased. But gibberellins treatment had no significant effects on the wine chroma and tone. And the quality of wine would be greatly improved after applying with 10mg/L gibberellins on the Cabernet Sauvignon one week before blossom.%以四年生赤霞珠葡萄为试材,在开花前一周用两种不同浓度赤霉素喷洒花穗,研究赤霉素对葡萄果实和葡萄酒品质的影响.结果表明:赤霉素处理可以显著增加赤霞珠葡萄的单果重、含糖量,降低总酸含量;果皮的总酚、酒石酸酯和黄酮醇含量也显著增加.同时,两种浓度赤霉素处理都可以使葡萄酒的pH降低,总酸含量增加;但对葡萄酒的色度、色调并无显著性影响;但是,10mg/L的赤霉素喷洒花穗,更利于葡萄酒品质的提高.

  14. Desempenho vitivinícola da Cabernet Sauvignon sobre diferentes porta-enxertos em região de altitude de Santa Catarina Viticultural performance of cabernet sauvignon grafted on different rootstocks in high altitude regions of Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de os porta-enxertos serem usados primariamente como uma forma de resistência a pragas, eles são uma ligação entre o solo e a copa, e desempenham um papel importante na adaptação da videira a fatores ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar três porta-enxertos e dois sistemas de condução na produtividade do vinhedo, no crescimento da copa e nas características físicas dos frutos. O experimento foi conduzido em um vinhedo experimental da Epagri - Estação Experimental de São Joaquim, localizada no município de Painel (28°01'02"S e 50°08'57"O, altitude 1.200 m. O trabalho foi executado com a cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, enxertada sobre Paulsen 1.103 (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris, Couderc 3309 (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris e 1.014-14 Mgt (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris, em dois sistemas de condução, espaldeira e manjedoura, com cinco anos de idade, no espaçamento de 3,0 x 1,5 m. O experimento foi avaliado nas safras de 2007/08 e 2008/09. Os tratamentos porta-enxerto e sistema de condução foram arranjados em um fatorial (3 x 2. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro blocos e 20 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados a área foliar, a produtividade médias das plantas, o índice de Ravaz, o peso de material podado, o peso de cachos, peso de 50 bagas, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro das bagas, os teores de sólidos solúveis, a acidez total, o pH, os teores de antocianinas, o índice de polifenóis totais e os taninos. Plantas enxertadas em Paulsen 1103 apresentaram as menores produtividades e as maiores áreas foliares. 3.309C é o porta-enxerto menos vigoroso e interfere de maneira positiva na frutificação efetiva, pois produz maior número de bagas por cacho e bagas mais pesadas. Os porta-enxertos 1.103P e 101-14 Mgt, apresentam os melhores resultados para antocianinas.Rootstocks are a link between the soil and the scion, they play an important role in vine adaptation

  15. Yield effects on 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration in cabernet sauvignon using a solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Dawn M; Thorngate, John H; Matthews, Mark A; Guinard, Jean-Xavier; Ebeler, Susan E

    2004-08-25

    A rapid and automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) stable isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) quantification in red wine was developed. Wines with 30% (w/v) NaCl and 2-methoxy-(2)H(3)-3-isobutylpyrazine internal standard were sampled with a 2 cm divinylbenzene/carboxen/poly(dimethylsiloxane) SPME fiber for 30 min at 40 degrees C and analyzed by GC-MS. The method was used to measure MIBP concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon wines that were produced from six winter pruning treatments over two vintages. MIBP concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with buds per vine. In addition, the MIBP concentration was directly related to sensory vegetal intensity ratings obtained by descriptive analysis.

  16. Geyser Peak Cabernet Sauvignon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>年份:2000产地:美国加州Sonoma County售价:$196 Geyser Peak(盖世峰)成立于1880年,是美国军有的过百岁葡萄酒庄。可惜美国酿制葡萄酒的技术在近三四十年才有突破,历史再悠久也没有太多帮助近二十年Geyser Peak就努力改进,希望迎头赶上其它加州新秀的水平,1989年,他们就聘请了澳洲Penfolds酒庄的酿酒师Daryl Groom,让旗下出品多了一份澳洲式的"霎眼娇"风格。2003年,Geyser Peak更在International Wine & Spirit Competition赢得"最佳美国葡萄酒生产商"大奖。

  17. Grape cluster microclimate influences the aroma composition of Sauvignon blanc wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damian; Grose, Claire; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Stuart, Lily; Albright, Abby; McLachlan, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    New Zealand Sauvignon blanc (SB) wines are characterised by a distinctive combination of tropical-fruity and green-herbaceous aromatic compounds. The influence of sunlight exposure of grape clusters on juice and wine composition was investigated, with the aim of manipulating aromatic compounds in SB wine. In the absence of basal leaf removal SB clusters naturally exposed to sunlight were riper than shaded clusters, evidenced by higher total soluble solids (TSS) and proline, and lower malic acid, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and arginine. Volatile thiols in wines did not differ between shaded and exposed clusters. At equivalent TSS, cluster exposure had little or no effect on malic acid concentration. Conversely, wine from shaded clusters had almost double the IBMP concentration of wine from exposed clusters at equivalent TSS. The effects on SB juice and wine composition of natural variations in cluster microclimate are not comparable with the effects of cluster exposure created through leaf removal.

  18. 采后UV-B对葡萄果实中多酚及PAL活性的影响%Effects of UV-B radiation on the content of polyphenols and the activity of PAL in the postharvest berries of grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌亨; 贾杨超; 张伟; 贾璐婷; 纪薇; 高美英; 温鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    Taking the harvested berries ofVitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon as material, the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) on the concentration of total polyphenol, flavanols and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were studied to provide a theoretical basis for the artificial regulation of quality of grape berry and wine. Harvested grape berries were exposed to UV-B for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120min respectively, then the concentration of total polyphenol, flavanols and the activity of PAL were determined. The results indicate that UV-B can significant increase PAL activity and induce the accumulation of polyphenol compounds.%以酿酒葡萄‘赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon)’果实为试验材料,研究采后不同剂量UV-B对葡萄果实中多酚含量及PAL活性的影响,为人为调控葡萄果实乃至葡萄酒品质提供理论依据。以成熟葡萄果实进行UV-B照射0 min(对照)、15 min、30 min、45 min、60 min、120 min,并随机取样测定果实中总酚、黄烷醇类多酚及PAL活性,结果表明:采后UV-B处理能显著提高葡萄果实苯丙氨酸解氨酶(PAL)活性,诱导采后葡萄果实多酚类物质积累。

  19. Aminoácidos livres e uréia durante a fermentação do mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon com diferentes leveduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUTRA Sandra Valduga

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de aminoácidos e uréia em mosto de Cabernet Sauvignon fermentado com diferentes leveduras, foram os principais objetivos desse trabalho. Cabernet Sauvignon foi utilizada por ser teoricamente uma cultivar com alto teor de prolina e baixo teor de arginina, em comparação com cultivares com alto teor e predominância de arginina. Os mostos foram coletados em Santana do Livramento, RS e transportados para a UFSM; lá foram dividos em dois lotes aos quais foram adicionados diferentes leveduras: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermol Bouquet e Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2056. A análise dos aminoácidos foi realizada utilizando um analizador de aminoácidos marca Hitachi L-8500 conforme SANDERS e OUGH (21. Uréia foi determinada de acordo com ALMY e OUGH (1 modificado por PEREIRA e DAUDT (19. O aminoácido encontrado no mosto, em maior quantidade foi a prolina (847mg/l seguido por arginina (235mg/l e alanina (87mg/l. A maioria dos aminoácidos (exceção de prolina foram consumidos pelas leveduras logo após o início da fermentação. A liberação máxima de uréia no meio coincidiu com o consumo máximo de arginina, que na fermentação com a levedura 2056 ocorreu à 19° Brix (2,7mg/l e com a levedura Fermol Bouquet ocorreu com o mosto a 15° Brix (4,1mg/l. O teor de prolina permaneceu elevado durante todo o processo fermentativo, confirmando a pouca preferência das leveduras por este aminoácido. Os aminoácidos arginina, treonina, serina, aspartato e isoleucina, podem ser considerados melhores fontes de nitrogênio para as leveduras.

  20. Influência de taninos enológicos em diferentes dosagens e épocas distintas de aplicação nas características físico-químicas do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon Influence of different doses and distinct times of application of Enological tannins on the physicochemical characteristics of the Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Manfroi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em Bento Gonçalves, RS, com uvas Cabernet Sauvignon, cultivar destacada no Brasil pela produção de vinhos tintos de guarda. Como outras cultivares na Serra Gaúcha, possui, em determinadas safras, dificuldades para uma adequada maturação, dificultando a elaboração de vinhos estruturados. Dentre as estratégias para minimizar esse problema, está um adequado manejo do vinhedo, aliado a determinadas operações enológicas. Nesse contexto, objetivou-se estudar a aplicação de taninos enológicos na composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Sauvignon. Na safra 2004, foram usados taninos de quebracho e castanheira, aplicados em três dosagens (5,0, 10,0, 20,0 g.hL-1 e em três momentos de aplicação (maceração, 2 dias após o esmagamento; descuba, 8 dias após o esmagamento; após a fermentação malolática, 4 meses após o esmagamento. Nos vinhos estabilizados, realizaram-se as análises físico-químicas clássicas, mais características cromáticas e polifenóis. Em função das boas condições meteorológicas apresentadas nesta safra, no que concerne às características físico-químicas clássicas, de modo geral, se verificou que a adição dos taninos teve pouca influência na composição do vinho. Aquelas variáveis que seriam, hipoteticamente, mais influenciáveis, como antocianinas e índices de cor, mostraram, da mesma forma, poucas mudanças significativas, enquanto o I 280 e os teores de taninos totais foram afetados.This study was carried out in the city of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, with Cabernet Sauvignon, a cultivar known throughout the country for the production of cellaring red wine. Like with other red vines, there may be obstacles to maturation in certain harvests, which can make the production of well-structured wines difficult Among the strategies adopted to minimize this problem, is an adequate handling of the vineyard and certain enological operations. In this context, the

  1. Metabolic and Physiological Responses of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) to Near Optimal Temperatures of 25 and 35 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Batushansky, Albert; Degu, Asfaw; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Fait, Aaron

    2015-10-14

    Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) grapevines were grown at near optimal temperatures (25 or 35 °C). Gas exchange, fluorescence, metabolic profiling and correlation based network analysis were used to characterize leaf physiology. When grown at 25 °C, the growth rate and photosynthesis of both cultivars were similar. At 35 °C Shiraz showed increased respiration, non-photochemical quenching and reductions of photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, Cs maintained relatively stable photosynthetic activity and growth regardless of the condition. In both cultivars, growth at 35 °C resulted in accumulations of secondary sugars (raffinose, fucose and ribulose) and reduction of primary sugars concentration (glucose, fructose and sucrose), more noticeably in Shiraz than Cs. In spite of similar patterns of metabolic changes in response to growth at 35 °C, significant differences in important leaf antioxidants and antioxidant precursors (DHA/ascorbate, quinates, cathechins) characterized the cultivar response. Correlation analysis reinforced Shiraz sensitivity to the 35 °C, showing higher number of newly formed edges at 35 °C and higher modularity in Shiraz as compared to Cs. The results suggest that the optimal growth temperatures of grapevines are cultivar dependent, and allow a first insight into the variability of the metabolic responses of grapevines under varied temperatures.

  2. Research on the reasonable application of N fertilizer on Cabernet Sauvignon at the eastern foot of Helan Mountain%贺兰山东麓赤霞珠氮肥合理施用量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 郭洁; 孙权; 王锐; 吴旭东; 王振平

    2013-01-01

      通过田间试验和室内分析,研究了宁夏贺兰山东麓不同氮肥施用量对风沙土3年生酿酒葡萄赤霞珠生长与产量、品质的影响及施氮肥的经济效益。结果表明:供试土壤有机质肥力、速效氮和速效磷含量较低,而氮素是酿酒葡萄生长发育的决定性指标,对酿酒葡萄生长、产量及品质均有显著影响,但施氮量超过450 kg/hm2后抑制新梢生长,产量反而下降。经肥效方程计算得出风沙土3年生酿酒葡萄最高产量施氮量为332.5 kg/hm2,最佳经济效益施氮量为305.33 kg/hm2。%A field experiment combined with lab analysis was conducted to study the effect of N fertilizer application amount on the growth, yield and quality as well as on the economic benefits of 3-years-old Cabernet Sauvignon in sandy soil at the eastern foot of Helan Mountain. The results showed that the contents of organic substances, avail P and available K in the soil tested in the experiment were lower. Nitrogen is the most important factor effecting the growth of wine grape. With the enhanced application rate of N fertilizer, the length of new branches, leaves weight, the contents of N, P, K in leaves, as well as the yield of the wine grape were significantly increased along with the increase of N fertilizer application amount less than 450 kg/hm2. However, when the application amount exceeds 450 kg/hm2, the branch length and yield decrease accordingly. The N fertilizer application amount for maximum yield was 332.5 kg/hm2. The N fertilizer application amount for optimal economic benefits was 305.33 kg/hm2.

  3. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  4. Tiamina e riboflavina: evolução com a maturação de Cabernet Sauvignon e comportamento durante a fermentação com diferentes níveis de anidrido sulfuroso adicionado Thiamine and riboflavin: evolution during ripening of Cabernet Sauvignon and during fermentation with different levels of so2 added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o comportamento das vitaminas,tiamina (vitamina B1 e riboflavina (vitamina B2,durante a maturação de Vitis vinifera cultivar Cabemet Sauvignon e durante a fermentação do mosto, usando diferentes quantidades de SO2. Os valores mínimos encontrados para tiamina e riboflavina foram respectivamente (ug/100nd: 7,67 e 6,85 com 5,5 °Brix e os máximos foram, respectivamente, 19,35 (na colheita e 15,75 com 12,8 °Brix. A tiamina foi quase totalmente consumida antes da fermentação inicial, aparecendo novamente ao final da mesma. A riboflavina, ao contrário aumentou durante a fermentação. Ambas as vitaminas aumentaram durante a maturação de Cabemet Sauvignon, estando a tiamina presente em maior quantidade. O aumento das quantidades de SO2 adicionado ao mosto, afetou a tiamina numa proporção direta, mas não teve nenhum efeito sobre a riboflavina. A tiamina diminuiu durante a fermentação, ao mesmo tempo em que ocorreu um aumento da riboflavina.The aim of the work was to follow the behaviour of both vitamins, thiamine and riboflavin, during ripening of Vitis vinifera Cabemet Sauvignon and during fermentation of the must using different amounts of SO2. Minimum values for thiamine and riboflavin were, respectivelly, (ug/100ml: 7.67 and 6.85 at 5.5 °Brix and the maximum values were, respectivelly, 19.35 (at harvest and 15.75 at 12.87 °Brix. Thiamine was almost completelly consumed before the start of fermentation showing up again at the end of the process; riboflavin, on the contrary, increased during fermentation. Both vitamins increased during ripening of Cabemet Sauvignon but -in grapes- the amount of thiamine was greater than riboflavin. Fermentation procedures, as increasing levels of SO2, affected thiamine in a direct proportion but did not have any effect upon riboflavin. Thiamine decreased during fermentation and riboflavin increased.

  5. Commercial Digital Camera to Estimate Postharvest Leaf Area Index in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon on a Vertical Trellis Uso de una Cámara Digital Comercial para Estimar el Índice de Área Foliar en Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon en Poscosecha Conducida en Espaldera Vertical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Espinosa L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI of a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in the commune of Cauquenes, Maule Region in Chile, was estimated from digital images obtained with a commercial camera using two indirect methods: Leaf Area Gap and Brightness (LAGB and -Photogrammetric Leaf Area Quantification System (PLAQS. The latter requires deleafing of the grapevine. In a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI map, three points of vine vigor were selected: high, medium, and low for which horizontal and vertical images were obtained. Images were filtered with the Arc View GIS 3.1 program to provide only leaf images and corresponding pixel numbers. Image area and square meters per linear meter were calculated. The best models were selected from  three linear regression adjustments: i LAI of LAGB vertical images of with LAI of PLAQS, ii LAI of PLAQS horizontal images with and, iii LAI of both types of images with PLAQS. The parameters in all models were significant. Adjustment between the LAGB and PLAQS vertical images provides greater simplicity and easy calculation since it requires only a vertical image to estimate LAI. Images thus obtained can accurately estimate LAI in this type of cultivar.En un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon ubicado en la comuna de Cauquenes, Región del Maule, se estimó el índice de área foliar (LAI mediante imagen digital obtenida de una cámara fotográfica comercial, a partir de dos métodos indirectos: Espacio y Brillo Área Foliar (LAGB y Sistema Cuantificador de Área Foliar por Fotogrametría (PLAQS. Este último, requiere el deshoje de la parra. En un mapa de índice vegetativo diferencial normalizado (NDVI, se seleccionaron tres puntos de vigor de las vides: alto, medio y bajo, en cada uno de los cuales se obtuvo una imagen horizontal y vertical. Las imágenes se filtraron con el programa Arc View GIS 3.1, dejando sólo las hojas y el número de píxeles correspondientes. Se

  6. Quantificação da área e do teor de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' mediante métodos não destrutivos Non-destructive quantification of area and chlorophyll content in the leaves of young 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando a desenvolver métodos não destrutivos para estimar a área foliar e o conteúdo de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. Para a estimativa da área foliar, foram tomadas medidas de comprimento da nervura principal e das duas maiores nervuras secundárias em folhas representando uma grande amplitude de áreas foliares, seguindo-se da leitura em um integrador de área foliar. Para a quantificação de clorofilas, folhas com tonalidades variando de verde-amareladas (folha clorótica a verde-escuras foram avaliadas individualmente com um medidor de clorofila (Minolta SPAD-502 e um colorímetro (Minolta CR-400, no espaço de cores L, C e hº, nas faces abaxial (inferior e adaxial (superior, seguido de quantificações destrutivas de clorofilas a, b e totais. A quantificação do comprimento da nervura principal proporcionou boa estimativa da área foliar, sendo que a soma do comprimento das duas nervuras secundárias, bem como do somatório destes comprimentos com o comprimento da nervura principal, resultou em aumento muito pequeno na capacidade de estimativa da área foliar. Os valores das leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro, avaliados em ambas as faces das folhas, aumentaram com o incremento nos teores de clorofilas. Os modelos ajustados entre os teores de clorofilas e as leituras do medidor de clorofila e da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro apresentaram valores de R² similares. Todavia, a medição da relação hº/(LxC do colorímetro, feita na face adaxial da folha, mostrou melhor estimativa do teor de clorofila, expresso em unidade de área (µg.cm-2 de folha.This work was carried out to develop non destructive methods to estimate the area and chlorophylls content in the leaves of young grapevines 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. For leaf area estimation, the lengths of main and two secondary leaf veins were measured, in leaves ranging from

  7. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...

  8. Efecto de la fermentación malolactica sobre la edad química de un vino tinto cabernet sauvignon en diferentes condiciones de añejamiento

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Verde Calvo

    2004-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de la fermentación maloláctica en la determinación de la edad química (EQ) de un vino tinto como un método para medir el añejamiento. Los factores y niveles evaluados fueron: temperatura de (15 y 25º C), concentración de SO2 total (30 y 50 ppm), y pH (3.0 y 3.5). Se utilizaron uvas Cabernet Sauvignon del estado de Zacatecas. Se elaboró 6 L de vino, la mitad fue fermentado malolácticamente con Lactobacillus brevis y Pediococcus pentosaceus. En las dos mitades, se observaro...

  9. Changes of Flavan-3-ols with Different Degrees of Polymerization in Seeds of ‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ Grapes after Veraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavan-3-ols consist of flavan-3-ol monomers and polymers with different degrees of polymerization (DP. In this study, flavan-3-ol extracts from grape seeds were well separated into three fractions including monomers, oligomers (2 < DP < 10 and polymers (DP > 10, by means of normal-phase HPLC-MS. The different patterns of these three fractions were analyzed in three Vitis vinifera cultivars (‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ seeds from veraison to harvest. The results showed: (1 polymers were the main form of flavan-3-ols in grape seeds and monomers accounted for only a small proportion; (2 the contents of flavan-3-ol monomers in the seeds of three grape cultivars all exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with a little fluctuation, whereas the patterns of the change of contents of oligomers and polymers were extremely different among grape cultivars; the contents of flavan-3-ol oligomers were enhanced in the seeds of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, but were reduced in the other two cultivars; (3 with regard to the proportion of flavan-3-ols with a certain DP to total flavan-3-ols, both flavan-3-ol monomers and flavan-3-ols with low DP fell in proportion, while the flavan-3-ols with high DP increased correspondingly. These findings indicate that flavan-3-ol polymerization in developing seeds is variety-dependent and may be genetically regulated.

  10. 赤霞珠净光合速率随物候期变化趋势的研究%Variation of Net Photosynthetic Rate of the Cabernet Sauvignon with Phenological Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振文; 房林

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the dynamics of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of the different leaf position influenced by phenological period shifting using LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system on the Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine. The results showed as follows: (1) The Pn of Cabernet Sauvignon changed with phenological periods, and the order of Pn values were ranked as: maturity period anthesis turning-color period berry expanding stage. (2) During the stage of anthesis and berry expanding,the Pn values of leaves at 1-10 node positions increased firstly and then decreased. The maximum value of Pn was at 5 th leaf position(15. 60 μmol · m-2 · s-1)and 7th leaf position(17.11 μmol · m-2 · s-1). (3)The Pn was increasing with rising of leaf node positions, and the maximum value of Pn appeared at 10 th leaf node position(15.55μmol · m-2 · s-1,17.28 μmol · m-2 · s-1) in the verasion period and maturity period. The peak of Pn was moving to the upper node position leaves with the vine growing.%利用LI-6400便携式光合作用测定仪研究了赤霞珠(Cabernet Sauvignon)不同节位叶片净光合速率(Pn)随葡萄物候期的动态变化规律.结果表明:(1)在不同物候期,赤霞珠新梢叶片净光合速率(Pn)的变化存在一定差异,果实成熟期叶片净光合速率(Pn)的变化相对较小,开花期次之,果实转色期稍大,浆果膨大期最大.(2)在开花期、浆果膨大期,赤霞珠新梢第1节位至第1O节位叶片净光合速率(Pn)随着叶片节位的升高呈先上升后下降的趋势,最大值分别出现在第5节位(15.60μmol·m-2·s-1)和第7节位(17.11 μmol-m-2·s-1).(3)在果实转色期和果实成熟期,赤霞珠新梢叶片净光合速率(Pn)随节位的升高而逐渐升高,最大值均出现在第10节位(15.55μmol·m-2·s-1,17.28 μmol·m-2·s-1).叶片净光舍速率(Pn)峰值随着时间推移有向较高节位叶片移动的趋势.

  11. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Casasnovas, José Antonio; Agelet Fernández, J.; Arnó Satorra, Jaume; Ramos Martín, Ma. C. (Ma. Concepción)

    2012-01-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor duri...

  12. 3种萃取溶剂对赤霞珠葡萄酒香气成分GC-MS分析的影响%Effects of Three Solvents on Analysis of Aroma Components in Dry Wine of Cabernet Sauvignon by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敏; 李华; 王华

    2011-01-01

    Different solvents were compared to assess their effects on the analysis of aroma compounds in dry wine of Cabernet Sauvignon by GC-MS. Aroma components were extracted with three different solvents and analyzed by GC-MS. The result showed that three solvents led to higher repeatability for aroma components identified in dry wine of Cabernet Sauvignon. The total weight of the aroma components extracted by dichloromethane was the highest in three solvents. 64 components were identified by dichloromethane, 35 components were identified by diethyl ether-n-pentane (1 : 1), and 42 components were identified by diethyl ether-n-pentane (2 : 1). Esters were largely extracted by dichloromethane from dry wine of Cabernet Sauvignon, but alcohols were slightly extracted by dichloromethane; alcohols were largely extracted by dichloromethane from dry wine of Cabernet Sauvignon, but esters were slightly extracted by diethyl ether-n-pentane (2 : 1). The results of comparison showed that diethyl ether-n-pentane (1 : 1) and diethyl ether-n-pentane (2 : 1) have greater effect on analysis of aroma components in dry wine of Cabernet Sauvignon, compared with dichloromethane, dichloromethane is greater solvent to analyze aroma components in dry wine of Cabernet Sauvignon by GC-MS.%采用3种不同萃取溶剂,通过液液萃取并结合GC-MS分析葡萄酒香气成分.结果表明,3种溶剂萃取的分析结果都有良好的重复性.二氯甲烷萃取葡萄酒香气物质的量最高.用二氯甲烷共检测出64种香气物质,而乙醚∶戊烷(1∶1)检测出35种,乙醚∶戊烷(2 ∶ 1)检测出42种.二氯甲烷能够萃取大量的酯类物质,但对醇类物质的萃取较差;乙醚∶戊烷(2∶1)萃取葡萄酒中醇类物质的比例较大,但对酯类物质的萃取较差.对比结果显示,乙醚∶戊烷(1∶1)和乙醚∶戊烷(2 ∶ 1)比二氯甲烷对赤霞珠干红葡萄酒香气分析结果影响大,二氯甲烷更适合应用于赤霞珠干红葡萄酒香气的GC-MS分析中.

  13. 气质联用法分析赤霞珠干红葡萄酒中脂肪酸%Determination of the Fatty Acids in Cabernet Sauvignon Wines by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘河疆; 冯婷; 王成; 安冉; 孙婷

    2016-01-01

    采用气质联用法(GC/MS法)分析赤霞珠干红葡萄酒中脂肪酸组成,样品用正己烷提取,氢氧化钾-甲醇法甲酯化,归一化法计算含量。结果显示,干红葡萄酒中主要含有己酸、辛酸、十一烷酸、月桂酸、肉豆蔻酸、肉豆蔻烯酸、十五烷酸、棕榈酸、棕榈油酸、十七烷酸、十七碳烯酸、硬脂酸、油酸、反油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、花生酸、花生一烯酸、山嵛酸、顺-13,16-二十二碳二烯酸、二十二碳五烯酸、神经酸、木焦油酸等23种脂肪酸。%The chemical composition and contents of fatty acid in cabernet sauvignon wines was determined by GC/MS. The GC/MS detection showed containing 23 kinds of fatty acid, such as:hexanoic acid,caprylic acid, undecanoic acid,lauric acid,myristic acid,myristoleic acid,pentadecanoic acid,palmitic acid,palmitoleic acid,heptadecanoic acid,heptadecenoic acid,stearic acid,oleic acid,elaidic acid,linoleic acid,linolenic acid, arachidic acid,eicosatrienoic acid,behenic acid,docosadienoic acid,DPA,nervonic acid,lignoceric acid.

  14. Comparison of berries's wine-making quality in four clones of Cabernet Sauvignon%赤霞珠葡萄四个无性系浆果酿酒品质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董良; 王羽西; 陈瑍瑶; 于泽源; 王军

    2015-01-01

    The berries from the four clones of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS169, CS170, CS338, CS685) were classified to six weight categories (≤0.50 g, 0.51~0.75 g, 0.76~1.00 g, 1.01~1.25 g, 1.26~1.50 g,>1.50 g), Berry weight, lengthways and transverse diameter, skin weight, seed number, seed weight, soluble solids content and pH in every category were measured, respectively. Total seeds weight, pulp weight, berry volume and surface area were calculated, the distribution of berries in every category was counted. The results indicated that the smaller berries of CS338 had a slightly high proportion in four clones, while the relative skin weight was the lowest, CS338 had a high content of soluble solids but the total acidity level was low. CS169 was the best clone in wine-making quality among the four clones with the high soluble solids content, total acid and high level of relative skin weight.%对赤霞珠四个无性系(CS169、CS170、CS338和CS685)的果粒按质量大小分为6个级次:≤0.50 g、0.51~0.75 g、0.76~1.00 g、1.01~1.25 g、1.26~1.50 g、>1.50 g,分别测量每一个质量级次的果粒质量、纵横径、果皮质量、种子数、单粒种子质量、可溶性固形物含量、pH值,并计算种子总质量、果肉质量、体积和表面积,统计每一个质量级次的果粒质量分布。结果表明,四个品系中,CS338的小果粒比例最高,但其相对果皮质量较低,可溶性固形物含量高而含酸量低;CS169的相对果皮质量、可溶性固形物含量和总酸都较高,是四个品系中酿酒品质较优的一个无性系。

  15. 2种发酵罐对赤霞珠干红葡萄酒发酵品质的影响%Influence of Two Kinds of Fermentation Tank on the Fermentation Quality on Cabernet Sauvignon Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐虎利

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to explore key tank for brewing high quality Cabernet Sauvignon wine.[Method] By using cone-cold strip and vertical-jacke fermentation tank, the fermentation quality of Cabernet Sauvignon wine two kinds of fermentation tank was studied. [Result] The results showed that the process of alcohol fermentation can normally complete in the two kinds of fermentation tanks, in which the fermentation curves showed the normal mode of "slow fast slow", but in the fastest growth period, the effect of temperature control in the cone-cold strip fermentation tank is obviously better than that in the vertical-jacket fermentation tank.The changes of organic acids in the fer-mentation process of two kinds of fermentation tanks were basically the same and no significant differences.The amount of total phenols, tan-nins and total anthocyan were increased rapidly in the first 8 days of two kinds of fermentation tanks.During the whole fermentation period, the amount of total phenols and tannins was positively correlated with the maceration time , but in the first 8 days, the total anthocyan content was positively correlated with maceration time.Along with the fermentation process, the extraction efficiency of total phenols, tannin and total an-thocyan in the cone-cold strip fermentation tank was significantly higher than that in the vertical-jacket fermentation tank.The alcohol, dry ex-tract, total phenols, tannin and total anthocyan contents of brut wine and natural aging wine fermented in the cone-cold strip fermentation tank, with more aging potentiality, were better than that in the vertical-jacket fermentation tank.The quality of the wine made in the two kinds of fer-mentation tanks are "excellent", but the appearance, aroma, taste and typical of the wine made in the cone-cold strip fermentation tank were better than that in the vertical-jacket fermentation tank.[ Conclusion] The proportion of two kinds of fermentation tank should be allocated ra

  16. Study of the maturation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Dois Vizinhos, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Augusto Penso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The edaphoclimatic conditions in Southwest Parana differ from those in traditional wine-growing regions and have a major influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the grapes. Studies of grape maturation under these conditions may enable us to time the supply of raw materials for the elaboration of differentiated wines. This study aimed to quantify the ripening components of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo, and Sangiovese grapes grown in Dois Vizinhos, PR, during the harvest seasons of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The grapevines were performed according to the espalier system and grafted on rootstock R110 (‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Merlot’ and Paulsen 1103 (‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Sangiovese’. The ripening of the grapes was monitored every ten days from the beginning of ripening (verasion until harvest. The following variables were evaluated: mass and diameter of berries, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TTA, total sugars, estimated alcohol content, anthocyanins, and flavanols. Sangiovese berries showed the greatest weight and diameter in the two years. The TSS was higher in the second year of evaluation for Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo grapes. The pH decreased from the first year to the second for all cultivars. There were no significant differences in ATT among the cultivars. A higher content of flavanols was observed during the first growing season of study than during the second. Tempranillo grapes showed the highest concentration of anthocyanins during both growing seasons. Not all cultivars had enough acidity to permit wine stability and guard time. None of the cultivars required the chaptalization of must, presenting good potential of alcohol production.

  17. The Evolvement of Aroma Characters in Cabernet Sauvignon Dry Red Wine during Ageing in Bottle%瓶贮赤霞珠干红葡萄酒香气特征的演变规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永胜; 朱晓琳; 文彦

    2012-01-01

    To get the evolvement of some important aroma characters in Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) dry red wines, wine samples of CS in fourteen vintages from Changli were selected. 30 panelists were trained by using 'wine standard aroma kits'. When analyzing wine aroma, the panelists were forced to describe the wine aroma using 5~8 terms in standard aroma kits. And each term was described by 5-scales. The final score of each term was the geometrical mean of its frequency and intensity percent. The data were processed with principle component analysis (PCA) to extract important characters in terms of vintages. The results showed that young red CS wines had higher intensity of smoke, green pepper and green grass; the aroma of strawberry, temperate fruits, as apple, and pear, and some floral traits were improving with ageing in bottle, and the best time in bottle was 5 years for these characters. With time continuing, some bad odor in the wine stayed in bottle for more than 10 years were obvious, such as pickled vegetable, vinegar and soy sauce.%采集我国昌黎产区14个年份的赤霞珠干红葡萄酒样品,研究它们在瓶贮过程中香气特征的演变规律.实验酒样的香气特征采用感官量化品尝法分析.要求30名经过培训的品尝员在分析时用“葡萄酒标准香气”中5~8个香气特征来描述,并且用5点标度法对其进行量化.最终某一香气特征的量化值是品尝组对这一特征的使用频率和强度的几何平均值.对量化数据进行主成分分析(PCA),寻找与年份差异显著相关的香气特征.结果显示,年轻的新酒烟熏、青椒和青草味较重.瓶贮5年左右的干红酒中苹果、梨、草莓、金银花和茉莉花香气较突出.随着陈酿时间增加,葡萄酒的香气质量下降,超过10年的供试酒样中劣质气味特征明显,如泡菜、醋和酱油味.

  18. Anthocyanin content in dried berry skins and wine produced from dried grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEÇULI ANISA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin, are the substances which are biosynthesized in the grape skin, extracted during the maceration and vinification and which contribute in wine color. During the aging of wines these substances are converted in their derivates, contributing in wine quality. For this reasons in nowadays there is a big attention of studies in these components. Wines from two grapes variety, a French variety, Cabernet Sauvignon and the other an autochthonous variety of Albania Kallmet were observed. The role of drying in concentration of anthocyanin in skins berry and if this technique is reflected in wine produced from this dried grape, was studied. The results shown that the quantity of anthocyanins from dried skins varied from 136 mg/100gr fresh product to 468 mg/100gr. The dried skins had the higher quantity, but this result was more significant for Cabernet Sauvignon wine than Kallmet wine. Measurement of phenolic content showed no significant changes between wines from dried and non-dried grapes.

  19. Effects of different kinds of fertilizers on soil quality and photosynthetic characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine%不同种类的肥料对土壤质量和赤霞珠葡萄光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉文婷; 王振平; 代红军

    2016-01-01

    The 5-year-old wine grape 'Cabernet Sauvignon' as experimental material to study the effects of different fertilizer treatments on photosynthetic characteristics and soil quality. The results showed that the organic fertilizer+Bacillus subtilis treatments could significant increase the leaf photosynthetic indexes, including transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and tintercellular CO2 concentration, the effect were better than other treatments; The soil nutrient content of Nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium, organic matter and soil porosity had significant increase by organic fertilizer+Bacillus subtilis (1.0 kg/667m2) treatment, above of the five indexes, the phosphorus content was significant, indicated the microbial fertilizer treatments was better thanthe inorganic fertilizer treatments. Meanwhile in the 0~20 cm soil layer, organic fertilizer+Bacillus subtilis (1.0 kg/667m2) treatment significantly increased the activity of invertase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, and urease activity was the highest. Four enzymatic activities had reduced trend with soil depth. Overall, the mocrobial fertilizer treatments were better inorganic fertilizer.%以5年生酿酒葡萄赤霞珠为试材,研究了有机肥(牛粪)、枯草芽孢杆菌、无机肥对其叶片光合特性和土壤理化性质、酶活性的影响。结果表明:牛粪+枯草芽孢杆菌处理的赤霞珠叶片蒸腾速率、净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度四种光合指标优于牛粪+无机肥处理;土壤碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾、有机质含量以及孔隙度都是在牛粪+枯草芽孢杆菌(1.0 kg/667m2)处理下增加最多,其中速效磷含量呈极显著增加,且所有菌肥处理效果优于有机肥处理;同时,在0~20 cm土层中,蔗糖酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、过氧化氢酶在牛粪+枯草芽孢杆菌(1.0 kg/667m2)处理活性均最高,其中含量最高的是脲酶,且随着土层深度的增

  20. A Comparative Study of the Phenolic and Technological Maturities of Red Grapes Grown in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajha, Hiba N.; El Darra, Nada; El Kantar, Sally; Hobaika, Zeina; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Grape harvest date is determined according to the technological and phenolic maturities. These parameters were calculated for different red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc) over four years (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011) (642 samples). Titratable acidity and sugar content of the grapes were used to determine the technological maturity, whereas Glories (1 and 2) and ITV (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin) methods were used to monitor their phenolic maturity. The ITV method allows the monitoring of phenolic maturity by the quantification of total polyphenol index and anthocyanins, while the Glories method enables the quantitative evolution of extractable anthocyanins and tannins of the grapes. A correlation was shown between the harvest dates obtained by both ITV and Glories (R2 = 0.7 – 0.93). Phenolic maturity of grapes can, therefore, be optimized by the application of both ITV and Glories. Similarly, a correlation was observed between technological and phenolic harvest dates. The effect of climate on the phenolic content of grapes was also studied. The highest temperatures (up to 25 °C) accompanied by the lowest rainfall (null value), induced the maximal concentration of polyphenols in grapes. Thermal and water stresses were also shown to enhance the grapes’ polyphenolic production. PMID:28134785

  1. Berry skin development in Norton grape: Distinct patterns of transcriptional regulation and flavonoid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways. Results A microarray study was conducted on transcriptome changes of Norton berry skin during the period of 37 to 127 days after bloom, which represents berry developmental phases from herbaceous growth to full ripeness. Samples of six berry developmental stages were collected. Analysis of the microarray data revealed that a total of 3,352 probe sets exhibited significant differences at transcript levels, with two-fold changes between at least two developmental stages. Expression profiles of defense-related genes showed a dynamic modulation of nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR resistance genes and pathogenesis-related (PR genes during berry development. Transcript levels of PR-1 in Norton berry skin clearly increased during the ripening phase. As in other grapevines, genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were up-regulated in Norton as the berry developed. The most noticeable was the steady increase of transcript levels of stilbene synthase genes. Transcriptional patterns of six MYB transcription factors and eleven structural genes of the flavonoid pathway and profiles of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs during berry skin development were analyzed comparatively in Norton and Cabernet

  2. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y......) correlated positively and linearly to p-coumaric acid consumption (X): Y = 0.5 X + 9.5; R 2 = 0.96, P skin concentrations, indicated that the grape skins harboured an o......-hydroxylation activity, proposedly a monophenol- or a flavonoid 3′-monooxygenase activity (EC 1.14.18.1 or EC 1.14.13.21). The K m of this crude o-hydroxylation activity in the red grape skin was 0.5 mM with p-coumaric acid....

  3. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agostini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel, harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40% in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%, 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  4. Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine on red bordeaux and loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujou de Boubée, D; Van Leeuwen, C; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-10-01

    The 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine content in grapes and red wines was assayed by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, following vapor extraction and purification on a cation resin microcolumn. The threshold beyond which the green bell pepper character is marked in wines has been determined. From a comparison of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 50 red Bordeaux and Loire wines from different vintages and grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot) with the intensity of the green bell pepper character as perceived on tasting, the threshold value was estimated to be 15 ng/L. Statistical analysis of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 89 red Bordeaux wines showed that Cabernet wines were more commonly affected by this vegetative character. Changes in the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration as the grapes ripen are affected by the environmental and cultural conditions (soil, climate, training system, etc.). A very good correlation was shown between the breakdown of malic acid and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine as the grapes ripened, irrespective of grape variety, type of soil, or weather conditions.

  5. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  6. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

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    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  7. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  8. Impacts of standard wine-making process on the survival of Lobesia botrana larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in infested grape clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, L G; Lucchi, A; Bagnoli, B; Nicolini, G; Ioriatti, C

    2013-12-01

    To determine the risk winery waste poses for the spread of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California, we evaluated the survival of larvae in artificially infested grape clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) processed for wine making. The trial consisted of five treatments: whole cluster pressing to 1 bar (100,000 Pa); whole cluster pressing to 2 bars (200,000 Pa); destemming and berry pressing to 1 bar; destemming and berry pressing to 2 bars; and control. Each treatment was replicated with the following five winegrape varieties: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Gewürztraminer, Yellow Muscat, and Cabernet Sauvignon. All winery waste was inspected for larval survival. No live larvae were recovered from any of the treatments in all five varieties; therefore, the hypothesis that green winery waste contributes to the spread of L. botrana was rejected.

  9. Methoxypyrazine analysis and influence of viticultural and enological procedures on their levels in grapes, musts, and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Davinder; Lund, Jensen; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Saucier, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the factors that affect the concentrations of methoxypyrazines (MPs) and the techniques used to analyze MPs in grapes, musts, and wines. MPs are commonly studied pyrazines in food science due to their contribution of aroma and flavor to numerous vegetables such as peas and asparagus. They are described as highly odorous compounds with a very low olfactory threshold. The grape varietals that exhibit green or herbaceous aromas that are characteristic of MPs are predominantly Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc, but include others. The most extensively studied MPs include 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, and 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine. It outlines the significance of methoxypyrazines in grapes, musts, and wines in terms of the concentrations that are capable of contributing their sensory characteristics to wines. This review discusses methods for analyzing MPs including gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (one or two dimension) and high-performance liquid chromatography, the appropriate extraction techniques, and the efficacy of these methods. Additionally, this review explores factors that affect pyrazine content of grapes, must, and wines, such as the effects of different viticultural practices, effects of light exposure and grape maturation, climate, soil, the multi-colored Asian lady beetle and the effects of different vinification processes.

  10. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

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    Xiang-Yun Cui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый. Yan 73 and Pinot Noir had abundant anthocyanins, but only a few nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds. Gamay, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый contained only a few anthocyanins and flavonols. For a grape cultivar, the ratio of one anthocyanin content to total anthocyanin content did not change greatly from one year to the next, unlike for non-anthocyanins. Cluster analysis showed that except for Syrah and Yan 73, the phenolic profiles in the tested grape cultivars had no significant year-to-year variations.

  11. Effect of Light Soil Drought on the Qualities of Grape Berry%轻度土壤干旱对赤霞珠果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 袁晨茜; 杨刘燕; 杨运良; 邢延富; 牛兴艳; 冀铮春

    2013-01-01

    通过避雨棚和断根沟措施,人为控制灌溉模拟土壤干旱,以5年生赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon)果实为试材,研究了轻度土壤干旱对赤霞珠葡萄果实品质的影响.结果表明,土壤干旱并不改变赤霞珠葡萄果实生长曲线,但对果实生长和品质具有明显作用;轻度土壤干旱下,赤霞珠葡萄果实单粒质量降低10.10%,有机酸含量降低12.50%,可溶性总糖增加10.64%,总酚增加21.01%,花色苷增加9.55%,从而有利于果实品质的形成.%In this paper, 5 years old grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) was used as materials, and the effect of light soil drought on the growth and fruit quality formation was studied by controlling irrigation through the prevent-rain shelter and root-cutting groove. The results showed that the growth pattern of berry was not changed by light soil drought, while the fruit quality was changed significantly. Compared to CK II, the single berry weight and organic acid content were decreased by 10.10% and 12.50%; meanwhile, the total sugar, total phenol, and anthocyanins concentration in treated berry were increased by 10.64%, 21.01%, and 9.55%, respectively. All the results indicated that the light soil drought could promote the quality formation of grape Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berry.

  12. Características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ na região norte do Paraná = Physic, chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Ezequiel dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características físicas, químicas e produtivas das videiras ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera, cultivadas na região norte do Paraná. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente àVinícola Intervin®, localizada no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em julho de 2000, tendo o ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ como porta-enxerto. Para cada variedade foram utilizadas 20 plantas uniformes, conduzidas em latada em espaçamento de 4 x1,5 m. A maturação das uvas foi avaliada quanto à evolução de pH, teor de sólidos solúveis (SST, acidez titulável (AT e relação SST/AT do mosto das bagas, a partir dos 50 dias aproximadamenteapós o florescimento, até 7 dias após colheita. Em função do número de cachos por planta, massa dos cachos e número de plantas por hectare, foram estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. O diâmetro e a massa das bagas foram também caracterizadas. Verificou-se que a uva ‘Tannat’ apresenta características químicas e produtivas adequadas para o processamento, sendo as principais características da ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ e ‘Tannat’: comportamento da maturação melhor ajustado à regressão cúbica; pH, teor de SST, AT e relação SST/AT do mosto de 3,3 e 3,2; 14,1 e 17,2°Brix; 0,76 e 0,70% de ácido tartárico e 18,7 e 29,6;estimativas da produção por planta, produtividade, massa média dos cachos, número de cachos por planta, diâmetro e massa das bagas de 9,5 e 6,1 kg; 15,9 e 10,1 t ha-1; 0,12 e 0,16 kg; 78 e 36 cachos por planta; 12,0 e 12,9 mm, respectivamente.The aim of this research was to determine the physic-chemical and productive characteristics of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Tannat’ grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in the north of Paraná. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard owned by Intervin® Cellar

  13. Effect of Pruning on chemical changes during fruit ripening of vitisvinifera l. var. cabernet sauvig

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    Ingrid Walteros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and grape fruit development is influenced by the presence of major changes at the biochemical level that lead to a correct ripening, determines the quality of musts and wines. As the pruning technique that regulates the quality of the fruit, we sought to know the effect of three types of pruning (short, long and mixed on the evolution of chemical components of quality during fruit ripening of Vitisvinifera L. var. Cabernet Sauvignon, in the municipality of Sutamarchán (Boyacá. Since the beginning of veraison to maturity, every 15 days 20 berries were collected randomly to determine the behavior of the total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA and the technical maturity index (IMT. The results show that the SST, increased continuously as the berries ripen. Pruning mixed long and went from 12.5 to 21.2° Brix at harvest time. For its part, the ATT decreased with fruit development, the control (pruning cuts produced by ripening fruits with higher ATT in vintage was 7.6 g L-1. The IMT, increased significantly as a function of chronological time. Pruning cuts produced fruits with lower IMT, while pruning long had the highest value 3.40. Pruning long and mixed, to present appropriate values during ripening, provide a better quality of fruit for winemaking.

  14. APOLLON – THE NEW WINE HIGH QUALITY GRAPE VARIETY WITH BLACK BERRY Aполлон – новый высококачественный универсальный черноягодный сорт винограда

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Isachkin A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Universal black-berry Apollo grape has been launched in Greece by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and A.Isachkin in 2003 with combinative selection - crossing of the Fi-lery Greek variety with the French Cabernet-Sauvignon. The duration of the production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth of arms is strong (2,1-3,0 m), the degree of maturation of the vines is high. Crop yields are very high - 35-40 t/ha. The aver-age mass of clusters is 430 g. It is characterized by high winter hardiness, drou...

  15. Effects of phylloxera infestation on the root ultrastructure of grape cultivars with different resistance%根瘤蚜侵染对不同抗性葡萄品种根系超微结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜远鹏; 蒋恩顺; 翟衡

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同抗性葡萄品种对葡萄根瘤蚜Daktulosphaira vitifolia Fitch侵染后的组织结构响应.[方法]以砧木140Ru(Vitis rupestris×V.berlandieri)和栽培品种赤霞珠Vitis vinifera cv.Cabernet Sauvignon离体三级根及140Ru盆栽苗为试材接种根瘤蚜卵,接种两周后取刺吸位点组织作超薄切片并观察超微结构变化,取盆栽140Ru不同时期根结测定多酚含量.[结果]超微结构显示,砧木140Ru根系周皮层最外层细胞壁的厚度(1 031.25 nm)及周皮层细胞层数(6~7层)显著高于赤霞珠品种的周皮层细胞厚度(543.75 nm)及层数(3~4层),140Ru根系韧皮部酚类物质含量比赤霞珠高出35%;侵染后,砧木140Ru周皮层细胞第3层以内的细胞壁加厚并积聚大量的多酚类物质,140Ru葡萄新根被根瘤蚜侵染后多酚含量呈升高趋势,在接种20d时是对照的2.4倍;赤霞珠粗根被根瘤蚜侵染后薄壁细胞中细胞质变浓,出现大量淀粉粒,线粒体及内质网数量增多.[结论]砧木140Ru的周皮层组织结构较赤霞珠不利于根瘤蚜口针穿刺,被根瘤蚜侵染后发生了不利于根瘤蚜侵染取食的变化.%[ Aim ] To investigate the effects of phylloxera infestation on the root ultrastructure of grape cultivars with different resistance. [ Methods] Excised tertiary roots of rootstock 140Ru ( Vitis rupestris X V. Berlandieri) and Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and potted 140 Ru were inoculated with phylloxera eggs. After two weeks, tissues at the probing sites were collected to make ultrathin section and the transmission electronic microscope was used to observe the changes of ultrastructure, and potted 140Ru nodosities in different stages were collected to examine the phenol content. [ Results ] The outermost periderm cell wall in 140 Ru (1 031. 25 nm) was thicker than that in Cabernet Sauvignon (543. 75 nm) , and the number of periderm cell layers in 140Ru (6-7 layers) was more than that in Cabernet

  16. Identification of a plastid-localized bifunctional nerolidol/linalool synthase in relation to linalool biosynthesis in young grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Cai, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS) synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars ("Riesling", "Cabernet Sauvignon", "Gewurztraminer") with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  17. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

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    Camila M.P.B.S. de Ponzzes-Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M.P.B.S.; de Mélo, Dângelly L.F.M.; Santana, Caroline A.; Pereira, Giuliano E.; Mendonça, Michelle O.C.; Gomes, Fátima C.O.; Oliveira, Evelyn S.; Barbosa, Antonio M.; Trindade, Rita C.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 105 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  20. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  1. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  2. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination.

  3. Responses of grape berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity to the projected climate change across the Western Australian wine regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnuud, Nyamdorj N.; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Mpelasoka, Freddie; Gibberd, Mark; Bates, Bryson

    2014-08-01

    More than a century of observations has established that climate influences grape berry composition. Accordingly, the projected global climate change is expected to impact on grape berry composition although the magnitude and direction of impact at regional and subregional scales are not fully known. The aim of this study was to assess potential impacts of climate change on levels of berry anthocyanin and titratable acidity (TA) of the major grapevine varieties grown across all of the Western Australian (WA) wine regions. Grape berry anthocyanin and TA responses across all WA wine regions were projected for 2030, 2050 and 2070 by utilising empirical models that link these berry attributes and climate data downscaled (to ˜5 km resolution) from the csiro_mk3_5 and miroc3_2_medres global climate model outputs under IPCC SRES A2 emissions scenario. Due to the dependence of berry composition on maturity, climate impacts on anthocyanin and TA levels were assessed at a common maturity of 22 °Brix total soluble solids (TSS), which necessitated the determination of when this maturity will be reached for each variety, region and warming scenario, and future period. The results indicate that both anthocyanin and TA levels will be affected negatively by a warming climate, but the magnitude of the impacts will differ between varieties and wine regions. Compared to 1990 levels, median anthocyanins concentrations are projected to decrease, depending on global climate model, by up to 3-12 % and 9-33 % for the northern wine regions by 2030 and 2070, respectively while 2-18 % reductions are projected in the southern wine regions for the same time periods. Patterns of reductions in the median Shiraz berry anthocyanin concentrations are similar to that of Cabernet Sauvignon; however, the magnitude is lower (up to 9-18 % in southern and northern wine regions respectively by 2070). Similarly, uneven declines in TA levels are projected across the study regions. The largest reductions

  4. Characterization of Penicillium species isolated from grape berries by their internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) sequences and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of geosmin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; Garcia, Carole; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis; Labarère, Jacques

    2004-06-01

    Geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol), an earthy-musty compound, has been identified in wines and in grape juice, in which its presence is highly detrimental to the aromatic quality. Geosmin has a biological origin, and the analysis of rotten grape microflora has been done on two grape varieties (Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon) from six parcels of the Bordeaux region over 3 years (1999, 2000, 2001). Forty-three Penicillium-related species have been analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for their geosmin production. GC-MS analysis has demonstrated that the earthy odor was always correlated with the presence of geosmin. Phenotypic characterization of Penicillium spp. being ambiguous, a molecular characterization by rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) sequencing was performed for all strains. The results evidenced that all strains producing geosmin belonged to only one species, P. expansum, and that the other strains, not producing geosmin, belonged to three species: P. purpurogenum, P. thomii, and Talaromyces wortmanii.

  5. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

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    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  6. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Planococcus citri em diferentes estruturas vegetativas de cultivares de videira Biology and fertility life table of Planococcus citri in different vegetative structures of grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia e a tabela de vida de fertilidade de Planococcus citri, em folhas de videira das cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Itália e Isabel, em bagas de uva 'Itália' e em raízes da 'Isabel' e dos porta-enxertos 101-14 e IAC-572. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: duração e viabilidade dos estágios de ovo e ninfa; e fecundidade e longevidade dos adultos. Em raízes do porta-enxerto IAC-572, a cochonilha não completou o ciclo biológico. Em bagas de uva 'Itália', o inseto completou a fase de ninfa, porém os adultos foram inférteis. Em folhas das diferentes cultivares, a duração média do período de ovo a adulto dos machos foi de 24,63 dias, com viabilidade de 32%, enquanto as fêmeas duraram 32 dias com viabilidade de 56%. Em raízes, a duração do ciclo biológico de fêmeas e machos foi de 32,45 e 29,50 dias, respectivamente. Em folhas, a fecundidade foi de 67,27, 66,09 e 53,33 ovos por fêmea, nas cultivares Cabernet Sauvignon, Isabel e Itália, respectivamente. Nas raízes foram obtidos 30,4 e 70,0 ovos por fêmea, no porta-enxerto 101-14 e na cultivar Isabel, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to study the biology and fertility life table of Planococcus citri in leaves of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Itália and Isabel, in berries of 'Itália', in roots of 'Isabel' and 101-14 and IAC-572 rootstocks. The following parameters were evaluated: duration and viability of the egg and nymph stages; and fertility and longevity of the adults. On berries of 'Itália', the insect completed the nymph phase, however the adults were infertile. On roots of the rootstock IAC-572, citrus mealybug was unable to develop. On leaves of the grape cultivars, the period of egg to adult males was 24.63 days, with viability of 32%, while females lasted 32 days with viability of 56%. On roots, the duration of the cycle of females and males was 32.45 and 29.50 days, respectively. For females

  7. Liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomic study for varietal discrimination of grapes according to plant sterols content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Laura; Sampedro, M Carmen; Sánchez, Alicia; Delporte, Cédric; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramón J

    2016-07-08

    Grapevine and derived products are rich in a wide range of compounds and its quality mainly depends on its metabolites, as a result of viticulture practices. Plant sterols, also called phytosterols (PS), are secondary metabolites regarded as bioactive substance present in grape berries and other plant-based food. The present study deals with a metabolomic approach focusing on phytosterols family in six varieties of Rioja grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon, Tempranillo, Graciano, Garnacha, White Garnacha and Viura), in order to find significant differences among them. Liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry with a quadrupole-time of flight mass analyzer (LC-QTOF) was used to find as many metabolites as possible in the different grape berry fractions, and using statistics to help finding significant clustering of the metabolic profile of pulp, peel and seeds in relation to the variety. The best chromatographic and detection conditions were achieved by gas phase ionization via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive mode. Furthermore, analysis with electrospray (ESI) is also needed for phytosterol derivatives confirmation. Putative compounds of interest in the analyzed samples were found by an automated compound extraction algorithm (Molecular Feature Extraction, MFE) and an initial differential expression from the data was created with the aid of commercial software. Once the data were collected, the results were filtered, aligned and normalized, and evaluating applying one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a 95% significance level. For sample class prediction, partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is used as a supervised pattern recognition method and excellent separation among the grape varieties is shown. An overall accuracy of 93.3% (pulp samples), 100.0% (peel) or 96.7% (seeds) in discriminating between grape varieties was achieved when comparing the different fractions. In general, 7 PS derivatives were identified with ID scores

  8. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

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    María José Otero-Pareja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  9. Effects of Different Temperature and Light Treatments on Photosynthetic System Ⅱ in Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon%不同温度/光照组合对‘赤霞珠’葡萄叶片光系统Ⅱ功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永江; 付艳东; 杜远鹏; 翟衡

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The combined effects of different temperature and light treatments on the operation of photosynthetic apparatus were investigated to reveal the mechanism of inhibition of photosynthesis.[Method] One-year-old Cabemet Sauvignon grapevines were treated with different temperatures (28,34,37 and 40℃) combined with two kinds of light intensities (800,1600 μmol.m-2·s-1).Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters were simultaneously analyzed to investigate the effects of different treatments on the PSⅡ function [Result] Despite the treated light intensities,as temperature increased,net photosynthetic rate (Pn),stomatal conductance (Gs),actual PS Ⅱ efficiency (ΦPSⅡ),electron transport rate (ETR),performance index (PIABS),density of RCs (RC/CS) and the probability that a trapped exciton moves an electron into the electron transport chain beyond QA (ΨEo)decreased; PSⅡ excitation pressure (1-qP),non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and approximated initial slope of the fluorescence transient (Mo) increased.Under the moderate light intensities,the decrease of Pn was due mainly to stomatal limitation during the temperature from 28℃ to 37℃,and the xanthophyll cycle played an increased role to protect photosystem Ⅱ.Under strong light stress,28℃ treatment decreased Pn to the level of the 40℃ treatment of moderate light intensities,meanwhile PIABS reached a lower level.[Conclusion] Under moderate light intensities,the PS Ⅱ acceptor sides were not injured until the temperature reached 37℃;strong light stress,however,began to injure the PS Ⅱ acceptor sides from 28℃,when the temperature reached or exceeded 37℃,the density of RCs and the acceptor sides were damaged severely which showed PS Ⅱ could be more susceptible to strong light than moderate heat temperature.%[目的]探讨温度与光照交叉处理对‘赤霞珠’葡萄叶片光系统功能的伤害机制.[方法]以一年生‘赤霞珠’为试材,设置不同温度(28

  10. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

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    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  11. METHODOLOGY FOR FROST-RESISTANCE DETERMINING OF GRAPE VARIETIES (BASED ON EXAMPLE OF STAGE AND CHARACTER OF DAMAGING WINTER BUDS IN GRAPE BUSHES IN JANUARY 2015 IN ZAO “POBEDA” IN TEMRIUK DISTRICT

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    Matuzok N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In January 2015, at the Vineyard and ZAO "Pobeda" in Temryuk District of the Krasnodar region, the thermometer dropped to minus 21,6 C, which resulted in significant damage to the central wintering buds. The article presents a method of determining the degree of damage of wintering buds. Based on the results of inspection of variety by sections divided into 3 groups. Group 1: saved between 40 and 72% central. This group includes the following 7 varieties : Pervenets Magaracha (uch. 64 Gibernal (uch. 74/3, Viorica (uch. 77, Riton (uch. 66, Riesling (uch. 82, Traminer (uch. 73/2, Chardonnay (uch. 73/3. Cutting of bushes should be carried out by the usual way. The task of cutting - compensate the loss of crops due to leaving the greater load. Group 2: Central buds was damaged nearly 70-85%, saved from 20 to 35% of replacement buds. This group includes Merlot (uch. 83, Tsitronyy Magaracha (uch. 69, Augustine (uch. 66, Saperavi (uch. 79, Chardonnay (uch. 74/1, Muscat white (uch. 73 Cabernet Sauvignon (uch. 80. During cutting should be left as much as possible of annual shoots and well-developed secondary shoots. Group 3: damaged more than 85% of central buds, replacement buds significantly damaged . To this group assigned Saperavi (uch. 80, Pinot blanc (uch. 74, Merlot (uch. 80/2, Moldova (uch. 70, Chardonnay (uch. 68, Moldova (uch. 22 Kaberne- Sauvignon (uch. 68, Moldova (uch. 38, Arkadia (uch. 78, Tsimlyansky black (uch. 68. Pre-cutting consists in removing all clearly dead and unusable parts of the bush (dried vines, stumps, annual shoots that will accelerate the development of shoots from the angular buds and resting buds. Considering the high plasticity of grape plants, can not only in accelerated way to restore the crown of bushes damaged by frost, but also get a crop in the current year, using special methods of agricultural technology

  12. Effects of Nitrogen Sources on Volatile Compounds Content in Grape Wine%氮源对葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新节; 姜凯凯; 孙玉霞; 张将; 王霄倩

    2016-01-01

    The content of amino acid and yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice (Cabernet Sauvignon grape from four different village vine-yards (Adong, Hongpo, Dongshui, Bucun) in Deqin, Yunnan) was measured. In addition, the content of volatile compounds in grape wine pro-duced by these grape juice was determined. And the relations between the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice and the content of volatile compounds in wine were analyzed. The results suggested that, isobutyl alcohol in wine was associated with valine content in grape juice, hexyl acetate and ethyl acetate in wine were associated with toserine content in grape juice, total esters content in wine was associated with total amino acids content in grape juice;hexanol, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl acetate, hexanoic acid and octanoic acid in wine were positive-ly correlated to the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen, and isobutanol and diethyl ester butanedioic were negatively correlated to the content of yeast assimilable nitrogen in grape juice.%选取云南省德钦县阿东、红坡、东水和布村4个村庄葡萄园的赤霞珠葡萄,测定葡萄汁中氨基酸和酵母可同化氮含量,并对所酿葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量进行测定,分析葡萄汁中酵母可同化氮含量与葡萄酒中挥发性化合物含量之间的关系。结果表明,葡萄酒中异丁醇与葡萄汁中缬氨酸含量相关,葡萄酒中乙酸己酯和乙酸乙酯与葡萄酒中丝氨酸含量相关,葡萄酒中总酯与葡萄汁中总氨基酸含量相关;葡萄酒中正己醇和苯甲醇、乙酸苯乙酯、己酸和辛酸与葡萄汁中的酵母可同化氮含量呈正相关,而异丁醇和丁二酸二乙酯与葡萄汁中的酵母可同化氮含量呈负相关。

  13. The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tomás; Horvàth, Imre; Bidló, András; Hofmann, Eszther

    2015-04-01

    The taste of soil: chemical investigation of soil, grape and wine in the Sopron wine region (Hungary) The Sopron wine region is one of the most significant and historical wine-producing regions of Hungary. 1800 hectares out of the total area of 4300 hectares of the wine region are used for grape cultivation. Kékfrankos (Blue Frankish) is the most frequent grape variety (60%) nevertheless other varieties are also grown here (including Zweigelt, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Portugieser and Sauvignon Blanc). In this study preliminary results of the chemical analyses involving soil, grape and wine are presented, which could provide a future basis for a comprehensive terroir research in the wine region. As soil is the premanent home of grapevine, its quality is highly influencing for the growth of the plants and grape berries, and also determines future organoleptic characteristics of the wines. The investigated basic soil parameters included humus content, transition, soil structure, compactness, roots, skeletal percent, color, physical assortment, concretion, soil defects. Laboratory measurements involved the determination of pH, carbonated lime content, humus content, ammonium lactate-acetic acid soluble P and K content, KCl soluble Ca and Mg content, EDTA and DTPA soluble Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content. Soil samples were also investigated for heavy metal contents using ICP-OES method (Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series). By the use of thermoanalytical measurements (Mettler Toledo TGA/DSC 1 type thermogravimeter, 5°C/min, air atmosphere, 25-1000°C) the mineral composition of the soils was evaluated. Regarding major aroma compounds in grape berries and wine, the concentrations of organic acids (tartaric-, acetic-, succinic-, malic-, lactic acid), methanol, ethanol, glycerine, glucose and fructose were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (Shimadzu LC-20 HPLC equipment with DAD and RID detection). The density, titratable acidity, pH and total extractive

  14. Sunlight Modulates Fruit Metabolic Profile and Shapes the Spatial Pattern of Compound Accumulation within the Grape Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Noam; Walbaum, Natasha; Agam, Nurit; Fait, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Vineyards are characterized by their large spatial variability of solar irradiance (SI) and temperature, known to effectively modulate grape metabolism. To explore the role of sunlight in shaping fruit composition and cluster uniformity, we studied the spatial pattern of incoming irradiance, fruit temperature and metabolic profile within individual grape clusters under three levels of sunlight exposure. The experiment was conducted in a vineyard of Cabernet Sauvignon cv. located in the Negev Highlands, Israel, where excess SI and midday temperatures are known to degrade grape quality. Filtering SI lowered the surface temperature of exposed fruits and increased the uniformity of irradiance and temperature in the cluster zone. SI affected the overall levels and patterns of accumulation of sugars, organic acids, amino acids and phenylpropanoids, across the grape cluster. Increased exposure to sunlight was associated with lower accumulation levels of malate, aspartate, and maleate but with higher levels of valine, leucine, and serine, in addition to the stress-related proline and GABA. Flavan-3-ols metabolites showed a negative response to SI, whereas flavonols were highly induced. The overall levels of anthocyanins decreased with increased sunlight exposure; however, a hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that the members of this family were grouped into three distinct accumulation patterns, with malvidin anthocyanins and cyanidin-glucoside showing contrasting trends. The flavonol-glucosides, quercetin and kaempferol, exhibited a logarithmic response to SI, leading to improved cluster uniformity under high-light conditions. Comparing the within-cluster variability of metabolite accumulation highlighted the stability of sugars, flavan-3-ols, and cinnamic acid metabolites to SI, in contrast to the plasticity of flavonols. A correlation-based network analysis revealed that extended exposure to SI modified metabolic coordination, increasing the number of negative

  15. Preliminary study of the green algae chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) for control on the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in tomato plants and ectoparasite Xiphinema indexin grape seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleva, B; Bileva, T; Tzvetkov, Y; Barakov, P

    2005-01-01

    The alternative ecological methods require investigation of many organo-biological means for plant protection against dangerous root parasites such as root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria and some ectoparasites (Xiphinema index). The Bulgarian organic product - dry extract of green alga Chlorella vulgaris ("The Golden Apple"-Plamen Barakov) is the latest product, which in comparative aspect gives the best results. Series of laboratory and pot experiments are carried out with tomato (cv. Bele and cv. Ideal) and grape seedlings (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Different dosages of Chlorella from 0.5 g to 2 g per plant/pot are investigated. The first results show that even low dosages had double effect - on the one hand they suppress the parasite development and on the other hand they strongly stimulate plant growing. The very important conclusion is that Chlorella vulgaris ignores the negative influence of M. arenaria and X. index. These results give us opportunity for future model and field investigations of Chlorella vulgaris with the aim of its practical application.

  16. GC-MS法分析不同产地酿酒葡萄的香气成分%Analysis of aromatic components in the different wine-grapes from different geographic origin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商敬敏; 牟京霞; 刘建民; 张家荣; 邓波; 史涛涛; 赵新节

    2011-01-01

    The aromatic components from fresh grape were extracted by steam distillation, analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spec-trometry (GC/MS). The materials were from Hebei Changli and Yantai Penglai. Including Sauvignon Cabernet, Muscat Hambourg and Sauvignon Gerniseht. There were 85 components identified in the three varieties from the two geographic origin, they are mainly alcohols, esters. In the aroma compounds, palmitic acid and 2,4-Di-tert-butyl phenol lies in all the varieties, and the falcarinol was ana-lized in the Sauvignon Gerniseht of Penglai, which were the first determined in the grape and wine. The result determined that the contents of the same variety aroma components in the same varieties were similar, but the aroma trace components were significantly different, which led to characteristic aroma and style for the different varieties, and they would contribute to the protection of the geographic origin.%以昌黎和蓬莱的酿酒葡萄浆果为试验材料,采用水蒸汽蒸馏法提取赤霞珠、玫瑰香和蛇龙珠葡萄浆果中的香气成分,并用气相色谱-质谱对样品进行分析.结果表明,6个样品共检出85种香气成分,以醇类和酯类最为主.在检出的香气物质中,棕榈酸和2,4-二叔丁基苯酚是6个样品共有的,同时在蓬莱蛇龙珠中还检出具有强抗癌抑癌活性的镰叶芹醇.说明相同成分在同一品种中的含量相差不大,但微量香气成分有较大差别,为葡萄酒原产地保护提供了理论依据.

  17. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  18. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  19. “赤霞珠”葡萄渣废弃物利用——原花青素的提取工艺研究%Waste utilization of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grape residue——Study on extraction process of procyanidin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛杰; 张桦; 夏木斯亚; 任燕萍

    2013-01-01

    本实验采用香草醛-盐酸法,通过改变葡萄渣废弃物溶液的提取溶剂、提取温度、pH值、料液比、提取次数和提取时间,研究对其原花青素提取影响因素.结果表明香草醛-盐酸法最佳提取工艺为:提取时间90min,提取温度60℃,料液比1:6/g·mL-1,甲醇浓度60%;在最佳提取pH值为6,原花青素提取率最大,提取次数为1次已基本提取完全.通过本次实验建立了适合葡萄渣废弃物溶液中原花青素的提取工艺.%The procyanidin was abstracted by vanillic aldehyde-hydrochloric acid method. The effect factors of extraction solvent, extraction temperature, pH value, ratio of material to liquid, extraction frequency and extraction time of trester sediment were studied. The results showed that when conditions were extraction time 90min, extraction temperature 60℃, ratio of material to liquid l:6g·mL-1, methanol concentration 60%, pH value 6, the extraction yield of procyanidin were best, and extracted completely for one time. The best abstraction process of procyanidin in trester sediment was established.

  20. 浸入式固相微萃取GC-MS联用测定赤霞珠葡萄酒中挥发性成分%Detection of Volatile Constituents in Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Wine by IM-SPME-GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军翔; 冯长根; 李华; 王志东

    2006-01-01

    建立了浸入式固相微萃取-气相色谱法(IM-SPME-GC-MS)测定葡萄酒挥发性成分的方法,并对萃取条件和色谱条件进行了优化;对宁夏贺兰山东麓地区赤霞珠葡萄酒挥发性成分进行了测定.该方法简便、快速、精确,适合葡萄酒挥发性较强成分的测定;分离鉴定了葡萄酒中20种主要挥发性成分,其中异戊醇、乙酸乙酯、D,L-2,3-丁二醇、内消旋-丁二醇、琥珀酸二乙酯、醋酸、2-羟基丙酸乙酯、苯乙醇等物质占主要比例.

  1. Difference of phenols content in annual wine grape branches between different altitudes%不同海拔酿酒葡萄一年生枝条酚类物质含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 刘旭; 张鸿; 钟奇; 罗来友

    2015-01-01

    为有效利用葡萄园中修剪产生的葡萄枝条,减少资源的浪费,获得高附加值的产品。以四川省横断山脉北麓不同海拔高度赤霞珠、美乐葡萄一年生枝条为材料,比较测定了其酚类物质的含量。结果表明,赤霞珠一年生枝条中共测得有8种单体酚,且随着海拔的升高,其中的表儿茶素、水杨酸、芦丁、绿原酸,香豆素5种酚类单体含量呈现先升高再降低的趋势;美乐一年生枝条共测得了9种单体酚,随着海拔高度的不断上升,枝条中的芦丁、山柰酚、咖啡酸、香豆素4类酚类单体物质均呈整体上升趋势,而桑色素、表儿茶素、槲皮素、绿原酸整体均是呈现下降的趋势。在总类黄酮方面,随着海拔升高,赤霞珠和美乐一年生枝条均呈增加的趋势,但是差异不显著;在原花青素方面,赤霞珠枝条呈现先减少后增加的趋势,而美乐枝条呈现先增加后减少的趋势。%In order to use effectively the waste branches from vineyard, the phenols content of annual wine grape branches from different altitudes in Hengduan mountains of Sichuan province were investigated as materials. The results showed that eight phenolic monomers were detected in annual branched of Cabernet Sauvignon, and the contents of epicatechin, salicylic acid, rutin, chlorogenic acid, coumarin showed firstly increase gradually, then decreased as the altitude rises. Nine phenolic monomers were detected in annual branches of Merlot, and the contents of rutin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, coumarin were increased as the altitude rises, the contents of morin, epicatechin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid showed decrease. Total flavonoid content in annual branches of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot showed the tendency of increase, but the differences were non-significant. The contents of proanthocyanidins in annual branches of Cabernet Sauvignon firstly decreased then increased, and firstly

  2. Potássio em uvas II: análise peciolar e sua correlação com o teor de potássio em uvas viníferas Potassium in grapes II: analysis of petioles and their correlation with the potassium content of wine grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Oliveira Fogaça

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi acompanhar a evolução da absorção de potássio pelas uvas durante o processo de maturação e verificar sua influência no pH, bem como tentar correlacionar ambas com os teores encontrados nos pecíolos na época da floração. Amostras das uvas foram coletadas durante o processo de maturação de três variedades: Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon e Merlot. Durante os dois anos de estudo, ocorreram variações nos teores de potássio absorvidos pelos frutos durante a maturação, sendo o aumento acompanhado pela elevação do pH; a redução no teor de potássio foi acompanhada pela estabilização dos valores de pH, fato também influenciado pela queda nos teores de acidez titulável. Sugere-se, assim, que os altos valores de pH encontrados nos vinhos elaborados com uvas destes vinhedos, em anos anteriores, estão relacionados com a absorção de potássio e a diminuição da acidez total durante a maturação da uva. A retirada de amostras peciolares na floração e trinta dias após mostrou-se um mecanismo eficiente na avaliação do teor de potássio nos tecidos próximos aos grãos. Dessa forma, a análise peciolar, além de ser utilizada para monitorar os níveis de potássio na planta e avaliar a necessidade de adubações e tratos culturais, pode servir de diagnóstico futuro para os teores de potássio nas uvas e nos vinhos.Grapes from three Vitis vinifera varieties (Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot were analyzed over a two-year period to determine their potassium content, aiming to monitor this mineral content during the ripening process and evaluate its influence on pH values. Grape samples were harvested periodically during the berries’ development until their harvest. As expected, the grapes’ potassium content showed variations, i.e., high potassium content went hand-in-hand with increased pH values while low potassium content led to stabilized pH; this process was also affected by the

  3. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  4. Comparative study of total RNA extraction methods from the grape callus and a preliminary analysis of the genes' differential expression between the embryogenic callus and non- embryogenic callus%葡萄愈伤组织RNA提取方法比较及部分基因的表达差异初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代茹; 冀敏; 舒小梅; 陈尚武; 张文; 马会勤

    2009-01-01

    The quality of total RNA extracted by different methods from embryogenic callus ( EC ) and non -embryogenic callus ( NEC ) of Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon was compared.The result demonstrated that " RNAplant" was a suitable reagent for high quality total RNA extraction from grape EC and NEC.The OD260/280 nm of total RNA was between 1.8 and 2.0, and the 28S and 18S bands were clear on the agarose gel after electro-phoresis.The expression of a set of genes including actin, tubulin, CLA and other three genes in EC and NEC were successfully compared by semi - quantitative RT - PCR with the total RNA as templates.The results showed that the total RNA extracted with this protocol was qualified for cDNA and qRT -PCR use, and could be further applied in gene expression and regulation research of grapevine somatic embryogenesis.%以欧亚种酿酒葡萄品种赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.cv.Cabernet Sauvignon)的胚性愈伤组织(EC)和非胚性愈伤组织(NEC)为材料,进行了总RNA不同提取方法的比较.结果表明葡萄EC和NEc的总RNA的最佳提取方法是RNAplant试剂法.通过此方法提取的总RNA完整性好,28s和18s条带清晰,且OD260/280nm值都在1.8~2.0之间.以此RNA为模板,对actin,tubilin,CLV等基因进行了半定量RT-PCR对比,发现EC与NEC在不同基因表达上存在差异.以上结果说明,以RNAplant试剂提取的RNA质量,可以满足cDNA合成和qRT-PCR等研究用途.这为深入研究葡萄花药愈伤组织胚性与非胚性细胞系的基因表达特点,以及葡萄体细胞胚发育过程中的基因时序表达奠定了基础.

  5. 盐胁迫对酿酒葡萄叶片细胞结构及光合特性的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Mesophyll Cell Structures and Photosynthetic Characteristics in Leaves of Wine Grape (Vitis spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玲; 康文怀; 齐艳玲; 蔡爱军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究100mmol·L-1 NaCl胁迫下,葡萄酿酒品种‘赤霞珠’、砧木‘5BB’ 和砧穗组合苗‘赤霞珠/5BB’叶片细胞解剖结构和光合特性,为葡萄品种、砧木及砧穗组合苗耐盐性的筛选提供理论依据和技术方案.[方法]采用盆栽方法,当葡萄苗生长到高度约60 cm时,用100 mmol·L-1 NaCl处理30 d,随后测定叶片的叶绿素含量、光合作用参数及叶绿素荧光参数等指标,并用显微和透射电镜观察其细胞结构特征.[结果]100 mmol·L-1NaCl胁迫下,葡萄叶片表皮细胞、栅栏组织和海绵组织厚度增加,栅栏组织/海绵组织比降低;叶绿体长宽分别扩大1.3-1.5倍和1.3-2.0倍,类囊体肿胀变大;叶绿素含量降低,特别是叶绿素b(Chl b)下降明显;叶片光系统Ⅱ (PSII)潜在活性(Fv/Fo)、原初光能转换效率(Fv/Fm)和叶片净光合速率(Pn)均显著降低.3种类型苗木对NaC1胁迫的反应不同,100 mmol·L-1NaCl对砧木‘5BB’叶片细胞和叶绿体的结构、叶绿素含量和光合速率的影响程度最小,其次为砧穗组合苗‘赤霞珠/5BB’,而对品种‘赤霞珠’的影响最大.[结论]100mmol·L-1NaCl胁迫下,葡萄叶片厚度增加,叶绿素含量降低,最终导致PSⅡ潜在活性中心受损,光能转化效率和净光合速率明显降低.葡萄砧木‘5BB’有较强的耐盐能力,可一定程度提高酿酒葡萄‘赤霞珠’的耐盐能力.%[Objective] The changes of cell structures and photosynthetic characteristics in leaves of three grapes, cultivars 'Cabernet Sauvignon'(Vitis vinifera L.), rootstock '5BB' (Vitis berlandieri × Vitis riparia), and scion/rootstock combinations 'Cabernet Sauvignon/5BB', were investigated under salt stress conditions to offer a theoretical basis and technique reference for selecting salt-tolerant genes in grapevine cultivars, rootstocks and scion/rootstock combinations. [Method] In a pot culture experiment, grapevine plants were treated with NaCl at 0 and

  6. Produtividade e composição de uva e de vinho de videiras consorciadas com plantas de cobertura Productivity and composition of grapes and wine of vines intercropped with cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de plantas de cobertura verde sobre a produtividade das videiras e sobre a composição da uva e do vinho. Durante duas safras, foram feitas avaliações de três tipos de consórcio, dois manejos das coberturas e de um tratamento controle, com plantas espontâneas controladas por herbicidas e roçagem. Utilizou-se vinhedo de uvas 'Cabernet Sauvignon', localizado a 1.130 m de altitude, em um Cambissolo Húmico distrófico, em São Joaquim, SC. Os consórcios foram realizados com a sucessão de cultivos anuais de moha (Setaria italica com azevém (Lolium multiflorum e de trigo mourisco (Fagopyrum esculentum com aveia‑branca (Avena sativa, bem como com a planta perene festuca (Fetusca sp.. Os manejos consistiram da transferência ou não do resíduo cultural da linha para a entrelinha. As videiras apresentaram maior produtividade de uva no consórcio com as plantas anuais, em comparação ao tratamento controle, ou com a planta perene festuca. O manejo da cobertura verde não teve influência sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Os consórcios não influenciaram de forma consistente os teores de N da uva nem a composição do mosto, embora, na última safra, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto tenha sido maior nos tratamentos com consórcio, em comparação ao controle. Além disso, as videiras consorciadas com festuca podem proporcionar vinho com maior teor de antocianinas e polifenóis totais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of green cover crops on vine productivity and on grape and wine composition. For two growing seasons, evaluations were done for three intercrops, two managements of the cover crops, and for a control treatment with weeds controlled by herbicides and mowing. A vineyard of 'Cabernet Sauvignon', located at 1,130 m altitude in a Haplumbrept soil, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil was used. Intercropping was done with a succession of the cover crops moha

  7. Pre-fermentation fining effects on the aroma chemistry of Marlborough Sauvignon blanc press fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Katie J; Herbst-Johnstone, Mandy; Bouda, Flo; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    In the wine industry, fining agents are commonly used with many choices now commercially available. Here the influence of pre-fermentation fining on wine aroma chemistry has been explored. Free run and press fraction Sauvignon blanc juices from two vineyards were fined using gelatin, activated carbon, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and a combination agent which included bentonite, PVPP and isinglass. Over thirty aroma compounds were quantified in the experimental wines. Results showed that activated carbon fining led to a significant (paroma compounds were also influenced by fining agent, even if vineyards and press fractions played a crucial role. This study confirmed that fining agents used pre-fermentation can influence wine aroma profiles and therefore needs specific tailoring addressing style and origin of grape.

  8. Exogenous application of pectin-derived oligosaccharides to grape berries modifies anthocyanin accumulation, composition and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Daniel; Handford, Michael; Alcalde, José Antonio; Perez-Donoso, Alonso

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites synthesized in grape berry skins via the phenylpropanoid pathway, with functions ranging from skin coloration to protection against pathogens or UV light. Accumulation of these compounds is highly variable depending on genetics, environmental factors and viticultural practices. Besides their biological functions, anthocyanins improve wine quality, as a high anthocyanin content in berries has a positive impact on the color, total phenolic concentration and, ultimately, the price of wine. The present work studies the effect of the pre-veraison application of pectin derived oligosaccharides (PDO) on the synthesis and accumulation of these compounds, and associates the changes observed with the expression of key genes in the phenylpropanoid pathways. To this end, pre-veraison Cabernet Sauvignon bunches were treated with PDO to subsequently determine total anthocyanin content, the anthocyanin profile (by HPLC-DAD) and gene expression (by qRT-PCR), using Ethrel and water treatments for comparison. The results show that PDO were as efficient as Ethrel in generating a significant rise in total anthocyanin content at 30 days after treatment (dat), compared with water treatments (1.32, 1.48 and 1.02 mg e.Mv-3G/g FW respectively) without any undesirable effect on berry size, soluble solids, tartaric acid concentration or pH. In addition, a significant alteration in the anthocyanin profile was observed. Specifically, a significant increase in the relative concentration of malvidin was observed for both PDO and Ethrel treatments, compared with water controls (52.8; 55.0 and 48.3%, respectively), with a significant rise in tri-hydroxylated forms and a fall in di-hydroxylated anthocyanins. The results of gene expression analyses suggest that the increment in total anthocyanin content is related to a short term increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) expression, mediated by a decrease in MYB4A expression. A longer term increase in UDP

  9. APOLLON – THE NEW WINE HIGH QUALITY GRAPE VARIETY WITH BLACK BERRY Aполлон – новый высококачественный универсальный черноягодный сорт винограда

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal black-berry Apollo grape has been launched in Greece by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and A.Isachkin in 2003 with combinative selection - crossing of the Fi-lery Greek variety with the French Cabernet-Sauvignon. The duration of the production period 136-145 days. The strength of growth of arms is strong (2,1-3,0 m, the degree of maturation of the vines is high. Crop yields are very high - 35-40 t/ha. The aver-age mass of clusters is 430 g. It is characterized by high winter hardiness, drought-resistance and high resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with varie-ties of Vitis vinifera. The flower is bisexual. Cluster is big or very big, conical with the wing, loose. Berries are medium or large, oval, blue-black in color, with a thick wax coating. The skin is thick. The pulp and juice - with varietal flavor. Sugar content is high. Notable for long saving the harvest in the bushes, well-kept in the cooler cells. The variety is meant for the fresh consumption and for manufacture of red dry, desert and sweet wines; suitable for production of high-quality juices

  10. Study on Best Harvest Time of Merlot Grape From Manasi County in Xinjiang%新疆玛纳斯县梅鹿辄葡萄最佳采收期的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫寅斌; 唐虎利

    2011-01-01

    The thesis studied the maturity and the phenols of Cabernet Sauvignon Grape during the ripping process from Manasi county in Xinjiang,in 2008.The results showed that:firstly,during the ripping process,with the continuing increase of the sugar content and the continuing decrease of the acid content,sugar and acid ratio was increasing gradually.Daily average increment of the reducing sugar was 2.94g/L,and daily average reduction of the total acid was 0.24g/L.when reaching the harvest time,the ratio of the Fructose and the Glucose content in grape is 0.8592,but the ratio of the Tartaric acid and the Malic acid content in grape is 1.1.Secondly,during the ripping process,the contents of total Phenols and the Tannin in grape juice was decreasing gradually,and daily average reductions were 0.118g/kg and 0.101g/kg respectively.However,the content of total Anthocyan in grape skin was increasing gradually,and daily average increment of it was 0.061g/kg.Thirdly,in order to get high quality dry wine,September 3 was the harvest time for Merlot Grape,the grape maturity was 31.2,the contents of total Phenols and the Tannin in grape juice and the content of total Anthocyan in grape skin were 0.553g/ kg,0.678g/ kg and 2.670g/kg respectively.%对新疆玛纳斯县2008年的梅鹿辄葡萄在成熟过程中进行成熟度、酚类物质等的研究。结果表明:1、在葡萄成熟过程中,随葡萄含糖量不断增加,含酸量不断减少,糖酸比逐渐增大。还原糖日均增量为2.94g/L,总酸日均减量为0.24g/L。达最佳采收时,葡萄中果糖与葡萄糖含量之比为0.8592,而酒石酸与苹果酸含量之比为1.1;2、在葡萄成熟过程中,葡萄汁中总酚和单宁含量逐渐减少,日均减量分别为0.118g/kg、0.101g/kg,而葡萄皮中总花色素苷含量逐渐增加,日均增量0.061g/kg;3、确定酿造优质干红葡萄酒时,梅鹿辄葡萄的最佳采收期为9月3日,葡萄成熟度31.2,葡萄汁中总酚、单

  11. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  12. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  13. VARIETY OF MICROORGANISMS GROUPS LIVING ON BERRIES OF GRAPES

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    Ageeva N. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of microorganisms has been identified in many wine-making countries on the berries of grapes. These are yeasts of different families, forms and kinds, bacterium, mold fungi. In the article, we present the results of investigating species composition of microflora of berries of white and red types of grape, which grows in different economies of the Krasnodar region and the republic of Abkhaziya. The sowings onto the elective media were conducted for the development of entire spectrum of yeast. The grown colonies after preliminary microscoping were separated into the cultures and subjected to testing according to the culturalmorphological signs, being guided by determinants and benefits. It was established the specific variety of microflora on the surface of the berries of grapes of all investigated types, without dependence on the place of their growth. Obtained data showed that the group of yeast, which constantly is present in the complex of the epiphytic microorganisms of grapes of Saccharomyces, Pichia, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora was characteristic for all types of grapes in all investigated regions. The heterogeneity of the taxonometric composition of microflora is shown. Prevailed yeasts were of family Saccharomycetaceae, form Saccharomyces vini. A quantity of yeast of Saccharomyces vini decreases in a number of Myskhako-Caucasus-Fanagoriya, that as a whole will be coordinated with the climatic conditions. Only the type of Pinot nuar grapes had yeasts of Brettanomyces Dekkera. On the berries of Cabernets and Karaburnu we have discovered yeasts of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus, causing acid-reduction. On the berries of the grapes, which grew in joint stock company APF “Fanagoriya” we haven’t revealed the presence of lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and yeasts of the form of Schisosaccharomyces acidodevoratus. In the same farm the smallest quantity of yeastswreckers is noted, which we the forms of Pichia and

  14. Quantificação de 5-metiltetrahidrofolato no processamento e conservação de vinhos de uvas viníferas e híbridas Quantification of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the processing and conservation of wines made of winegrapes and hybrid grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Maria Pesamosca Facco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os folatos compõem uma classe de vitaminas redescoberta nas últimas décadas pela sua importante associação com diversas funções, nos vários processos metabólicos no organismo humano. As principais fontes descritas na literatura são os vegetais, os cereais e as leveduras. Objetivou-se quantificar o 5-metiltetrahidrofolato (5-metilTFH em vinhos durante o processamento e conservação. Foram coletadas amostras de vinhos tintos das variedades viníferas Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot e Pinot noir, e das não viníferas Isabel (tinta e Niágara (branca na colheita, no final da fermentação alcoólica, e maloláctica e seguindo-se aos 4, 7, 12 e 24 meses de conservação a partir do início da fermentação. A técnica de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE foi utilizada para a separação, identificação e quantificação. Os resultados mostraram que os níveis de 5-metil-THF aumentaram consideravelmente durante a fermentação alcoólica e continuaram aumentando até o término da fermentação maloláctica. Os níveis mantiveram-se estáveis durante um período de 3 a 6 meses para o vinho branco e de 1 a 2 anos para os vinhos tintos, dependendo da variedade. Os vinhos tintos de viníferas se mostraram uma boa fonte de 5-metilTHF.Folates are a class of vitamins that have been rediscovered in recent decades because of their association with various metabolic processes in the human organism. The main sources of folates described the scientific literature are vegetables, cereals and yeasts. The purpose of this study was to quantify 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF in wines during wine production and aging. Red wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Pinot Noir wine grape varieties, and from Isabel (red and Niagara (white non-wine grape varieties were analyzed. The samples were analyzed at the beginning of fermentation, at the end of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation, and periodically at 4, 7, 12 and 24 months of

  15. Wine Grapes at the Eastern Foot of Helan Mountain of Ningxia Experimental Study on Integration of Water and Fertilizer of Drip Irrigation%宁夏贺兰山东麓酿酒葡萄滴灌水肥一体化试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洁; 刘学军; 陆立国; 顾靖超; 武慧芳

    2016-01-01

    在宁夏贺兰山东麓葡萄种植基地,以5年生赤霞珠酿酒葡萄为供试材料,布置田间试验,针对葡萄需水需肥规律开展滴灌水肥一体化研究,分析不同灌溉定额及不同施肥量对葡萄产量和品质的影响,确定砾石土壤条件下酿酒葡萄灌溉制度。试验结果表明:随着灌溉定额增加可提高葡萄产量,当灌溉定额为3825 m3/hm2时,产量最大,但超过一定限度后,随灌溉定额增加产量出现下降趋势;增加施肥量在一定程度内可提升葡萄产量。不同施肥量、灌溉定额对单宁影响显著,变异系数分别为25.08及54.03,其他品质指标受其影响不显著,且灌溉定额对品质影响明显大于施肥量影响。减小灌溉定额可在一定范围内提高可溶性固形物含量,减小施肥量能显著降低滴定酸含量,单宁含量增加明显,有利于改善葡萄品质。%In eastern Ningxia Helan grape planting base,with 5-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon wine grape for the test material,layout-ed field experiment,then carried out the research on drip and integration of water and fertilizer with irrigation fertilizer requirement regularity of grape water demand,and analysised the different irrigation quota and the effect of different fertilizer on the yield and quality of grape,finally determined the wine grapes of the gravel soil irrigation system.Test results showed that with the increasing irrigation quotas can improve grape yields,when the irrigation quotas was 3 825 m3/hm2 ,the production reached a maximum,but beyond a certain limit,as irrigation increased the yield appeared a downward trend.Increased the amount of fertilizer applied to a certain extent could enhance the grape production.Effect of different fertilizer and irrigation quota on tannin significantly,variation coefficient was 25.08 and 54.03,the other quality indicators did not have a significant effect,qulity effect than fertilization and irriga-tion quota on impat

  16. Nitrogen and carbon assimilation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Sauvignon blanc juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Edwards, Patrick J B; Gardner, Richard C; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the assimilation and production of juice metabolites by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking, we compared the metabolite profiles of 63 Sauvignon blanc (SB) grape juices collected over five harvesting seasons from different locations of New Zealand before and after fermentation by the commercial wine yeast strain EC1118 at 15 °C. Metabolite profiles were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and the oenological parameters were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our results revealed that the amino acids threonine and serine were the most consumed organic nitrogen sources, while proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid were the least consumed amino acids during SB juice fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolised some uncommon nitrogen sources (e.g. norleucine, norvaline and pyroglutamic acid) and several organic acids, including some fatty acids, most likely after fermenting the main juice sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose). However, consumption showed large variation between juices and in some cases between seasons. Our study clearly shows that preferred nitrogen and carbon sources were consumed by S. cerevisiae EC1118 independent of the juice fine composition, whilst the consumption of other nutrient sources mainly depended on the concentration of other juice metabolites, which explains the uniqueness of each barrel of wine.

  17. 甘肃河西走廊产区酿酒葡萄附生微生物区系分析%Epiphytic microflora of wine grapes in Hexi corridor of Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守一; 贠建民; 韩建平; 赵洪源; 邵晓庆

    2015-01-01

    Four cultivars ripen wine grapes,Cabernet Sauvignon,Cabernet franc,Cabernet Gernischt and Pinot noir,were chosen from three different production areas (Wuwei,Zhangye and Jiayuguan)in Hexi Corridor of Gansu in order to determine their epiphytic microbial flora and the microbe species.The results showed that the epiphytic microflora was composed of eleven strains of bacteria,ten strains of yeasts and fourteen strains of moulds.For the three production areas,the yeast colony count was the most,which reached 104 ~ 106cfu/g,the bacteria colony count reached 104 ~ 105 cfu/g,and the mould colony count reached 102~104 cfu/g.The original had a significant effect on the epiphytic microbial colony count,inclu-ding yeast,mould and bacteria,but the cultivars had no significant effect on the epiphytic yeast,mould and bacteria colony count.The pathogens of berries were also isolated and identified as Botrytis cinerea ,Alter-naria alternata ,Penicillium spp.%以甘肃河西走廊具有代表性的3个产地(武威、张掖、嘉峪关)的4个品种(‘赤霞珠’‘品丽珠’‘蛇龙珠’‘黑比诺’)成熟期酿酒葡萄为研究对象,通过对葡萄浆果表面附生微生物的筛查、分离纯化与鉴定,分析葡萄附生微生物区系组成及其种群.结果显示:河西走廊产区酿酒葡萄附生菌相由11株细菌、10株酵母和14株霉菌组成.3个产地成熟期酿酒葡萄附生酵母菌的数量最大,达104~106 cfu/g,附生细菌数量为104~105 cfu/g,附生霉菌的数量为102~104 cfu/g.酵母、霉菌、细菌数量受地域因素影响显著,但受葡萄品种因素影响不显著,且分离鉴定出灰葡萄孢霉(Botrytis cinerea )、交链孢霉(Alternaria alternata )和青霉属(Penicillium spp.)等主要病害菌.研究结果可为原料采收后的前处理阶段开展有害微生物控制及评价原料耐贮性提供理论依据,并为酿造葡萄酒优良菌株选育提供种质资源.

  18. Phenolic Concentrations and Antioxidant Properties of Wines Made from North American Grapes Grown in China

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    Lei Zhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of wine phenolics found in several North American and (for comparison European grape cultivars grown in China were analyzed. This was done to find non-Vitis vinifera wines with prominent features in order to diversify the kinds of wines. The phenolic richness and antioxidant activity decreased in the order: red > rose > white wines. In the red wines, the American grape ‘Cynthiana’ had the highest total concentrations of phenols, anthocyanins, flavonols and phenolic acids, as well as antioxidant capacity, followed by the French hybrid ‘Chambourcin’, the lowest were detected in two European grape varieties, ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, while the total flavon-3-ols levels were reversed among these red grape cultivars. The highest concentration of stilbenes out of all the wines analyzed was found in the ‘Merlot’ variety. There were significant differences among wine phenolic compositions between North American and European grape cultivars. The antioxidant activities were significantly related to the concentrations of total phenols (r2 = 0.996, anthocyanins (r2 = 0.984, flavonols (r2 = 0.850 and gallic acid (r2 = 0.797. The prominent features of wine aroma and nutrition could make the American grape wines attractive to consumers. It is therefore necessary to perform further research on cultural practices and wine making involving these grapes.

  19. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  20. A wireless and portable electronic nose to differentiate musts of different ripeness degree and grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Manuel; Santos, Jose Pedro; Sayago, Isabel; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Arroyo, Teresa; Horrillo, Maria Carmen

    2015-04-13

    Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose) for the wine producing industry-The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties-Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA) and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA). The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga) and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc) grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  1. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  2. Composição físico-química do vinho Cabernet Franc proveniente de videiras conduzidas no sistema lira aberta Physico-chemical composition of Cabernet Franc wine from vineyards conducted in the lyre system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Manfroi

    2006-06-01

    , glycerol 9,3 g L-1, proline 669 mg L-1, anthocyanins 330 mg L-1, tannins 1.19 g L-1, color intensity 0.286, K 1,078 mg L-1, methanol 101.7 mg L-1, and summ of higher alcohols 450 mg L-1. The results found in the analysed wines showed similar results to parameters previously determined in Cabernet Franc wine from the same region elaborated from grapes cultivated in the pergola system. This makes evident that grapevines conducted in the lyre system are an alternative to produce quality red wine in the Serra Gaúcha region.

  3. 超声微波双辅助提取葡萄籽低聚原花青素的研究%Extraction of oligoprocyanidins from grape seed with ultrasonic treatment followed by microwave treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茵茹; 康健; 赵芙蓉

    2012-01-01

    以新疆吐鲁番的赤霞珠葡萄籽为研究对象,利用超声微波双辅助法提取其中的低聚原花青素.以低聚原花青素提取率为考察指标,研究固液比、微波功率、微波辐照时间、作用次数、乙醇体积分数5个单因素对葡萄籽低聚原花青素提取率的影响.并采用响应面分析法对提取结果进行优化.结果表明,采用超声微波双辅助萃取技术得到的低聚原花青素提取率较单独采用超声或微波辅助得到的原花青素提取率高.在以70.3%vol的乙醇为提取溶剂、固液比为1∶14.6 (g∶mL)、超声处理30min、微波功率400W、微波时间30s的条件下,得到的低聚原花青素提取率最大为7.62mg/g.%In this paper, grape seeds of Cabernet Sauvignon from Turpan Xinjiang were used to extract oligoprocyanidins by ultrasonic treatment followed by microwave. Effects of solid-liquid ratio, microwave power, microwave time, treatment times and alcohol concentration on extraction rate of oligoprocyanidins were evaluated through orthogonal experiments. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction result. The combinations of ultrasonic with microwave obtain higher extraction efficiency than the use of ultrasonic and microwave alone. The optimal extraction condition were as followed: extraction solution 70.3% vol alcohol, solid-liquid ratio 1:14.6, ultrasonic treatment time 30min, microwave power 400W and microwave time 30. Extraction rate of oligoprocyanidins was 7.62mg/g under these optimal conditions.

  4. Toward the authentication of wines of Nemea denomination of origin through cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS)-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaniolas, Stelios; Tsachaki, Maroussa; Bennett, Malcolm J; Tucker, Gregory A

    2008-09-10

    In the present study, we developed a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS)-based assay as a first attempt to detect fraud in grapevine musts with a long-term objective to establish an analytical methodology to authenticate wines of Nemea denomination of origin (Agiorgitiko). The analytical assay makes use of a single nucleotide polymorphism that discriminates Agiorgitiko and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. The latter grape variety is one of the major adulterants for Nemea wines. Agiorgitiko grapevine must was spiked with Cabernet Sauvignon in several ratios (v/v) from 50 down to 10%, and the subsequent mixes were subjected to alcoholic microfermentation. DNA was extracted from all mixture samples up to the end of the fermentation process and was subjected to the CAPS assay. Both standard agarose gel and lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis illustrated the ability of the method to detect the presence of Cabernet Sauvignon down to 10% throughout the whole fermentation process.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of grape pomace: Biochemical characterization of the fractions and methane production in batch and continuous digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Jean H; Lendormi, Thomas; Hobaika, Zeina; Salameh, Dominique; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G; Lanoisellé, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have estimated the biogas and methane production from grape pomace (variety Cabernet Franc). The physical and chemical characteristics of the raw material were determined, and the structural polysaccharides were identified and analyzed by the Van Soest method. Batch anaerobic digestions were carried out to assess the methane production of the grape pomace, pulp and seeds. The obtained cumulative methane productions are 0.125, 0.165 and 0.052 Nm(3) kg COD(-1) for grape pomace, pulps and seeds, respectively. The effect of grinding on the methane potential of the substrates, as a mechanical pretreatment, was evaluated. We found that it increased the anaerobic biodegradability for grape pomace, pulp and seeds by 13.1%, 4.8% and 22.2%, respectively. On the other hand, the methane potential of the grape pomace was determined in a laboratory pilot plant (12L) continuously mixed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The corresponding biogas production was 6.43 × 10(-3) Nm(3) d(-1), with a methane content of 62.3%. Thus, the pilot plant's efficiency compared to that achieved in the batch process was 81.2%. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the biochemical content and methane production.

  6. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qing Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer” with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes.

  7. Dicty_cDB: VHB563 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y has been constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes : HindIII (c...858.1 A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction en

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHD679 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y has been constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes : HindIII (c...n constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction enzymes : HindIII (clone pref

  9. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin

  10. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca) oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet) and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo) are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry result...

  11. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  12. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables.

  13. Perception of mineral character in Sauvignon blanc wine: inter-individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Veronica Parr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the descriptors employed to characterize wine organoleptically, minerality is arguably one of the most enigmatic. The aim of the work described in this article was to delineate the nature of perceived minerality in Sauvignon wine, specifically its sensorial reality for experienced wine professionals from France and New Zealand. Participants evaluated 16 Sauvignon blanc wines (8 French; 8 New Zealand under three conditions, ortho-nasal olfaction, palate only (Nose-clip condition, and by full tasting (global perception. Data from the global condition only are reported here. Key results include: i that although there were quantitative differences in perception of minerality as a function of culture, there was substantial agreement conceptually between French and New Zealand participants in terms of the sensorial experience of minerality; and ii that perceived minerality associated significantly with other key wine descriptors, notably presence of citrus, stone-related characters (e.g., flinty or chalky/calcareous notes, and reductive notes, along with absence of Sauvignon varietal characteristics (passion fruit; green notes. Of particular interest, no significant, direct association was found between perceived sourness/acidity and minerality judgments for either culture.

  14. Accumulation of Flavanols, Expression of Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase Induced by UV-C Irradiation During Grape Berry Development%UV-C对葡萄果实发育过程中黄烷醇类多酚积累及隐色花色素还原酶表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 邢延富; 牛铁泉; 高美英; 牛兴艳

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The effect of ultraviolet C on the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry during its development was studied. [Method] The 5-year old grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) was subjected to the regular UV-C irradiation during berry development, and the accumulation of flavanols, the enzyme activity of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), the transcriptional level and translation level of Vv larl and larl were determined by spectrophotometer, real time PCR, and Western Blot. [Result] The accumulation pattern of flavanols in grape berry during its development was not changed, whereas the accumulation of flavanols was promoted by UV-C irradiation, especially in the young berry. In addition, the activity of LAR, the key enzyme in the flavanols biosynthetic pathway, was induced by the UV-C irradiation. The synthesis of LAR1 and LAR2 new protein and the accumulation of Vv larl and larl mRNA induced by UV-C irradiation were also observed. [Conclusion] Results of the study indicated that the UV-C irradiation could induce the transcription of Vv larl and Vv larl, the synthesis of LAR1 and LAR2 new protein, the increase of LAR activity, and resulted in the accumulation of flavanols in berry.%[目的]阐明葡萄果实发育过程中,植株接受UV-C照射对果实中黄烷醇类多酚积累的作用.[方法]以5年生赤霞珠葡萄为试材,定期对植株进行UV-C照射,分别采用分光光度计法、Western Blot和Real time PCR法对黄烷醇类多酚积累及其生物合成关键酶bAR表达进行分析,从底物、酶活性、蛋白质含量及基因转录水平阐明UV-C对Vv lar1、lar2基因表达的影响.[结果]葡萄果实发育过程中,UV-C照射并未改变果实中黄烷醇类多酚的积累规律,但诱导黄烷醇类多酚积累,特别是在幼果期,UV-C照射明显诱导果实中黄烷醇类多酚的积累.UV-C照射诱导葡萄果实LAR酶活性升高,LAR1、LAR2蛋白含量增加,Vv lar1、Vv lar2转录增强

  15. The Effect of Inhibited Photorespiration on Photoinhibition in'Cabernet Sauvignon’(Vitis vinefera L.cv.) under Drought Stress%干旱胁迫下抑制光呼吸对‘赤霞珠'葡萄光抑制的影响吵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管雪强; 赵世杰; 李德全; 束怀瑞

    2004-01-01

    选用葡萄(Vitis vinifera L.)品种'赤霞珠'(Cabernet Sauvignon)的2年生盆栽苗,进行不同程度的干旱处理20 d及随后连续3 d的光呼吸抑制剂异烟肼(INH)处理后,测定其PSII最大光化学量子产量(Fv/Fm)、实际光化学效率(?PSII)及净光合速率(Pn),并计算其总光合电子传递(J T)、羧化电子传递(J C)、加氧电子传递(J O)及光呼吸速率(Pr),发现赤霞珠葡萄在干旱胁迫下能够有效调动其光保护机制以避免严重光抑制的发生,而INH抑制光呼吸后,光抑制程度则明显加重,从而证明干旱胁迫下光呼吸对赤霞珠葡萄的光保护机制起重要作用.

  16. 基于酚类物质的酿酒红葡萄品种特性分析%Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Red Grape Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 王晓宇; 田呈瑞; 赵旗峰; 马小河; 唐晓萍; 马婷婷; 马锦锦

    2015-01-01

    conical. There was a significant difference between the proportion of grape peels, seeds and pulps. The ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ with a higher quality was the first cultivar in China, its proportion of peels and seeds were the highest and reached 31.3%;whereas the proportion of peels and seeds of ‘Cabernet Gernischet’ was lower, only 10.62%, meanwhile the wine fermented by‘Cabernet Gernischet’ had a lower content of polyphenols and a supple texture. Titratable acid content of 20 varieties of grapes was 3.97-9.00 g·L-1 and the content of soluble solid was 14.5-25.4 g·L-1. Different grape varieties and different parts of the grape fruit (skin, seed and pulp) were significantly different in the polyphenols content. TPC (total phenolic content) of grape peel was 12-125 mg·100g-1FW (fruit fresh weight), TFA (total flavanol content) was 1-27 mg·100g-1FW; TPC of grape seed was 17-456 mg·100g-1 FW, TFA was 22-505 mg·100g-1FW, TPC of grape pulps was 1.24-3.24 mg·100g-1FW, that TPC in grape seed was 3-4 times of grape peel, TFA in the seed was 10 times more than the peel. Anthocyanin mainly existed in grape peels and the content of anthocyanin of grape peels was 1-34 mg·100g-1FW. Among the 20 varieties of grape, ‘Cabernet sauvignon’ exhibited the highest anthocyanin content, which was followed by ‘Ruby cabernet’, ‘Marselan’ and ‘Cabernet gernischet’. The grape cultivars such as ‘Marselan’ and ‘Cabernet sauvignon’ had higher phenolic compounds, meanwhile the grape cultivars such as ‘Cabernet gernischet’, ‘Heihuxiang’ and ‘Cinsaut cehco’ had lower phenols content. The content of phenolic compounds in different parts of various grapes was significantly different. The order was that grape seeds was the highest, followed by the grape skins, and the pulp was the lowest. The phenolic compounds content in pulp was much lower than that in skins and seeds, and pulp mainly contained phenolic acids. A total of 12 kinds of monomeric phenols in

  17. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  18. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  19. Effect of Soil Drought on Accumulation of Total Phenol in Different Parts of Grape Berry during Development%土壤干旱对葡萄果实发育过程中酚类物质时空积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 高瑞娟; 杨运良; 牛兴艳; 郜志栋; 冀铮春

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon') berry was used as materials,and the effect of soil drought on the spatial and temporal accumulation of total phenol in different parts of beery during development was studied.The high content of total phenol was found in the seed of young berry and stem of mature berry,respectively,indicating that no obvious effect of soil drought on the spatial accumulation pattern of total phenol.During development of grape berry,the content of total phenol in skin,flesh,and seed decreased,but an increased accumulation induced by soil drought was observed.Compared to CK Ⅰ,the content of total phenol in stem,skin,flesh,and seed respectively increased by 8.1 %,7.1%,8.9 %,and 8.1% in the young fruit stage (30 days after full bloom),and the parameters respectively increased by 6.3 %,8.0 %,19.0 %,and 7.0 % compared to CK Ⅱ.Meanwhile,the content of total phenol respectively increased by 6.8%,14.4%,46.1%,and -10.0 % compared to CK Ⅰ in stem,skin,flesh,and seed of mature berry,and respectively increased by 10.5%,33.8%,86.6%,and 28.7% compared to CKⅡ.The results suggested that soil drought could not change the temporal and spatial accumulation of total phenol,but could promote the accumulation of total phenol in different development stages,especially in mature stage.%以酿酒葡萄品种赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’)果实为试材,研究了葡萄果实发育过程中土壤干旱对果肉、果皮、种子和果梗中总酚时空积累的影响.结果表明,幼果期(花后30 d)种子中总酚含量最高,而成熟期(花后110 d)则果梗中含量最高,且土壤干旱(土壤相对含水量为田间最大持水量的60%±5%)对总酚的空间积累无明显影响.果实发育过程中,果皮、果肉和种子中总酚含量呈持续下降趋势,但土壤干旱导致幼果期果梗、果皮、果肉和种子中总酚含量分别比CKⅠ(不控制灌

  20. Effects of different soil textures on wine quality of Cabernet Gernischt%土壤质地对蛇龙珠葡萄酿酒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏安; 李记明; 姜文广; 高敏; 梁海忠

    2013-01-01

    With Cabernet Gernischt from Yantai region as the materials, the effects of four different soil textures, including sand, loam, clay loam and clay, on the wine quality were investigated. The physical-chemical parameters, color, phenols content, and sensory quality were evaluated and systematically compared. The results showed that the soil texture had significant effect on the berry and wine quality, and the grape in sandy loam had the better wine-making quality. Compared with clay loam and clay soils, the grape in vineyard of sand and loam soils had smaller berry size, looser cluster and its corresponding wine presented better color and sensory quality.%  以蛇龙珠葡萄为试材,分别选定了烟台地区砂土、壤土、粘壤土和粘土4种典型土壤质地进行研究,分析比较了4种土壤质地所产蛇龙珠葡萄的酿酒品质的差异。结果表明,土壤质地对蛇龙珠葡萄果实和葡萄酒品质影响较大,含砂石的壤土条件下葡萄酿酒品质较佳。砂土、壤土与粘壤土、粘土相比,生产出的蛇龙珠葡萄果实小,果穗疏松,酿出的葡萄酒酚类物质含量高,颜色深,感官品质较好。

  1. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  2. Relationship between sugar accumulation and sugar metabolism related enzyme's during Cabernet Sauvignon berries development%赤霞珠葡萄果实糖积累与糖代谢相关酶的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利梅; 王秀芹; 杨培培; 黄卫东; 战吉宬

    2011-01-01

    以赤霞珠葡萄果实为试材,在花后20~110 d.(每隔10d取样一次),测定和分析果实生长发育过程中糖分(葡萄糖、果糖、蔗糖)积累的动态变化,以及不同时期果实己糖激酶(HXK)、细胞壁酸性转化酶(CWlNV)和蔗糖合酶(SuSy)活性变化趋势.结果表明,赤霞珠葡萄果实整个发育过程中主要以积累葡萄搪和果糖为主,蔗糖含量极微;HXK活性与葡萄搪、果糖呈相反的变化趋势;葡萄糖和果糖含量低时,CWINV和SuSy的活性开始上升;反之,CWINV和SuSy的活性降低.相关性分析表明,蔗糖含量与葡萄糖、果糖含量显著相关,葡萄糖和果糖含量与CWINV和SuSy活性负相关.

  3. 可同化氮含量对赤霞珠葡萄酒发酵和香气成分的影响%Effects of yeast assimilable nitrogen content on fermentation and aroma components of Cabernet Sauvignon wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪成鹏; 张晖; 杨晓雁; 潘婷; 尹玉玲; 惠竹梅

    2015-01-01

    选取山西戎子酒庄有限公司不同位置的三个葡萄园(驮腰坡,东廒北,东廒南),对各葡萄园进行土壤含氮量、赤霞珠葡萄及葡萄酒发酵过程中可同化氮(YAN)含量、葡萄酒理化指标与香气成分的检测分析.结果表明,葡萄果实可同化氮含量可能主要与土壤铵态氮含量有关.不同葡萄园的赤霞珠葡萄汁可同化氮的含量不同,均超过了150 mg/L,能保证发酵顺利进行.如果需要添加可同化氮时,应以此时测定的可同化氮含量为依据,避免添加过量.原酒中酯类和醇类相对含量由高到低依次为:驮腰坡>东廒南助剂>东廒北>东廒南,这与葡萄汁中可同化氮含量呈正相关.

  4. Briefing report of growth and fruiting behaviour of Cabernet Sauvignon in Manas region of Xinjiang%新疆玛纳斯赤霞珠葡萄生长结果习性调查简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 梁素颖

    2009-01-01

    赤霞珠是北疆地区主栽酿酒葡萄良种,通过对新疆玛纳斯种植的8年生赤霞珠葡萄调查和分析,萌芽率平均为77.6%,成枝率88.2%,结果枝率85.8%,结果系数1.63,表现出较国内其它省区较优的生产结果习性.中结果母枝(3~4节)、短结果母枝(1~2节)的结实能力较长结果母枝(5~6节)强,相同节位芽的结果能力随着结果母枝长度增加而下降.冬季修剪主要应以中、短梢修剪为主,幼龄树可对主蔓进行延长修剪.

  5. Estudio de los efectos en el viñedo de la modificación del déficit hídrico continuo en los periodos anterior y posterior al envero (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon; Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En regiones semiáridas, con veranos cálidos, evapotranspiraciones elevadas, humedades relativas bajas, además de precipitaciones intermitentes y escasas (400 mm al año) que reducen la recarga del perfil en invierno, se puede ver afectada la productividad y sostenibilidad de los viñedos. Por eso en estas zonas puede ser necesario utilizar el riego suplementario para mantener la calidad y aumentar la productividad. En este marco de circunstancias es en el que se desarrolla la mayoría de la viti...

  6. Grape phytochemicals and associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Xiao, Yang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables may play an important role in deceasing chronic disease risk. Grapes, one of the most popular and widely cultivated and consumed fruits in the world, are rich in phytochemicals. Epidemiological evidence has linked the consumption of grapes with reduced risk of chronic diseases, including certain types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that grapes have strong antioxidant activity, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and suppressing platelet aggregation, while also lowering cholesterol. Grapes contain a variety of phytochemicals, like phenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of grapes, however, varies greatly among different varieties. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of grapes and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The aim of this paper is to critically review the most recent literature regarding the concentrations, biological activities, and mechanisms of grape phytochemicals.

  7. QUALITATIVE PECULIARITIES OF THE FLAVOURED WINES AND OF THE VERMOUTH TYPE WINES, OBTAINED FROM THE SAUVIGNON BLANC VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Elena CULEA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the dynamics of the physical-chemical parameters of flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, obtained by the addition of hydroalcoholic macerates from plants to the Sauvignon Blanc wine variety, we analyzed certain physical and chemical characteristics (D 20 20, Alcool %, Total dry extract g/l, Free sugar g/l, Unreducing extract g /l, Total Acidity g/l C4H6O6, Free SO2 mg/l Total SO2 mg/l for 9 samples. Compared to the main wine parameters, the tested parameters had the following evolution: Alcoholic strength, Free sugar and Density increased in vermouth type wines, Total acidity decreased slightly in flavoured wines and more obvious in vermouth type wines. The total dry extract increased sharply in vermouth type wines and the unreducing extract decreased sharply in vermouth type wines. The amount of Free SO2 was higher in flavoured wines, but Total SO2 had lower values, both for flavoured wines and vermouth type wines, comparative to Sauvignon Blanc wine. Plants macerates added to the Sauvignon Blanc basic wine, influenced most of the physical-chemical parameters and provided new qualitative features to resulting beverages.

  8. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Bin Li; Ya-Jun Guo; Gui-Fang Deng; En-Qin Xia

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial proper...

  9. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... variety of grapes except Emperor, Almeria, Calmeria, and Ribier varieties, on any Saturday, Sunday... this section, nor handle any variety of grapes except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier...

  10. Chemical and sensory effects of storing sauvignon Blanc wine in colored bottles under artificial light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Flores-Valdivia, Daniela; Laurie, V Felipe; López-Solís, Remigio; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2014-07-23

    The chemical and sensory effects of storing Sauvignon Blanc in colored bottles and exposing them to artificial light were examined. The colors of the bottles chosen were Dead Leaf Green, Antique Green, Amber, and Flint. The light was provided by fluorescent tubes with a regime of 16 h of exposure during 8 months of storage. The results indicated that the wine's chemical composition was affected by the type of bottle used. The Flint bottle presented the lowest concentration of total phenols. Yellow coloration was not dependent on the bottle color, as the wine in darker bottles (Amber, Antique Green, and Dead Leaf Green) had considerably more yellow color development than the wine in clear bottles. With regard to the sensory analyses performed, a trend showing an increase in color intensity and a decrease in overall aromas depending on the bottle color was observed. The wine's aromatic description changed significantly during its storage under artificial light conditions, demonstrating a decrease in vegetal aromas and an increase in citrus and tropical flavors that was dependent on the bottle color.

  11. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  12. Does natural larval parasitism of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) vary between years, generation, density of the host and vine cultivar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuéreb, A; Thiéry, D

    2006-04-01

    Populations of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller and its larval parasitoids were studied for two consecutive years on an experimental insecticide-free vineyard in France planted with adjacent plots of five grape cultivars (Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Sauvignon, Cabernet Sauvignon and Sémillon) using a natural L. botrana population during the first year, and a natural population supplemented with artificially inoculated individuals during the second year. Levels of natural populations of larval parasitoids were measured by their parasitism rate. The ichneumonid Campoplex capitator Aubert was the most common species collected from L. botrana larvae. Its incidence was higher during the spring compared to summer. The overall parasitism rate found on the experimental vineyard varied from 23% in 2000 to 53% in 2001, and was mainly due to C. capitator. Parasitism was not affected by the grape cultivar on which the host developed but was positively correlated with the host density, per bunch or per stock, suggesting that among the five grape cultivars tested, C. capitator females probably do not discriminate between hosts feeding on different grape cultivars, but rather the densities of L. botrana larvae.

  13. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  14. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  15. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  16. How It All Began: Sour Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Maude M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a one-act play by the author, using Eula Lee (the feminist author's alter ego) as a storyteller. Embellishes upon the sour-grapes fable to teach good sportsmanship and what "sour grapes" means. Enacts the author's ideas about teaching cultural values through storytelling. (CH)

  17. Light exclusion influence on grape anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque w...

  18. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  19. Prediction of yield by digital image analysis of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešlić Zoran S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape yield per vine of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. was evaluated on the basis of digital image processing of vine part. Digital camera was mounted on tripod and used for taking photos of 1 x 1 m portions of canopy. The Adobe Photoshop software was used to analyse image for the colour counting of the blue pixels of grape in the quadrant region. The actual yield was obtained from the photographed vines by hand harvesting of sampled portions. Linear regression was used for calculation of the correlation between blue pixels and grape weight. The relatively strong relationship between blue pixels and grape weight (R2=0.91 was obtained. Based on these results, we can recommend this simple technique for yield forecasting. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP31063

  20. Aroma Glycosides in Grapes and Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jibin; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Ullah, Niamat; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    The major aroma components in grapes and wine include free volatile compounds and glycosidic nonvolatile compounds. The latter group of compounds is more than 10 times abundant of the former, and constitutes a big aroma reserve in grapes and wine. This review summarizes the research results obtained recently for the identification of aroma glycosides in grapes and wine, including grape glycoside structures, differences in aroma glycosides among grape varieties, hydrolysis mechanisms, and the factors that influence them. It also presents the analytical techniques used to identify the glycosidic aroma precursors. The operational strategies, challenges, and improvements of each step encountered in the analysis of glycosidic aroma precursors are described. This review intends to provide a convenient reference for researchers interested in the methods used for the determination of the aroma glucosides composition and the recognition of their chemical structures.

  1. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... aqueous extraction (steeping) of the fresh deseeded marc remaining after grapes have been pressed to produce grape juice or wine. It contains the common components of grape juice; namely, anthocyanins, tartaric acid, tannins, sugars, minerals, etc., but not in the same proportions as found in grape...

  2. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made...

  3. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  4. 葡萄中碳黑曲霉的分离及其产生赭曲霉毒素A的研究%Study on the isolation ofAspergillus carbonarius and ochratoxin A production from wine grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何云龙; 梁志宏; 许文涛; 黄昆仑; 罗云波

    2009-01-01

    碳黑曲霉(Aspergillus carbonarius)是葡萄中产生赭曲霉毒素A(Ochratoxin A,OTA)的重要菌株.采集烟台赤霞珠(Cabernet sauvignon)葡萄,接种于孟加拉红培养基,从中分离到7株黑曲霉群(Aspergillus section black group)真菌,其中3株鉴定属于碳黑曲霉种,占黑色曲霉的43.8%.此3菌株分别接种在粮粒培养基上,静置培养,全部产生OTA,最高浓度达到1300μg/kg,而且,其中2株碳黑曲霉菌株在可可浆培养基上产生荧光,而从葡萄样品中未检出OTA.

  5. 酿酒葡萄加工废弃物中多酚含量和抗氧化性的分析%The Content & Antioxidant Activities of Polyphenol Extracted from Wine Grape Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浡; 李双石; 兰蓉; 王晓杰; 陈思

    2016-01-01

    The content and antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracted from Cabernet Sauvignon processing waste (skin, seeds, stems) by dif-ferent methods were analyzed. The results showed that, the content of polyphenol by organic solvent extraction was higher than that by other ex-traction methods, and the content of polyphenol from stems was higher than that from skin and seeds and its antioxidant activities were stronger accordingly.%通过对不同提取方法提取的酿酒葡萄赤霞珠加工废弃物(皮、籽、梗)的多酚含量进行测定,并分析提取多酚抗氧化性。结果表明,有机溶剂提取法提取含量高于其他方法的提取量。葡萄梗中总酚的含量相对高于葡萄皮与葡萄籽,并具有良好的抗氧化性。

  6. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  7. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hemorrhoids. Constipation. Cough. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Diarrhea. Heavy menstrual periods. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Canker sores. Liver damage. Other conditions. More ...

  8. A Fast Parallel Treecode with GRAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Junichiro

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we describe an implementation of the Barnes-Hut treecode on a cluster of PCs (Beowulf-class machines) equipped with GRAPE hardware. Our implementation is designed to achieve good performance on clusters of GRAPE with a relatively slow network, such as the standard Gigabit Ethernet. With 12 processors, the speedup over single-processor code reaches around 10. Our code is available on the web.

  9. Bioaerosol formation during grape stemming and crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Marc; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-15

    Indoor formation of airborne particles during pre-fermentation grape processing was assessed by particle counting using laser particle sizers. Particle numbers of four different aerodynamic size classes (0.3 to 0.5 microm, 0.5 to 1 microm, 1 to 5 microm, and >5 microm) were determined during unloading of harvest containers and subsequent grape stemming and crushing. Regarding these size classes, composition before grape handling was determined as 87.9%, 10.4%, 1.7%, and 0.1%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during grape handling to 50.4%, 15.2%, 33.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. Airborne bacteria and fungi originating from grape processing were collected by impactor and liquid impinger samplers. Grape handling resulted in a sixfold increase in total (biological and non-biological) airborne particles. The generation of bacterial and fungal aerosols was associated mostly with particles of aerodynamic diameters>5 microm (mainly 7 to 11 microm) as determined by flow cytometry. This fraction was increased 150fold in relation to background levels before grape crushing. Maximum concentrations of culturable bacteria reached 485,000 colony forming units (cfu/m3), whereas 146,000 cfu of fungi and yeasts were detected per cubic meter of air. Culturable Gram-negative bacteria occurred only in small numbers (180 cfu/m3). In relation to the total number of airborne particles emitted, culturable microorganisms comprised 0.1% to 0.2%. As soon as grape crushing was stopped, particle concentrations decreased rapidly either due to passive settling or due to air currents in the occupational indoor environment reaching background levels.

  10. 75 FR 17031 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... strawberries in the past but are also being used for other fruit. They are made of a clear, rigid plastic and... the production area. In addition, there are about 100 importers of grapes. Small agricultural service..., Egypt, Italy, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, and South Africa, and known grape importers were notified of...

  11. THE EFFECT OF PECTOLYTIC ENZYME TREATMENTS ON RED GRAPES MASH OF VRANEC ON GRAPE JUICE YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRO MOJSOV

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and industrial trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of pectolytic enzyme treatments on red grape mash of Vranec on grape juice yields. The red grape Vranec for laboratory trials were taken from private winery “Imako vino” Stip (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their laboratory. The red grape Vranec for industrial trials were taken from private winery “Tristo” Veles (Macedonia and trials were conducted in their winery. The grapes were weighed, destemmed, crushed and divided in 5 liters plastic reservoirs for laboratory trials, and for industrial trials were placed in a stainless steel fermentor (4t.. All treatments were performed in doublecate. Red grape mash made from Vranec were macerated for 6 hours at 18 to 20oC with addition of one commercial pectolytic enzymepreparation (Vinozym Vintage FCE, Rohapect VR-C and Trenolin Rot DF. After addition of SO2 (50ppm and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae NEUTRE SC (Lallemand, 2009(200 mg/kg grape, maceration time of 5 days (~25 oC was applied in order to study the effect of macerating enzymes on grape juice yields. After the maceration, the pomace was removed, in the obtained 4 different variations. Pectolytic enzyme preparation was not added to control trial. All treatments were performed in duplicate. Results of laboratory and industrial trials from our experiments, gives increased on free run juice yields by 4.85%-6.35% compared with non-treated mash of control trials.

  12. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched grape juice from ultrasonication treated grape fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mohidul; Yun, Hae-Keun; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Grape (Vitis spp.) is a major source of resveratrol that can be eaten directly or after making jam, jelly, wine and juice. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has a profound positive influence on human health, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ageing effects and the ability to lower blood sugar. During industrial production of grape juice, resveratrol is lost because of the use of clarifying agents and filtration; therefore, commercial grape juice contains very low amounts of resveratrol. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of resveratrol in grape juice prepared from three varieties of grape, viz. Campbell Early, Muscat Bailey A (MBA) and Kyoho, following post-harvest ultrasonication cleaning for 5 min and 6h of incubation in the dark at 25 °C. This process resulted in the amounts of resveratrol increasing by 1.53, 1.15 and 1.24 times in juice prepared from Campbell Early, MBA and Kyoho, respectively, without changing the amounts of total soluble solids. Overall, our results indicate that ultrasonication treatment of post-harvested grape fruits can be an effective method for producing resveratrol-enriched grape juice as well as cleaning grapes thoroughly.

  13. Fungi and mycotoxins in vineyards and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Ailsa D; Leong, Su-Lin L; Kazi, Benozir A; Emmett, Robert W; Scott, Eileen S

    2007-10-20

    Many fungi may occur on grapes during growth in the vineyard, but the main concern from the viewpoint of mycotoxin contamination is the black Aspergilli, Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger. These fungi are capable of producing ochratoxin A (OA) which may contaminate grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. Understanding the ecology and physiology of the black Aspergilli can provide tools for management of OA at all stages of grape production and processing. In the vineyard, careful management of cultivation, irrigation and pruning can assist in minimising the levels of black Aspergilli in the soil, which in turn, can minimise contamination of grapes by these fungi. Minimising damage to grapes on the vine by the use of open vine canopies, grape varieties with resistance to rain damage and by the management of insect pests and fungal diseases (e.g., mildew, Botrytis bunch rot) can reduce the incidence of Aspergillus rot in mature berries. The risk of OA in table grapes can be minimised by careful visual inspection to avoid damaged and discoloured berries. In wine, harvesting grapes with minimal damage, rapid processing and good sanitation practices in the winery assist in minimising OA. During vinification, pressing of grapes, and clarification steps which remove grape solids, grape proteins and spent yeast can also remove a significant proportion of OA. For dried vine fruit production, avoiding berry damage, rapid drying, and final cleaning and sorting to remove dark berries can reduce overall OA levels in finished products.

  14. Dicty_cDB: SFA442 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 672.1 CAP0007_IIIR_A11 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Petiole - CAP Vitis vinifera cDNA clo...F_A11 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Petiole - CAP Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAP0007_IIIF_A

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHF808 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _B08 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.002 2 CB341283 |CB341283.1 CA32EN0001_IIIbR_E07 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32E...osome 7. 38 0.019 8 CF213724 |CF213724.1 CGF1000808_C04 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon Stem - CAST Vi

  16. Dicty_cDB: VHA335 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 518011.1 A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two different restriction...082 1 CT497858 |CT497858.1 A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon using two dif

  17. Dicty_cDB: AFH526 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 099.1 CAB20005_Ia_Ra_A07 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20005_Ia_Ra_A07... 0.15 2 CB348691 |CB348691.1 CAB2SG0005_IIaR_C02 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry - CAB2SG Vitis vinifera cDNA clone

  18. Dicty_cDB: SSH725 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 CAB20007_IIa_Fa_H10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20007_IIa_Fa_H10 5...', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-12 2 CF211161 |CF211161.1 CAB20007_IIa_Ra_H10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSM503 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cTOE7E7 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 76 2e-28 3 CF211085 |CF211085.1 CAB20007_IIa_Fa_H10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom...11161.1 CAB20007_IIa_Ra_H10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera

  20. Dicty_cDB: VFG575 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB10004_I....1 CAB20001_IIa_Ra_F03 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20001_IIa_Ra_F03

  1. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlakov M. M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice varieties Aniuta, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska close to each other (50.93; 56.14; 51.23%. According to the percentage of glucose similar varieties Aniuta and Nizina (33 - 34.27%, Vodograi and Jubilee Novocherkasska (41.16 - 45.22%. Sort Jubilee Novocherkasska, had content in berries close fructose and glucose. Most of fructose (66.02% in berries variety Nizina. In berries studied cultivars organic acid content was: wine 3128 - 3861, malic 982 - 3753, citric 109 - 317, amber 3 - 115 mg / dm3. The highest concentrations of potassium and sodium cations are presented in berries varieties Aniuta: potassium - 1219 sodium - 35.13 mg / dm3 and cations magnesium and calcium in berries Jubilee Novocherkasska 46.75 and 73.64 mg / dm3. The lowest concentration of potassium and sodium cations observed in grape Vodograi, magnesium - from grape Aniuta, calcium - at grape Nizina. We studied grape bunches are large, not dense, beautiful, berries are large, harmonious taste. Tasting score fresh grapes varieties Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina, Jubilee Novocherkasska 7.6; 7.4; 7.8; 7.8 points respectively

  2. Melatonin is synthesised by yeast during alcoholic fermentation in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Troncoso, Ana M; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2011-06-15

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a neurohormone produced in the pineal gland. Its biological properties are related to the circadian rhythm. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) accepted the health claim related to melatonin and the alleviation of subjective feelings of jet lag. This molecule has been detected in some foods. In this work, 13 grape varieties were studied; 7 monovarietal wines were produced in an experimental winery under strictly controlled conditions and were sampled in different steps. The grape varieties used to make the wines were: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Tempranillo, Tintilla de Rota, Palomino Fino and Alpha red. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) unequivocally confirmed the presence of melatonin in wines. The main contribution of this paper is the results that clearly show that melatonin is synthesised during the winemaking process, specifically after the alcoholic fermentation. Indeed, melatonin is absent in grapes and musts and is formed during alcoholic fermentation.

  3. Differential absorption of metals from soil to diverse vine varieties from the Valley of Tulum (Argentina): consequences to evaluate wine provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabani, María P; Toro, María E; Vázquez, Fabio; Díaz, María P; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2009-08-26

    We report the effect of vine variety on the absorption of metals from soil and follow the variety from wine through juice, verifying which metals could be used to assess wine provenance. Eleven metals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 32 soils, 16 grapes juices, and 18 wines sampled from a single vineyard having four red grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Bonarda, Malbec, and Syrah). The K nearest neighbor method allows us to distinguish among different soils, juices, and wines. Linear discriminant analysis affords descriptors to point out differences, mainly Mg, Mn, Ca, K, and Na. Data analysis evidenced that some elements have equivalent concentrations in soil, juice, and wine, while others did not. Canonical analysis shows good correlation between grape juice and wine with their provenance soil. We suggest using Mg as a marker of wine provenance, while Mn could be used to evaluate differences between wine varieties associated with plant physiology.

  4. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  5. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  6. Dicty_cDB: VSD390 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ', mRNA sequence. 36 0.057 2 CB980143 |CB980143.1 CAB70002_IIIaF_C08 Cabernet Sau... CB980214 |CB980214.1 CAB70002_IIIaR_C08 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA c...0636_A06 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon Stem - CAST Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAST0003_IVR_A06 3', mR

  7. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  8. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Geuna, Filippo;

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce...

  9. Proteome analysis of grape skins during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deytieux, Christelle; Geny, Laurence; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Claverol, Stéphane; Bonneu, Marc; Donèche, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of proteins isolated from skin tissue is apparently an essential parameter for understanding grape ripening as this tissue contains the key compounds for wine quality. It has been particularly difficult to extract proteins from skins for analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis gels and, therefore, a protocol for this purpose has been adapted. The focus was on the evolution of the proteome profile of grape skin during maturation. Proteome maps obtained at three stages of ripening were compared to assess the extent to which protein distribution differs in grape skin during ripening. The comparative analysis shows that numerous soluble skin proteins evolve during ripening and reveal specific distributions at different stages. Proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolisms, and stress response are identified as being over-expressed at the beginning of colour-change. The end of colour-change is characterized by the over-expression of proteins involved in anthocyanin synthesis and, at harvest, the dominant proteins are involved in defence mechanisms. In particular, increases in the abundance of different chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase isoforms were found as the berry ripens. This observation can be correlated with the increase of the activities of both of these enzymes during skin ripening. The differences observed in proteome maps clearly show that significant metabolic changes occur in grape skin during this crucial phase of ripening. This comparative analysis provides more detailed characterization of the fruit ripening process.

  10. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  11. Prospects for GRB Polarimetry with GRAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P. F.; Legere, J.; Macri, J. R.; Narita, T.; Ryan, J. M.

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses the latest progress in the development of GRAPE (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation from these sources will lead to a better understating of both the emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. We can monitor individual Compton scatters that occur in the plastics and determine whether the photon is photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal or not. A Compton scattered photon that is immediately photo absorbed by the high-Z crystal constitutes a valid event. These valid events provide us with the interaction locations of each incident photon and ultimately produces a modulation pattern for the Compton scattering of the polarized radiation. Comparing with Monte Carlo simulations of a 100% polarized beam, the level of polarization of the measured beam can then be determined. The complete array is mounted on a flat-panel multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) that can measure the deposited energies resulting from the photon interactions. The design of the detector allows for a large field-of-view (> π steradian), at the same time offering the ability to be close-packed with multiple modules in order to reduce deadspace. We present in this paper the latest laboratory results obtained from GRAPE using partially polarized radiation sources along with a brief description of our future plans for the GRAPE design.

  12. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  13. Research on the effects of winter protection for grape with ecotype arch-tile units%酿酒葡萄园生态型弓瓦防寒效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映龙; 单守明; 平吉成; 张军翔

    2011-01-01

    Based on testing new type units of winter protection for wine grape, instead of burying earth soft which is traditional measure for cold prevention in winter, we studied influence of soil temperature on grape roots (Cabernet Sauvignon) by ecotype arch-tile units. Result showed that soil temperatures dealing with ecotype arch-tile units were higher than those with burying earth soil treatment, but not significant. In the spring, mortality of branches and tendrils with arch-tile units was slightly higher than that with burying earth soil treatment; Differences did not reach a significant level, but fracture rate of new shoots with arch-tile units is significantly lower than that with burying earth soil treatment. Therefore, under the experimental conditions, the effects of winter protection by ecotype arch-tile units equal to that of burying earth soil, ecotype arch-tile units were able to make over-wintering Cabernet grapes live safely.%为了探索能替代葡萄冬季埋土防寒措施的新型防寒装置,本试验以赤霞珠葡萄为材料,研究生态型弓瓦防寒装置对葡萄根系土层温度的影响,结果表明,弓瓦防寒装置处理的各土层温度高于埋土处理,但是差异不显著.在春季,弓瓦处理的枝蔓死亡率略高于埋土处理;差异没有达到显著水平,但是新梢折断率显著低于埋土处理,因此,在试验条件下,生态型弓瓦防寒装置的防寒效果和埋土防寒措施相当,可以使赤霞珠葡萄安全越冬.

  14. Desfolha em videiras americanas e viníferas na fase de pré-maturação dos frutos Defoliation of american and vinifera grapevines in the pre ripening of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2011-07-01

    2006/2007 harvesting. The experiment was disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications and four plants per plot. The following treatments were tested: T1 (no defoliation, T2 (removal of leaves located in the opposite side of the grapes, T3 (removal of leaves located under the grapes and T4 (removal of leaves located under and in the opposite side of the grapes. The Vitis labrusca received an additional treatment (T5 consisting of leaves removed above the grapes. These treatments were applied during the change of berries color for Concord, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes and in the beginning of berries softening for Niagara Branca grape. After the harvesting, the grapevine production, cluster weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH were evaluated. It was observed that the defoliation until the grapes height did not influence the quantity and quality of grapes. However, when the defoliation was carried out above the clusters, there was a delay in the maturation of american grapes. This condition shows that is not necessary a selective desfolation until the clusters height on grapevines, when it is realized during the initial fruit ripening phase.

  15. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  16. A rapid qualitative and quantitative evaluation of grape berries at various stages of development using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musingarabwi, Davirai M; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Young, Philip R; Eyéghè-Bickong, Hans A; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared (NIR) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc grape berries. FT-NIR and ATR FT-MIR spectroscopy, coupled with spectral preprocessing and multivariate data analysis (MVDA), provided reliable methods to qualitatively assess berry samples at five distinct developmental stages: green, pre-véraison, véraison, post-véraison and ripe (harvest), without any prior metabolite extraction. Compared to NIR spectra, MIR spectra provided more reliable discrimination between the berry samples from the different developmental stages. Interestingly, ATR FT-MIR spectra from fresh homogenized berry samples proved more discriminatory than spectra from frozen homogenized berry samples. Different developmental stages were discriminated by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). In order to generate partial least squares (PLS) models from the MIR/NIR spectral datasets; the major sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (malic acid, succinic acid and tartaric acid) were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the data used as a reference dataset. PLS regression was used to develop calibration models to predict the concentration of the major sugars and organic acids in the berry samples from different developmental stages. Our data show that infrared (IR) spectroscopy could provide a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective alternative to the chromatographic analysis of the sugar and organic acid composition of grape berries at various developmental stages, using small sample volumes and requiring limited sample preparation. This provides scope and support for the possible development of hand-held devices to assess quality parameters in field-settings in real-time and non-destructively using IR technologies.

  17. Balanço de energia e consumo hídrico de vinhedo de ‘Cabernet Franc’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de energia foi utilizado em vinhedo da uva para vinho ‘Cabernet Franc’, conduzido em espaldeira alta, para caracterizar a repartição do saldo de radiação (SR nos diferentes fluxos de calor: latente (LE, sensível e no solo. Em média LE representou aproximadamente 79% de SR. São apresentadas as variações horárias dos componentes do balanço de energia para dias: ensolarado e nublado. O consumo hídrico do vinhedo para os diferentes subperíodos fenológicos foi: poda-florescimento (99 mm, florescimento-início de maturação (249 mm e início de maturação-colheita (201 mm. Para o ciclo total (poda-colheita, o consumo hídrico obtido foi de 549 mm.

  18. Evaluating the correlation between chemical and sensory compounds in Blaufränkisch and Cabernet Franc wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Balga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive physiological effects of the bioactive compounds of red wines have been known for a long time. Besides that, the polyphenolic compounds of red wines represent one of the most important factors for oenology. With a special chemical analysis, we discover the relationship between chemical and sensory compounds. In this way, we explore which compounds influence sensory properties. The phenolic compounds are the quality attributes of the wine. The analysis of phenolic compounds was carried out in two red wines: Cabernet Franc and Blaufränkisch. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these two wines and evaluate the connection between the two parameters. In addition, we also examined the influence of the polyphenolic content on sensory perception. The experiment was carried out in a cool climate wine region in Eger, Hungary, in vintage of 2008. We investigated the profile of phenolic contents in new and aged wines. Total polyphenolic content, anthocyanin, leucoanthocyanin and catechin were evaluated by spectrophotometer. Stilbenes were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  19. Recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ~400 scintillator detectors and a 560 m2 large tracking muon detector (Eμ > 1 GeV, at Ooty in India. The muon detector has been used to observe acceleration of muons during thunderstorm conditions. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below 1 PeV, with an overlap with direct measurements. More recently we have explored the possibility of using the angular distribution of >1 GeV muons to identify the best from among several low- and high-energy hadronic interaction models. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in all of the areas listed above.

  20. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed.

  1. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been used to identify adulterations in juices. Besides phlorizin, it can be seen that adulteration by quantifying the levels of sorbitol, present in apples, but absent in healthy grapes. The content of this compounds in grape juices can vary due to the variety of grape and harvest.This study aimed to analyze phlorizin and sorbitol, in 141 experimental samples of Vitis labrusca grape juices, harvest 2016, of 9 varieties and 43 commercial samples (different vintages. The experimental juices from red grapes showed higher sorbitol content than the white grapes. For sorbitol analysis, the juices of Ives differed statistically of the juices of: Isabella, Concord, Niagara Branca and White Muscat. It was detected the presence of apple juice in 5 commercial grape juices.

  2. Determination of Monomeric and Polymeric Flavan-3-ols in Grape Berry by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%葡萄果实中黄烷-3-醇及其聚合体的HPLC检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 陈建业; 李景明; 万嗣宝; 孔维府; 黄卫东

    2006-01-01

    以'赤霞珠'葡萄果实(Vitis vinifera L.'Cabernet Sauvignon')为试材,采用LiChrospher 100 RP-18e色谱柱(250 mm×4.0 mm I.D.,5 μm),冰乙酸∶水溶液为流动相,梯度洗脱流速为1.0 mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长280 nm,成功地分离了(+)-儿茶素[(+)-catechin,CAT]、(-)-表棓儿茶素[(-)-epigallocatechin,EGC]、(-)-表棓儿茶素没食子酸酯[(-)-epigallocatechin gallate,EGCG]、(-)-表儿茶素[(-)-epicatechin,EC]和(-)-表儿茶素没食子酸酯[(-)-epicatechin gallate,ECG]等5种葡萄果实中最为重要的黄烷-3-醇及其衍生物,建立了一种快速、准确并可以同时测定葡萄果实中5种黄烷-3-醇及其衍生物的高效液相色谱法;此外,经TSK HW-50(F)柱分离纯化,间苯三酚存在下酸解后进行HPLC分析,建立了一种快速、准确测定葡萄果实中多聚黄烷-3-醇平均聚合度、平均分子量及其组成的方法.果实样品检测结果表明:黄烷-3-醇及其多聚体主要积累于果皮和种子中.

  3. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step.

  4. Targeted analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Ricci, Arianna; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Dimovska, Violeta; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Phenolic composition of twenty-two Macedonian red wines, including ten autochthonous monovarietal Vranec wines produced with different yeasts for fermentation, and twelve wines from international varieties (Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon) from different wine regions was studied. All wines presented relatively high value of total phenols and antioxidant activity. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and among them, malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, followed by the petunidin derivatives, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative in all wines. The anthocyanin content was mainly affected by the grape variety and to a less extent by the yeast used in fermentation. In particular, the use of locally isolated yeasts affected higher amount of anthocyanins and phenolic acids compared to the wines fermented with commercial yeasts. Principal Component Analysis showed a satisfactory grouping of red wines according to the grape variety.

  5. Effect of Soil Drought on the Temporal and Spatial Accumulation of Flavanols during the Grape Berry Development%土壤干旱对葡萄果实黄烷醇类多酚时空积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 刘文艳; 杨运良; 牛兴艳; 郜志栋; 冀铮春

    2013-01-01

    [目的]阐明土壤干旱对葡萄果实发育过程中黄烷醇类多酚时空积累的影响.[方法]以酿酒葡萄赤霞珠(Vitis vinifera L.cv.‘Cabernet Sauvignon’)果实为试材,采用避雨棚和断根沟措施,人工模拟土壤干旱,初步研究了土壤干旱对葡萄果实中黄烷醇类多酚时空积累的作用.[结果]土壤干旱并未改变葡萄果实黄烷醇类多酚的空间积累模式,果梗含量最高,种子、果皮次之,果肉最低.在果实发育过程中,土壤干旱明显促进果肉和种子中黄烷醇类多酚积累,但对果梗和果皮作用不明显.[结论]土壤干旱并不改变葡萄果实发育过程中黄烷醇类多酚的时空积累规律,但能促进果实,特别是果肉和种子中黄烷醇类多酚的积累.%[ Objective] To elaborate the effect of soil drought on the temporal and spatial accumulation of flavanols during grape berry development process. [Method] With Vitis vinifera berry as material, the soil drought was simulated during grape berry development by controlling irrigation through the prevent-rain and root-cutting groove. [Result] The spatial accumulation pattern of flavanols in grape berry was not changed, and the highest content of flavanols was founded in stem, followed by seed and peel, flesh was the lowest. Meanwhile, during the development process of grape, soil drought significantly promoted the accumulation of flavanols in the flesh and seed. [ Conclusion ] Soil drought could not change the temporal and spatial accumulation law of flavanols during grape berry development, but promote the accumulation of flavanols in fresh and seed.

  6. Application of UV-visible Spectroscopy in Grape Wine Quality Evaluation%紫外-可见光谱技术在葡萄酒品质评价中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华峰; 杨勇; 董勤; 刘加强; 杨明挚

    2012-01-01

    At present, sensory tasting is still the main method in grape wine quality evaluation. Although it is considered to be a reliable approach, such subjective judgement is not perfect. Sensory tasting coupled with instrument analysis will be more accurate for wine quality evaluation. In this study, red grape wine made from the same variety of wine grape (Cabernet Sawignon) but of different quality were detected by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the correlations between wine quality and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy parameters were analyzed. The results indicated that within the range of 200-800 nm wavelength, UV-visible absorption spectrum results and wine quality had good correlations. UV-visible ab- sorption spectrum results of grape wine made from different varieties of wine grape differed from each other. Accordingly, UV-visible spec troscopy could be used as an auxiliary identification method in wine quality evaluation.%目前葡萄酒品质评价的主要依据是人的感官品评,虽然可靠但却存在一定的主观性。在感官评价的基础上再结合仪器分析手段的评价体系构建将更有利于葡萄酒品质特征的精确评价。本研究对同一品种酿制的不同档次红葡萄酒进行了紫外可见光谱扫描,并分析葡萄酒品质与分析参数间的相关性,结果表明,200~800nm范围的紫外一可见吸收光谱结果与葡萄酒品质具有很好的相关性。不同酿酒葡萄酿制的葡萄酒也存在差异,因此,通过进一步的技术完善,200~800nm波长范围的紫外一可见光谱扫描结果可用于葡萄酒不同档次的辅助鉴别方法。

  7. Association between Grape Yeast Communities and the Vineyard Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumonde-Neves, João; Lima, Teresa; Schuller, Dorit; Pais, Célia

    2017-01-01

    The grape yeast biota from several wine-producing areas, with distinct soil types and grapevine training systems, was assessed on five islands of Azores Archipelago, and differences in yeast communities composition associated with the geographic origin of the grapes were explored. Fifty-seven grape samples belonging to the Vitis vinifera grapevine cultivars Verdelho dos Açores (Verdelho), Arinto da Terceira (Arinto) and Terrantez do Pico (Terrantez) were collected in two consecutive years and 40 spontaneous fermentations were achieved. A total of 1710 yeast isolates were obtained from freshly crushed grapes and 1200 from final stage of fermentations. Twenty-eight species were identified, Hanseniaspura uvarum, Pichia terricola and Metschnikowia pulcherrima being the three most representative species isolated. Candida carpophila was encountered for the first time as an inhabitant of grape or wine-associated environments. In both sampling years, a higher proportion of H. uvarum in fresh grapes from Verdelho cultivar was observed, in comparison with Arinto cultivar. Qualitatively significant differences were found among yeast communities from several locations on five islands of the Archipelago, particularly in locations with distinctive agro-ecological compositions. Our results are in agreement with the statement that grape-associated microbial biogeography is non-randomly associated with interactions of climate, soil, cultivar, and vine training systems in vineyard ecosystems. Our observations strongly support a possible linkage between grape yeast and wine typicality, reinforcing the statement that different viticultural terroirs harbor distinctive yeast biota, in particular in vineyards with very distinctive environmental conditions. PMID:28085916

  8. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wi...

  9. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  10. Effects of different soil condition on physiology and fruit quality of wine grapes%不同土壤条件对酿酒葡萄生理及果实品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文超; 孙盼; 王振平

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The study was to elucidate the effect of different soil condition on physiology and fruit quality of wine grapes. [Method] 'Cabernet Shelongzhu' wine grape was used as experiment material to study the effect of soil conditions including the Yellow River silt, sandy loam with stone and aeolian sandy soil on grape sugar unloading , berry weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total soluble sugar, pigment, tannin and grape leaf photosynthetic rate. [Result]The results showed that during period from grape berry color change to full ripening ~ sugar content of grapes increased in sandy loam with stone by 7%, 9% than that in the Yellow River silt and aeolian sandy soil. Grape pigment content and grape leaf photosynthetic rate were also the highest under the condition of sandy loam with stone . Total titratable acidity (8.28 g. L^(-1)) and berry weight (2.32 g) in the Yellow River silt were higher than in other soil, and the tannin content (1.15 mg·g^(-1) in seed and 0.30 mg·g^(-1) in skin ) in aeolian sandy soil was the highest. [Conclusion] The studies suggested that effects of different soil condition on fruit quality of wine grapes is sig- nificant, fruit quality grown in the sandy loam with stone is the best.%【目的】为了探索不同土壤条件对酿酒葡萄生理及果实品质的影响,【方法】以‘蛇龙珠’酿酒葡萄为试材,研究了宁夏贺兰山东麓地区,黄河淤土、含石的沙壤土和风沙土3种土壤对葡萄糖分卸载的影响,测定了不同土壤栽培条件下葡萄果实的单果质量、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、可溶性总糖、色素、单宁及葡萄叶片的光合速率。【结果】结果表明,在葡萄开始着色至葡萄完全成熟期间,在含石的沙壤土栽培条件下葡萄可溶性总糖含量(22.4%)比黄河淤土栽培条件下和风沙土栽培条件下分别高7%、9%;葡萄色素(5.14mg·g。)和叶片光合速

  11. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHK804 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3', mRNA sequence. 44 4.1 1 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - ...848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA...us vulpecula cDNA clone 1061024540571, mRNA sequence. 44 4.1 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Caber...net Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03

  13. Dicty_cDB: VHI867 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available for P-type ATPase. 1233 0.0 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison ...B979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clon...e CAB70001_IIcF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 0.006 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon B

  14. Dicty_cDB: VFF631 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 52 2e-09 3 CB970649 |CB970649.1 CAB10004_IIIa_Fa_G05 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 V...102 |CB975102.1 CAB30006_IIc_Ra_B01 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Stage I - CAB3 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB300...06_IIc_Ra_B01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 1e-08 3 CB978202 |CB978202.1 CAB40005_IIa_Ra_F12 Cabernet Sauvignon Berr

  15. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  16. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  17. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters.

  18. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  19. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Ucchesu

    Full Text Available The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017-1751 2σ cal. BC, allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants.

  20. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  1. Identification of indigenous yeast flora isolated from the five winegrape varieties harvested in Xiangning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Guo, Jingjing; Liu, Fubing; Liu, Yanlin

    2014-03-01

    Inoculated fermentation by selected indigenous yeast strains from a specific location could provide the wine with unique regional sensory characteristics. The identification and differentiation of local yeasts are the first step to understand the function of yeasts and develop a better strain-selection program for winemaking. The indigenous yeasts in five grape varieties, Chardonnay, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Marselan, and Merlot cultivated in Xiangning, Shanxi, China were investigated. Eight species of seven genera including Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida zemplinina, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora occidentalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified using Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient medium with sequencing of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae were the predominant species, while most non-Saccharomyces species were present in the whole fermentation process at different levels among the grape varieties. The genotypes of S. cerevisiae from each microvinification were determined by using interdelta sequence analysis. The 102 isolates showed eight different genotypes, and genotype III was the predominant genotype found. The distribution of S. cerevisiae strains during the fermentation of Marselan was also studied. Six genotypes were observed among the 92 strains with different genotypes of competitiveness at different sampling stages. Genotype V demonstrated the potential for organizing starter strains and avoiding inefficient fermentation. In general, this study explored the yeast species in the grapes grown in Xiangning County and provided important information of relationship of local yeast diversity and its regional wine sensory characteristics.

  2. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Grape Juice at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ravika; Jain, Ritu; Sharma, Krishna S.

    2015-04-01

    The complex permittivity of fresh juice of two cultivars of grapes, Sultania (green grapes) and Black Monukka (black grapes) was measured in terms of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor over the frequency range from 1 to 50 GHz and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 60°C, by using the PNA network analyzer model E8364C and open ended coaxial probe 85070E. The Cole-Cole plots and dielectric constant vs. (angular frequency) dielectric loss factor and dielectric constant vs. dielectric loss factor/(angular frequency) regression lines at different temperatures were used in Debye approximation to predict relaxation frequency of molecules for the two cultivars of grapes in the low frequency and high frequency limits, respectively. It was observed that the acidic character of green grapes is responsible for the large amplitude vibrational peaks in dielectric loss factor - frequency curves, in the high frequency region at higher temperatures. On the other hand, excess of sugar in black grapes suppresses the activity of water molecules, thereby suppressing the vibrational peaks at higher frequencies. Different relaxation frequencies found for the two cultivars of grapes suggest that they have different molecular structure.

  3. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  4. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  5. [The use of dried grape press cake in pig fattening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, I; Tomová, M; Holub, A; Pleskac, Z

    1979-12-01

    In dried grape press cake the content of crude nutrients and ash, overall sugar, amino acids, alpha-tocopherol and gross energy was determined. In biological experiments with pigs (total of 109 animals) 10% of mixture A1 or SOL was replaced by the same amount of dried crushed grape press cake, without affecting negatively the weight gains and consumption of mixtures per unit of weight gain. Nutritional effects of grape press cake are a subject of discussion and comprise three factors: higher content of enrgy (fat and sugars) in mixtures containing press cake, anti-oxidation effect of press cake and the effect of tocopherols on the metabolism of basic nutrients.

  6. Design and Construction of Grape Theme Sightseeing Garden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; LIU; Yifei; YU; Jingchuan; LI; Ruifeng; HAN; Ying; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Taking the grape theme sightseeing garden of Hebei Academy of Forestry Sciences for example,this article discusses the suitable edible and wine making cultivation varieties,vineyard frame and cultivation techniques in the grape theme sightseeing garden,from the perspective of planning and design. The garden landscape design and construction is integrated with sightseeing and garden visiting to highlight the theme of grape sightseeing garden,aimed at achieving purposes of sightseeing,picking,appreciating the beautiful scenery,and enjoying palatable food.

  7. Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanausek, Margaret; Spears, Erick; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Wendel, Courtney; Slaga, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants.

  8. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  9. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  10. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient as... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or...

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  12. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  13. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  14. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  16. Phlorizin and sorbitol in Vitis labrusca grape juices

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli Fernanda Rodrigues; Dutra Sandra Valduga; Leonardelli Susiane; Carnieli Gilberto João; Vanderlinde Regina

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, grape juice is a not fermented beverage, made from Vitis labrusca varieties and their hybrids. The most common form of adulteration is by the addition of apple juice. The adulterated samples can be identified by specific analysis, since apple juice has some compounds that grape has not. A more simplified and assessible way to determine this kind of adulteration is the phlorizin analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phlorizin is a phenolic compound that has been...

  17. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield.

  18. Reduction of Salmonella enterica on grape tomatoes using microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Turley, A; Dong, X; Wu, C

    2011-01-31

    Grape tomatoes were surface inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Senftenburg, Kentucky and Enteritidis and heated for 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 s using a household microwave oven at two different power levels (medium and high). Following heating, viable counts, temperature measurements and quality measurements were performed on the tomatoes. At high power level, more than 2 log reduction of Salmonella enterica was detected on grape tomatoes after 50 s but the texture were damaged. Three heating treatments, 40 s heating at high power level, 40 and 50 s heating at medium power level, could achieve more than 1.45 log reduction of Salmonella enterica on grape tomatoes, and all the treatments except for 50 s at high power level did not affect the color, pH value and nutritional quality of grape tomato after heating (p>0.05). However, 40 s heating at medium power was the only treatment among the three that did not affect the texture quality of grape tomato. Therefore, it might be a potential way for consumers to use microwave heating at medium power level (700 W) for 40 s to reduce Salmonella population on water immersed grape tomatoes.

  19. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  20. Yeast diversity on grapes in two German wine growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The yeast diversity on wine grapes in Germany, one of the most northern wine growing regions of the world, was investigated by means of a culture dependent approach. All yeast isolates were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ITS region. Besides Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, which are well known to be abundant on grapes, Metschnikowia viticola, Rhodosporidium babjevae, and Curvibasidium pallidicorallinum, as well as two potentially new species related to Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Filobasidium floriforme, turned out to be typical members of the grape yeast community. We found M. viticola in about half of the grape samples in high abundance. Our data strongly suggest that M. viticola is one of the most important fermenting yeast species on grapes in the temperate climate of Germany. The frequent occurrence of Cu. pallidicorallinum and strains related to F. floriforme is a new finding. The current investigation provides information on the distribution of recently described yeast species, some of which are known from a very few strains up to now. Interestingly yeasts known for their role in the wine making process, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus ssp. uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were not found in the grape samples.

  1. Sustainable Wine and Grape Production, the Example of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallás Edit Ilona

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Before analysing the economic situation of winegrape production, it is practical to mention some issues concerning the industry. Grape production in Hungary suffered a severe crisis in the 1990’s regarding both production and sales. Its consequence is the decreasing area of grape production and the reducing number of grape producers. Lately, after our EU accession the grape and wine verticum has significantly improved. The situation is still grave today as the producers have to face the more and more intense competition in the market and cheap import products both on the national and international markets. Grape production is in a more disadvantaged situation than wine making and the risks are higher. We have to know the cost-profit situation of the well-discernible verticum parts to make recommendations. Despite the changes, the great fluctuation in income is typical for the industry. Grape is one of the plants where price often did not cover costs in the consecutive years. Costs of production cannot be assessed on their own. They can be judged in relation with the yield changes in real.

  2. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (pbrowning inhibitor used in grape juice.

  3. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must.

  4. From grape berries to wine: population dynamics of cultivable yeasts associated to "Nero di Troia" autochthonous grape cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carmela; Tristezza, Mariana; Grieco, Francesco; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiversity of yeasts isolated from the autochthonous grape variety called "Uva di Troia", monitoring the natural diversity from the grape berries to wine during a vintage. Grapes were collected in vineyards from two different geographical areas and spontaneous alcoholic fermentations (AFs) were performed. Different restriction profiles of ITS-5.8S rDNA region, corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida zemplinina, Issatchenkia terricola, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia chrysoperlae, Pichia fermentans, Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, were observed. The yeast occurrences varied significantly from both grape berries and grape juices, depending on the sampling location. Furthermore, samples collected at the end of AF revealed the great predominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a high intraspecific biodiversity. This is the first report on the population dynamics of 'cultivable' microbiota diversity of "Uva di Troia" cultivar from the grape to the corresponding wine ("Nero di Troia"), and more general for Southern Italian oenological productions, allowing us to provide the basis for an improved management of wine yeasts (with both non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces) for the production of typical wines with desired unique traits. A certain geographical-dependent variability has been reported, suggesting the need of local based formulation for autochthonous starter cultures, especially in the proportion of the different species/strains in the design of mixed microbial preparations.

  5. Dicty_cDB: SFI324 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ce. 64 4e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone... CA48LN10IF-E8 5', mRNA sequence. 64 4e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Le

  6. Dicty_cDB: CFJ534 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera cDNA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Caberne...341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDN... 1 CF514038 |CF514038.1 CAbud0007_IVF_G07 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (

  7. Dicty_cDB: SFH381 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 4e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf -...41828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA32EN0002

  8. Dicty_cDB: SFB718 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 4e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN V...341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E0

  9. Dicty_cDB: SFF524 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available A813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA clon...e CA48LN10IF-E8 5', mRNA sequence. 62 2e-06 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon L

  10. Dicty_cDB: SFL288 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Viti...828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 5

  11. Dicty_cDB: AFH152 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 80 4e-19 2 CF211274 |CF211274.1 CAB20007_IVa_Ra_C07 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera c...DNA clone CAB20007_IVa_Ra_C07 3', mRNA sequence. 78 4e-18 3 CF211191 |CF211191.1 CAB20007_IVa_Fa_C07 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom

  12. Dicty_cDB: AFJ603 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e. 48 1e-04 2 CF208808 |CF208808.1 CAB20003_Ia_Ra_A08 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera ...cDNA clone CAB20003_Ia_Ra_A08 3', mRNA sequence. 48 2e-04 2 CF208719 |CF208719.1 CAB20003_Ia_Fa_A08 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHR409 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 CF207923 |CF207923.1 CAB20002_IVa_Fa_G06 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone ...gnificant alignments: (bits) Value N CF208003 |CF208003.1 CAB20002_IVa_Ra_G06 Cab...ernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitisvinifera cDNA clone CAB20002_IVa_Ra_G06 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.53

  14. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMUTAGENIC ACTIVITIES OF TAIF GRAPE (VITIS VINIFERA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmegid Ibrahim Fahmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extract of grape Vitis vinifera has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and the phenolic compounds play a vital role in determining these activities. Therefore; the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-mutagenic activities as well as the phenolic composition of different grape cultivar extracts collected from Taif region. The grape cultivars namely; Italian, American, Lebanese, Taifyb and Taifye were collected at maturity stage to represent Taif region cultivars. The total concentrations of phenoles were determined for the five cultivar extracts and results indicated that the concentrations ranged from 115-960 mg L-1 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE. Also, HPLC analysis included was carried out of nine important phenolic compounds namely; Cyanidine chloride, Myricetin, Chrysin, Quercetin, Delphinidine chloride, Malvidine chloride, Naringenin, Galangin and Caffeic acid. Significant differences among cultivars were obtained for each compound. However, the highest cultivar for each compound differed from compound to another. At the same time, DPPH was used to estimate antioxidant activity and the data showed that different grape cultivar extracts were able to quench 47-60% of DPPH radical solution and to exhibited potent radical scavenging activity. Also, antimutagenic activity was measured as a decrease of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice treated with the mutagen Endoxan. Results showed that treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts resulted in a significant decrease in all types of chromosomal aberrations induced by Endoxan. Also, the anticlastogenic effect was measured using micronulei test and results indicated that all grape cultivar extracts reduced significantly the effect of Endoxan on micronulei test. Finally, treatment of mice with grape cultivar extracts enhanced mitotic index of mice bone marrow cells reduced by Endoxan treatment. The relationship

  15. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  16. Aroma characterization based on aromatic series analysis in table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Zhao, Liping; Gao, Zhen; Luo, Meng; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao; Wang, Shiping

    2016-08-04

    Aroma is an important part of quality in table grape, but the key aroma compounds and the aroma series of table grapes remains unknown. In this paper, we identified 67 aroma compounds in 20 table grape cultivars; 20 in pulp and 23 in skin were active compounds. C6 compounds were the basic background volatiles, but the aroma contents of pulp juice and skin depended mainly on the levels of esters and terpenes, respectively. Most obviously, 'Kyoho' grapevine series showed high contents of esters in pulp, while Muscat/floral cultivars showed abundant monoterpenes in skin. For the aroma series, table grapes were characterized mainly by herbaceous, floral, balsamic, sweet and fruity series. The simple and visualizable aroma profiles were established using aroma fingerprints based on the aromatic series. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the aroma profiles of pulp juice, skin and whole berries could be classified into 5, 3, and 5 groups, respectively. Combined with sensory evaluation, we could conclude that fatty and balsamic series were the preferred aromatic series, and the contents of their contributors (β-ionone and octanal) may be useful as indicators for the improvement of breeding and cultivation measures for table grapes.

  17. Evaluation of fruit rot disease resistance in muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) are truly a sustainable fruit for the southeastern United States. Although far more resistant to many fungal and bacterial diseases and pests than most of the bunch grapes (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, or their derivatives), muscadine grape suffers consider...

  18. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohidul Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US treatment, light-emitting diode (LED, ultra violet (UV irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

  19. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  20. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at each of three...... daily meals (31.3 mg total phenolics, including 9.0 mg catechin). An increased activity of glutathione reductase and a borderline increase of glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes were observed after grape-skin intervention, while the intervention had no significant effect on superoxide...

  1. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  2. Chemometric investigation of the volatile content of young South African wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Villiers, de A.; Crouch, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The content of major volatiles of 334 wines of six different cultivars (Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinotage, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) and vintage 2005 was used to investigate the aroma content of young South African wines. Wines were sourced from six different regions and various pro

  3. Dicty_cDB: AFH266 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA48LN10IF-E8 ...5', mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet

  4. Dicty_cDB: SFD593 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s vinifera cDNA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 6e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sau...8.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA clo

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHC176 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA48LN10IF-E8... 5', mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet

  6. Dicty_cDB: CFG649 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vinifera cDNA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 4e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvi...2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone

  7. Dicty_cDB: SFF649 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is vinifera cDNA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 4e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sa...28.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA cl

  8. The Symbolisms of Biblical Allusions in The Grapes of Wrath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韵

    2016-01-01

    The Grapes of Wrath is a spiritual pilgrimage. The main idea of the novel is to show generations of people try their best to survive, and feel the hardness and happiness during the procedure, which is same to the Holy Bible. From Genesis to Revelation, the Book narrates people continue to struggle for land, home, and braw life. This paper analyses the symbolisms of biblical allusions in The Grapes of Wrath from three aspects: the journey and the biblical prose style,Christian symbolism, and the biblical allusive images. This paper tends to prove that Christianity has great impact on the American literature, and American dream, wrath and hope lie in the novel.

  9. Influence of minimally processed grapes washing with lemon essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    ALMELA CAMAÑAS, CELIA; Espert, María; Ortolá Ortolá, Mª Dolores; Castelló Gómez, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The increased interest in ready to eat products along with the great production of grapes make necessary to find a new way of presentation of this product in order to ease its consumption. The main goal is to keep quality and extend the shelf-life of grains of table grapes by applying different concentrations of lemon essential oil (LEO) which were applied in a preliminary stage of immersion. Samples were stored in PET trays at 5 ºC for 21 days. Soluble solids content, pH, acidity, antioxida...

  10. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  11. Effects of UV-C Radiation on the Content of Polyphenol in the Grape Leaves%UV-C对赤霞珠叶片多酚类物质含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌亨; 杜丽娟; 焦文娟; 马雅娜; 吕佩佩; 纪薇; 温鹏飞

    2014-01-01

    以酿酒葡萄品种赤霞珠叶片为试材,初步研究了UV-C照射对葡萄叶片多酚类物质含量的影响。结果表明,UV-C照射30 min后,叶片内总酚、总类黄酮、黄烷醇类多酚含量均有所增加,与对照相比,处理后2 h分别提高了2.39%,5.75%,33.16%;处理后4 h分别提高了1.47%,8.74%,18.50%;处理后6 h分别提高了1.53%,10.03%,8.98%;处理后8 h分别提高了1.23%,7.04%,5.13%;处理后10 h分别提高了0.86%,3.31%,0.73%。方差分析表明,总酚含量在处理后2h差异达到极显著水平;总类黄酮含量在处理后6h差异达到显著水平;黄烷醇类多酚含量在处理后2,4 h差异达到极显著水平。%In this experiment,the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon were used as materials,and the effect of Ultraviolet-C on the concentration of total phenol,total flavonoids,and the flavanols were studied. The results showed that the concentration of total phenol,flavonoids,and flavanols in the leaves was higher than the con-trol. Compared to CK, the concentration of total phenol, flavonoid, and flavanols in the leaves treated with UV-C were increased by 2 . 39%, 5 . 75%, 33 . 16%;1 . 47%, 8 . 74%, 18 . 50%;1 . 53%, 10 . 03%, 8 . 98%;1 . 23%, 7. 04%,5. 13% and 0. 86%,3. 31%,0. 73% at 2,4,6,8,10 h,respectively. The result of variance analysis indica-ted that the difference of total phenols at 2 h reached the significance level,the difference of total flavonoids at 6 h was not up to the level of the significance,the difference of flavanols at 2,4 h reached the significant level.

  12. Biological efficacy evaluation of mating disruption against the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, in grape in glasshouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, T; Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2013-01-01

    The grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana, is an important pest of grapes. In Belgium, severe losses of production appeared due to the presence of L. botrona in grapes commercially grown in glasshouses. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards after being tested for several years. In other (European) countries, mating disruption is already applied in grapes but there is no registration in Belgium for use in grapes. Searching for an interesting residue free technique for application in small glasshouses, we evaluated the effect of mating disruption for control of L. botrana under protected conditions (glasshouse trials) during three consecutive years (2010-2012). A prerequisite for successful mating disruption is the treatment of large contiguous areas, as the pheromone product will not remain in sufficient quantities on narrow sites and, moreover, a larger portion of the crop remains at risk from migrating mated females. The glasshouses are rather small, however, we hypothesized that these so called border effects are not present due to the secluded spaces of the glasshouses. Pheromone dispensers were deployed and flights of L botrano moths were monitored (pheromone traps/UV-traps) during the whole time period of the trials. In the mating disrupted glasshouses hardly any moth was caught anymore in pheromone traps, in contrast to UV-traps or catches by pheromone traps in comparable non-mating disrupted glasshouse compartments. This indicates the incapability of the males to localize sex pheromone sources, and hence, the inability of finding females for mating. In line with these flight monitoring data, the nearly absence or strongly decreased L. botrana caused damage symptoms in the mating disrupted glasshouses demonstrates the benefits of the mating disruption technique under protected conditions of grape growing in glasshouses.

  13. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  14. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  15. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  16. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  17. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  18. Ensilage and bioconversion of grape pomace into fuel ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Lee, Christopher; Yu, Chaowei; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Simmons, Christopher W; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2012-11-07

    Two types of grape pomace were ensiled with eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Both fresh grape pomace (FrGP) and fermented grape pomace (FeGP) were preserved through alcoholic fermentation but not malolactic conversion. Water leaching prior to storage was used to reduce water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol from FrGP and FeGP, respectively, to increase malolactic conversion. Leached FeGP had spoilage after 28 days of ensilage, whereas FrGP was preserved. Dilute acid pretreatment was examined for increasing the conversion of pomace to ethanol via Escherichia coli KO11 fermentation. Dilute acid pretreatment doubled the ethanol yield from FeGP, but it did not improve the ethanol yield from FrGP. The ethanol yields from raw pomace were nearly double the yields from the ensiled pomace. For this reason, the recovery of ethanol produced during winemaking from FeGP and ethanol produced during storage of FrGP is critical for the economical conversion of grape pomace to biofuel.

  19. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  20. Erosive potential of different types of grape juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginna Kércia Matos Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the erosive potential of different types (concentrated and powdered and commercial brands of industrialised grape juices. The pH of all five fruit drinks was measured at two time points: immediately after preparation and 24 hours later. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly allocated and immersed in different types of grape juice (n = 10 for 10 minutes four times a day for fifteen days. The enamel alteration was analysed using surface Knoop microhardness (KHN and surface roughness (Ra tests at baseline and on the 5th, 10th and 15th days of the experiment. Two way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson's correlation tests were used for statistical analysis (α = 5%. The grape juices presented pH values ranging from 2.9 to 3.5. All of the tested juices promoted significant enamel mineral loss (p < 0.05 on the first evaluation (5th day of immersion and produced a significant increase in the mean roughness from the 10th day on when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. By the 15th day, all of the beverages had produced surface roughnesses that were significantly higher than that of the control group. The results suggest that all grape juices, regardless of their commercial presentation, present erosive potential.

  1. A Stylistic Analysis of The Grapes of Wrath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲

    2009-01-01

    As we known, stylistics plays an important role in analysis of the literary works, therefore, this paper applies the theory of the stylistics to The Grapes of Wrath so as to explore the language usege in process of creating the novel, that is, the mind of the writer. This can help the readers appreciate the art of literature.

  2. TABLE GRAPE VARIETIES CULTURE TO NRDIBH STEFANESTI, OVER TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Costescu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges, in the past decades extensive work has been done to improve the grape-vine, which yielded some remarkable results. The first concerns the improvement of grape-vines to NRDIBH Stefanesti-Arges (then SCPVV Stefanesti were initiated by the breeder engineer Baditescu Margareta, improvement in the Laboratory in 1982, was its founder, who has dedicated so much to obtain new varieties by crossing sexual and clonal selection to. Improvement work was continued by researchers: Smaranda Julia, Smaranda George, Camelia Popa. After lengthy activity at SCDVV Stefanesti were obtained clones new to old varieties of wine, but also at the table. Thus, clonal selections have been approved for 13 red and white wines. For table varieties were approved Argessis and Golden Stefanesti varieties and clones Stefanesti, Muscat Adda 22 and Perlette 10. Varieties approved quality characteristics that allow for superior wines, varieties of wine for the table and the quality of the grapes is good looks for Romania to meet the demands of markets in developed countries. Spread production of new varieties of table grapes, can effectively contribute to the recovery in activity in wine country by increasing efficiency and profitability.

  3. Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  4. Tuning color variation in grape anthocyanins at the molecular scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; Di Meo, Florent; Guillaume, Maxime; Failla, Osvaldo; Trouillas, Patrick

    2013-12-15

    Anthocyanins are the main grape pigments. Due to their aromatic cyclic arrangements, they are able to absorb the radiation in the low energy range of the visible spectrum. In the fruit of Vitis vinifera L., the five main anthocyanidins (cyanidin, peonidin, delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin) are present as 3-O-glucosides, as well as their acetyl, p-coumaroyl and caffeoyl ester forms. Despite the huge number of experimental studies dedicated to the anthocyanin profile analysis of grapes and wines, the complete theoretical elucidation of the optical properties of grape anthocyanins is missing. The present work carried out this task through quantum chemistry calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), compared to experimental spectra. The differences in visible absorption spectra between the most common grape anthocyanins were rationalized according to B-ring substitution, glucosylation and esterification. A particular attention was given to the intra-molecular copigmentation effect, demonstrating the existence of an intra-molecular charge transfer excited state for the p-coumaroyl and caffeoyl ester forms.

  5. Anthocyanins and color degradation in ozonated grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, B K; O'Donnell, C P; Patras, A; Brunton, N; Cullen, P J

    2009-11-01

    Grape juice samples were ozonated with processing variables of ozone concentration (1.6-7.8% w/w) and treatment time (0-10 min). Effects of processing variables on grape juice color values (L, a and b) and anthocyanins were determined. The changes in lightness (L) values and total color difference (TCD) values were fitted well to zero-order kinetics whereas, a and b followed first-order kinetics. Three major anthocyanins were observed in the grape juice namely cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3Gl, 133.9 mg/L), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (Dy3Gl, 21.4) and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (My3Gl, 3.2mg/L). Significant reductions in anthocyanin content were observed during ozonation. During ozonation Cy3Gl was found to be stable compared to Dy3Gl and My3Gl. Changes in Cy3Gl were fitted well to the fraction conversion model. The results presented in this study indicate that both color and anthocyanin content are significantly affected during ozone processing. Thus, the effects of ozonation on the grape juice should be considered by processors prior to its adoption as a preservation technique.

  6. Piezoelectric MEMS resonators for monitoring grape must fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, J.; Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Úbeda, J.; Ruiz-Díez, V.; Pfusterschmied, G.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2016-10-01

    The traditional procedure followed by winemakers for monitoring grape must fermentation is not automated, has not enough accuracy or has only been tested in discrete must samples. In order to contribute to the automation and improvement of the wine fermentation process, we have designed an AlN-based piezoelectric microresonator, serving as a density sensor and being excited in the 4th-order roof tile-shaped vibration mode. Furthermore, conditioning circuits were designed to convert the one-port impedance of the resonator into a resonant two-port transfer function. This allowed us to design a Phase Locked Loop-based oscillator circuit, implemented with a commercial lock-in amplifier with an oscillation frequency determined by the vibrating mode. We were capable of measuring the fermentation kinetics by both tracking the resonance frequency and by determining the quality factor measurements of the microresonator. Moreover, the resonator was calibrated with an artificial model solution of grape must and then applied for the monitoring of real grape must fermentation. Our results demonstrate the high potential of MEMS resonators to detect the decrease in sugar and the increase in ethanol concentrations during the grape must fermentation with a resolution of 100 μg/ml and a sensitivity of 0.16 Hz/μg/ml as upper limits.

  7. GRAPE - A Balloon-Borne Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bloser, P F; Macri, J R; McConnell, M L; Narita, T; Ryan, J M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the development status of GRAPE (the Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment), a hard X-ray Compton Polarimeter. The purpose of GRAPE is to measure the polarization of hard X-rays in the 50-300 keV energy range. We are particularly interested in X-rays that are emitted from solar flares and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), although GRAPE could also be employed in the study of other astrophysical sources. Accurately measuring the polarization of the emitted radiation will lead to a better understating of both emission mechanisms and source geometries. The GRAPE design consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding a central high-Z crystal scintillator. The azimuthal distribution of photon scatters from the plastic array into the central calorimeter provides a measure of the polarization fraction and polarization angle of the incident radiation. The design of the detector provides sensitivity over a large field-of-view (>pi steradian). The design facilitates the fabrication of large area arrays w...

  8. EFFECTS OF EMILIANOS ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON FORMATION OF QUALITATIVE INDICATORS OF WINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyanov A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapes are product of areas. Grape plant is very plastic and can grow on almost all types of soils except highly saline, fusion and wetlands. In studies of many authors, it was indicated the influence of different soil types and their properties on the growth of the vine plants, the quality of berries and their products. The object of study is soils and vines growing on them, laws and processes affecting the formation of grape production. Research methods are expeditions, field and laboratory. The article presents data on the effect of agrochemical soil properties (pH, solid residue, the amount of aqueous extract ions, chlorine ions, alkalinity (НSO3¯, calcium ion, magnesium ion, total carbonate, active carbonates, nitrate nitrogen, mobile phosphorus, exchangeable potassium , humus, humus reserves on the formation of the harvest of grapes and wine products (tasting score, the extract, the amount of phenolic compounds, the amount of organic acids, the amount of amino acids, metal ions, potassium ions, sodium metal, magnesium ions, calcium ions, the amount of metal ions. With the help of statistical data, we can establish the effect of weather conditions on the formation of 2009-2011 qualitative wines of Cabernet Sauvignon

  9. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of tot...

  10. Dicty_cDB: CFJ215 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s vinifera cDNA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sau...8.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 5',...514038 |CF514038.1 CAbud0007_IVF_G07 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Bud - CABUD Vitis vinif

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSI767 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence. 52 0.006 1 CB339471 |CB339471.1 CA23EI03IIRb_E06 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA23EI Vitis vinifera cDNA...CA813300 |CA813300.1 CA48LN09IIF-D4 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinife...ra cDNA clone CA48LN09IIF-D4 5', mRNA sequence. 50 0.023 1 CB339714 |CB339714.1 CA23EI03IIFb_E06 Cabernet Sa

  12. Dicty_cDB: SFG479 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA48LN10IF-E8 5', mRNA ...sequence. 64 7e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinife...X14P1 5', mRNA sequence. 66 7e-07 1 CF517073 |CF517073.1 CAP0004_IIIF_E05 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvig

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHR538 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-05 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera c...DNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.015 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sau... mRNA sequence. 44 0.018 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CA

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHB660 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 971300 |CB971300.1 CAB10005_IIIa_Fa_H08 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone... CAB10005_IIIa_Fa_H08 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.010 2 CB975981 |CB975981.1 CAB40001_IIa_Fa_F09 Cabernet Sauvig... 48 0.012 2 CF511327 |CF511327.1 CAbud0002_IIF_B12 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Bud - CAB

  15. Antioxidant activity of white grape seed extracts on DPPH radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćetković Gordana S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition and antioxidant activity of grape seed extract (GSE obtained from red grape varietes are very well documented, in contrast to the white varietes. This paper presents the results of polyphenols content of ethyl acetate extract of grape seeds, obtained from two white grape varieties, Italian Riesling and Župljanka, and their antioxidant activity on the stable DPPH radical. The influence of the addition of GSE to raspberry juice on the DPPH radical was also examined. Content of total polyphenols in GSEs ranged between 81.6 and 82.8% (w/w, and the contetn of flavan-3-ols between 66.2 and 91.0% (w/w. HPLC results showed that the most abundant components in the extract were (+-catechin and (--epicatechin for both grape varieties. All tested GSEs exhibited good antioxidant activity. IC50 values for the GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka were 0.79 and 0.95 mg sample/mg DPPH radical, respectivelly. Since the GSE of Italian Riesling possesed stronger antioxidant activity, it was used for further experiments. The IC50 value for raspberry juice was 4.18 mg raspberry juice/mg DPPH. The raspberry juice with addition of 0.60 μg/mL of GSE showed antioxidant activity of 39.2%. The same juice with the threefold concentration of vitamin C (1.81 μg/ml exhibited similar antioxidant activity (33.9%. Antioxidant activity of the same amount of juice without added antioxidants was lower (15.7%. The results showed that the GSE of white varietes could be considered as a good functional food ingredient.

  16. Antioxidant effect of extract of the grape seed in streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousof Doostar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder as old as mankind and its incidence is considered to be high all over the world. Oxidative stress is strongly associated with development and the complications of diabetes. Antioxidant agents, especially with the origin of plants, are of more importance in the treatment of diabetic complications. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extract of the grape seed on antioxidants status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Material and methods: In this laboratory experimental study which conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz research center. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups including healthy control group, healthy group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg, diabetic control group and diabetic group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg. The experimental rats were treated in related groups for 12 weeks and at the end of experiment serum level of malonaldehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured in red blood cells. Statistically, comparison of the groups was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p< 0.05. Results: Diabetic rats showed significant increase in the value of MDA and a decrease in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Oral administration of grape seed extract resulted in significant reduction in the level of MDA and significant increase in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetes and show the anti-oxidative effect of grape seed extract

  17. 干旱对葡萄果实发育过程中黄烷醇类多酚积累及LAR表达的影响%The Effect of Drought on Flavanols Accumulation and LAR Expression During the Development of Grape Berry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 杨运良; 高美英; 牛铁泉; 邢延富; 牛兴艳

    2012-01-01

    以酿酒葡萄‘赤霞珠’(Vtis vinifera L.‘Cabemet Sauvignon’)为试材,采用避雨棚和断根沟措施,模拟土壤干旱,探讨了葡萄果实发育过程中干旱对果实中黄烷醇类多酚积累及其合成关键酶隐色花色素还原酶(1eucoanthocyanidin reductase,LAR)基因表达的影响。结果表明:土壤干旱导致葡萄单粒质量降低,纵、横径减小,促进黄烷醇类多酚积累,特别是在幼果期,土壤干旱明显促进黄烷醇类多酚的积累。Real.timePCR、Westernblot结果证实,土壤干旱促进VvLARl和VvLAR2转录,诱导果实中LARl、LAR2新蛋白合成,进而导致LAR酶活性增强,黄烷醇类多酚积累。%In order to understand the effects of soil drought on the accumulation of flavanols and the expression of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR), the key enzyme of the flavanols biosynthesis in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, 5 years old grapevines ( Htis vinifera L.‘Cabemet Sauvignon' )were used as materials, and the soil drought was simulated during grape berry development by the controlling irrigation through the prevent-rain shelter and root-cutting groove. The results showed that the single berry weight, longitudinal and horizontal diameter were decrease, and the growth of grape berry was significantly inhibited by soil drought, which indicated that the prevent-rain shelter and root cutting groove were the effective measures to simulate soil drought. In addition, the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry during its development was induced by soil drought was also observed, especially in the young berry. Real-time PCR and Western blot results showed that the soil drought could induce the expression of VvLAR1, VvLAR2, the synthesis of LAR new protein, and increased the LAR enzyme activity, which resulted in the accumulation of flavanols in grape berry.

  18. 葡萄籽多酚化合物抗氧化能力与抗癌细胞增殖活性的评价%Antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenolic compounds on cancer cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兰兰; 张雅丽; 朱磊; 邓嘉进; 曲桂芹; 卢江

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities of grape seed phenlic compounds on Petri-Dish cultured cancer cells. Methods: Three phenolic compound parameters(total phenols, flavonoids, and flavan-3-ols) and three antioxidant property parameters DPPH(2,2-diphenyi- 1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ABTS 2, 2-azino-di-(3-ethylben -zothialozine-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging and FRAP(ferric reducing antioxidant power), were measured. In-vitro cultured human liver cancer cells-HepG2 were treated with extracts of grape seed phenlic compounds in different concentration for 24 h, and were measured for proliferation ability by MTT assay. Results: Phenolic compounds,antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities were different among variant grape seed extracts. Large quantity of phenolic compounds were remained in grape pomace. V. vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon"had higher values of phenolic compounds, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities than V.rotundifolia "Noble". Conclusions: Grape seed phenolic extracts from both fresh fruit and pomace showed antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities.%目的:探讨葡萄鲜果及酿酒皮渣中葡萄籽提取物中的酚类化合物含量,抗氧化特性及对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。方法:乙醇法提取葡萄籽中多酚化合物,分光光度计法测定三大酚类化合物参数(总酚、类黄酮类、黄烷-3-醇类)及3种抗氧化性能参数(DPPH)及ABTS自由基清除能力,FRAP分析)。体外培养肝癌细胞HepG2,建立细胞模型,不同浓度的提取物作用于癌细胞后,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(MTT法)检测多酚提取物对癌细胞增殖的抑制作用。结果:不同样品葡萄籽所含酚类化合物、抗氧化性能、抗癌细胞增殖能力均不同,酿酒皮渣的葡萄籽中仍含有大量的多酚化合物,其中欧亚种赤霞珠鲜果

  19. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  20. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  1. Meta-Analysis of the Core Aroma Components of Grape and Wine Aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Navrot, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation, and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  2. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  3. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth.

  4. Meta-analysis of the core aroma components of grape and wine aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Ilc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine aroma strongly influences wine quality, yet its composition and its evolution during the winemaking process are poorly understood. Volatile compounds that constitute wine aroma are traditionally divided into three classes according to their origin: grape, fermentation and maturation aroma. We challenge this view with meta-analysis and review of grape and wine volatiles and their precursors from 82 profiling experiments. We compiled a list of 141 common grape and wine volatiles and quantitatively compared 43 of them. Our work offers insight into complex relationships between biosynthesis of aroma in grapes and the changes during the winemaking process. Monoterpenes are one of the largest and most researched wine aroma compounds. We show that their diversity in wines is mainly due to the oxidative metabolism of linalool in grapes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that most of the linalool produced in grapes is converted to these oxidized derivatives.

  5. Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics.

  6. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Aleixandre; Jose Pedro Santos; Isabel Sayago; Juan Mariano Cabellos; Teresa Arroyo; Maria Carmen Horrillo

    2015-01-01

    Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose) for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to mon...

  7. The program structure designing and optimizing tests of GRAPES physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU GuoQiang; WANG ShiYu; CHEN DeHui; XUE JiShan; SUN Jian; SHEN XueShun; SHEN YuanFang; HUANG LiPing; WU XiangJun; ZHANG HongLiang

    2008-01-01

    According to the modularization and standardization of program structure in Global/Regional Assimi-lation and Prediction System (GRAPES), the plug-compatible and transplantable regional meso-scale and global middle-range physics software package is established, The package's component integrality is comparative with the other advanced models physics. A three-level structure of connecting GRAPES physics and dynamic frame has been constructed. The friendly interface is designed for users to plug in their own physics packages. Phenomenon of grid-point storm rainfall in numerical prediction is analyzed with the numerical tests. The scheme of air vertical velocity calculation is improved. Opti-mizing tests of physics schemes are performed with the correlative parameters adjusting. The results show that the false grid-point storm rainfall is removed by precipitation scheme improving. Then the score of precipitation forecast is enhanced.

  8. Grape juice quality control by means of ¹H nmr spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva Grandizoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the application of ¹H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single ¹H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration.

  9. Study of polyphenols in grape berries by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, O; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Slowing, K; Carretero, E; Villar, A

    2000-02-18

    Several polyphenols have been tested in grape berries from Spain. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas resveratrol has been proved to be an antifungal, antiinflammatory and an anticarcinogenic compound. A reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed and applied to determine resveratrol, quercetine, quercitrine and rutine content in several grape berries samples in a single analysis. Covering the grapes with a preservative paper yields a healthier product, but one which has a lower polyphenol content than unprotected grapes.

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2 (∙-)) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on grapes color during storage period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Araujo, Michel M.; Silva, Priscila V.; Silveira, Ana P.M.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: agsantillo@gmail.com, e-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    In general food contains some components that are very sensible to irradiation processing and if radiation dose is higher, can cause some harmful transformation in taste, odor and flavor in these foods, present in very lower concentrations, regulating their appearance and nutritious value. The ionizing radiation application in order to preserve and disinfect food is used for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms, extending the shelf life and reducing the loss of crops during storage of the product. The genus Vitis is the main representative of the Vitaceae family due to the nutritional importance of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.), widely consumed 'in natura'. The V. vinifera produces a fruit of great nutritional value to humans. The quality and acceptance of products are associated with sensory parameters such as color, which is the primary criterion for acceptance by the consumer. Anthocyanins are generally unstable when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. The flavonoids are largely distributed in nature and are responsible for most of blue, purple and all shades of red colors. In vines, these compounds are responsible for the color of the grape skin and are also found in the flesh of some varieties of grapes. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on color of grapes at different days of storage. The irradiation will be in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 0 and 4.5 kGy. The samples will be stored at room and refrigerated temperature for 21 days. The evaluation of color will be analyzed through 'L', 'a' and 'b' parameters. (author)

  13. Varietal flavour compounds of four grape varieties producing Madeira wines

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara, José de Sousa; Herbert, Paulo; Marques, José Carlos; Alves, Maria Arminda

    2004-01-01

    Boal, Malvasia, Sercial and Verdelho are the main white grape varieties used in Madeira wine production. To estimate the free fraction of varietal aroma compounds of these varieties, 39 samples of musts were analysed to determine their content of monoterpenols and C13 norisoprenoids (terpenoids), using dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The r-values for linearity studies of the analytical method used, varied between 0.977 (nerolido...

  14. Economic Feasibility of Table Grape Production in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The local foods movement and alternatives to traditional agriculture are gaining considerable interest, not only in Kentucky, but throughout the country. This research provides information that may aid farmers in the decision to invest or not in the alternative agricultural enterprise of viticulture. The primary objective of the research was to determine the expected profitability for a 1-acre table grape vineyard in Kentucky. Data on production relationships, costs, and returns came from the...

  15. Potential ergogenic activity of grape juice in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; Tavares, Renata Leite; Toscano, Luciana Tavares; Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira da; Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro de; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that certain food products have ergogenic potential similar to that of sports supplements. The present study aimed to investigate the potential ergogenic effect of integral purple grape juice on the performance of recreational runners. Twenty-eight volunteers of both sexes (age, 39.8 ± 8.5 years; peak oxygen consumption, 43.2 ± 8.5 mL/(kg·min)) were randomized into either a group that received grape juice (grape juice group (GJG), n = 15; 10 mL/(kg·min) for 28 days) or a group that received an isocaloric, isoglycemic, and isovolumetric control beverage (control group (CG), n = 13). A time-to-exhaustion exercise test, anaerobic threshold test, and aerobic capacity test were performed, together with assessments of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, immune response, and muscle injury, performed at baseline and 48 h after the supplementation protocol. The GJG showed a significant increase (15.3%) in running time-to-exhaustion (p = 0.002) without significant improvements in either anaerobic threshold (3.6%; p = 0.511) or aerobic capacity (2.2%; p = 0.605). In addition, GJG exhibited significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (38.7%; p = 0.009), vitamin A (11.8%; p = 0.016), and uric acid (28.2%; p = 0.005), whereas α-1-acid glycoprotein significantly decreased (20.2%; p = 0.006) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels remained unchanged. In contrast, no significant changes occurred in any of these variables in the CG. In conclusion, supplementation with purple grape juice shows an ergogenic effect in recreational runners by promoting increased time-to-exhaustion, accompanied by increased antioxidant activity and a possible reduction in inflammatory markers.

  16. Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

  17. Pyrimethanil residues on table grapes Italia after field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Sarais, Giorgia; Dedola, Fabrizio; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2006-01-01

    Residues of the pyrimidine fungicide pyrimethanil [N-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2yl)aniline] were determined in table grapes "Italia" by gas chromatography nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). Pesticides were extracted from grapes with ethyl acetate and hexane solution (1:1 v/v), and were analyzed without any further clean up. Pyrimethanil was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fitted with a diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the select ion-monitoring mode (SIM). The residue of pyrimethanil was under the legal limit immediately after treatment, and showed a half-life time, calculated as a reaction of pseudo first order, of 12 days, with a regression coefficient of 0.9954. Recoveries from fortified grapes ranged between 90 and 113% with a maximum coefficient of variation (CV) of 11%. The calculated limits of detection and quantitation for pyrimethanil were 0.005 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively.

  18. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity.

  19. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and one unidentified genus Mycelium sterillium without creation fruiting bodies. The most frequent were genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The most frequent Aspergillus species was Aspergillus section Nigri (100 % and Penicillium species was Penicillium chrysogenum (50 %. The largest number of isolates belonged to Alternaria (275 isolates, Cladosporium (114 isolates and Penicillium (92 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 42 %, 19.6 % and 15.8 %, respectively. The selected isolates – Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1, G1 and cyclopiazonic acid producing ability. Out of 11 strains 54 % produced at least one mycotoxin. In our research ochratoxigenic microfungi (some species of Aspergillus section Nigri were found in grape samples but without production of OTA.

  20. OCCURRENCE OF PENICILLIUM SPECIES IN GRAPES FROM NITRA WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate Penicillium species present on grapes grown in Slovakia. The survey involved Nitra wine region, located on southern Slovakia. In 2011 bunches of grapes (10 were collected from all 9 vineyards. A total of 50 berries (5 berries per bunch from each sample were placed in Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar medium. In this way was determined by using plate dilution method an exogenous mycobiota. The endogenous mycobiota was determined by the method of direct placing of superficially sterilized 50 wine grapes on the same medium. Cultivation lasted at 25 ± 1 °C in the dark from 5 to 7 days. During the survey, 170 isolates belonging to 6 Penicillium species were collected: P. citrinum, P. corylophilum, P. crustosum, P. decumbens, P. expansum and P. chrysogenum. The number of colonized samples was from 10 to 60 % and relative density from 0.6 to 28 %. P. chrysogenum was the most frequent, isolated in 40 % of the samples. The highest relative density belongs to P. crustosum (28 % and P. chrysogenum (27 %. Toxinogenity of selected isolates was analysed by means of thin layer chromatography. Three potentially toxigenic species isolated from endogenous mycobiota were tested for their toxigenic ability. Out of 8 strains, 50 % produced at least one mycotoxin. Of all 15 potencially toxigenic strains from exogenous mycobiota all of them were positive on screening mycotoxins.

  1. Efeito de três processos de vinificação sobre a composição química e a qualidade do vinho Cabernet Franc Effect of three processes of vinification on chemical composition and quality of Cabernet Franc wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de três processos de vinificação sobre a composição química e a qualidade do vinho Cabernet Franc, nas safras de 1987 a 1990. As vinificações foram realizadas em escala industrial, pelos processos clássico, de termovinificação e de maceração carbônica. Avaliaram- se teor alcoólico, acidez total, açúcares redutores, cinzas, extrato seco, compostos fenólicos e voláteis e elementos minerais. Procedeu-se, também, à análise sensorial dos vinhos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de componentes principais (ACP e à análise de variância, sendo que os três primeiros eixos explicaram 68,2% da variação total. Através da ACP, foi possível separar os vinhos de maceração carbônica dos outros dois processos de vinificação. As variáveis que apresentaram maior efeito na variação foram os álcoois superiores, os cátions e os compostos fenólicos. A avaliação sensorial mostrou que a maceração carbônica originou vinhos leves e com menor intensidade de cor, e a termovinificação e a vinificação clássica originaram vinhos com mais corpo, melhor qualidade e equilíbrio gustativo e maior tipicidade varietal.The effects of three processes of vinification on chemical composition and quality of Cabernet Franc wine were evaluated from the 1987 to the 1990 vintages. The vinifications were made in an industrial scale by the following processes: conventional vinification, thermovinification and carbonic maceration. The analyses performed were alcohol, total acidity, reducing sugar, ash, dry extract, phenolic and volatile compounds and mineral elements. The quality was evaluated by sensory analysis. Data were submitted to principal component analysis (PCA and to analysis of variance, where the three first axes explained 68.2% of the total variation. The PCA permitted to separate the wines of carbonic maceration from the other two vinification processes. The variables presenting important

  2. Presença de Cádmio em mostos e vinhos Cadmium in musts and wines

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    Denise D'Agostini

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Cádmio foi determinado em mostos e vinhos de duas cultivares de uvas vim/eras (Cabernet Sauvignon e Saint Emilion. Amostras/oram retiradas periodicamente durante a fermentação alcoólica e também do bagaço da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, das borras e das sementes resultantes das trasfegas e do produto final. As fermentações de cada cultivar sofreram adição de quantidades conhecidas de cádmio (5mg/l e 5mg/l afim de verificar o seu comportamento em diferentes concentrações. As determinações de cádmio foram realizadas através da espectrometria de absorção atómica com utilização de forno de grafite. Os valores máximos encontrados, expressos em mg/1 foram, respectivamente: vinhos controle, 0,88: vinhos adicionados de baixos teores de cádmio (5mg/l, 4,17: e, vinhos adicionados de altos teores de cádmio (5mg/l, 280: as percentagens retidas nos vinhos com relação ao mosto original oscilaram entre 32,5% e 60,1%. Os valores encontrados para cádmio podem ser considerados baixos quando comparados com os relatados na literatura.Cadmium was analyzed in musts anã wines of two grapes varieties, Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon and Saint Emilion. Samples were taken during the alcohoolic fermentation as well as from the cap, seeds, lees and wines. Different quantities (5mg and 5mg/l of cadmiun were added prior to start the fermentations. Cadmium was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry using a graphite oven. The maximum values found, in mg/l, were respectively: wines control, 0.88: wines from musts with low Cd addition (5mg/l, 4.17 and wines from musts with high Cd addition (5mg/l, 280. The cadmium contem of the wines ranged from 32.5% and 60.1% of the cadmium originalty present in the musts. However, these amounts were considered low.

  3. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

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    Battilani Paola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  4. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above properties - berry diameter, weight, pulp, and fruity versus vegetal characteristic. The groupings corresponded to the areas described as producing higher and lower quality fruit, respectively, based on field taste evaluation. Metabolomic analysis of grape skins from these two groups showed statistically significant differences in accumulation of amino acids and organic acids. Our results suggest there is not a

  5. Origin of (-)-geosmin on grapes: on the complementary action of two fungi, botrytis cinerea and penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; Chamont, Sophie; Blancard, Dominique; Dubourdieu, Denis; Darriet, Philippe

    2005-08-01

    One of the consequences of rot on grapes is the development of volatile compounds giving fungal, mouldy or earthy odours. Among these compounds, (-)-geosmin (trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol), a powerful aromatic compound with an earthy smell is a persistent defect in grape juice and wines made with at least partially rotten grapes. A microbiota analysis of rotten grapes containing (-)-geosmin was carried out on sites from four French regions from 1999 to 2002, to clarify the involvement in geosmin appearance of Streptomyces spp. and Penicillium spp., two types of microorganisms present on grape, that are known for their ability to produce geosmin. In earthy grapes, Botrytis cinerea was largely present. Different species of Streptomyces were also isolated, but their pH sensitivity was an extremely limiting parameter for their development on grape juice, grapes or stem, and consequently for their potentiality to generate geosmin in the vineyard. Penicillium expansum, producing geosmin on a model medium, was omnipresent. Penicillium carneum, which is also a geosmin producer, was represented by a single colony during the 4 years of this study. P. expansum alone was able to produce geosmin on a model medium but not on grapes. However, after 7 days' pre-culture of some B. cinerea strains on grape juice, this juice became favourable to geosmin production by P. expansum. We demonstrated the necessary and complementary action of B. cinerea and P. expansum in geosmin production in grape juice and in crushed grape berries.

  6. 爬地龙架形在宁夏蛇龙珠上的应用效果初报%Preliminary report of crawled cordon training technique applied on Cabernet Gernischet(V. Vinifera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭惠萍; 王珊; 温建军; 周定山; 周慧琴; 赵淑红

    2015-01-01

    Cabernet Gernischet was conducted as material to investigate the effect of crawled cordon training on yield and quility of fruit and vine development during three years. The result showed that crawled cordon training used on Cabernet Gernischet not only keep fruit the high quility and stable yield, but also gained the vigor vine and sustained vineyards. So this trellis was recommended to apply in the vineyard on the eastern foot of Helan mountain.%以酿酒葡萄蛇龙珠为试材,改造龙干形为爬地龙架形,连续3年对比分析爬地龙架形对蛇龙珠果实品质、产量及树体生长发育的影响。结果表明:改良后的爬地龙架形在宁夏蛇龙珠葡萄上应用可以实现“优质、稳产、健康、美观”的葡萄可持续生产目标。建议在贺兰山东麓酒庄葡萄园推广爬地龙架形。

  7. Phenolic compounds in Merlot wines from two wine regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Carlos Eugenio Daudt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the grape and wine production takes place mainly in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the region "Serra" is known as the traditional wine region. In the last years, new areas have emerged, with emphasis for the Campanha region; the red wines from this region have low acidity, little color intensity, and are wines to drink while young, even when produced from grape varieties such as Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different maceration types on the phenolic compounds of Merlot wines made with grapes produced in two regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Serra and Campanha, as well as to identify the key differences between the wines produced. The localization of the vineyards seems to have more influence on the wine characteristics than the maceration type. The color due copigmentation was an important aspect in the wines made with short maceration. The effect of extended maceration was different than the expected for the Campanha region wines; the extended maceration increased the extraction of tannins resulting in greater color intensity and a greater amount of anthocyanins. The pH control seems to be a key factor for the Campanha region wines.

  8. Mineral analysis, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in wine residues flour

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    Bennemann Gabriela Datsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the mineral content (N, P, K, S, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in flours produced from residues of different grape cultivars from the wineries in the Southern region of Brazil. Mineral analysis showed a significant difference for all grape cultivar, with the exception for phosphorus content. Residues from cv. Seibel showed higher levels of N, Cu and Mg. The cultivars Ancelotta, Tanat and Bordô present higher contents of K, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ca. For the concentration of anthocyanins, cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon (114.7 mg / 100g, Tannat (88.5 mg / 100 g and Ancelotta (33.8 mg/100 g had the highest concentrations. The cultivars Pinot Noir (7.0 g AGE / 100 g, Tannat (4.3 g AGE / 100 g, and Ancelotta (3.9 g AGE / 100 g had the highest content of phenolic compounds. Considering these results, it became evident the potential of using the residue of winemaking to produce flour for human consumption, highlighting the grapes ‘Tannat' and ‘Ancellotta'.

  9. Grape Juice as a Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A; Mangan, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as a bait for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice bait with established A. suspensa protein-based baits (ammonium acetate + putrescine lures, or torula yeast) or wine, a bait found previously to be attractive to Z. indianus. Effects of different preservatives (polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, proxel, or sodium tetraborate) and bait age were also tested. Traps with grape juice baits captured more A. suspensa than unbaited traps, but more were captured in traps with grape juice plus preservative baits and the highest numbers were captured in traps containing the established protein-based baits. In contrast, grape juice baits without preservative that were prepared on the day of deployment (0 d) or that were aged for 3-4 d in the laboratory captured the highest numbers of Z. indianus, while solutions that were aged in the laboratory for 6 or 9 d captured fewer. Although these studies found that aqueous grape juice is a poor bait for A. suspensa, we found that actively fermenting aqueous grape juice may be an effective bait for Z. indianus.

  10. A modern ampelography: A genetic basis for leaf shape and venation patterning in grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terroir, the unique interaction between genotype, environment, and culture, is highly refined in domesticated grape (Vitis vinifera). Toward cultivating terroir, the science of ampelography tried to distinguish thousands of grape cultivars without the aid of genetics. This led to sophisticated pheno...

  11. Production of fuel by pyrolysis of the bagasse of grapes: yield and high thermal power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foussard, J.N.; Talayrach, B.; Besombes Vailhe, J.

    1979-01-01

    A liquid fuel of high calorific value was obtained by the pyrolysis of grape bagasse, with the pyrolysis temperature being the factor determining the product composition. Grape bagasse is produced in distilleries and is thus a practical and readily available material.

  12. ‘BRS MAGNA’ – a novel grape cultivar for juice making, with wide climatic adaptation

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    Patricia Ritschel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Magna’ is a-novel cultivar to make grape juice, which presents intermediate productive cycle and wide climatic adaptation, released as an alternative to improve the color, the sweetness and the flavor of grape juice in Brazil.

  13. Mycotoxins in grapes and wine in Europe: Occurence, factors affecting the occurence and related toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission has established maximum levels for ochratoxin A in wine and grape products, using occurrence data up to 2001 and toxicity data up to 2006. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins in grapes and wine produced in Europe in the period 1

  14. SAPPORO: A way to turn your graphics cards into a GRAPE-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaburov, E.; Harfst, S.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present Sapporo, a library for performing high precision gravitational N-body simulations on NVIDIA graphical processing units (GPUs). Our library mimics the GRAPE-6 library, and N-body codes currently running on GRAPE-6 can switch to Sapporo by a simple relinking of the library. The precision of

  15. Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies. Although grape juices ha

  16. Microsatellite profiles as a basis for intellectual property protection in grape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of microsatellite analysis in a forensic procedure for establishing infringement on plant breeders¿ rights in vegetatively propagated crops was evaluated. A reference collection of 45 seedless grape varieties was chosen as reference collection. Matching probabilities of grape microsatellite

  17. Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Two Grape Varieties Using Pulsed Electric Field

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    Simona Ioana VICAS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, our objective was to investigate extraction efficiency of polyphenols with antioxidant capacity from two varieties of grapes (white-Muscat Ottonel (MO and red-Pinot Noir (PN using pulsed electric field (PEF. Grapes were harvested in the Crisana Santimreu vineyard in 2015. The grapes were declustered and crushed, and have been divided into three parts. A part was treated in PEF, the second one was homogenized, and then was treated in PEF and the last part remained untreated, representing the control samples. The bioactive compounds, like total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content, were determined by the spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by three methods (DPPH, FRAPand TEAC. Our results show that the application of PEF to the crushed grapes increases the total polyphenol content 2.28 and 3.15 times and the total flavonoid content 7.17 and 5.29 times for MO and PN, respectively. Also, the antioxidant capacity was significantly increased when it was compared with the control sample. When the treatment in PEF was applied on homogenized grapes both bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were significantly increased compared to the samples treated in PEF for crushed grapes. In the present research work, we demonstrated that the application of PEF to two different grape varieties significantly increased the level of total polyphenols and flavonoids and also the antioxidant capacity. The application of PEF to homogenized grapes was more efficient.

  18. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE E.U. ROLE IN THE WORLD GRAPE PRODUCTION

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    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the EU-27 position in the world grape production based on the data collected from FAO Stat data base for the period 2000-2008, using the index and share methods. The EU-27 is the most important vine cultivator and grape producer in the world. With its 3.5 million ha planted with vine, it accounts for 90.21 % of Europe’s area of vineyards and 48.14 % of the world vine area. In 2008, the EU-27 produced 25.1 million tones grapes placing it on the top position and contributing by 41.56 % to the world production. The top European countries: Italy, Spain, France, Germany and Romania achieved 21.8 million tones grapes, representing 86.98 % of the EU-27 and 32.96 % of the world grape production. Italy, Spain and France are among the top 10 grape producers in the world. As a conclusion, even thou the EU-27 planted area decreased by 8.24 % and its grape production declined by 16.16 %, the EU-27 continues to remain the main grape producer in the world.

  19. Discrimination of brazilian red varietal wines according to their sensory descriptors Discriminação de vinhos tintos Brasileiros varietais de acordo com suas características sensoriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equil

  20. Experimentation of grapevine cultivation in organic system, on five different Romanian vineyards

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    Aurora Maria Ranca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In five Romanian vineyards, in 2013-2014 period was experimented organic system growing on  grape varieties for wine representative for each area, here are applied organic growing technology in parallel with the conventional (control. White varieties studied are: Chardonnay (Murfatlar and Valea Calugareasca, Sauvignon blanc and Muscat Ottonel(Tarnave, Feteasca regala (Tarnave, Bujoru and Copou-Iasi. Red varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon (Murfatlar and Valea Calugareasca and Merlot (Bujoru. Concerning evolution of main climatic factors for the years 2013-2014 it is show that the annual average air temperature increase compared with the average of the years 1991-2010; is observed an increasing in mean annual temperature, mean temperature during the growing season and the value of sum of sunshine hours. The water regime was kept constant, registering values close to the annual average, both during the growing season and at entire year. The weeds spectrum is represented both by dicotyledonous as knotweed (Polygonum aviculare, Veronica (Stellaria media, news (Amaranthus retroflexus, bindweed (Convolvurus arvensis and monocotyledonous as grass thick (Cynodon dactylon. Concerning the phytosanitary status, at Murfatlar were registered problems with oidium attack, with all main disease at Dealu Mare and with downy mildew at Bujoru. In all areas the pest has been found are: grape mouth (Lobesia botrana and spiders (Tetranichus sp.. Schemes of treatments focused generally on substances bassed on copper and sulfur to combat diseases and for pests have been used pheromonal traps or other certified organic products. The grapes harvest was lower in organic plots with till 25%; their quality being close at both growing variants.

  1. Determination of tryptophan and tryptophan metabolites in grape must and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, K; Simat, T J; Steinhart, H; Christoph, N; Köhler, H J; Schwab, A

    1999-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) and its metabolites, especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are considered as potential precursors of 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP), an aroma compound which causes the "untypical aging off-flavor" (UTA) in Vitis vinifera white wines. In this study RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Trp and Trp-metabolites in 39 grapes, 22 grape musts and 16 wines, to which different viticultural conditions (ripeness, pruning, strip of leaves, soil condition) have been applied. A sensitive and selective determination was achieved after solid phase extraction using an anion exchange material. Only traces of Trp-metabolites could be determined in the examined grapes and grape musts, but their amounts increased significantly during fermentation, whereas the amount of Trp decreased. Different viticultural measures, besides the time of grape harvest, showed no significant influences on the amount of Trp and Trp-metabolites.

  2. Acetobacter aceti fast identification by Real Time PCR in spoiled wine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wine is a beverage that made from grape berries. However, without beneficial bacteria, we would not produce good wine. But very often wines contain acetic acid bacteria, which are undesirable in winemaking process. Acetic acid bacteria as known as a vinegar bacteria are Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and ubiquitous bacteria. This study was focused on species of acetic acid bacteria, specifically Acetobacter aceti that make spoilage in wine.The aim of our study was the identification of Acetobacter aceti in spoiled red wine samples, with plate dilution method on agar plates and using sensitive Real-time PCR (qPCR method. We cultivated Acetobacter aceti on GYC agar at 30°C, 48h. The one of main objective in the present work was the test fast, sensitive and reliable technique such as quantitative Real-time PCR and detecting the presence of Acetobacter aceti in wine samples with positive Acetobacteraceti control on amplification plot and melting curve. The next objective before  qPCR analysis was DNA extraction from wine samples incubated for one week at 28°C aerobically. We used five different red wine samples for this experiment: Alibernet 2013, Blaufränkisch 2013, Cabernet Sauvignon 2013, Dunaj 2012 and Saint-Laurent 2012. Next we extracted DNA from wine samples and from pure Acetobacter aceti CCM 3620T strain purchased from Czech collection of microorganisms in Brno. Susceptibility ofAcetobacter aceti was varied in different isolates from 102 to 107 CFU.mL-1. The number of Acetobacter cells on GYC medium ranged from 4.05 to 4.83log CFU.mL-1 in differentwine samples.The higher number of Acetobacter cells (4.83 log CFU.mL-1 was found in Cabernet Sauvignon 2013 wine.

  3. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  4. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  5. Discrimination of fungal infections on grape berries via spectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Daniel; Griesser, Michaela; Schütz, Erich; Khuen, Marie-Therese; Schefbeck, Christa; Ronellenfitsch, Franz Kai; Schlerf, Martin; Beyer, Marco; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Anhalt, Ulrike; Forneck, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    The fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum are causing economic damages on grapevine worldwide. Especially the simultaneous occurrence of both often results in off-flavours highly threatening wine quality. For the classification of grape quality as well as for the determination of targeted enological treatments, the knowledge of the level of fungal attack is of highest interest. However, visual assessment and pathogen discrimination are cost-intensive. Consequently, a pilot laboratory study aimed at (i) detecting differences in spectral signatures between grape berry lots with different levels of infected berries (B. cinerea and/or P. expansum) and (ii) detecting links between spectral signatures and biochemical as well as quantitative molecular markers for fungal attack. To this end, defined percentages (infection levels) of table grape berries were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions. Spectral measurements were taken using a FieldSpec 3 Max spectroradiometer (ASD Inc., Boulder/Colorado, USA) in regular intervals after inoculation. In addition, fungal attack was determined enzymatically) and quantitatively (real-time PCR). In addition, gluconic acid concentrations (as a potential markers for fungal attack) were determined photometrically. Results indicate that based on spectral signatures, a discrimination of P. expansum and B. cinerea infections as well as of different B. cinerea infection levels is possible. Real-time PCR analyses, detecting DNA levels of both fungi, showed yet a low detection level. Whereas the gluconic acid concentrations turned out to be specific for the two fungi tested (B. cinerea vs. P. expansum) and thus may serve as a differentiating biochemical marker. Correlation analyses between spectral measurements and biological data (gluconic acid concentrations, fungi DNA) as well as further common field and laboratory trials are targeted.

  6. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  7. Organic production of red wine grapes under plastic cover in subtropical region of Brazil Produção orgânica de uvas para vinho tinto sob cobertura plástica em região subtropical do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out aiming to evaluate the development and yield of red wine grapevines under plastic cover in an organic production system in Guarapuava, the Central-Southern region of Paraná State, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized blocks, in a 5x2 factorial arrangement (cultivars x rootstocks, with five red wine vine cultivars (Merlot, Malbec, Carbenet Sauvignon, Ives and Early Isabella and two rootstocks (Paulsen 1103 e VR 043-43. The grafted grapevines were planted in September of 2005 and the evaluations carried out for the three first productive cycles (2006/2007, 2007/2008, 2008/2009. The following variables were evaluated: phenological growth stages, number of clusters, average cluster weight, total yield, total soluble solids content and fresh weight of pruning material. The cultivation of wine grapevines in an organic system under plastic cover demonstrated viability, inhibiting the incidence of diseases and reducing the needs of control. The most limiting factor was the damage caused by wasps and bees that decreased cluster harvest. Despite this problem, between tested grapevine cultivars, the Early Isabella was the most productive in all years, while Malbec was also outstanding in the first cycle. VR 043-43 hybrid could be a suitable rootstock for red wine production in areas infested by 'Perola da Terra' scale insects (Eurhizococcus brasiliensis.Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento e produtividade de uvas para vinho tinto sob cobertura plástica, em sistema orgânico, em Guarapuava, região centro-sul do estado do Paraná, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 5x2 (cultivares x porta-enxertos, com cinco cultivares de vinho tinto (Merlot, Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Bordô e Isabel Precoce e dois porta-enxertos (Paulsen 1103e VR 043-43. As videiras enxertadas foram plantadas em setembro de 2005 e as avaliações foram conduzidas

  8. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  9. Wine aroma compounds in grapes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are vital to wine quality, determining their aroma and varietal characteristics. Which are present, and in what quantity, depends on the cultivar, the situation and soil of the vineyard, weather, cultivation methods, and wine-making practices. Here, we review the literature on the development of wine aroma compounds in grapes, and how it is affected by the above-named factors. Increasing understanding of these processes at the molecular level will aid vine growers in the optimal selection of harvest dates and other decisions favoring the consistent production of balanced, flavorful berries.

  10. Assessment of multi-mycotoxin adsorption efficacy of grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avantaggiato, Giuseppina; Greco, Donato; Damascelli, Anna; Solfrizzo, Michele; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-15

    Grape pomace (pulp and skins) was investigated as a new biosorbent for removing mycotoxins from liquid media. In vitro adsorption experiments showed that the pomace obtained from Primitivo grapes is able to sequester rapidly and simultaneously different mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was the most adsorbed mycotoxin followed by zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin A (OTA), and fumonisin B1 (FB1), whereas the adsorption of deoxynivalenol (DON) was negligible. AFB1 and ZEA adsorptions were not affected by changing pH values in the pH 3-8 range, whereas OTA and FB1 adsorptions were significantly affected by pH. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms obtained at different temperatures (5-70 °C) and pH values (3 and 7) were modeled and evaluated using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Sips, and Hill models. The goodness of the fits and the parameters involved in the adsorption mechanism were calculated by the nonlinear regression analysis method. The best-fitting models to describe AFB1, ZEA, and OTA adsorption by grape pomace were the Sips, Langmuir, and Freundlich models, respectively. The Langmuir and Sips models were the best models for FB1 adsorption at pH 7 and 3, respectively. The theoretical maximum adsorption capacities (mmol/kg dried pomace) calculated at pH 7 and 3 decreased in the following order: AFB1 (15.0 and 15.1) > ZEA (8.6 and 8.3) > OTA (6.3-6.9) > FB1 (2.2 and 0.4). Single- and multi-mycotoxin adsorption isotherms showed that toxin adsorption is not affected by the simultaneous presence of different mycotoxins in the liquid medium. The profiles of adsorption isotherms obtained at different temperatures and pH and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS°) suggest that mycotoxin adsorption is an exothermic and spontaneous process, which involves physisorption weak associations. Hydrophobic interactions may be associated with AFB1 and ZEA adsorption, whereas polar noncovalent interactions may be associated with OTA and FB1 adsorption. In conclusion, this study

  11. Effect of UV-C on the Fruit Quality and the Accumulation of Polyphenol during the Grape Berry Development%UV-C 对葡萄果实品质和多酚类物质积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温鹏飞; 邢延富; 牛铁泉; 高美英; 牛兴艳

    2013-01-01

      以5年生酿酒葡萄赤霞珠为试材,初步研究了UV-C照射对果实品质形成和多酚类物质积累的作用。结果表明,植株定期接受UV-C照射并不改变果实品质形成和多酚类物质积累规律,但明显影响成熟葡萄果实品质和多酚类物质含量。葡萄果实发育过程中,适度UV-C照射对成熟果实大小、有机酸含量、总酚含量无明显影响,但会导致花色苷、总糖含量增加,Vc含量降低,以及诱导类黄酮、黄烷醇类多酚积累,从而显著影响果实品质。此外,UV-C照射对果实品质形成和多酚类物质积累的作用具有明显的发育阶段依赖性和剂量依赖性。%In this paper,the 5-year old grapevines of Vitis vinifera L.Cabernet Sauvignon were subjected to reg-ular UV-C irradiation,and the effect of UV-C on the fruit quality formation and accumulation of polyphenols during berry development were studied .The results showed that the pattern of fruit quality formation and accumulation of polyphenols were not changed ,but the fruit quality and content of polyphenols in mature berry were changed signifi-cantly by the regular UV-C irradiation.Under the moderate UV-C irradiation,no obvious changes in single berry weight,content of organic acid,and total phenol were observed ,but the content of anthocyanins ,total sugar were in-creased,and the accumulation of flavonoids and flavanols were induced significantly in mature berry ,which sugges-ted that there was obvious improving in fruit quality .In addition,the effect of UV-C on the fruit quality formation and accumulation of polyphenols were development and dose-dependent.

  12. Effects of intercropping vines with tobacco and root extracts of tobacco on grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-yue; SU Jun-ping; LIU Wei-wei; GUO Yu-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of grape-tobacco intercropping patterns on populations of grape phyl oxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch, as wel as on the growth and development of the infested vines were evaluated in the ifeld and the impact of an aqueous tobacco root extract on grape phyl oxera was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. The aqueous tobacco root extract exhibited biological activity against this pest. The egg mortality, nymph mortality, development period, life span and female fecundity were signiifcantly affected. In the ifeld trial, grape phyl oxera populations were clearly lower as compared to the monoculture pattern. However, the rates of newly developed roots and newly infested grape roots were signiifcantly higher and lower, in intercropping patterns than in the vine monoculture, respectively. The grape phyl oxera population number on the grape roots decreased each year, and the vine trees gradual y renewed upon continuous intercropping with tobacco over three years. These results conifrmed that intercropping grapes with tobacco can effectively control grape phyl oxera in an infested vineyard. The results also indicated that additional crops could be intercropped with grapes and are effective against grape phyl oxera, which should be explored as an integrated approach for control ing the pest.

  13. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  14. 不同酶和酵母对干红葡萄酒香气影响的差异分析%Effection of different yeasts and maceration enzymes on aromatic components of cabernet gernischt red wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何英霞; 蒋玉梅; 李霁昕; 米兰; 马腾臻; 杭洁; 陈玉蓉; 胡妍芸

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide technical support for the production of high-aroma quality wine in Gansu Hexi Corridor, the volatile compounds of Cabernet Gernischt red wine were analyzed by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, three maceration enzymes (EX-V, EX and HC), two yeast strains (BDX and D254) were used to prepare samples respectively and the volatile compounds of samples were compared and analyzed. The results showed that 75 compounds were identified in Cabernet Gernischt red wine, in which esters, alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes were the major compounds;56、46 and 44 compounds were identified in samples added with EX, EX-V and HC maceration enzymes respectively, while 44 and 50 compounds were identified in fermented wine by D254 and BDX yeasts. The total concentration of volatile compounds in EX-V an d D254 samples was significantly higher than EX、HC and BDX samples, the differences of aroma compounds among Cabernet Gernischt wine fermented by different maceration enzymes and yeast strains were not obvious, while the trace aroma compounds were significantly different. The aroma contribution of compounds depends on odor activity value, i.e., OAV (concentration:the threshold value). According to OAVs, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl caprylate , ethyl caprate, Hexanol, phenethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol contribute much to main aroma compounds of Cabernet Gernischt red wine. It was generally recognized that aroma substances could contribute to the overall aroma when its concentration reached at 20%of threshold (OAV>0.2), and 20 compounds were identified as OAV>0.2 in the tested Cabernet Gernischt red wine, β-damascenone and geraniol could provide lemon, orange and other fruit flavor, phenethyl alcohol gived flavor of rose to wine, hexanol gived grass to wine , ethyl butyrate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl caprylate gived flavor of pear, banana

  15. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  16. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanidi P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m. The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire length, except for the top. Duration of production period from bud burst to harvest - 146-155 days. Productivity is high: 20-25 t / ha. The average weight of clusters is 260. Characterized by high winter hardiness, drought resistance and increased resistance to fungal diseases in comparison with the varieties of Vitis vinifera. Flower is hermaphrodite, fully developed stamens and gynoecium. Bunch is small, conical, sometimes winged, average density. Berry is small, spherical, pinkish in color, with a thick waxy coating. Peel of medium thickness, dense and durable. Pulp and juice with a strong varietal flavor, similar to the aroma of Traminer pink. Sugar content is very high: more than 24%. Cluster of the variety of Radost Leonidov at overripening is drying and stored on the bushes for a long time. The variety is intended for the production of dry white wines of excellent class, as well as highquality sparkling wines, dessert and sweet wines; suitable for the production of high-quality aromatic juices

  17. Maturation evolution of chardonnay grape for juice preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the maturation of the “Chardonnay” grape variety for the preparation of juices and its adequacy to the current legislation. Grapes from the 2015 harvest from São Lourenço do Sul-RS were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, with the treatment factor being the maturation stages. The physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity, soluble solids, relative density, total sugar, alcohol content, volatile acidity and SS/TA ratio were carried out in EPAGRI – Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina, in the Videira Experimental Station (Videira SC/Brazil. Statistical analysis of the maturation stages was given by linear regression models. When comparing the maturation points of 17∘Brix and 19∘Brix to 15∘Brix, volatile acidity and alcohol content did not fit to the model, while the other tested variables fit properly. Elaborated juices had a decrease in titratable acidity and percentage increments for soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and total sugars for the harvest points at 17 and 19∘Brix. For 15∘Brix and 17∘Brix, nonconformity was observed with the identity and quality standards in relation to soluble solids and SS/TA ratio and relative density. At maturation point 19∘Brix all variables were found to be consistent.

  18. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  19. USING A GRAPE HARVESTER IN SUPER-INTENSIVE OLIVE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bellomo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of experimental mechanical harvesting tests in a super-intensive olive cultivation. In this type of olive cultivation, trees were grown with a central axis mode and a tree distance of 4,00x1,50 m. A “Braud” grape harvesting machine for espalier vineyards was used in an experimental olive grove in Cassano delle Murge. On the basis of harvesting tests it was possible to verify that the harvesting machine is able to detach the almost all the product with an operative work capacity of 0,5 ha/h. An evaluation of harvesting cost was carried out to determine the minimum convenience growing surface, and also to estimate the increase in income per hectare which could be achieved using mechanised harvesting as opposed to manual harvesting. Moreover, in order to determine the economic limits of using the grape harvester, its performance was compared with that of other harvesting machines used in both super-intensive and traditional plantations.

  20. The clone selection studies on Siyah Gemre grape variety

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    Dilli Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V. vinifera L.cv. “Siyah Gemre” is an important table grape variety of Mediterranean Region in Turkey. It is late sea- son, medium bunch density, round berry, red-black colored and seeded. The study was carried out to make clone selection for increasing the yield and quality in “Siyah Gemre” grape variety The project was completed in two stages. First one was selection nominees of mother clone vine and second was establishing of clonal collection vineyard. The first stage studies were carried out at grower vineyards of İsparta, Turkey surroundings where “Siyah Gemre” is grown wide spread, between 2001 and 2003. Clonal nominees were selected by using counting the cluster and shoot at the end of the project. After that, the clonal collection vineyard was established with spacing 3.0 m × 1.65 m in 2004. Twelve vines of each clonal nominees were grafted onto 110R rootstock. In the study the values of yield, number of cluster, weight of cluster, 100 berry weight, index of maturity, sensory analysis, weight of pruning and bud productivity were evaluated between 2007–2012. At the end of this study, according to the values of total point, five clone nominees were selected and among their 3, 19, 24 numbered clones were chosen in terms of total sensory analysis score, yield and stability, cluster and berry properties respectively.

  1. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnaz Pervin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the anthocyanin rich extract of grape skin. Grape skin anthocyanin (GSA neutralized free radicals in different test systems, such as 2,-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays, to form complexes with Fe2+ preventing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, GSA decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in isolated mitochondria thus inhibiting 2',-7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH oxidation. In an in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were administered GSA, at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg per kg per day orally for 30 consecutive days. Herein, we demonstrate that GSA administration significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes in mice sera, livers, and brains. Furthermore, GSA inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the in vitro assay with an IC50 value of 363.61 µg/mL. Therefore, GSA could be an excellent source of antioxidants and its inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest with regard to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  2. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM TOKAJ WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a surface mycobiota of grapes and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Three samples of wine grapes Furmint, Lipovina and Yellow muscat were collected in the Tokaj wine region in Viničky during the November harvest in 2012. Seven/eight berries from each sample were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C for 5 - 7 days. After incubation from the samples were isolated following filamentous fungi: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelium sterillium. The most frequent were genera Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The largest number of isolates belonged to Penicillium (368 isolates and Botrytis (334 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 47 % and 43 %, respectively. The selected isolates - Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C and ochratoxin A producing ability. A higher percentage of Penicillium crustosum isolates (79 % were positive for penitrem A and all were positive for roquefortin C. A higher percentage of Penicillium expansum (83 % were positive for patulin, 72 % for citrinin and they were all positive for roquefortin C. All isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum produced roquefortin C. As would be expected, ochratoxin A was not detected from Aspergillus section Nigri.

  3. Different emergence phenology of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on six varieties of grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-06-01

    The phenology of insect emergence affects reproductive success and is especially critical in short-lived species. An increasing number of studies have documented the effects of thermal and other climatic variations and of unpredictable habitats on the timing of adult insect emergence within and between populations and years. Numerous interacting factors may affect the phenology of adult emergence. Host-plant quality and availability is a key factor that has been largely neglected in studies of the phenology of phytophagous insects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of host plant characteristics on the rate of larval growth and the pattern of emergence in a wild population of Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth), a significant pest in European vineyards. The phenology of emergence differed significantly among the six tested varieties of grapes. The percentage of bunches harboring pupae was similar among the different grape varieties, and the total number of pupae collected was similar to the number of emerging adults per bunch. Among the six varieties of grapes, 0-25 pupae were produced on each bunch. Each of the grape varieties had a single wave of emergence, in which males emerged before females, but their emergence phenology differed significantly in Chardonnay, Chasselas, and Pinot grapes. Both genders had extended durations of emergence in Merlot grapes. Together, the present results show that the characteristics of the grape host plant affect the emergence phenology of L. botrana.

  4. Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mi Ho; Kim, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hyo-Won; Keum, Yoong Soo; Chun, Se Chul

    2014-09-01

    Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0℃. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage.

  5. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara Konuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C were determined. When comparing the fresh grape seeds with the corresponding dehydrated samples, it was shown that the drying operation led to reduction of total phenolic contents and the total phenolic contents decreased with an increase of the drying temperature. According to ABTS radical scavenging method, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC was found to be highest for fresh grape seeds and presented lower values for grape seeds dried at three different temperatures. As a result of the study, it was demonstrated that grape seed is a powerful antioxidant source and it has still high antioxidant activity after drying process. However, drying at low temperatures was put forward to be advantageous in order to reduce the losses of phenolic components.

  6. MULTI-RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN GRAPES IN BIJAPUR DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S.Pujeri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit samples of grapes were analyzed for pesticide residues, employing multi-residue analysis by gas- liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS/ LCMS/ MS. All the fruit samples showed the presence of pesticide residues with one or other group of pesticides. Some of the grape samples contain more than the minimum residue limit. The increasing interest in the study of pesticides in grapes is justified from an enological point of view, since some pesticides can interfere with fermentative microflora used in wine production, as well as affect consumer safety. There were no significant differences between some pesticide levels found in the whole grape (skin and pulp and in the grape skin. Chlorpyriphos, captan, dichlorovos, oxyfluorfen, fipronoil, 4- bromo-2-chlorophenol and indoxycarb were detected. Nevertheless, consumer intake of pesticides from grapes studied in this work should be decreased as a result of water washing of the grapes. In this paper, multiresidue determination of pesticides using GCMS/ LC-MS/MS are discussed.

  7. Speaking into Poetry, Light Sauvignon Language --Read MENG Hao-ran's Poetry%口语入诗 语淡味浓——解读孟浩然的几首七绝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云长

    2011-01-01

    孟浩然是唐代第一个大量写山水田园诗的人,与王维齐名,世称"王孟"。孟浩然的诗清新俊逸,流畅华美,广为流传。有些诗作口语入诗,语淡而味浓,彰显其浓厚的生活底蕴与超脱闲适,隐逸自安的情怀。%MENG Hao-ran was the first people to write nature poetry in Tang Dynasty, par with WANG Wei. The poetry of MENG was fresh toshihaya, smooth gorgeous and widespread. Some verses speaking into poetry and light sauvignon language, showed great living heritage and leisure, safely and feelings of self-seclusion.

  8. Ontology-oriented retrieval of putative microRNAs in Vitis vinifera via GrapeMiRNA: a web database of de novo predicted grape microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontana Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two complete genome sequences are available for Vitis vinifera Pinot noir. Based on the sequence and gene predictions produced by the IASMA, we performed an in silico detection of putative microRNA genes and of their targets, and collected the most reliable microRNA predictions in a web database. The application is available at http://www.itb.cnr.it/ptp/grapemirna/. Description The program FindMiRNA was used to detect putative microRNA genes in the grape genome. A very high number of predictions was retrieved, calling for validation. Nine parameters were calculated and, based on the grape microRNAs dataset available at miRBase, thresholds were defined and applied to FindMiRNA predictions having targets in gene exons. In the resulting subset, predictions were ranked according to precursor positions and sequence similarity, and to target identity. To further validate FindMiRNA predictions, comparisons to the Arabidopsis genome, to the grape Genoscope genome, and to the grape EST collection were performed. Results were stored in a MySQL database and a web interface was prepared to query the database and retrieve predictions of interest. Conclusion The GrapeMiRNA database encompasses 5,778 microRNA predictions spanning the whole grape genome. Predictions are integrated with information that can be of use in selection procedures. Tools added in the web interface also allow to inspect predictions according to gene ontology classes and metabolic pathways of targets. The GrapeMiRNA database can be of help in selecting candidate microRNA genes to be validated.

  9. Identification of Specific RAPD Markers Linked to Anthracnose Resistant Gene in Native Wild Grapes of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ping; WANG Yue-jin; ZHOU Peng; ZHENG Xue-qin

    2001-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was employed to detect molecular markers linked to anthracnose ( Spheceloma ampelinum de Bary) resistant gene in the native wild grapes ( Vitis L. ) of China. RAPD marker OPJ13-300 was linked to anthracnose resistant gene using 90-3 cross F1 V. quinquangularis Rehd (shang-24) × V. vinifera (Longyan). The marker was verified in 90-3 cross F1, Chinese wild grapes and V. riparia and European grape cuitivars. This work has provided a solid basis for molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) to disease resistance and cloning of disease resistant genes.

  10. Variation of Anthocyanin Composition in Fruit Skins of F_1 Hybrid Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    In order to know the heritability of B-ring modification of anthocyanins in grape skin, anthocyanin composition in F_1 genaration of grape cultivars were investigated ‘Muscat of Alexandria' which has green fruit color, had latent ability of methylation for B-ring of anthocyanin.‘Ioalia' was seemed to suit as parent for breeding of red grape cultivars, be cause of its low heritability of hydroxylation ability. The heritability of methylation ability in ‘Mills' showed lower than in ‘Rizamat' or...

  11. Grape yield and quality of the grapevine cultivar limberger treated with plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Slavica R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of foliar application of paclobutrasol (PK, chlorcholinechloride (CC and gibberellic acid (GA3 on grape yield and quality of the grapevine cultivar Limberger were studied. PK and CC strongly inhibited shoot growth. The number of berries per bunch, bunch weight and grape yield per m2 were increased. At the same time, sugar content of must was either reduced (CC2000 or retained at the level of control (PK1000, CC1000. The GA150 treatment resulted in lower grape yield. At the concentration of GA3 100mg/l no significant increase in yield was found, whilst sugar content of must was significantly increased.

  12. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  13. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  14. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  15. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1017 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 50 2e-04 2 CF207340 |CF207340.1 CAB20001_IIa_Ra_F10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower blo...sequence. 50 2e-04 2 CB980647 |CB980647.1 CAB70003_IIIaF_A07 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 V...om - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20001_IIa_Ra_F10 3', mRNA sequence. 50 2e-04 2 CB976850 |CB976850.1 CAB40003_IIIa_Fa_D08 Caber...net Sauvignon Berry - CAB4 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB40003_IIIa_Fa_D08 5', mRNA

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFG846 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 26 |CF207326.1 CAB20001_IIa_Ra_E08 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20001..._IIa_Ra_E08 3', mRNA sequence. 50 0.015 1 CB980647 |CB980647.1 CAB70003_IIIaF_A07 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry P...iplex2 Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone B3CS00RL001F06 3', mRNA sequence. 50 0.015 1 CB976850 |CB976850.1 CAB40003_IIIa_Fa_D08 Caber...net Sauvignon Berry - CAB4 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB

  17. Alcohol and polyphenolic grape extract inhibit platelet adhesion in flowing blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, DW; Scholman, WLG; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; Akkerman, JWN; van de Wiel, A

    2004-01-01

    Background Moderate and prolonged alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inhibition of platelet function in suspension attributes to these effects. Whether alcohol, red wine, or polyphenolic grape extracts (PGE) inhibit platelet adhesion is not

  18. Profiling the Hydrolysis of Isolated Grape Berry Skin Cell Walls by Purified Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-09-23

    The unraveling of crushed grapes by maceration enzymes during winemaking is difficult to study because of the complex and rather undefined nature of both the substrate and the enzyme preparations. In this study we simplified both the substrate, by using isolated grape skin cell walls, and the enzyme preparations, by using purified enzymes in buffered conditions, to carefully follow the impact of the individual and combined enzymes on the grape skin cell walls. By using cell wall profiling techniques we could monitor the compositional changes in the grape cell wall polymers due to enzyme activity. Extensive enzymatic hydrolysis, achieved with a preparation of pectinases or pectinases combined with cellulase or hemicellulase enzymes, completely removed or drastically reduced levels of pectin polymers, whereas less extensive hydrolysis only opened up the cell wall structure and allowed extraction of polymers from within the cell wall layers. Synergistic enzyme activity was detectable as well as indications of specific cell wall polymer associations.

  19. THE CHOICE OF TOURISTIC DESTINATIONS DURING THE MATURATION PERIOD OF GRAPES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica SOARE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The grape growing by everything that it means, in Romania - the high number of the big viticultural unities and their geographical repartition for the whole country, the landscape diversity created into the viticultural unit, the wine cellars and so on – is relevant for the touristic activity. To the most favourable period of the viticultural tourism in Romania, activity that takes place in the same time with the agricultural one corresponds to the maturation phase of the grapes, regardless of the fact that the grapes are forfood or wine, between the end of july and the end of October.Regarding this type of tourism, certain preferences for food grapes, for sorts for wine, tasting of wines, including unruffled and frothy DOC, usually at the level of viticultural center or field, would impede the aleatory choice of the touristic destination and of the period, that is why it is imperative for the tourist to be informed.

  20. Climatic and economic parameters of the grape-wine simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Károly Szenteleki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of grape-wine product line models is depending mainly on the accuracy of the parameter estimations based on experts’ opinion. However, model parameter estimations can be based also on newly developed climatic data bases as well as other information systems concerning product lines. In this study we introduce a grape-wine simulation product line model with a new data base system of climatic parameters organized spatially for grape growing sites. The presented development plan makes a proposal for creating and maintaining an “Integrated Information System in the Grape-Wine Sector” (VINNET that enables an easier, more effective and more cost efficient collective platform leaning on the current systems. The system can serve a more accurate estimation of economic parameters that are necessary for simulation modelling.

  1. Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of grape pomace: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Mehmet; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Yanik, Jale

    2014-06-01

    Grape pomace was treated by hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-275°C) and torrefaction (nitrogen atmosphere, 250 and 300°C), with mass yield of solid product (char) ranging between 47% and 78%, and energy densification ratio to 1.42-1.15 of the original feedstock. The chars were characterised with respect to their fuel properties, morphological and structural properties and combustion characteristics. The hydrothermal carbonization produced the char with greater energy density than torrefaction. The chars from torrefaction were found to be more aromatic in nature than that from hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization process produced the char having high combustion reactivity. Most interesting was the finding that aqueous phase from hydrothermal carbonization had antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study showed that HTC appears to be promising process for a winery waste having high moisture content.

  2. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  3. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.

  4. Rationalization of pesticide treatments against powdery mildew of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, G; La Torre, A; Gianferro, M; Bugliosi, R

    2007-01-01

    The powdery mildew represents one of the diseases which affect the grape, it is diffused in all agricultural regions with variable intensity and epidemic course in operation of many microclimatic factors. The powdery mildew of grape is caused from Uncinala necator (Schw.) Burr. (nowadays named Erysiphe necator Schwein.); it is controlled with systemic therapy and contact chemicaL products. In some vineyards located in Latium (central Italy), different field trials have been carried out purposely to rationalize the treatments against E. necator. We have studied the powdery mildew infections through monitoring a set of environmental parameters, the evaluation of cultivar sensibility, the agricultural production method and the area characteristics. We have analysed the following environmental parameters monitoring every 15 minutes: precipitation, soil temperature, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed, atmospheric relative humidity, atmospheric temperature, leaf wetness, soil humidity to cm 20 and soil humidity to cm 40. Besides, we have used Artificial Intelligence analysis techniques to try to forecast U. necator infections. Guideline EPPO/OEPP PP 1/4 (4) has been used. The trials were conducted in conventional and organic farms. In 2 conventional farms and in organic farm we have considered 1 untreated control thesis, in order to follow the course of infection, 1 standard farm reference thesis (standard), where the treatments were carried out according to the usual farm procedures and 1 thesis where the treatments were carried out according to examining the environmental data. In another conventional vineyard, we have considered only 1 untreated control thesis and 1 standard farm reference thesis (standard) to study disease trend. The achieved results have underlined the possibility (through the knowledge of data pedoclimatic and cultural) to position the treatments against the powdery mildew so that to reduce their number. The lower number of treatments that

  5. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Richard D Mattes; Hendrickson, Sara J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  6. Managing ochratoxin A risk in the grape-wine food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Angelo; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2008-02-01

    The main source of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the wine food chain is the infection of grapes by "black aspergilli" in the field. OTA-producing black aspergilli include principally Aspergillus carbonarius, followed by A. niger and possibly A. tubingensis. They are opportunistic fungi that develop particularly on damaged berries at ripening, although they may occur and form OTA on grapes from veraison to harvest. Climatic conditions (high humidity and temperature) and geographical location are important factors favouring OTA accumulation in grape berries. The severity of aspergillus rot is influenced by excessive irrigation and rainfall prior to harvest, which causes berry splitting. In addition, berry wounds caused by insect attack provide preferential entries for black aspergilli. High OTA levels occur in grapes severely damaged by the grape moth, Lobesia botrana, particularly in Mediterranean areas. Some grape varieties display greater susceptibility to aspergillus rot due to intrinsic genetic characteristics and bunch conformation (i.e. compact>sparse). Control measures for toxigenic mycoflora in the vineyards must consider these critical control points. Proper fungicidal and insecticidal treatments can reduce OTA contamination. Nevertheless, knowledge about the fate of OTA and its distribution in wine and winery by-products is important to manage OTA risk in contaminated stock. In our wine-making experiments, only 4% of the OTA present in grapes remained in the wine--the majority is retained in pressed grape pomaces. OTA concentration remained unchanged in wine after a 1-year aging as well as in all liquid fractions collected during vinification (i.e. must, free run wine, and wine after first and second decantation). Activated carbon can reduce OTA levels in wine but negatively affects wine quality.

  7. INFLUENCE OF MELAPHEN ON AGROBIOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SAVINION WHITE GRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchevskiy P. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hereby we present the results of the research devoted to study of influence of growth modulator called melaphen on the technical brand of gapes such as Sovinion White and its agro-biological characteristics. The research was conducted in 2014-2015 using fruitful grape Sovinion White of 2004 planting as a subject in agro farm “Yuzhnaya” of Temruk in the Krasnodar Region. Melaphen is a type of melamine salt of bioximethilphosphin acid. It evokes complex influence on the energetic complex of vegetation cell in all three stages of vegetation. The chemical was applied mechanically by a tractor sprinkling. The square of tested patch is 2 hectares. Melaphen usage was 6,7 ml to 1 hectare . Norm of liquid applied was 700 liters to 1 hectare. Three times the chemical was applied during vegetation: before blossoming, grape growth phase (grapes the size of a pea and before the grapes ripen. As a result it was estimated that three times chemical application of melaphen to Sovinion White in dose 1. 10-9 in period after blossoming of grapes and before the grapes ripen led to more saturated accumulation of sugar in juice of the grapes and also to faster ripening and harvesting, larger mass of grape bunch amount of harvesting from a bush. Besides, in the tested option growing processes are accelerated and pigmentation agents are accumulated faster in the leaves and embryo infestation in winter sleeping core is boosted at larger scale. Better harvest quality leads to better wine materials quality. Application of melaphen provides higher economical efficiency

  8. Multivariate analysis for the classification and differentiation of Madeira wines according to main grape varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Câmara, José de Sousa; Alves, Maria Arminda; Marques, José Carlos

    2006-01-01

    In order to differentiate and characterize Madeira wines according to main grape varieties, the volatile composition (higher alcohols, fatty acids, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds) was determined for 36 monovarietal Madeira wine samples elaborated from Boal, Malvazia, Sercial and Verdelho white grape varieties. The study was carried out by headspace solid-phase microextraction technique (HS-SPME), in dynamic mode, coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Corrected peak a...

  9. Advanced Knowledge of Three Important Classes of Grape Phenolics: Anthocyanins, Stilbenes and Flavonols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Bavaresco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics. Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grapes and wines and confer organoleptic characteristics on the wine. They are used for chemotaxonomic studies and to evaluate the polyphenolic ripening stage of grape. They are natural colorants, have antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activity, exert protective effects on the human cardiovascular system, and are used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Stilbenes are vine phytoalexins present in grape berries and associated with the beneficial effects of drinking wine. The principal stilbene, resveratrol, is characterized by anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective activity. Resveratrol dimers and oligomers also occur in grape, and are synthetized by the vine as active defenses against exogenous attack, or produced by extracellular enzymes released from pathogens in an attempt to eliminate undesirable toxic compounds. Flavonols are a ubiquitous class of flavonoids with photo-protection and copigmentation (together with anthocyanins functions. The lack of expression of the enzyme flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase in white grapes restricts the presence of these compounds to quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives, whereas red grapes usually also contain myricetin, laricitrin and syringetin derivatives. In the last ten years, the technological development of analytical instrumentation, particularly mass spectrometry, has led to great improvements and further knowledge of the chemistry of these compounds. In this review, the biosynthesis and biological role of these grape polyphenols are briefly introduced, together with the latest knowledge of their chemistry.

  10. Caracterização fenológica e exigência térmica de diferentes variedades de uvas viníferas em São Joaquim, Santa Catarina - Brasil Phenological characterization and thermic requirement of distinct grapevines varieties in São Joaquim, Santa Catarina - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fontanella Brighenti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas viníferas nas regiões de elevada altitude do estado de Santa Catarina é recente e há poucas informações disponíveis a respeito das características fenológicas e das exigências térmicas para as variedades utilizadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o comportamento fenológico e determinar as exigências térmicas das variedades Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc e Sangiovese. A área experimental foi instalada na Estação Experimental da EPAGRI, localizada em São Joaquim (28°17'39"S; 49°55'56"W, altitude 1.415m. Os estádios fenológicos avaliados foram início da brotação, floração, mudança de cor das bagas e maturidade nos ciclos produtivos de 2004/05, 2005/06 e 2006/07. A exigência térmica das variedades foi calculada empregando-se o somatório de graus-dia, considerando-se temperatura-base para a videira de 10°C. Na colheita, a maturação tecnológica foi determinada através das análises de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez titulável e pH. O ciclo das variedades viníferas avaliadas na região de São de Joaquim é mais longo do que o observado em outras regiões produtoras do Brasil. A duração térmica é um bom indicador de desenvolvimento das fases do ciclo da videira. Para as regiões com altitude acima de 1.300m, deve-se dar preferência para o plantio de variedades com ciclos entre 15 de setembro até 15 de abril.The grapevine production in high altitude regions of southern Brazil is recent and there is little information about the phenological stages and thermal requirements of different grape varieties. The objective of this study was to determine the phenology and thermal requirements of Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc and Sangiovese. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of São Joaquim, EPAGRI, (28°17'39" S; 49°55'56" W, altitude 1,415 meters. The

  11. Microbial biogeography of wine grapes is conditioned by cultivar, vintage, and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Thorngate, John H; Richardson, Paul M; Mills, David A

    2014-01-01

    Wine grapes present a unique biogeography model, wherein microbial biodiversity patterns across viticultural zones not only answer questions of dispersal and community maintenance, they are also an inherent component of the quality, consumer acceptance, and economic appreciation of a culturally important food product. On their journey from the vineyard to the wine bottle, grapes are transformed to wine through microbial activity, with indisputable consequences for wine quality parameters. Wine grapes harbor a wide range of microbes originating from the surrounding environment, many of which are recognized for their role in grapevine health and wine quality. However, determinants of regional wine characteristics have not been identified, but are frequently assumed to stem from viticultural or geological factors alone. This study used a high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing approach to demonstrate that regional, site-specific, and grape-variety factors shape the fungal and bacterial consortia inhabiting wine-grape surfaces. Furthermore, these microbial assemblages are correlated to specific climatic features, suggesting a link between vineyard environmental conditions and microbial inhabitation patterns. Taken together, these factors shape the unique microbial inputs to regional wine fermentations, posing the existence of nonrandom "microbial terroir" as a determining factor in regional variation among wine grapes.

  12. Evidence of vintage effects on grape wines using 1H NMR-based metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Van Den Berg, Frans; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2009-08-19

    The chemical composition of grape wines varies with grape variety, environmental factors of climate and soil, and bacterial strains, which can each affect the wine quality. Using (1)H NMR analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data sets, we investigated the effects of grape vintage on metabolic profiles of wine and the relationship between wine metabolites and meteorological data. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear differentiation between Meoru wines that were vinified with the same yeast strain and Meoru grapes harvested from the same vineyard but with a different vintage. The metabolites contributing to the differentiation were identified as 2,3-butandiol, lactic acid, alanine, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), choline, and polyphenols, by complementary PCA loading plot. Markedly higher levels of proline, lactic acid and polyphenols were observed in the 2006 vintage wines compared to those of 2007 vintage, showing excellent agreement with the meteorological data that the sun-exposed time and rainfall in 2006 were approximately two times more and four times less, respectively, than those in 2007. These results revealed the important role of climate during ripening period in the chemical compositions of the grape. This study highlights the reliability of NMR-based metabolomic data by integration with meteorological data in characterizing wine or grape.

  13. Influence of Lobesia botrana field control on black aspergilli rot and ochratoxin A contamination in grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, G; Haidukowski, M; Perrone, G; Visconti, A; Logrieco, A

    2009-04-01

    The grape berry moth Lobesia botrana is a key pest in vineyards in southern Europe. Damage caused by L. botrana larvae may encourage growth of black aspergilli, leading to ochratoxin A (OTA) accumulation in grapes. Field trials were conducted during three grape growing seasons (2005 through 2007) in Apulia, Italy, to evaluate an insecticide control strategy for L. botrana in the vineyard as an indirect method of reducing OTA contamination by reducing black aspergilli on the grapes. In the 2005 field trials, the insecticide treatment controlled attacks by L. botrana larvae and reduced OTA concentrations by up to 66% in the must samples of Negroamaro and Primitivo grape varieties. Significant differences (P botrana, low levels of OTA in both treated and untreated samples, and no significant differences between treated and nontreated samples. The results of our field study confirm previous reports that L. botrana is an important risk factor for OTA accumulation and are consistent with the hypothesis that controlling L. botrana in vineyards reduces OTA concentrations in grapes.

  14. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  15. Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-08-20

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  16. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested.

  17. GRAPE MATURITY OF RHEIN RIESLING CULTIVAR AND SYNTHESIS OF ATYPICAL AGEING AROMA PRECURSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Jakobović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on forming atypical aging off-flavor in wines (UTA was revealed a significant correlation between the UTA , the concentration of 2-aminoacetophenones (AAP and the wines produced from grapes affected by stress (lack of water or nitrogen supply, wines from grapes grown in high yielding vineyards or earlier harvested grapes. The aim of this study was to explore the different grape ripeness and synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wine of white cultivar Rhine Rieslin (Vitis vinifera L.. Treatments in the research have been the two periods of the grape harvesting dates (regular and late harvesting from two different locations (Mladice and Hrnjevac. Indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. As the process of ripening was going on the concentration of indole-3-acetic acid and tryptophan in must and wines have been reduced regardless the year of research and vineyards positions. Wines produced from late harvested grapes have a lower possibility of the appearance of atypical aroma aging effect compared to the regular harvest.

  18. In vitro embryo rescue culture of F1 progenies from crosses between different ploidy grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W; Li, G R; Luo, Y X; Ma, X H; Wang, M; Ren, R

    2015-12-29

    Crossing different ploidy grapes is an effective way to obtain new seedless cultivars. Although embryo rescue has been extensively applied in breeding seedless and triploid grapes, only a few improved cultivars have been developed. Based on preliminary studies, we set five crosses between tetraploid and diploid grape varieties to obtain new hybrid triploid germplasms. Additionally, we compared two different methods of performing in vitro embryo rescue and sowing in the development of hybrid triploid grape plants. The results showed that the germination rate of hybrid seeds was much lower (0-22.8%) than that of the self-pollinated seeds (50.9-61.2%) obtained though the same method of in vitro culture. Meanwhile, the seed germination rates of all crosses obtain through in vitro culture (0-61.2%) were higher than those obtained through sowing (0-42.0%). Identification of ploidy level confirmed that three lines obtained from the crosses of 'Ruby Seedless (2x) x Black Olympia (4x)' and 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' were triploid, and one line from the cross of 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' was haploid, and the others were diploid, tetraploid, or aneuploidy plants. Moreover, 4 haploid and 42 triploid surviving grape seedlings were planted in a vineyard after propagation. Therefore, an efficient system of breeding triploid seedless grapes using embryo rescue was established and 42 hybrid triploid germplasms were obtained for use in future studies.

  19. Quantitation of Thioprolines in Grape Wine by Isotope Dilution-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Meng, Xiangpeng; Chan, Wan

    2016-02-17

    Cysteine reacts with reactive carbonyls to form thioprolines, which have been demonstrated to possess various pharmaceutical properties. Therefore, thioproline formation is considered as a major detoxification pathway for carcinogenic reactive carbonyls. In this study, we report the initial identification of thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (1) and 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (2), two very common thioprolines, formed by reacting formaldehyde and acetaldehyde with cysteine in grape wine samples. We have developed an isotope dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method featuring high sensitivity (limit of detection of ≤1.5 ng/mL) and selectivity to quantitate compounds 1 and 2. The method after validated to be highly accurate (recovery of ≥92%) and precise [intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) of ≤4.1% and interday RSD of ≤9.7%] was applied to determine the varying compound 1 and 2 contents in grape wine samples. Results revealed the grape type and storage duration-dependent formation of thioprolines in grape wines. Overall, the results are expected to facilitate compound-dependent investigations of the health benefits of grape wine, and our findings could be adopted to predict the age of grape wine.

  20. The role of soil chemistry in wine grape quality and sustainable soil management in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, D E; Christy, A G

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to establish if there is any evidence that soil mineralogical and/or chemical composition influence the composition and quality of wine grapes. In the initial phase of the study, soils and grapes were sampled in two riesling vineyards in South Australia. Soils were analysed for a wide range of total major and trace elements; soil cation extracts and grape juices were analysed for 27 trace elements by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The results show that grape juice properties such as Baumé and titratable acidity (TA) are clearly correlated with several plant-available trace elements in the soil. Most notable of these are Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb and Si. Soil clay content also plays a (lesser) role. The cations Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb are closely similar to one another in their relationships to Baumé and TA, strongly indicating that the correlations are real. It is evident from our results that soil cation chemistry does indeed have an influence on wine grape composition. Such knowledge has the potential to be used in better tailoring grape varieties to soils, and in managing--or modifying--soils for optimum viticultural results and better wines in a more sustainable way.

  1. Phenolic composition of the Brazilian seedless table grape varieties BRS Clara and BRS Morena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-08-10

    The detailed phenolic composition (anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, and flavan-3-ols) in the skin and flesh of the new BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless table grapes has been studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The two grapes, especially BRS Morena, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly located in their skins and qualitatively not different from those found in Vitis vinifera grapes. In addition, BRS Morena (a teinturier variety) showed qualitatively different phenolic compositions in its skin and flesh, mainly affecting the anthocyanin and flavonol profiles. Consistent with high phenolic contents, high antioxidant capacity values were registered for both grape varieties, especially for BRS Morena. Proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acids were the major phenolic compounds found in BRS Clara and were also important in BRS Morena, although anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds in the latter case. These results suggest that the entire grapes, including the skin, may potentially possess properties that are beneficial to human health. In this context, the BRS Morena grape can be considered as a high resveratrol producer.

  2. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  3. Recovery of ethanol from the fermented of grape pomace; Recuperacao de etanol a partir de bagaco fermentado de uva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabe, Daniela [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Agronomia], e-mail: barnabe@fca.unesp.br; Venturini Filho, Waldemar Gastoni [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mail: venturini@fca.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    Grape pomace, lees and tartrate are by-products obtained during the wine production. The pomace is usually used as a source of nutrients in the vineyard; however it contains alcohol in the interstice of skins due to alcoholic fermentation. By recovering alcohol from the pomace, a new product can be obtained before pomace is use in the field. The aim of this study was to recover the residual alcohol from grape pomace to produce an alcoholic distillate with energetic, economical and environmental advantages. Pomace was distilled in a simple copper still, and after re distilled for ethanol recovery. The recovered ethanol was then used in grape production. Ethanol yield was higher for Niagara grape distilled (7.0 L/100 kg) than for Bordo grape (6.2 L/100 kg); these results are due to the higher sugar content in Niagara Rosada grape. (author)

  4. Non-Botrytis grape-rotting fungi responsible for earthy and moldy off-flavors and mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Sandrine; Diguta, Camelia Filofteia; Radoï-Matei, Florentina; Alexandre, Hervé; Guilloux-Bénatier, Michèle

    2014-04-01

    The grape microflora is complex and includes filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects on wine production. Most studies have focused on the wine microbiota, but a few studies have reported the ecology of grape microorganisms. Some of these organisms - such as non-Botrytis bunch rotting fungi, which greatly influence the safety or sensory quality of wine, due to the production of mycotoxins and off-flavors, respectively - are considered to be spoilage agents. We review here the diversity of filamentous fungi on grapes and the factors influencing their development, such as grape ripening stage, environmental factors (climate, rain and cultivation practices), grape variety and grape health status. We also discuss the pathways by which mycotoxins and off-flavors are produced, the control of the population, the metabolites responsible for wine spoilage and the methods for detecting and characterizing the microorganisms involved.

  5. Dicty_cDB: CFF367 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available esculentum cDNA clone cLED28D14, mRNA sequence. 48 0.14 1 CB978867 |CB978867.1 CAB40006_IVa_Ra_B06 Cabernet ...CB978798.1 CAB40006_IVa_Fa_B06 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry - CAB4 Vitis vinifera cDN...A clone CAB40006_IVa_Fa_B06 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.14 1 CB342417 |CB342417.1 CA32EN0003_IIaF_B08 Cabernet S...CB342483.1 CA32EN0003_IIaR_B08 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA32EN0003_IIaR_B0

  6. Transcriptome and metabolite profiling reveals that prolonged drought modulates the phenylpropanoid and terpenoid pathway in white grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Savoi, Stefania; Wong, Darren C. J.; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Miculan, Mara; Bucchetti, Barbara; Peterlunger, Enrico; Fait, Aaron; Mattivi, Fulvio; Castellarin, Simone D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolism contributes to the adaptation of a plant to its environment. In wine grapes, fruit secondary metabolism largely determines wine quality. Climate change is predicted to exacerbate drought events in several viticultural areas, potentially affecting the wine quality. In red grapes, water deficit modulates flavonoid accumulation, leading to major quantitative and compositional changes in the profile of the anthocyanin pigments; in white grapes, the effect of water ...

  7. Dicty_cDB: SFC434 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA48LN10IF-E8 5', mRNA sequence. 64 6e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Lea...13481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone ...itis vinifera var. Chardonnay Vitis vinifera cDNA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CA813481 |CA8

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHA169 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 58G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 4e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis... vinifera cDNA clone CA48LN10IF-E8 5', mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Caberne...07_IVF_G07 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Bud - CABUD Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAbud0007_I

  9. Dicty_cDB: CFJ371 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available itis vinifera cDNA clone VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 6e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Caberne.... 64 7e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA ..., mRNA sequence. 66 7e-07 1 CF517073 |CF517073.1 CAP0004_IIIF_E05 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clo

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHD613 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vi...tis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 3.4 1 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Caberne...4 3.4 1 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera

  11. Dicty_cDB: CFI817 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VVB158G03 5, mRNA sequence. 64 1e-06 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN V...itis vinifera cDNA clone CA48LN10IF-E8 5', mRNA sequence. 64 1e-06 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Caberne...ence. 64 4e-06 1 CF517073 |CF517073.1 CAP0004_IIIF_E05 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Petio

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHA757 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB7...0001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 5.0 1 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Caberne... 5.0 1 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera c

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHE822 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ATPase. 1378 0.0 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Viti...s vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.007 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Caberne...IIcF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 0.009 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-V

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHI751 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 86 0.0 2 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera ...cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.021 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Caberne..., mRNA sequence. 44 0.025 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - C

  15. Dicty_cDB: CFK386 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA48LN10IF-E8 5'..., mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis...one cLEX14P1 5', mRNA sequence. 66 6e-07 1 CF514038 |CF514038.1 CAbud0007_IVF_G07 Vitis vinifera cv. caberne

  16. Dicty_cDB: SSM307 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phyllus cDNA clone QHM21P12, mRNA sequence. 52 0.008 1 CB339471 |CB339471.1 CA23EI03IIRb_E06 Caberne...0 0.033 1 CA814328 |CA814328.1 CA48LN09IIIR-G12 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone C...A48LN09IIIR-G12 3', mRNA sequence. 50 0.033 1 CA813300 |CA813300.1 CA48LN09IIF-D4 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf -

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHR710 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNA 5, mRNA sequence. 62 2e-05 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraiso...n - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.015 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Caberne...one CAB70001_IIcF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 0.018 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSJ366 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 007 1 CB970932 |CB970932.1 CAB10004_IVa_Fa_D03 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDN...A clone CAB10004_IVa_Fa_D03 5', mRNA sequence. 52 0.007 1 CB971834 |CB971834.1 CAB10006_IIIa_Fa_E02 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-blo...om - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB10006_IIIa_Fa_E02

  19. Impact of the Botrytis cinerea strain and metabolism on (-)-geosmin production by Penicillium expansum in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum.

  20. THE GRAPES AND WINE MARKET IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: TRENDS AND INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion CERTAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine products were and are symbolizing both the agriculture and economy of Moldova. Until the 90s of last century the main consumer of our drinks was the Russian Federative Republic. On its markets we sold more than four fifths of wines from grapes and more than 90 percent of sparkling wine. After the approval of the Declaration of Independence (August 27, 1991, our country has made considerable efforts to reform the national economy, to transition from centrally managed economy to a market economy that - and allows the manufacturer to direct activities according to demand and primarily domestic market. The request of grapes and grape products on the domestic market rules according to our traditions and previous practice and must be covered entirely by the local production. The national market for vine products is characterized by excessive fluctuations generated by the dynamics of production of grapes and processed products thereof, price volatility, increased competition, etc. Grapes and grape products obtained in Moldova exceed the domestic market demand and our country is doomed to commercial relations with other countries and/or groups of countries. The emergence of new socio-economic system open to the world triggered the joint efforts of the international community's own produced undoubtedly important changes not only in shape, but also background in trade flows and wine grapes. The European Union has been and remains an important actor of major interest to us. The signing and ratification in 2014 of the Association Agreement between Moldova and the European Union will definitely contribute to increase the sales in the Common Market of the European Union, but our country is required to know the trade policies of the EU and should adjust its national trade policy to the EU requirements. In the paper the authors reflect on the grapes and grape products market, studying the import and export of such products, seek practical

  1. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Garcia-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo. The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately.

  2. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  3. Dicty_cDB: VFH459 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t US 6562958. 52 6e-06 2 CB971300 |CB971300.1 CAB10005_IIIa_Fa_H08 Cabernet Sauvi...975981 |CB975981.1 CAB40001_IIa_Fa_F09 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry - CAB4 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB40001_II...a_Fa_F09 5', mRNA sequence. 48 1e-05 4 CF511327 |CF511327.1 CAbud0002_IIF_B12 Vitis vinifera cv. caberne

  4. Dicty_cDB: CFG565 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinifera cDNA... clone CA48LN10IF-E8 5', mRNA sequence. 64 6e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet Sauvig

  5. Dicty_cDB: CFK133 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CA813481 |CA813481.1 CA48LN10IF-E8 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA48LN Vitis vinife...ra cDNA clone CA48LN10IF-E8 5', mRNA sequence. 64 5e-07 2 CB341828 |CB341828.2 CA32EN0002_IIIbF_E01 Cabernet

  6. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  7. Influence of physical and chemical characteristics of wine grapes on the incidence of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi in grapes and ochratoxin A in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Luísa; Passamani, Fabiana Reinis Franca; Thomas, Ariela Betsy; Nassur, Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende; Silva, Lais Mesquita; Paschoal, Fabiano Narciso; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Prado, Guilherme; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2017-01-16

    The incidence of filamentous fungi and toxin levels in grapes and wines varies depending on the variety of grapes, the wine region, agricultural practices, weather conditions, the harvest and the winemaking process. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi isolated from wine grapes of the semi-arid tropical region of Brazil, evaluate the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in the experimental wine and verify if there is a correlation between occurrence of these fungi and the physicochemical characteristics of the wine grapes grown in the region. For the isolation of fungi we used the direct plating technique. The presence of OTA in the experimental wine was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. The species found were Aspergillus niger, A. carbonarius, A. aculeatus, A. niger Aggregate, A. flavus, A. sojae, Penicillium sclerotiorum, P. citrinum, P. glabrum, P. decumbens, P. solitum and P. implicatum. All isolates of A. carbonarius were OTA producers and all P. citrinum were citrinin producers. The highest concentration of OTA was found in red wine (0.29μg/L). All species identified in this study, except A. flavus, showed a positive correlation with at least one physicochemical parameter assessed, highlighting the pectin content, total sugar, total acidity and phenolic compounds.

  8. John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath: Narrating the Wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath are incredibly modern. The setting can probably be universal, as are many of the underlying themes and narratives about human greed but also human solidarity. Some local cultural features like the federal camps as opposed to the state ‘law of the jungle’ also give us interesting clues on the creation of a national solidarity and welfare network, part of the national identity that moves internal migrants to California. Environmental disasters are also present in the background, as are some of the criticism of intensive agriculture in an ever expanding market treating agricultural produce as commodities. The role of the criminal justice system and social control is also modern, crimmigration, labour movements criminalisations and abuse of police force. All these elements make Grapes of Wrath a truly universal narrative on justice and hope Las uvas de la ira de Steinbeck es una obra increíblemente moderna. Probablemente, el argumento puede ser universal, como muchos de los temas que subyacen y las narraciones sobre la avaricia humana, pero también la solidaridad humana. Algunos rasgos culturales locales, como los campos federales opuestos a la “ley de la jungla” del estado también nos dan unas claves interesantes sobre la creación de una red de solidaridad y bienestar nacional, parte de la identidad nacional que provoca la migración interna a California. Los desastres medioambientales también están presentes de fondo, al igual que una crítica a la agricultura intensiva en un mercado en expansión que trata la producción agrícola como materias primas. El papel del sistema criminal de justicia y el control social también es moderno, crimigración, la criminalización de los movimientos obreros y el abuso de la fuerza policial. Todos estos elementos hacen de Las uvas de la ira una narrativa sobre la justicia y esperanza de carácter universal.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2532913

  9. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  10. New Approach to Enrich Pasta with Polyphenols from Grape Marc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marinelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food industry produces significant amount of waste that represents a problem for the sector. However, by-products are also promising sources of compounds which may be reused for their nutritional properties. The aim of this work is to exploit wine-making by-products, obtaining an extract by ultrasound-assisted extraction only using water as solvent. The characteristics of spaghetti enriched with grape marc were assessed and compared to control samples. In particular, total phenolic and flavonoids contents, the antioxidant activity, the cooking quality, and the sensory acceptability were evaluated at various steps of pasta production. The enriched spaghetti showed higher total phenolic and flavonoids contents and higher antioxidant activity than the control pasta. In addition, low cooking losses were found. In terms of sensory properties fortified pasta is acceptable as the traditional product, thus demonstrating that it is possible to exploit food waste to better satisfy consumer demand for healthy food products in a more sustainable perspective.

  11. HPLC retention thermodynamics of grape and wine tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jennifer A; Kennedy, James A

    2013-05-08

    The effect of grape and wine tannin structure on retention thermodynamics under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography conditions on a polystyrene divinylbenzene column was investigated. On the basis of retention response to temperature, an alternative retention factor was developed to approximate the combined temperature response of the complex, unresolvable tannin mixture. This alternative retention factor was based upon relative tannin peak areas separated by an abrupt change in solvent gradient. Using this alternative retention factor, retention thermodynamics were calculated. Van't Hoff relationships of the natural log of the alternative retention factor against temperature followed Kirchoff's relationship. An inverse quadratic equation was fit to the data, and from this the thermodynamic parameters for tannin retention were calculated. All tannin fractions exhibited exothermic, spontaneous interaction, with enthalpy-entropy compensation observed. Normalizing for tannin size, distinct tannin compositional effects on thermodynamic parameters were observed. The results of this study indicate that HPLC can be valuable for measuring the thermodynamics of tannin interaction with a hydrophobic surface and provides a potentially valuable alternative to calorimetry. Furthermore, the information gathered may provide insight into understanding red wine astringency quality.

  12. Modulation of monocrotaline-induced cor pulmonale by grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Ana R L; Mosele, Francisca; Caron-Lienert, Rafaela; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Partata, Wânia; Llesuy, Susana; Araujo, Alex Sander; Singal, Pawan; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to test whether the ingestion grape juice (GJ) could modulate monocrotaline (MCT)-induced Cor pulmonale resulting from antioxidant properties. Three-week-old male Wistar rats received GJ (10 mL/kg/day) by gavage for 6 weeks. A single injection of MCT (60 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally) was administered at the end of the third week. Animals were divided in four groups: control, MCT, GJ, and GJ + MCT. MCT promoted a significant increase in right ventricle (36%) and lung (70%) weight to body weight ratio. There was an increase in the right systolic (38%) as well as in the end diastolic (70%) ventricular pressures. MCT caused a significant decrease in lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase (20%) but increase in lipid peroxidation (13%) and catalase (43%). MCT-induced decrease in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and increase in the right ventricular end diastolic pressure were prevented by GJ, whereas right systolic ventricular pressure and lung weight to body weight ratio were corrected only partially. MCT-induced increase in heart and right ventricle to body weight ratios was not changed by GJ. GJ blunted MCT-induced increase in lipid peroxidation but had no effect on the changes in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. GJ appears to offer some protection against MCT-induced Cor pulmonale and right ventricle function changes.

  13. A method for the isolation of protoplasts from grape berry mesocarp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Natacha; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2010-06-01

    As single cell systems, protoplasts have been used in physiological, biochemical and molecular studies aiming towards the investigation, improvement or modification of plants. In grapevine, protoplasts have been isolated from several source tissues but not from grape berry, a major challenge given the uniqueness of grape fruit for human diet and wine production. Also, as the ripe grape berry has long been considered a 'small bag of sugary water' without cell compartmentation and/or membrane integrity, the isolation of intact cells from the mesocarp is of special scientific significance. Protoplasting from grape berry mesocarp cells was achieved with cellulase and pectolyase digestion, followed by differential and gradient centrifugations; however, given the special characteristics of berry tissue, cell wall digestion and protoplast purification were performed in a special environment to maintain their integrity and viability. Light and epifluorescence microscopy revealed the spatial organization of the cytoplasm, where an intricate acidic vacuolar apparatus predominates supporting the idea that berry softening during ripening is not strictly associated with loss in compartmentation and/or membrane integrity. Following the worldwide economical and social importance of wine in modern days, grape berry protoplasts are a major advance for both basic research of fruit ripening and biotechnological applications.

  14. Effects of Processing Treatments on the Bioactive Compounds of Campbell Grape Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that phenolic compounds and flavonoids have a lot of health benefits. Most current heat treatments especially those that are using too high temperature and longer period of processing produce juice with unacceptable analytical and sensory properties. Thus, microwave heating, ultrasonication and blanching before grape juice processing were employed in this study. Each juice sample was subjected to total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity analysis. Analysis of Variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests were performed using the SAS program. The concentration of total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity of the grape juices treated with microwave heating and ultrasonication increased significantly with increasing treatment time notably at 5 min treatment. It can be noted that all the bioactive contents and % radical scavenging activity were higher in noncold stabilized grape juice than in cold stabilized juices. However, blanching whole grapes for longer period of time before processing resulted in the decrease of all bioactive compounds and % radical scavenging activity both in non-cold stabilized and cold stabilized juice especially at 5 min blanching period. It was also showed that 1 min blanching is more effective in increasing the bioactive compounds of the grape juice as compared to other treatment time.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binit Shrestha; ML Srithavaj Theerathavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon

    2012-01-01

    To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora.Methods:The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results: Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S.aureus. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  16. Identification of ellagic acid conjugates and other polyphenolics in muscadine grapes by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Hee; Johnson, Jodie V; Talcott, Stephen T

    2005-07-27

    Ellagic acid, ellagic acid glycosides, and ellagitannins found in various fruits and nuts, including muscadine grape, are reported to have potential health-promoting benefits and antioxidant properties. This study isolated and identified several ellagic acid derivatives present in muscadine grapes and determined their relative antioxidant properties (AOX). Compounds were extracted from grape skins and pulp using methanol, and the solvent was evaporated. Isolates were dissolved in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5) and absorbed onto C18 cartridges. Nonretained polyphenolics were collected separately and again partitioned from Sephadex LH-20, whereas retained polyphenolics were first eluted with ethyl acetate followed by methanol. Ellagic acid derivatives were identified on the basis of UV and mass spectra, and the presence of ellagitannins was confirmed by a significant increase in free ellagic acid with HPLC followed by acid hydrolysis. Muscadine grapes contained phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and numerous ellagic acid derivatives. AOX varied in the order ethyl acetate > methanol > C18 nonretained fractions; each correlated to both total phenolics (r = 0.90) and total ellagic acid (r = 0.99) contents. Results of this study revealed previously unidentified ellagic acid derivatives in muscadine grapes.

  17. New Procedure to Obtain Polyphenol-Enriched Grapes Based on the Use of Chemical Elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gema; Del Castillo, Maria Luisa Ruiz

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the postharvest treatment of methyl jasmonate enantiomers in conjunction with ethanol on bioformation of resveratrol and quercetin glycosides in grapes was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of treated grape extracts as compared with untreated extracts was also assayed. Exogenous (-)-methyl jasmonate in combination with ethanol induced a significant increase in the levels of resveratrol (from 27 to 39 μg g(-1)), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (from 59 to 136 μg g(-1)), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (from 398 to 807 μg g(-1)) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (from 23 to 43 μg g(-1)). (+)-Methyl jasmonate with ethanol also resulted in increase of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside. However, no (+)-methyl jasmonate effect was observed for resveratrol and quercetin-3-O-galactoside. Both (-)- and (+)-methyl jasmonate treatments provided with extracts with higher antioxidant activity. From the results found in the present work postharvest treatment with (-)-methyl jasmonate in conjunction with ethanol is proposed as a mean to obtain polyphenol-enriched grape extracts with improved antioxidant properties. The procedure here developed is proposed as a mean to obtain functional grapes. Extracts obtained from grapes treated with (-)-methyl jasmonate with ethanol can be particularly useful for industry due to their high antioxidant capacity.

  18. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  19. SUBSTRATES UTILIZATION TO ASSESS ROOTEDNESS CAPACITY AND VIABILITY BUDS AT SOME GRAPE VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is a fruit crop of enormous economic importance with over eight million hectares planted in vineyards worldwide. Table grapes and wines represent a considerable share of the economy in many grape and wine-producing countries. During the dormant, due to low temperatures and how to prepare grape for entrance in winter time, wood annual increases and buds may be adversely affected. The way how the vines passed by dormant period can affect the buds and wood viability and rooting ability of vine cuttings. In this study were tested on different culture substrates vine cuttings belonging to a noble variety and a hybrid vines: Merlot and Isabella. Noble grapes are a term used to describe the international variety of grapes that are most recognizable for the top quality wine they produce. In this paper was determinate total dry matter of vine cuttings, humidity of biological material, vine cuttings rooting capacity and viability status buds cuttings placed on three nutritional substrates.

  20. A New Solid Phase Extraction for the Determination of Anthocyanins in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferreiro-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for the concentration and cleaning of red grape extracts prior to the determination of anthocyanins by UPLC-DAD has been developed. This method is of special interest in the determination of phenolic maturity as it allows the analysis of the anthocyanins present in grapes. Several different SPE cartridges were assessed, including both C-18- and vinylbenzene-based cartridges. C-18-based cartridges presented a very low retention for the glucosylated anthocyanidins while vinylbenzene-based cartridges showed excellent retention for these compounds. The optimized method involves the initial conditioning of the cartridge using 10 mL of methanol and 10 mL of water, followed by loading of up to 100 mL of red grape extract. Ten mL of water was used in the washing step and anthocyanins were subsequently eluted using 1.5 mL of acidified methanol at pH 2. This method simplifies the determination of individual anthocyanins as, on the one hand, it cleans the sample of interference and, on the other hand, it increases the concentration to up to 25:1.5. The developed method has been validated with a range of different grapes and it has also been tested as a means of determining the different anthocyanins in grapes with different levels of maturity.

  1. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binit; Shrestha; M.L.Srithavaj; Theerathavaj; Sroisiri; Thaweboon; Boonyanit; Thaweboon

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora.Methods:The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus),Escherichia coli(E.coli),Candida albicans(C.albicans)and clinical strains of S.aureus,Klebsiella pneumonia(K.pneumonia)and Candida parapsilosis(C.parapsilosis)by disk diffusion test.Minimum inhibitory concentrations(MIC)and minimum cidal concentrations(MCC)were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method.The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol,and was tested for antimicrobial effects.Results:Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S.aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of1.25 mg/mL respectively.However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E.coli,K.pneumonia,C.parapsilosis and C.albicans.The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S.aureus.Conclusions:The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skinabutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  3. SAPPORO: A way to turn your graphics cards into a GRAPE-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaburov, Evghenii; Harfst, Stefan; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2009-10-01

    We present Sapporo, a library for performing high precision gravitational N-body simulations on NVIDIA graphical processing units (GPUs). Our library mimics the GRAPE-6 library, and N-body codes currently running on GRAPE-6 can switch to Sapporo by a simple relinking of the library. The precision of our library is comparable to that of GRAPE-6, even though internally the GPU hardware is limited to single precision arithmetics. This limitation is effectively overcome by emulating double precision for calculating the distance between particles. The performance loss of this operation is small (≲20%) compared to the advantage of being able to run at high precision. We tested the library using several GRAPE-6-enabled N-body codes, in particular with Starlab and phiGRAPE. We measured peak performance of 800 Gflop/s for running with 106 particles on a PC with four commercial G92 architecture GPUs (two GeForce 9800GX2). As a production test, we simulated a 32 k Plummer model with equal-mass stars well beyond core collapse. The simulation took 41 days, during which the mean performance was 113 Gflop/s. The GPU did not show any problems from running in a production environment for such an extended period of time.

  4. SAPPORO: A way to turn your graphics cards into a GRAPE-6

    CERN Document Server

    Gaburov, Evghenii; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2009-01-01

    We present Sapporo, a library for performing high-precision gravitational N-body simulations on NVIDIA Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). Our library mimics the GRAPE-6 library, and N-body codes currently running on GRAPE-6 can switch to Sapporo by a simple relinking of the library. The precision of our library is comparable to that of GRAPE-6, even though internally the GPU hardware is limited to single precision arithmetics. This limitation is effectively overcome by emulating double precision for calculating the distance between particles. The performance loss of this operation is small (< 20%) compared to the advantage of being able to run at high precision. We tested the library using several GRAPE-6-enabled N-body codes, in particular with Starlab and phiGRAPE. We measured peak performance of 800 Gflop/s for running with 10^6 particles on a PC with four commercial G92 architecture GPUs (two GeForce 9800GX2). As a production test, we simulated a 32k Plummer model with equal mass stars well beyond core...

  5. Effect of postharvest ultraviolet irradiation on resveratrol and other phenolics of cv. Napoleon table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos, E; García-Viguera, C; de Pascual-Teresa, S; Tomás-Barberán, F A

    2000-10-01

    In the skin of cv. Napoleon table grapes, the anthocyanins malvidin 3-glucoside (and its acetyl and p-coumaroyl derivatives), cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-glucoside were identified by HPLC-DAD-MS. In addition, quercetin 3-glucoside and 3-glucuronide, caffeoyltartaric, piceid, and resveratrol were also detected. The content of most phenolics remained quite constant during postharvest refrigerated storage (10 days at 0 degrees C) while the resveratrol derivatives increased 2-fold. Postharvest treatments of grapes with UVC and UVB light induced a large increase in resveratrol derivatives (3- and 2-fold, respectively). This means that a serving of mature Napoleon grapes (200 g) provides approximately 1 mg of resveratrol, which is in the range of the amount supplied by a glass of red wine. This can be increased to 2 or 3 mg of resveratrol per serving in grapes that have been irradiated with UVB or UVC, respectively. These results show that refrigerated storage and UV irradiation of table grapes can be beneficial in terms of increasing the content of potentially health-promoting phenolics.

  6. Use of fresh versus frozen or blast-frozen grapes for small-scale fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Frank Schmid, Vladimir Jiranek School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide; and Wine Innovation Cluster, The Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, South Australia, Australia Background: This paper firstly examines the validity of using laboratory-scale fermentations as a means of correlating winemaking outcomes with larger industrial scale fermentations. Secondly, conventional and blast-freezing of whole bunches were investigated for their relative suitability as methods of preservation as determined by the nature of the resulting wines. Methods: Red must fermentations were compared at the laboratory 80 kg scale, and the more industrially representative 500 kg pilot scale. Fermentation profiles and duration for both scales were found to be very similar. Whole bunches were either slow/conventionally frozen (−20°C, or quickly/blast-frozen (−25°C. Results: Wines made from frozen grapes compared well with the wine made from the fresh must. Color and chemical analyses of the wines revealed few differences. A duo-trio sensory evaluation showed that wine from blast-frozen grapes was more similar to the fresh wines than wines from conventional frozen grapes. Conclusion: The findings of this research suggest that whole-bunch blast-freezing of grapes is preferable to conventional freezing. Keywords: wine color, research winemaking, frozen grapes

  7. Beneficial effects of non-alcoholic grape-derived products on human health: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in a vineyard soil amended with grape marc vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Vineyard soils in many areas suffer from low organic matter contents, which can be the cause of negative effects such as increasing the risk of erosion, so the use of organic amendments must be considered a good agricultural practice. Even more, if grape marc is recycled as a soil amendment in the vineyards, benefits from a good waste management strategy are also obtained. In the present study, a grape marc from the wine region of Valdeorras (north-west Spain) was used for the production of vermicompost, and this added to a vineyard soil of the same area in a laboratory study. Mixtures of soil and grape marc vermicompost (2 and 4%, dry weight) were incubated for ten weeks at 25°C and the mineralization of C and N studied. The respiration data were fitted to a first-order kinetic model. The rates of grape marc vermicompost which should be added to the vineyard soil in order to maintain the initial levels of organic matter were estimated from the laboratory data, and found to be 1.7 t ha(-1) year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if the present mean temperature is considered) and 2.1 t ha(-1) year(-1) of bulk vermicompost (if a 2°C increment in temperature is considered), amounts which could be obtained recycling the grape marc produced in the exploitation.

  9. Grape consumption's effects on fitness, muscle injury, mood, and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick J; Caravalho, Amanda L; Freese, Eric C; Cureton, Kirk J

    2013-02-01

    Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO(2max), work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO(2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise.

  10. Effects of rain protection cultivation on berry and wine quality of Vitis vinifera L cv.Cabernet Gernischt%避雨栽培对蛇龙珠果实及葡萄酒质量影响研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁鹏飞; 贺艳楠; 张振文

    2011-01-01

    研究避雨栽培对酿酒葡萄果实采收期、果实品质和葡萄酒质量的影响,为酿酒葡萄避雨栽培技术的实施提供理论依据.以蛇龙珠(Vitis vinifera L cv.Cabernet Gernischt)为材料,采用简单避雨方式和露地栽培(对照),在果实转色期后监测果实糖酸变化,并测定成熟果实还原糖、总酸、花色素、总酚和单宁等指标;采用小容器酿造工艺酿制蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒,测定葡萄酒的颜色、花色素、总酚和单宁等指标.结果表明:(1)避雨栽培推迟了蛇龙珠果实的成熟期;(2)避雨栽培对蛇龙珠果实花色素、葡萄果皮中单宁含量影响极显著,对其他指标没有显著影响;(3)避雨栽培对蛇龙珠干红葡萄酒花色素含量及颜色影响极显著,对总酚和单宁含量无显著影响.%The effects of rain protection cultivation on the harvest time, berry and wine quality of Vitis vinifera L cv. Cabernet Gernischt were studied, which could provide a theoretical basis for the practice of rain protection cultivation in vineyard. The rain protection cultivation of Cabernet Gernischt grapevine was evaluated with open field cultivation as control. The contents of sugar and total acids in berry during ripening were monitored. The contents of reducing sugars, total acids, anthocyanins, total phenolics and tannins in ripened berry were measured. The Cabernet Gernischt dry red wine was brewed by traditional technology in a small container. The chromatic characteristics and the contents of anthocyanins, total phenolics and tannins of the wine were determined. The results showed that: ( 1 ) the mature period of Cabernet Gemischt was postponed by rain protection cultivation; (2) only the contents of anthocyanias and tannins in skin were significantly affected by rain shelter cultivation; (3) only anthocyanin contents and chromatic characteristics of the wine were significantly affected by rain protection cultivation.

  11. Tracing phenolic biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera via in situ C-13 labeling and liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassy, Alexander W.; Adams, Douglas O. [Department of Viticulture and Enology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Laurie, V. Felipe [School of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Talca, Talca (Chile); Waterhouse, Andrew L., E-mail: alwaterhouse@ucdavis.edu [Department of Viticulture and Enology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-10-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6}-alanine was incorporated into grape berries, intact on the vine, at two stages of maturity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Labeled anthocyanins were synthesized by the berry and quantified by LC-UV/Vis-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extremely tight regulation of phenylpropanoid pathways was observed. - Abstract: Phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera contribute important flavor, functionality, and health qualities to both table and wine grapes. The plant phenolic metabolic pathway has been well characterized, however many important questions remain regarding the influence of environmental conditions on pathway regulation. As a diagnostic for this pathway's regulation, we present a technique to incorporate a stable-isotopic tracer, L-phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6}-alanine (Phe{sup 13}), into grape berries in situ and the accompanying high throughput analytical method based on LC-DAD-MS/MS to quantify and track the label into phenylalanine metabolites. Clusters of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, either near the onset of ripening or 4 weeks later, were exposed to Phe{sup 13} in the vineyard. Phe{sup 13} was present in berries 9 days afterwards as well as labeled flavonols and anthocyanins, all of which possessed a molecular ion shift of 6 amu. However, nearly all the label was found in anthocyanins, indicating tight regulation of phenolic biosynthesis at this stage of maturity. This method provides a framework for examining the regulation of phenolic metabolism at different stages of maturity or under different environmental conditions. Additionally, this technique could serve as a tool to further probe the metabolism/catabolism of grape phenolics.

  12. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  13. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I

    2015-04-30

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  14. Free the tannins: the role of grape pathogenesis-related proteins in limiting condensed tannin extraction during winemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape-derived condensed tannins (CT) are important to the mouthfeel of red wines, but CT concentrations in red wines produced from wild Vitis species or their hybrids are often lower than corresponding wines produced from European wine grapes (V. vinifera), potentially decreasing their utility. Thes...

  15. 75 FR 47490 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In California; Use of Estimated Trade Demand to Compute Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... to sell their raisin-variety fresh grapes to alternate market outlets: fresh, wine, or juice... wine and juice markets, which compete for grapes with the raisin industry. In addition, the European... producers and handlers under the above scenario, the long-term benefits of this action are expected...

  16. Enhanced NMR-based profiling of polyphenols in commercially available grape juices using solid-phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, A.K.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Tucker, G.; Daykin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Grapes and related products, such as juices, and in particular, their polyphenols, have previously been associated with many health benefits, such as protection against cardiovascular disease. Within grapes, a large range of structurally diverse polyphenols can be present, and their characterisation