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Sample records for cabbage

  1. Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of our data with historical documents confirmed that traditional cabbage landraces cultivated in North of China were first introduced from Russia. Key words: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genetic diversity, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), landraces, population structure.

  2. Glucosinolates in Self-crossed Progenies of Monosomic Cabbage Alien Addition Lines in Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Aixia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species have been reported to possess cancer preventive activity due to glucosinolates (GLS and their derived properties. Many studies on GLS have focused on Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. However, information on GLS in progeny between Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata remains limited. In this study, eight GLS were detected in the self-crossed progenies of monosomic cabbage alien addition lines in Chinese cabbage (Chinese cabbagecabbage MAALs and parental Chinese cabbage, and nine GLS were detected in the parental cabbage. The variation of GLS content ranges was greater in the progeny than in the parental Chinese cabbage. The nine GLS identified were subjected to PCA to evaluate the differences among progeny and parents. Eight progeny samples had a comprehensive principal component score closer to or greater than that of cabbage, and four of them exhibited glucoraphanin (GRA and total GLS contents greater than that of Chinese cabbage with the relative content of total indolic GLS was greater than 50%. These results offered new opportunity to improve GLS-containing of Chinese cabbage using genes from cabbage.

  3. Tronchuda cabbage flavonoids uptake by Pieris brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F.; Sousa, C.; Valentão, P.; PEREIRA, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    The flavonoid pattern of larvae of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.; Lepidoptera: Pieridae) reared on the leaves of tronchuda cabbage was analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI. Twenty flavonoids were identified or characterised, namely 16 kaempferol and four quercetin derivatives. Kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside, a minor component of tronchuda cabbage, was found to be the main component in P. brassicae (15.8%). Apart from this, only two other flavonoids present in significant amounts...

  4. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-01-01

    .... To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible...

  5. Plant traits affecting thrips resistance in cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    The development of thrips populations and thrips damage in 15 cabbage varieties was monitored in two years of field experiments in the Netherlands.. A number of morphological and physiological plant traits were also measured. The most important factors leading to a low level of thrips damage were late development of a compact head, a low Brix value and a high amount of leaf wax. Two open-pollinated cabbage varieties with low and high susceptibility to thrips damage were crossed in both recip...

  6. Determination of Dispersion of Zucchini and Cabbage Powders

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    M.I. Pogozhyh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle size of cabbage and zucchini powders was determined by microscopy. It is shown that under the identical conditions of drying, grinding and other stages of the process, the cabbage powder has a higher content of fine fraction. Promising application of cabbage and zucchini powders in restaurant industry is indicated. Case diagram of the received production use is developed.

  7. Description of a new summer cabbage cultivar

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    Červenski Janko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage breeding at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops is aimed at the development of cultivars and hybrids whose properties meet the demands of the food processing industry and green market, intensive food production and human population, and which are adapted to the local agroclimatic conditions. This paper presents the main characteristics of a cabbage cultivar released by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia in 2007. The cabbage cultivar Orion is primarily intended for fresh consumption in summer and pickling. The head is slightly flattened to oval-shaped, reddish white at cross section, with tender inner leaves, good taste and quality. The length of the growing season is 85-95 days (from transplanting to technological maturity. .

  8. Evaluation of pesticide residue dynamics in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourek, František; Stará, Jitka; Holý, Kamil; Horská, Tereza; Kocourek, Vladimír; Kováčová, Jana; Kohoutková, Jana; Suchanová, Marie; Hajšlová, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Pesticide residues from the time of application until harvest were analysed for 20, 17 and 18 active insecticidal and fungicidal substances in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower, respectively. In total, 40 mathematical models of residue degradation were developed using a first-order kinetic equation, and from these models it was possible to forecast the action pre-harvest interval for a given action threshold for low-residue production in Brassica vegetables as a percentage of the maximum residue level. Additionally, it was possible to establish an action pre-harvest interval based on an action threshold of 0.01 mg kg‒1 for the production of Brassica vegetables for baby food. Among the evaluated commodities, the speed of residue degradation was highest in head cabbage, medium in Chinese cabbage and lowest in cauliflower. The half-lives of pesticide in various vegetables were also determined: they ranged from 1.55 to 5.25 days in Chinese cabbage, from 0.47 to 6.54 days in head cabbage and from 1.88 to 7.22 days in cauliflower.

  9. Gastrodiscoides hominis Infestation on Vegetables (Cabbages) Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an experiment to determine the human parasites present in fruits and vegetables sold in markets within Ekpoma, in Esan west Local Government Area of Edo state, an ova of Gastrodiscoides hominis was observed. The study involved a total of two hundred and fifty (250) samples of seven different vegetables -cabbage, ...

  10. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, K.; Barrett, D.M.; Bosch Suades, C.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was

  11. Growth and thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage and cabbage juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E; Hao, D Y; Conner, D E

    1986-10-01

    Studies were done to determine the interacting effects of pH, NaCl, temperature, and time on growth, survival, and death of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Viable population of the organism steadily declined in heat-sterilized cabbage stored at 5 degrees C for 42 days. In contrast, the organism grew on raw cabbage during the first 25 days of a 64-day storage period at 5 degrees C. Growth was observed in heat-sterilized unclarified cabbage juice containing less than or equal to 5% NaCl and tryptic phosphate broth containing less than or equal to 10% NaCl. Rates of thermal inactivation increased as pH of clarified cabbage juice heating medium was decreased from 5.6 to 4.0. At 58 degrees C (pH 5.6), 4 X 10(6) cells/mL were reduced to undetectable levels within 10 min. Thermal inactivation rates in clarified cabbage juice (pH 5.6) were not significantly influenced by the presence of up to 2% NaCl; however, heat-stressed cells had increased sensitivity to NaCl in tryptic soy agar recovery medium. Cold enrichment of heat-stressed cells at 5 degrees C for 21 days enhanced resuscitation. Results indicate that L. monocytogenes can proliferate on refrigerated (5 degrees C) raw cabbage which, in turn, may represent a hazard to health of the consumer. Heat pasteurization treatments normally given to cabbage juice or sauerkraut would be expected to kill any L. monocytogenes cells which may be present.

  12. Biofilm formation of Salmonella species isolated from fresh cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to isolate Salmonella from fresh cabbage and spinach vegetables, determine antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation of the isolates. Spinach and cabbage farm vegetables were found to harbour Salmonella. A total of eighty-two Salmonella isolates were recovered from both vegetables and ...

  13. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free

  14. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The populations were collected in Vojvodina, North Province of Serbia, country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. Fresh cabbages are late-maturing white cabbages suitable for fresh consumption and biological fermentation. The third is a newly developed cultivar, bred by family selection.

  15. Effects of dietary inclusion of discarded cabbage (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Douglas Nkosi

    2016-02-16

    Boucque & Fiems, 1988). Incorporation of these by-products in the diets of ruminants has been reported to reduce the risk of acidosis, which is associated with high grain diets (Ferreira et al., 2011). Discarded cabbage (Brassica ...

  16. Contamination of Chinese Cabbage Soil with Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Soh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to establish basic technology for Chinese cabbage clubroot chemical control by investigating the soil contamination of Plasmodiophora brassicae in major producing regions of fall Chinese cabbage. PCR primers were developed to detect P. brassicae, a causal agent of Chinese cabbage club-root that generally occurs in Cruciferae family. A primer set, PbbtgF761 and PbbtgR961, specifically amplified a 245 bp fragment from P. brassicae only. At places well known for fall Chinese cabbage, 10 out of 33 in Haenam-gun, 5 out of 13 in Yeongam-gun and Yeonggwang-gun, 1 out of 6 in Gochang-gun, 2 out of 12 in Hongseong-gun, and 5 out of 17 in Dangjin-si resulted positive for P. brassicae contamination. The results show that the soil contamination rate of P. brassicae was 30.3% in Haenam-gun, 38.5% in Yeongam-gun and Yeonggwang-gun, 16.7% in Gochang-gun, 16.7% in Hongseong-gun, and 29.4% in Dangjin-si. The six places where Chinese cabbage clubroot was visible by naked eye were 100% confirmed by the PCR test of the P. brassicae contaminated soil. Thus, simple PCR test may be utilized as an index to decide on chemical control of P. brassicae.

  17. Quality and functional characteristics of kimchi made with organically cultivated young Chinese cabbage (olgari-baechu

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    Su Jin Jung

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The storage periods of the organic young Chinese cabbage kimchi were extended compared to the general young Chinese cabbage kimchi processed by the conventional farming. Kimchi made of organic young Chinese cabbage is a possible functional food because it increases the sensory characteristics and tastes. In addition, it enables the intake of highly functional bioactive substances.

  18. Survey of cabbage experimental hybrids (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage takes up significant area in vegetable sowing structure, and one of the factors of improving this production is adequate varieties selection. During the breeding process, experimental hybrids are tested in relation to currently grown varieties and hybrids in production. In this paper the characteristics of 18 cabbage genotypes are presented, out of which there are 9 experimental hybrids, 4 varieties and 5 hybrids from broader production. Cabbage genotypes in the trial are of differing length of growing season, as well as differing head weight. Properties variability analysis was performed using PCA method, where two main components were chosen based on screen test, and these were used to define 57.7%. Head weight and head diameter are properties based on which the tested hybrids were graded into quantitatively different groups.

  19. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation dynamics of chlorfenapyr residue in chili, cabbage and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditya, Papia; Das, S P; Sarkar, P K; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole group of insecticide, [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-ethoxymethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile]used as broad spectrum insecticide/acaricide to control whitefly, thrips, caterpillars, mites, leafminers, aphids, etc., chlorfenapyr 10% SC formulation was applied on chili and cabbage twice @ 75 and 100 g a.i./ha along with untreated control. Chlorfenapyr was dissipated in chili, cabbage and soil following the first-order kinetics (logC/C(0) = -kt). The half lives of chlorfenapyr in chili, cabbage and soil were varying from 2.93 to 2.96 days, 2.98 to 3.62 days and 4.06 to 4.36 days respectively, according to the application rate.

  1. Enantioselective degradation of tebuconazole in cabbage, cucumber, and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Xuesong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiaofu; Li, Zhen

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective degradation of tebuconazole has been investigated to elucidate the behaviors in agricultural soils, cabbage, and cucumber fruit. Rac-tebuconazole was fortified into three types of agricultural soils and sprayed foliage of cabbage and cucumber, respectively. The degradation kinetics, enantiomer fraction and enantiomeric selectivity were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on a Lux amylose-2 chiral column. The process of the degradation of tebuconazole enantiomers followed first-order kinetic in the test soils and vegetables. It has been shown that the degradation of tebuconazole was enantioselective. The results indicated that the (+)-S-tebuconazole showed a faster degradation in cabbage, while the (-)-R-tebuconazole dissipated faster than (+)-S-form in cucumber fruit and the test soils. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Metal toxicity and sulfur metabolism in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Stuiver, C.E.E.; Shahbaz, M.; Parmar, S.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.

    Copper and zinc are essential nutrients for the plants; however, they become rapidly phytotoxic at elevated concentrations in the root environment. Exposure of Chinese cabbage to elevated Cu2+ (≥ 2 μM) or Zn2 + concentrations (≥ 5 μM) resulted in leaf chlorosis and subsequently in a loss of

  3. Nutritive effect of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) on growth, obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cabbage supplementation suppressed broiler eosinophil levels, indicating effects on mediators of innate immune surveillance, but did not influence any other blood haematological parameter, though Broilers exhibited higher (p<0.05) total WBC count and proportion (%) of WBC represented by neutrophils, basophils and ...

  4. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  5. Transfer of heavy metals from soil to cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work the accumulation of heavy metal and its transfer from the growing medium which is soil to the vegetable mainly cabbage was investigated. Twenty sampling sites were selected from irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis were there is intense agricultural practice, and one control site were there is ...

  6. Production of Sauerkraut (Picked) from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cabbage (Brassiza oleracea) samples obtained from Bayreuth supermarkets stored at 4ºC were processed for sauerkraut (pickled) production. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of the sauerkraut during the 28 day fermentation period were investigated. The total bacterial count influenced from 2.3333 x 104 of ...

  7. Potential of replacing pawpaw fruit and leaves with cabbage peels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... stitutes an important component of the food of numerous rural dwellers, especially in the rainforest belt as well ... got from FRIN Herboratum while cabbage leaves were got from the foreign fruit and vegetable market, along .... Nigeria. p. 27. Omole AJ (1998). Utilisation of different energy supplements on the ...

  8. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  9. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  10. A Novel Auto-Sorting System for Chinese Cabbage Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yi Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as “good” and “not good” (NG. The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% for good and NG seeds, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Chinese cabbage seeds can be sorted efficiently using the developed system.

  11. Effects of dietary inclusion of discarded cabbage (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Douglas Nkosi

    2016-02-16

    Feb 16, 2016 ... DC/kg (DC150) and 200 g DC/kg (DC200) were fed ad libitum to 36 South African Dorper lambs (22.0 ± 1.3 ... resource-poor livestock production systems in South Africa (Nkosi & Meeske, 2010). ... have confirmed that cabbage contains 86 - 140 g dry matter (DM)/kg, 137 - 280 g crude protein (CP)/kg DM,.

  12. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  13. Use of human urine fertilizer in cultivation of cabbage (Brassica oleracea)--impacts on chemical, microbial, and flavor quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Sjöblom, Annalena; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2007-10-17

    Human urine was used as a fertilizer in cabbage cultivation and compared with industrial fertilizer and nonfertilizer treatments. Urine achieved equal fertilizer value to industrial fertilizer when both were used at a dose of 180 kg N/ha. Growth, biomass, and levels of chloride were slightly higher in urine-fertilized cabbage than with industrial-fertilized cabbage but clearly differed from nonfertilized. Insect damage was lower in urine-fertilized than in industrial-fertilized plots but more extensive than in nonfertilized plots. Microbiological quality of urine-fertilized cabbage and sauerkraut made from the cabbage was similar to that in the other fertilized cabbages. Furthermore, the level of glucosinolates and the taste of sauerkrauts were similar in cabbages from all three fertilization treatments. Our results show that human urine could be used as a fertilizer for cabbage and does not pose any significant hygienic threats or leave any distinctive flavor in food products.

  14. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  15. Earliness, leaf surface wax and sugar content predict varietal differences for thrips damage in cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    When cabbage is cultivated for storage in the Netherlands, it is usually harvested around mid-October. This type of cabbage crop may be severely damaged by thrips (Thrips tabaci). The thrips population on the plants and the more severe symptoms develop mostly during September and October. Also

  16. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  17. Phenol removal by peroxidases extracted from Chinese cabbage root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, H.I.; Jeong, Y.H. [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Applied Biology and Technology

    1995-12-31

    More than four million tons of Chinese cabbages are produced in Korea. Most of them are used as raw materials for Kimchi, but root parts of them are discarded as agricultural wastes. A trial for the application of agricultural waste to industrial waste water treatment was made as an effort to the efficient use of natural resources and to reduce water pollution problem simultaneously. Peroxidases of both solid and liquid phases were obtained from Chinese cabbage roots by using commercial juicer. The differences in peroxidase activity among the various cultivars of Chinese cabbages in Korea were little and electrophoretic patterns of various peroxidases will be discussed. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity will be discussed also. Since peroxidases are distributed into 66% in liquid (juice) and 34% in solid phase (pulp), enzymes from both phases were applied to investigate the enzymatic removal of phenol from waste water. After phenol solution at 150 ppm being reacted with liquid phase enzyme (1,800 unit/1) for 3 hours in a batch stirred reactor, 96% of phenol could be removed through polymerization and precipitation. Also, phenol could be removed from initial 120 ppm to final 5 ppm by applying solid phase enzyme in an air lift reactor (600 unit/1). Almost equivalent efficiencies of phenol removal were observed between two systems, even though only one third of the enzymes in batch stirred reactor was applied in air lift reactor. The possible reason for this phenomenon is because peroxidases exist as immobilized forms in solid phase.

  18. Degradation dynamics of quinalphos on cabbage under subtropical conditions of Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurminder Singh Chahil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the disappearance trends of quinalphos residues on cabbage under subtropical conditions at Ludhiana. Single application of quinalphos was made @ 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha-1 on cabbage and samples were collected at intervals of 0 (1 h, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after application. Average initial deposits of quinalphos on cabbage were found to be 0.41 and 0.75 mg kg-1 at single dose and double dosages, respectively. Residues of quinalphos dissipated below determination limit of 0.01 mg kg-1 in 7 and 10 days, respectively at single and double dose. The half-life of quinalphos on cabbage was observed to be 3.02 and 2.70 days for single and double dose, respectively. The study suggested a waiting period of 7 days for safe consumption of cabbage.

  19. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  1. [Effects of spent mushroom compost on greenhouse cabbage growth under soil salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-Ling; Wu, Liang-Huan; Dong, Lan-Xue; Chen, Zai-Ming; Wang, Zhong-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of spent mushroom compost (SMC) in alleviating greenhouse soil secondary salinization and cabbage salt stress. With the amendment of SMC, the salinized soil after 60 day cabbage cultivation had a pH value close to 7.0, its organic matter and available phosphorous contents increased significantly, and the increment of total water-soluble salt content reduced, compared with the control. When the amendment amount of SMC was 10 g x kg(-1), the increment of soil water soluble salt content was the least, suggesting that appropriate amendment with SMC could reduce the salt accumulation in greenhouse soil. Amendment with SMC increased the cabbage seed germination rate, plant height, plant fresh mass, chlorophyll SPAD value, and vitamin C content, and decreased the proline content significantly. All the results indicated that SMC could improve the growth environment of greenhouse cabbage, and effectively alleviate the detrimental effect of salt stress.

  2. Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage using Taguchi design method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravanfar, Raheleh; Tamadon, Ali Mohammad; Niakousari, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    ... (output power, time, temperature and pulse mode) for ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage and the concluding yield of anthocyanin was measured by pH differential method...

  3. Effects of Potash Fertilizer on Cabbage' s Quality in CadmiumPolluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiao-jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explain how potassium affect the quality of cabbage growing in cadmium contaminated soils, a pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of different dosages of potash fertilizer on the cabbage yield, physiological characteristics(the concentration of chlorophyll and the activity of antioxidative enzymeand heavy metal concentration in two cadmium contaminated soils. The result showed that cabbage' s fresh weight above ground and underground decreased 2.6% and 19.8% respectively in low cadmium stress, while decreased 7.1%and 45.5%in high cadmiumstress. After increasing the dosage of potash fertilizer in low concentration cadmium polluted soil, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground increased by 0.3%~34.0%and the underground part decreased by 1.2%~7.4%. At the same time, after application of potash fertilizer in high concentration stress, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground had no significant change while the underground part significantly increased by 41.8%~87.3%. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves increased slightly in low cadmium stress, after application of potash fertilizer, the concentration of chlorophyll a increased greatly but chlorophyll b had no obvious change. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves decreased greatly in high cadmiumstress and it had no tremen-dous change after application of potash fertilizer. The activity of antioxidative enzymes(CAT, SOD and PODin cabbage leaves were strength-ened in low cadmium stress while the activity of kinds of antioxidative enzymes in cabbage leaves were weakened in high cadmium stress. Af-ter application of potash fertilizer in two cadmium polluted soils, all kinds of enzyme activity had a trend to increase. Applying potash fertiliz-er into the cadmium contaminated soils could effectively increase the concentration of vitamin C, reducing sugar and promote the free amino acids transforming into crude

  4. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hong-Duck, E-mail: nanumenv@hanmail.net [Ministry of Environment, Geum River Basin Environmental Office, 409 Daehak-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chae-Sung, E-mail: shyknight@nate.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Koo, E-mail: minkookang@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Ill, E-mail: gatorlee@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  5. In-Season Yield Prediction of Cabbage with a Hand-Held Active Canopy Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rongting; Min, Ju; Wang, Yuan; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2017-10-08

    Efficient and precise yield prediction is critical to optimize cabbage yields and guide fertilizer application. A two-year field experiment was conducted to establish a yield prediction model for cabbage by using the Greenseeker hand-held optical sensor. Two cabbage cultivars (Jianbao and Pingbao) were used and Jianbao cultivar was grown for 2 consecutive seasons but Pingbao was only grown in the second season. Four chemical nitrogen application rates were implemented: 0, 80, 140, and 200 kg·N·ha(-1). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected 20, 50, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 days after transplanting (DAT). Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between the NDVI measurements and harvested yields of cabbage. NDVI measurements obtained at 110 DAT were significantly correlated to yield and explained 87-89% and 75-82% of the cabbage yield variation of Jianbao cultivar over the two-year experiment and 77-81% of the yield variability of Pingbao cultivar. Adjusting the yield prediction models with CGDD (cumulative growing degree days) could make remarkable improvement to the accuracy of the prediction model and increase the determination coefficient to 0.82, while the modification with DFP (days from transplanting when GDD > 0) values did not. The integrated exponential yield prediction equation was better than linear or quadratic functions and could accurately make in-season estimation of cabbage yields with different cultivars between years.

  6. Demography and Consumption of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Cabbage and Taro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) causes considerable economic damage to multiple agro-crops annually in many countries. In this study, the demography of S. litura reared on cabbage and taro was investigated using the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25±1°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L:D) h. Our results showed that the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate, and finite rate of population increase on cabbage (1893.1 offspring, 0.2374 d(−1), and 1.2679 d(−1)) were all not significantly different from those on taro (1361.0 offspring, 0.2298 d(−1), and 1.2584 d(−1)). The net consumption rate on cabbage (439.1 cm2) was, however, three times higher than that on taro (141.7 cm2). According to the population parameters, both cabbage and taro are suitable host plants for S. litura. When both the population growth rate and the consumption rate were taken into consideration, the finite consumption rate on cabbage (ω=3.8054) was significantly higher than that on taro (ω=1.3184). In Taiwan, taro and cabbage are commonly planted in adjacent farm plots, with taro being grown from March to November and cabbage from October to April. Because of the overlapping growth periods of the two crops, S. litura can easily propagate throughout the year by switching between the adjacent crops during the overlap periods. Pest management strategies for controlling S. litura must be thoroughly reevaluated based on ecological characteristics, including its life table and consumption rate on its major host plants.

  7. Antixenotic resistance of cabbage to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). I. Light reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-12-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) has become a significant pest of cabbage (Brasssica oleracea L.) in regions with a dry continental climate. Thrips-resistant cabbage varieties have been developed in breeding programs, but the mechanisms ofresistance remain largely unknown. Antixenosis, one of the three resistance mechanisms, may play a role but no plant trait has been identified as a source of antixenosis. A series of studies were conducted to identify resistance mechanisms in this insect- crop interaction and to seek plant traits that were correlated to resistance. In this first article of the series, the result of studying antixenosis and overall resistance of cabbage and the correlation between antixenosis and light reflectance characteristics are reported. There were distinct differences in the overall resistance to thrips between the six cabbage varieties studied. There were more pronounced differences between varieties based on the number of damaged head leaves compared with the use of damage ratings as a measure of overall resistance. Varieties also differed in their level of antixenosis; proportional abundance of thrips adults on head-forming leaves was more closely correlated to overall resistance of cabbage than actual thrips numbers. Some of the variables computed from the recorded reflectance spectra of cabbage were correlated to thrips abundance on head-forming leaves only in the first but not in the second year of this study, suggesting that either spectral characteristics do not affect antixenosis or other variables may affect thrips' responses to spectral cues. Furthermore, multiple spray applications of a kaolin particle-based product significantly changed the light reflectance characteristics of cabbage, but it did not reduce the actual thrips abundance on head-forming leaves.

  8. Regulation of Metabolic Changes in Shredded Cabbage by Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Plestenjak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different storage conditions on the storability of packaged shredded cabbage has been studied. The cabbage cultivar Fieldrocket was cut and packaged in glass jars and in polyethylene (PE or polypropylene (PP film. Several initial atmospheres were established within the packaged cut cabbage: 100 % N2, 5 % O2/95 % N2, 10 % O2/90 % N2, normal atmosphere (NA, 70 % O2/30 % N2 and 100 % O2. Samples were stored at two different temperatures of 0 and 10 °C for 7 days. Variation in CO2 and O2 concentrations was higher at 10 °C compared to 0 °C and the highest at the atmosphere consisting of 70 % O2/30 % N2. A decrease of O2 below 3–5 % and an increase of CO2 above 2–5 % in the packed product resulted in the appearance of anaerobic metabolism. An initial atmosphere consisting of 100 % O2, and a storage temperature of 0 °C resulted in delayed anaerobic metabolism compared to other atmospheric conditions and storage temperature of 10 °C. Rinsing of fresh cut cabbage also resulted in lower accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol. A higher variation in CO2 and O2 concentrations, and consequent accumulation of anaerobic metabolites had a negative influence on the sensorial properties of the cut cabbage. The higher permeability of PE film compared to PP and glass enabled faster exchange of CO2 and O2, which resulted in lower accumulation of anaerobic metabolites. However, a higher O2 concentration had a negative influence on the colour of fresh-cut cabbage. The best results were achieved by packing the fresh-cut cabbage in PE film with an initial atmosphere of 100 % O2 and stored at 0 °C.

  9. Speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and soils in response to different levels of vanadium in soils and cabbage growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liyan; Yang, Jinyan; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-09-01

    This study highlights the accumulation and speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) in relation to the speciation of soil vanadium with pot experiments at 122-622mgVkg(-1) by spiking NH4VO3. Cabbage planting decreased the bioavailable and residual vanadium based on sequential extraction, leading to enrichment of oxalate-extractable vanadium in soils. The biomass production increased with increasing concentrations of soil vanadium from 122 to 372mgVkg(-1), probably due to the increasing nitrogen availability and low vanadium availability in our soils with a consequent low vanadium toxicity. Although the concentrations of root vanadium (14.4-24.9mgVkg(-1)) related positively with soil vanadium, the bio-dilution alleviated the increase of leaf vanadium (2.1-2.7mgVkg(-1)). The predominance of vanadium(IV) in leaves (∼60-80% of total vanadium) indicates bio-reduction of vanadium in Chinese cabbage, since the mobile vanadium in oxic soils was usually pentavalent. Approximately 15-20% of the leaf vanadium was associated with recalcitrant leaf tissues. The majority of leaf vanadium was water and ethanol extractable, which is considered mobile and may cause more toxic effects on Chinese cabbage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial population dynamics of kimchi, a fermented cabbage product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinhee; Lee, Dongyun; Yang, Changnam; Jeon, Jongin; Kim, Jeongho; Han, Hongui

    2006-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are known to perform significant roles in the fermentation of kimchi, a fermented cabbage product. However, the microbial population dynamics inherent to kimchi fermentation remain to be clearly elucidated. In this study, we have characterized the microbial dynamics via the identification of a total of 970 bacterial isolates, representing 15 species of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella, all of which were primarily identified by PCR-based restriction enzyme analysis. These population dynamics appear to be influenced markedly by fermentation temperature. Distinct biphasic microbial growth was observed with preliminary 2-day incubation at 15 degrees C, conducted before main fermentation at -1 degrees C. Leuconostoc citreum, as well as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, predominated during the first growth phase, whereas Weissella koreensis predominated during the second phase. By way of contrast, with preliminary 4-day incubation at 10 degrees C, only W. koreensis grew rapidly from the beginning of the process. Therefore, our findings suggest that a short incubation at 15 degrees C enhances the growth of the less psychrophilic Leuconostoc species, including Lc. citreum, thus delaying the growth of the predominant W. koreensis, which is a more adaptive species at -1 degrees C.

  11. Plant growth regulator-mediated anti-herbivore responses of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) against cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian M; Samara, R; Renaud, J B; Sumarah, M W

    2017-09-01

    Plant elicitors can be biological or chemical-derived stimulators of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) pathways shown to prime the defenses in many crops. Examples of chemical elicitors of the JA and SA pathways include methyl-jasmonate and 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH or the commercial plant activator Actigard 50WG, respectively). The use of specific elicitors has been observed to affect the normal interaction between JA and SA pathways causing one to be upregulated and the other to be suppressed, often, but not always, at the expense of the plant's herbivore or pathogen defenses. The objective of this study was to determine whether insects feeding on Brassica crops might be negatively affected by SA inducible defenses combined with an inhibitor of detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes that regulate the insect response to the plant's defenses. The relative growth rate of cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed induced cabbage Brassica oleraceae leaves with the inhibitor, quercetin, was significantly less than those fed control cabbage with and without the inhibitor. The reduced growth was related to the reduction of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) by the combination of quercetin and increased levels of indole glucosinolates in the cabbage treated with BTH at 2.6× the recommended application rate. These findings may offer a novel combination of elicitor and synergist that can provide protection from plant disease and herbivores in cabbage and other Brassica crops. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of cabbage leaves compared to gel packs for mothers with breast engorgement: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Boh Boi; Chan, Yiong Huak; Leow, Mabel Qi He; Lu, Yi; Chong, Yap Seng; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; He, Hong-Gu

    2017-11-01

    The effects of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs on breast engorgement management have been inconclusive. No studies have compared the effects of these methods on breast engorgement using a rigorous design. To examine the effectiveness of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs application on pain, hardness, and temperature due to breast engorgement, the duration of breastfeeding and satisfaction. A randomised controlled three-group pre-test and repeated post-test study. A private maternal and children's hospital in Singapore. Mothers (n=227) with breast engorgement within 14days after delivery. The mothers were randomly assigned into either cold cabbage leaves, cold gel packs, or the control group. Pain, hardness of breasts, and body temperature were measured before treatment. Two sets of post-test assessments were conducted at 30min, 1h, and 2h after the first and second application. The duration of breastfeeding was measured up to 6 months. IBM SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the data. Mothers in the cabbage leaves and gel packs groups had significant reductions in pain at all post-intervention time points compared to the control group, starting from 30min after the first application of cabbage leaves (mean difference=-0.38, p=0.016) or gel packs (mean difference=-0.39, p=0.013). When compared to the control group, mothers in the cabbage leaves group had significant reductions in the hardness of breasts at all post-intervention time points, and mothers in the gel packs group had significant reductions in the hardness of breasts at two time points (1h and 2h after the first and second application, respectively). Mothers in the cabbage leaves group had significant reductions in pain (mean difference=-0.53, p=0.005) and hardness of breasts (mean difference=-0.35, p=0.003) at 2h after the second application compared to those in the gel packs group. Both interventions had no impact on body temperature. There was no significant difference in the durations of

  13. Dissipation and residue behavior of emamectin benzoate on apple and cabbage field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Li, Yanjie; Du, Fengpei; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    A LC-ESI-MS/MS method with QuEChERS for analysis of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil was established. At fortification levels of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg in cabbage, apple and soil, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 75.9 to 97.0 percent with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.4-19.0 percent. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.001 mg/kg for cabbage, apple and soil. The dissipation half-lives of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil were 1.34-1.72 day, 2.75-3.09 day and 1.89-4.89 day, respectively. The final residues of emamectin benzoate ranged from 0.001 to 0.052 mg/kg in cabbages, 0.003 to 0.090 mg/kg in apples and 0.001 to 0.089 mg/kg in soils, respectively. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems if emamectin benzoate was applied according to the use pattern suggested by the manufactures on the label. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  15. The utilization of ozone to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluxtipun, Y.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the utilization of ozone to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage. The experimental design used in the study was Randomized Block Design (RCB. 35% w/v EC of Endosulfanorganoclorine pesticide was used, with the recommended dose, to spray on Chinese cabbage every 7th day for three weeks. Five days after the last spay, the Chinese cabbage was harvested and ozone-dissolved water was used to reduce endosulfan residues in the cabbage at 5ºC at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes, respectively. The result showed that ozone-dissolved water at 25 minutes could effectively reduce 71.93% of endosulfan residues. This percentage was lower than the Maximum Residues Limit (MRL of 2.0 mg/kg of vegetables proscribed by CODEX. Furthermore, the study found that the more time used, the less the purity of ozone-dissolved water. This resulted in the decrease of ozone efficiency to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage.

  16. Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using pulsed electric field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachovska, Tanya; Cassada, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Hanna, Milford; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Snow, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using water as a solvent. Mashed cabbage was placed in a batch treatment chamber and subjected to PEF (2.5 kV/cm electric field strength; 15 micros pulse width and 50 pulses, specific energy 15.63 J/g). Extracted anthocyanin concentrations (16 to 889 microg/mL) were determined using HPLC. Heat and light stabilities of the control and PEF-treated samples, having approximately the same initial concentrations, were studied. PEF treatments enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times with a higher proportion of nonacylated forms than the control (P light stabilities of the PEF-treated samples and control samples were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Practical Application: An innovative pretreatment technology, pulsed electric field processing, enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times. Manufacturers of natural colors can use this technology to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage efficiently.

  17. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF DRYING MODES ON QUALITY OF DEHYDRATED CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhale, B.K.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out for justify the suitability of various dehydration techniques for desired quality of finished products. The cabbage (brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata, one of the commonly consumed green leafy vegetables was assessed fot its commercial processing potential through dehydration technology. The fresh cabbage procured from commercial growing farms near aurangabad city were washed, chopped into strips of uniform size and subjected to hot water blanching containing 2.0 percent common salt. The pretreated cabbage were dehydrated under different during conditions i.e. sun, shade and tray drying to safe moisture level. The dried sample were evaluated for their dehydration process features, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. The data on the dehydration technology revealed that tray dried cabbage found comparatively more wholesome, palatable and reported maximum retention of nutrients like vitamin C (42.9%, calcium (87.2%, iron (83.3% coupled with superior dehydration and rehydration ratios and processing characteristics. The tray dried cabbage method was found comparatively superior in retention of sensorial quality features (appearance, color and overall acceptability over sun drying and at par with shade drying.

  18. Impact of sulfate nutrition on the utilization of atmospheric SO2 as sulfur source for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, I.; De Kok, L.J.

    The ability of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to utilize atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) as sulfur (S) source for growth was investigated in relation to root sulfate (SO42-) nutrition. If seedlings of Chinese cabbage were transferred to a sulfate-deprived nutrient solution directly after

  19. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Jun Ho; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, HyeRan; Kim, ChulWook; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-01-01

    Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress. PMID:23736694

  20. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  1. Differing Behavioural Responses of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED to Cabbage Damaged by Conspecifics and Heterospecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hailong; Zeng, Yang; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-10-12

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest with an extensive host range. Previous research has shown that B. tabaci is a species complex with many cryptic species or biotypes and that the two most important species are MEAM1 (Middle East-Minor Asia 1) and MED (Mediterranean genetic group). MEAM1 and MED are known to differ in their preference for cabbage, Brassica oleracea, as a host plant, however, the mechanism underlying this preference is unknown. In the current study, a host choice experiment showed that MED prefers to settle and oviposit on undamaged cabbage plants rather than MED-damaged cabbage plants. However, MEAM1 prefers MED-damaged cabbage plants to undamaged plants and does not exhibit a significant preference for undamaged or MEAM1-damaged cabbage plants. On the basis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the following volatiles were released in larger quantities from Q-damaged cabbage plants than from undamaged plants: 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, benzenemethanol, (E)-2-decenol, benzaldehyde, nonanal, acetic acid geraniol ester, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, decane, and α-longipinene. Only one volatile, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, was released in greater quantities from MEAM1-damaged cabbage plants than from undamaged plants. Our results suggest that differences in herbivore-induced host volatile release may help explain the differences between the preference of B. tabaci MEAM1 and MED for cabbage as a host.

  2. Glucosinolates and Myrosinase Activity in Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata f. rubra DC.) after Various Microwave Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Total and individual levels of glucosinolates (GSs) were measured in red cabbage after various microwave treatments varying in time and intensity of the treatments. Furthermore, the myrosinase enzyme activity of the microwave-heated vegetables was determined. The retention of GSs in the cabbage and

  3. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  4. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by

  5. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide new insights into the regulation mechanism of low-temperature-induced leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chang Wei; Wei, Yan Ping; Xiao, Dong; Gao, Li Wei; Lyu, Shan Wu; Hou, Xi Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese cabbage, leafy head-related traits are directly related to the cabbage yield and marketability, which are often primarily concerned target for breeders. Although intensive studies has been on head formation in Chinese cabbage in the past decade, very scanty information is available on

  6. Phenotype microarray profiling of the antibacterial activity of red cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh RR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional food can be a potent source of wide array of biocomonents with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the antibacterial activity of red cabbage (RC extract on Gram negative and positive ATCC strains. Most intersting, we, for the first time, explored and analysed the complete phenotypic profile of RC-treated bacteria using Omnilog Phenotype Microarray. Results: This study revealed that the phenotype microarray (PM screen was a valuable tool in the search for compounds and their antibacterial mechanisms that can inhibit bacterial growth by affecting certain metabolic pathways. It was shown that RC exerted remarkable antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, and PM showed a wide range phenotypic profile of the exerted RC antibacterial activity. RC targeted the peptide, carbon, nutriontional assembly, and sulfur metbolic pathways altogether. The peptidoglycan synthesis pathway was inferred to be targeted by RC extract at a metabolic point different from other available cell wall-targeting drugs; these could be hot targets for the discovery of new therapy for many problematic microbes.Conclusions: Taken together, the phenotype microarray for functional food and medicinal plants can be a very useful tool for profiling their antimicrobial activity. Moreover, extracts of functional food can exert antibacterial activity by hitting a wide range of metabolic pathways, at the same time leading to very difficult condition for bacteria to rapidly develop resistance. Therefore, using functional foods or medicinal plants as such, or as extracts, can be superior on mono-targeting antibiotics if the optimal concentrations and conditions of these functional foods were sought.

  7. Screening of some white cabbage lines for resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas DELİGÖZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is serious soil-borne disease of cruciferous crops in the world. Yield reductions due to disease may be up to 100% if soil is heavily infested with clubroot. Clubroot is extremely difficult to control as there is no chemical treatment against clubroot in practice. Preventing the introduction of clubroot to clean fields, combining cultural practices with using resistant cultivars is the best method to control clubroot. A total of 114 white cabbage breeding lines were evaluated reaction to clubroot disease in this study. Ten plants of each cabbage breeding lines were inoculated with ECD 16/31/31 race of P. brassicae and all plants evaluated according to 0-3 scale. Results showed that all cabbage breeding lines and resistant control cultivars (Tekila F1, Kilaton F1 and Clapton F1 were susceptible to ECD 16/31/31 race of P. brassicae.

  8. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Bálint

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm and visible (401-650 nm light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  9. Evaluation of red cabbage dye as a potential natural color for pharmaceutical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigurupati, Neela; Saiki, Lani; Gayser, Charles; Dash, Alekha K

    2002-07-25

    Red cabbage dye is a natural pigment used mainly as a food color. A class of compounds called anthocyanins attributes to this color. The pH of the red cabbage solution can also affect both its color and intensity. The objective of this study was to determine the ionization constant (pK(a)) of red cabbage color, the effect of pH and temperature on its stability in solution and evaluation of this natural color as a pH indicator in pharmaceutical system. Spectrophotometric method was used to determine its pK(a). The lambda(max) and absorbencies of the red cabbage color at different concentrations and pH were determined. The analytical wavelength (AW) is the wavelength at which the greatest difference in absorbencies between ionized and molecular species occurs was determined. The absorbencies of red cabbage solution (0.12% w/v) at different pH values ranging from 5.0 to 8.0 (with increments of 0.2), was measured at the AW of 612 nm. The resulted absorbencies ranged from 0.31 to 1.91 and were used to determine its pK(a). The pK(a) determined by this method was within a range of 6.8-7.2. Results from this study demonstrated that red cabbage dye could be used as a pH indicator in pharmaceutical formulations. In acidic condition, it has its original red color but at a basic pH its color changes to deep blue. This color is more stable at a low temperature and pH. Its ability to act as a pH indicator was further tested using chlorbutol solution as a model system.

  10. Tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC): scavenger of reactive nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2008-06-11

    The ability of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) to act as a scavenger of the reactive nitrogen species nitric oxide and peroxynitrite was investigated. The aqueous extracts obtained from tronchuda cabbage seeds and from its external and internal leaves exhibited a concentration dependent scavenging capacity. The antioxidant potential observed against the two reactive species was as follows: seeds > external leaves > internal leaves. In order to establish a possible correlation with the chemical composition of the extracts, the activity of ascorbic and sinapic acids and kaempferol 3- O-rutinoside was also studied. Among the compounds tested, sinapic acid showed the strongest antioxidant activity against both species.

  11. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an

  12. Zinc exposure has differential effects on uptake and metabolism of sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Posthumus, Freek S.; Parmar, Saroj; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a plant nutrient; however, at elevated levels it rapidly becomes phytotoxic. In order to obtain insight into the physiological background of its toxicity, the impact of elevated Zn2+ concentrations (1 to 10 mM) in the root environment on physiological functioning of Chinese cabbage was

  13. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  14. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Chae Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA, has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM. BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  15. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  16. Preference of cabbage white butterflies and honey bees for nectar that contains amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Janis; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E; Lanza, Janet; Vriesenga, Lauren

    1990-08-01

    Amino acids occur in most floral nectars but their role in pollinator attraction is relatively unstudied. Nectars of butterfly-pollinated flower tend to have higher concentrations of amino acids than do flowers pollinated by bees and many other animals, suggesting that amino acids are important attractants of butterflies to flowers. In order to determine whether amino acids are important in attracting butterflies and bees, we tested the preference of cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) by allowing them to feed from artificial flowers containing sugar-only or sugar-amino acid mimics ofLantana camara nectar. Honey bees and female cabbage white butterflies consumed more sugar-amino acid nectar than sugar-only nectar. In addition, female cabbage white butterflies visited artificial flowers containing sugar-amino acid nectars more frequently than flowers containing sugar-only nectars; honey bees spent more time consuming the sugar-amino acid nectar. Male cabbage white butterflies did not discriminate between the two nectars. These results support the hypothesis that the amino acids of nectar contribute to pollinator attraction and/or feeding.

  17. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed...

  18. Pathotype Classification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Isolates Using Clubroot-Resistant Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams’ hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races. However, when these isolates were inoculated onto clubroot-resistant (CR cultivars of Chinese cabbage, several isolates led to different disease responses even though the isolates have been assigned to the same race by the Williams’ host responses. Based on the pathogenicity results, the 12 field isolates were reclassified into four different groups: pathotype 1 (GN1, GN2, GS, JS, and HS, 2 (DJ and KS, 3 (HN1, PC, and YC, and 4 (HN2 and SS. In addition, the CR cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan exhibited distinguishable disease responses to the P. brassicae isolates, suggesting that the 22 cultivars used in this study, including the non-CR cultivars, are classified into four different host groups based on their disease resistance. Combining these findings, the four differential hosts of Chinese cabbage and four pathotype groups of P. brassicae might provide an efficient screening system for resistant cultivars and a new foundation of breeding strategies for CR Chinese cabbage.

  19. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  20. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  1. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of ...

  2. Silver nanoparticles: an alternative method for sanitization of minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Andrade Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of vegetables basically aims to extend food shelf life, which depends on a number of factors, such as sanitization, that is considered a critical step for food microbiological quality. However, the usual antimicrobial agents reduce the microbial population in a maximum of two logarithmic cycles. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative sanitizers. This study aimed to increase the innocuity of minimally processed cabbage through sanitization with silver nanoparticles. It was observed that the nanoparticles promoted three logarithmic reductions, i.e. a 99.9 % reduction rate, in the Escherichia coli population inoculated on the cabbage surface. When compared to other antimicrobial agents (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and sodium hypochlorite, the nanoparticles were more efficient in sanitizing minimally processed cabbage, showing a lower count of aerobic mesophils. It was also observed that the cabbage surface presents hydrophobic characteristics, resulting in a higher propension for bacterial adhesion, which was confirmed in the thermodynamic evaluation of favorable adhesion for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

  3. Competitive adsorption of metals on cabbage waste from multi-metal solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Vigneswaran, S; Nguyen, T V

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the adsorption capacity of the agro-waste 'cabbage' as a biosorbent in single, binary, ternary and quaternary sorption systems with Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions. Dried and ground powder of cabbage waste (CW) was used for the sorption of metals ions. Carboxylic, hydroxyl, and amine groups in cabbage waste were found to be the key functional groups for metal sorption. The adsorption isotherms obtained could be well fitted to both the mono- and multi-metal models. In the competitive adsorption systems, cabbage waste adsorbed larger amount of Pb(II) than the other three metals. However, the presence of the competing ions suppressed the sorption of the target metal ions. Except the case of binary system of Cd(II)-Zn(II) and Cd(II)-Cu(II), there was a linear inverse dependency between the sorption capacities and number of different types of competitive metal ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  5. Growth promotion of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis by Piriformospora indica is not stimulated by mycelium-synthesized auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yin-Chen; Johnson, Joy Michal; Chien, Ching-Te; Sun, Chao; Cai, Daguang; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2011-04-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of the order Sebacinales, interacts with the roots of a large variety of plant species. We compared the interaction of this fungus with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis) and Arabidopsis seedlings. The development of shoots and roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings was strongly promoted by P. indica and the fresh weight of the seedlings increased approximately twofold. The strong stimulation of root hair development resulted in a bushy root phenotype. The auxin level in the infected Chinese cabbage roots was twofold higher compared with the uncolonized controls. Three classes of auxin-related genes, which were upregulated by P. indica in Chinese cabbage roots, were isolated from a double-subtractive expressed sequence tag library: genes for proteins related to cell wall acidification, intercellular auxin transport carrier proteins such as AUX1, and auxin signal proteins. Overexpression of B. campestris BcAUX1 in Arabidopsis strongly promoted growth and biomass production of Arabidopsis seedlings and plants; the roots were highly branched but not bushy when compared with colonized Chinese cabbage roots. This suggests that BcAUX1 is a target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. P. indica also promoted growth of Arabidopsis seedlings but the auxin levels were not higher and auxin genes were not upregulated, implying that auxin signaling is a more important target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage than in Arabidopsis. The fungus also stimulated growth of Arabidopsis aux1 and aux1/axr4 and rhd6 seedlings. Furthermore, a component in an exudate fraction from P. indica but not auxin stimulated growth of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis seedlings. We propose that activation of auxin biosynthesis and signaling in the roots might be the cause for the P. indica-mediated growth phenotype in Chinese cabbage.

  6. Comparison of cauliflower-insect-fungus interactions and pesticides for cabbage root fly control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Žerjav, Metka; Zemljič-Urbančič, Meta; Modic, Špela; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Grunder, Jürg; Fellous, Simon; Urek, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low-risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040-based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on nonformulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, and T. gamsii and commercial insecticides λ-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam. Spinosad and thiamethoxam were pipetted to individual plants before transplanting; λ-cyhalothrin was sprayed after transplanting; nitrogen lime was applied at first hoeing. Nonformulated fungi were delivered onto cauliflower plantlets' roots as a single pretransplantation inoculation. The cabbage root fly population dynamics exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variation. The lowest number of cabbage root fly pupae recovered from cauliflower roots in the field experiments was recorded in plants treated with spinosad (significant reduction), followed by Naturalis and one of the tested M. brunneum strains (nonsignificant reduction). Significantly more pupae were counted in the nitrogen lime treatment. The field experiments showed that a single drench of cauliflower plantlets with spinosad offered consistent and enduring cabbage root fly control. Naturalis and nonformulated fungal isolates did not decrease cabbage root fly pressure significantly, apparently due to lack of statistical power. The implications of the substantial intra- and inter-annual pest pressure variation and the benefits of using single plant treatments are discussed, and recommendations for improvement of rhizosphere-competence utilizing biological control strategies provided. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; P Niksic, Miomir

    2016-09-01

    The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films.

  8. Glucosinolate Profiles in Cabbage Genotypes Influence the Preferential Feeding of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella L., is a devastating pest of cabbage worldwide whose feeding attributes are influenced by glucosinolate profiles of the plant. Identifying the specific glucosinolates associated with plants’ resistance mechanism can provide cues to novel points of intervention in developing resistant cultivars. We studied the DBM larval feeding preference and extent of damage on cabbage leaves via controlled glass-house and in vitro multiple- and two-choice feeding tests. These feeding attributes were associated with the individual glucosinolate profiles, analyzed by HPLC, of each of the eight cabbage genotypes using multivariate analytical approach to identify the glucosinolates that may have roles in resistance. Both the glass-house and in vitro multiple-choice feeding tests identified the genotype BN4303, BN4059, and BN4072 as the least preferred (resistant and Rubra, YR Gold and BN3383 as most preferred (susceptible genotypes by DBM larvae. The principal component analysis separated the genotypes based on lower feeding scores in association with higher contents of glucobrassicin, glucoiberin, glucoiberverin in one direction and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucoerucin, glucoraphanin, and progoitrin in opposite direction in a way to explain the major variation in resistant versus susceptible genotypes based on their extent of preference and leaf area damage. The simultaneous presence (or higher contents of glucobrassicin, glucoiberin, and glucoiberverin and the absence (or lower contents of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucoerucin, glucoraphanin, and progoitrin in the least preferred genotypes and vice-versa in most preferred genotypes indicated their apparent role as putative repellents and attractants of DBM larvae in cabbage genotypes, respectively. These novel findings add to the current knowledgebase on the roles of glucosinolates in plant–herbivore interactions and will be helpful in setting breeding priorities for

  9. Evaluation of Cabbage- and Broccoli-genetic Resources for Resistance to Clubroot and Fusarium Wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot and Fusarium wilt of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L. are destructive diseases which for many years has brought a decline in quality and large losses in yields all over the world. The breeding of resistant cultivars is an effective approach to reduce the use of chemical fungicides and minimize crop losses. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 60 cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata and 6 broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica lines provided by The RDA-Genebank Information Center to clubroot and Fusarium wilt. To investigate resistance to clubroot, seedlings of the genetic resources were inoculated with Plasmodiophora brassicae by drenching the roots with a mixed spore suspension (1 : 1 of two isolates. Of the tested genetic resources, four cabbage lines were moderately resistant and ‘K166220’ represented the highest resistance to P. brassicae. The others were susceptible to clubroot. On the other hand, to select resistant plants to Fusarium wilt, the genetic resources were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans by dipping the roots in spore suspension of the fungus. Among them, 17 cabbage and 5 broccoli lines were resistant, 16 cabbage lines were moderately resistant, and the others were susceptible to Fusarium wilt. Especially, three cabbage (‘IT227115’, ‘K161791’, ‘K173350’ and two broccoli (‘IT227100’, ‘IT227099’ lines were highly resistant to the fungus. We suggest that the resistant genetic resources can be used as a basic material for resistant B. oleracea breeding system against clubroot and Fusarium wilt.

  10. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Chen, Peng Jen; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin Hui; Cai, Daguang; Oelmüllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-11-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Gordana D.; Klaus, Anita S.; P. Niksic, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. Objectives The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Methods Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Results Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. Conclusions All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films. PMID:27800143

  12. Use of different organic fertilizers on soil fertility improvement, growth and head yield parameters of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out in Akure in the rainforest zone of Nigeria to determine the effect of poultry manure, wood ash and rice bran on the soil fertility improvement, growth and head yield of cabbage...

  13. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

      The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied...

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Xiaoming; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection...

  15. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice

    OpenAIRE

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September ...

  16. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  17. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; pkale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  19. Relation between tipburn appearance of Chinese cabbage and calcium content and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-2001 investigations were carried out on the dependence between the tipburn appearance on Chinese cabbage and the content of calcium and its distribution in leaves. It was found that the highest concentration of calcium (to 4,4% occurred in outside leaves and the lowest was found in leaves inside the head (to 1,0 %. The marginal part in every outside leaf contained more calcium than midrib of leaf. This dependence weakly appeared in leaves wrapping the head and was absent inside the head, where often the calcium concentration was higher in the midrib part of leaf than in the margin part. Distinct differences in the calcium content in leaves of four culti vars of F1, Chinese cabbage: ´Bilko', ´Parkin', 'Kasumi' and 'Yamiko' were not found. These cultivars differed clearly in the susceptibility to the tipburn incidence which appearance depended also on the temperature stress.

  20. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Manan

    2010-04-30

    This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm formation and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Populations of loosely and strongly attached Salmonella were obtained to calculate the attachment strength (S(R)). Biofilm formation, as determined by microtiter plate assay, varied with strain and growth medium used. Salmonella Tennessee and S. Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to S. Newport, S. Negev, and S. Braenderup. Biofilm formation was also stronger when Salmonella spp. were grown in diluted TSB (1:10). S. Tennessee, which produced strong biofilms, attached to produce surfaces at significantly higher numbers than the populations of S. Negev. Overall, S. Tennessee displayed more biofilm formation in vitro and attached more strongly to lettuce than other serovars. All Salmonella serovars attached rapidly on intact and cut produce surfaces. Salmonella spp. attached to Romaine lettuce at significantly higher numbers than those attached to Iceberg lettuce or cabbage. Salmonella attached preferentially to cut surface of all produce; however, the difference between Salmonella populations attached to intact and cut surfaces was similar (P>0.05). Salmonella attachment to both intact and cut produce surfaces increased with time. The overall attachment strength of Salmonella was significantly lower on cabbage (0.12) followed by Iceberg (0.23) and Romaine lettuce (0.34). Cabbage, intact or cut, did not support attachment of Salmonella as well as Romaine lettuce. Understanding the attachment mechanisms of Salmonella to produce may be useful in developing new intervention strategies to prevent produce outbreaks. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Host plant driven transcriptome plasticity in the salivary glands of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Galbraith, David A; Grozinger, Christina M; Felton, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Generalist herbivores feed on a wide array of plants and need to adapt to varying host qualities and defenses. One of the first insect derived secretions to come in contact with the plant is the saliva. Insect saliva is potentially involved in both the pre-digestion of the host plant as well as induction/suppression of plant defenses, yet how the salivary glands respond to changes in host plant at the transcriptional level is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how the labial salivary gland transcriptome varies according to the host plant on which the insect is feeding. In order to determine this, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) larvae were reared on cabbage, tomato, and pinto bean artificial diet. Labial glands were dissected from fifth instar larvae and used to extract RNA for RNASeq analysis. Assembly of the resulting sequencing reads resulted in a transcriptome library for T. ni salivary glands consisting of 14,037 expressed genes. Feeding on different host plant diets resulted in substantial remodeling of the gland transcriptomes, with 4,501 transcripts significantly differentially expressed across the three treatment groups. Gene expression profiles were most similar between cabbage and artificial diet, which corresponded to the two diets on which larvae perform best. Expression of several transcripts involved in detoxification processes were differentially expressed, and transcripts involved in the spliceosome pathway were significantly downregulated in tomato-reared larvae. Overall, this study demonstrates that the transcriptomes of the salivary glands of the cabbage looper are strongly responsive to diet. It also provides a foundation for future functional studies that can help us understand the role of saliva of chewing insects in plant-herbivore interactions.

  2. Analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations in types of cabbage marketed in Hamedan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, due to the accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with wastewater and treated with sewage sludge has become increasing concern in the field of food safety and health of consumers. Therefore this study was conducted for analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations of 3 types of cabbage marketed in Hamedan City during 2013. For this purpose after buying 30 samples of each species of cabbage and then acid digestion of the samples according to standard methods, elements (Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were determined using ICP-OES (Varian, 710-ES, Australia. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. The results showed that mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in Cabbage samples were 15.53±3.43, 59.33±5.35, 2.22±1.61 and 14.97±2.83 mg/kg, respectively; mean concentrations of these elements in red cabbage samples were 23.03±5.89, 37.53±4.21, 13.33±3.24 and 15.03±3.04 mg/kg, respectively; and mean concentrations of elements in broccoli samples were 8.00±3.63, 45.90±5.86, 8.20±3.39 and 16.93±3.08 mg/kg, respectively. Also comparison of the mean concentrations of evaluated metals in specimens with FAO/WHO permissible limits showed that significant difference (p

  3. Identification of Chinese cabbage genotypes with low cadmium accumulation for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Weitao [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: zhouqx@nankai.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu Rui [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2009-06-15

    The pot-culture experiment and field studies were conducted to screen out and identify cadmium (Cd) excluders from 40 Chinese cabbage genotypes for food safety. The results of the pot-culture experiment indicated that the shoot Cd concentrations under three treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg Cd kg{sup -1} Soil) varied significantly (p < 0.05), with average values of 0.70, 3.07 and 5.83 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The Cd concentrations in 12 cabbage genotypes were lower than 0.50 mg kg{sup -1}. The enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) in 8 cabbage genotypes were lower than 1.0. The field studies further identified Lvxing 70 as a Cd-excluder genotype (CEG), which is suitable to be planted in low Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration should be lower than 1.25 mg kg{sup -1}) for food safety. - Lvxing 70 was identified as a Cd-excluder genotype (CEG) and suitable to be cultivated in low Cd-contaminated soils for food safety.

  4. Parasitoid Quality of Gronotoma micromorpha Parasitizing Liriomyza huidobrensis on Chinese Cabbage and Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA DAHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with the aim to investigate the quality of Gronotoma micromorpha which attack the immature developmental stages of Liriomyza huidobrensis has been carried out. Such variables as body length measured from caput to the tip of abdomen, wing span and the length of tibia of hind leg were measured to represent parasitoid quality. The immature developmental stage period of the parasitoid was also recorded. The result indicated that a better quality Gronotoma was obtained when it was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on chinese cabbage with the average of 123.85 m for body length, 253.45 m for wing span, and 42.85 m for the length of hind tibia, respectively. When Gronotoma was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on soy bean, its size became smaller with the average of 97.7 um for body length, 214.3 um for wing span, and 37.2 um for the hind tibia. When it is developed in the Liriomyza on chinese cabbage host plant the immature developmental period of Gronotoma is sligthly shorter with the average of 18.4 and 17.3 days for which developed in the larvae and pupa respectively and on soy bean it become longer with the average of 19.2 days for in eggs, 19.9 days for that in the larvae. On chinese cabbage, Liriomyza tend to have bigger size for both flies and pupae.

  5. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Weitao [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: Zhouqx@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); An Jing; Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu Rui [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  6. Phosphorus fertilization of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbages in phosphorus-rich Eutrustox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop fertilization with P is a practice that constantly needs to be improved because of its high cost, natural reserve constraints, and environmental impact caused by the excessive use of nutrients. Phosphorus rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the cultivation of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata in a P-rich Eutrustox soil (93 mg P dm-3 in Jaboticabal (21°15'22'' S, 48°15'58" W; 575 m a.s.l., São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Phosphorus rates influenced plant characteristics and soil P content. Maximum leaf and soil P content was obtained with 720 kg P2O5 ha-1, but maximum values of leaf area, leaf dry mass, cabbage head mass, and productivity were obtained with 420, 310, 430, and 437.5 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Results indicate that even crops grown in a P-rich soil benefit from applying P fertilizer, which has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of the 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis and Molecular Marker Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjuan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the visual appearance and high carotenoid content, orange inner leaves are a desirable trait for the Chinese cabbage. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of orange inner leaves, the BrCRTISO (Bra031539 gene, as the Br-or candidate gene, was analyzed among the white and orange varieties, and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified. However, only one SNP (C952 to T952 altered the amino acid sequence, resulting in a mutation from Leu318 to Phe318 in the orange varieties. Additionally, we analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the orange and white F2 individuals (14-401 × 14-490 and found four downregulated genes were involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, which may lead to the accumulation of prolycopene and other carotenoid pigments in the orange inner leaves. In addition, we developed a novel InDel marker in the first intron, which cosegregates with the phenotypes of orange color inner leaves. In conclusion, these findings enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanism of pigment accumulation in the inner leaves of the Chinese cabbage. Additionally, the SNP (C952 to T952 and the InDel marker will facilitate the marker-assisted selection during Chinese cabbage breeding.

  8. SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NORMAL HYDROCARBON, NONADECANE IN THE CABBAGE VEGETABLES SAMPLES (Brassica oleracea VAR. CAPITATA F. ALBA BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic normal hydrocarbon (NH, nonadecane in the methanolic extract of the whole of cabbage samples collected from different districts of Bangladesh was analyzed by GC-MS. It was observed that NH deposition on the samples takes place in different morphological parts of the biological materials. The NH, nonadecane, was found in the cabbage samples collected from the highway road side by the extraction of methanol. The identification and quantification of the title compounds have not been reported previously in the cabbage sample.   Keywords: Cabbage; brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba; quantification; normal hydrocarbon, nonadecane, GC-MS

  9. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and medium zeolite doses (≤ 10 g · kg⁻¹), while inhibited by high zeolite doses (20 g · kg⁻¹). Compared to ordinary zeolite, the biomass of Chinese cabbage was significantly increased

  10. Genistein: a novel anthocyanin synthesis promoter that directly regulates biosynthetic genes in red cabbage in a light-dependent way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genistein (GNT, an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage.

  11. Effect of Boiling on the Content of Ascorbigen, Indole-3-carbinol, Indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3 '-Diindolylmethane in Fermented Cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciska, E.; Verkerk, R.; Honke, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the boiling process on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage. The cabbage was boiled for 5 to 60 min. Boiling resulted in a decrease of the total content of the

  12. Mapping QTLs for mineral accumulation and shoot dry biomass under different Zn nutritional conditions in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Yuan, Y.X.; Zhang, X.W.; Zhao, J.; Song, X.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Sun, R.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Wang, X.W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in China. Genetic dissection of leaf mineral accumulation and tolerance to Zn stress is important for the improvement of the nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage by breeding. A mapping population

  13. Microspore induced doubled haploids production from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) soaked flower buds is an efficient strategy for mutagenesis in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yin; Dai, Shuangyan; Gu, Aixia; Liu, Mengyang; Wang, Yanhua; Luo, Shuangxia; Zhao, Yujing; Wang, Shan; Xuan, Shuxin; Chen, Xueping; Li, Xiaofeng; Bonnema, Guusje; Zhao, Jianjun; Shen, Shuxing

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage buds were soaked with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce mutagenesis. The influence of different EMS concentrations and treatment durations on microspore development, embryo production rate and seedling rate were evaluated in five Chinese cabbage genotypes. Mutations in four

  14. USE OF CELL ENGINEERING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTANT INITIAL BREEDING MATERIAL OF WHITE HEAD CABBAGE CV. NADZEJA AND CMS SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yakimovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anther derived androgenic plants of white head cabbage cv. Nadzeja and CMS samples were obtained. The cytological analysis of ploidy level of regenerated plants and doubled haploids obtained by treatment of meristems with colchicine was performed. On the basis of androgenic doubled hap loids of white head cabbage genotypes the seed plants were developed.

  15. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2, respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1, seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2, two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  16. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  17. Microbiota contaminante em repolho minimamente processado Microbial population in minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Fantuzzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota contaminante de repolho minimamente processado foi avaliada durante as etapas de sanitização e estocagem sob atmosfera modificada passiva em embalagens com diferentes taxas de permeabilidade a O2 e CO2 e a 1ºC, 5ºC e 12ºC. A sanitização do repolho por 10min., à temperatura ambiente, em soluções sanitizantes de hipoclorito de sódio a 200mgL-1, de composto orgânico clorado a 200mgL-1 ou ácido acético a 1% reduziu em, no máximo, 1,8log10 UFCg-1 a população de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos. A concentração de CO2 no interior das embalagens variou significativamente (PThe microbial populations associated with minimally processed cabbage after sanitation and storage at 1ºC, 5ºC and 12ºC under modified atmosphere was analyzed. Sanitation of cabbage for ten minutes at room temperature in 200mgL-1 sodium hypochlorite and chlorinated organic compound or 1% acetic acid resulted in the reduction of up to 1.8log10CFUg-1 in the aerobic mesophilic bacteria population (P0.05 differences in concentrations of CO2 were found in the interior of the packages during fifteen days of storage. No variation was found in the mesophilic aerobic or anaerobic counts, and psycrotrophic microorganisms during storage at 1ºC and 5ºC for the three packaging materials used. The minimally processed cabbage was in good sensorial conditions for up to 20 days of storage at 1ºC and 5ºC in the packaging materials of high O2 permeability. The samples packed in transparent plastic trays sealed with thermal-shrinking PVC presented undesirable sensorial characteristics on the twentieth day of storage at 5ºC. After five days of storage at 12ºC the fresh-cut cabbage presented evident signs of deterioration, as dark spots, slime and off odor. There was a 3log10 CFUg-1 increase in the aerobic and anaerobic mesophiles and psycrotrophic populations in these samples.

  18. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoming; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2013-08-23

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the

  20. HPLC/UV analysis of chlorfenapyr residues in cabbage and soil to study the dynamics of different formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongsong; Chen, Jiuxin; Wang, Yuelong; Liang, Ji; Chen, Lihua; Lu, Yitong

    2005-11-01

    The chlorfenapyr analysis method of residue, its degradation and final residue in soil and cabbage were studied. Residues of chlorfenapyr were extracted from soil and cabbage with acetone/water, purified by liquid/liquid partition and chromatographic column, concentrated to a small volume, and then determined by HPLC equipped with UV detector. The mean accuracy of analytical method were 93.3% and 90.6% in soil and cabbage, respectively; the precision (repeatability) in cabbage ranging from 1.7% to 11.8%, in soil ranging from 2.8% to 11.2%; the precision (reproducibility) in cabbage ranged from 2.2% to 12.1%, in soil it ranged from 2.4% to 11.5%. The minimum detectable amount of chlorfenapyr was 0.65 ng, the minimum detectable concentration was 0.0162 mg kg-1. The degradation of chlorfenapyr formulations in soil and cabbage was determined. The results showed that chlorfenapyr nanoformulation and suspension concentration degradation in soil coincided with C=0.2538 e-0.1612t, C=0.537 e-0.1754t, respectively; the half-lives were about 4.3 d and 3.9 d, respectively. Two kinds of chlorfenapyr formulation degradation in cabbage coincided with C=4.0431 e-0.3103t, C=6.9611 e-0.2686t respectively; the half-lives were about 2.2 d and 2.6, d, respectively. When chlorfenapyr formulations were applied according to the double recommended dose, the final residues in cabbage were much lower than the USA EPA's maximum residue limit of 1 mg kg-1 in vegetables. The degradation rate of chlorfenapyr nanoformulation was faster than that of suspension concentration, and the former residue was also less in soil. Therefore, a harvest interval should be more than 5 d, and a dosage of 900 mL/hm2 was suggested for chlorfenapyr suspension concentration, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. Chlorfenapyr nanoformulation was safer than suspension concentration, its harvest interval and dosage can attain a high level.

  1. Effect of gamma ray and {sup 12}C ion beam on the germination, growth and pollen fertility of Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. K.; Kang, K. H.; An, C. H.; Lee, K. S. [New Seoul Seeds and Saplings Technology Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, I. S.; Lee, Y. Y. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The effect of the irradiation of C-12 was not observed on seed germination and plant growth of Chinese cabbage. The germination rate and plant growth of Chinese cabbage was decreased by the ion beam irradiation, but a high difference was not observed. The pollen fertility was also decreased in the irradiation of C-12. The germination, plant growth and pollen fertility were highly affected by gamma irradiation. The optimum doses of gamma ray seemed to be 500-750Gy. The doses of C-12 and proton irradiation seemed to reconsidered.

  2. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts.

  3. Cold plasma treatment for the microbiological safety of cabbage, lettuce, and dried figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Min, Sea C

    2015-10-01

    Microwave-powered cold plasma treatment (CPT) was evaluated as a means to improve the microbiological safety of fresh vegetables and dried fruits. The CPT at 900 W, conducted for 10 min using nitrogen as a plasma-forming gas, inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated on cabbage and lettuce by approximately 1.5 log CFU/g. The CPT at 400-900 W and 667 Pa, conducted for 1-10 min using a helium-oxygen gas mixture, inactivated Listeria monocytogenes on cabbage by 0.3-2.1 log CFU/g in a time-dependent manner (P lettuce by 1.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/g. As the water activity of the dried figs increased from 0.70 to 0.93, the reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes on figs increased from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g and from 1.0 to 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The microbial inactivation by CPT increased synergistically when the pH of the figs was reduced from 6 to 4. CTPs have potential application to increase the microbiological safety of vegetables and dried fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang, E-mail: ceszf@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC–MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. - Highlights: • In vivo SPME was employed to sample organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. • Uptake and elimination of OPPs were traced in cabbage and aloe. • In vivo tracing of fenthion demonstrated its metabolites could be rather dangerous. • The risks of OPPs were assessed based on the in vivo tracing data.

  5. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Release and characterization of single side chains of white cabbage pectin and their complement-fixing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westereng, B.; Coenen, G.J.; Michaelsen, T.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Samuelsen, A.B.; Schols, H.A.; Knutsen, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    A mixture of single side chains from white cabbage pectin were obtained by anion exchange chromatography after applying mild chemical conditions promoting -elimination. These pectin fragments were characterized by their molecular weight distribution, sugar composition, 13C-NMR, and MALDI-TOF-MS

  7. Risk of Egg Parasitoid Attraction Depends on Anti-aphrodisiac Titre in the Large Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Swart, de E.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus

  8. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella L...

  9. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub-...

  10. Studies on germination and vigour of cabbage seeds = [Aspecten van de kieming van zaden van witte kool en savoiekool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liou, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of commercial storage of cabbage seeds on the germination of seeds and the emergence and growth of seedlings have been studied. Progressive ageing of seeds caused loss of seed vigour which resulted in poor emergence and growth of seedlings and the formation of abnormal

  11. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September 2. Blue sticky traps were used to capture thrips migrating into the field site from July 22-September 2. Traps were counted weekly and cabbage heads within the field site were visually surveyed for thrips. At harvest, heads were weighed and measured, thrips damage was assessed then the head was dissected and thrips counted on the first four layers of the head. Thrips exhibited a preference for Lennox over Bronco throughout the season although thrips populations were not high enough to effect economic damage in 2014. Planting date influenced cabbage head weight and size with later plantings yielding the largest heads. Use of planting date and variety to avoid thrips populations is discussed.

  12. Molecular Characterization of a Leaf Senescence-Related Transcription Factor BrWRKY75 of Chinese Flowering Cabbage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TAN Xiaoli FAN Zhongqi LI Lulu WU Ya KUANG Jianfei LU Wangjin CHEN Jianye

    2016-01-01

    ...; however, its role in leaf senescence of leafy vegetables remains unknown. In the present work, a WRKY TF, termed Br WRKY75 was isolated from Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis(L.) Mokino var. utilis Tsen et Lee...

  13. Growth and physiological responses of Chinese cabbage cv. 'Chungwang' to different irradiances during early-to-middle growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes of the growth and morphology of Chinese cabbage cv. ‘Chungwang’ in response to five different irradiance treatments were investigated during the early and middle stages of growth. Seedlings were transplanted to 15 liter pots at the fourth leaf stage and plants were grown in controlled enviro...

  14. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption.

  15. Melatonin improved anthocyanin accumulation by regulating gene expressions and resulted in high reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we found that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase, was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth.

  16. Effect of Urine, Poultry Manure, and Dewatered Faecal Sludge on Agronomic Characteristics of Cabbage in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Amoah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was to assess the: (i effect of human urine and other organic inputs on cabbage growth, yield, nutrient uptake, N-use efficiency, and soil chemical characteristics; (ii economic returns of the use of urine and/or other organic inputs as a source of fertiliser for cabbage production. To meet these objectives, participatory field trials were conducted at Dzorwulu, Accra. Four different treatments (Urine alone, Urine + dewatered faecal sludge (DFS, Urine + poultry droppings (PD, NPK (15-15-15 + PD were applied in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD with soil alone as control. Each treatment was applied at a rate of 121 kg·N·ha−1 corresponding to the Nitrogen requirement of cabbage in Ghana. Growth and yield parameters, plant nutrient uptake, and soil chemical characteristics were determined using standard protocols. There were no significant differences between treatments for cabbage head weight, or total and marketable yields. However, unmarketable yield from NPK + PD was 1 to 2 times higher (p < 0.05 than those from Urine + PD, Urine + DFS, and Urine alone. Seasonal effect on yields was also pronounced with higher (p < 0.001 cabbage head weight (0.95 kg and marketable yields (12.7 kg·ha−1 in the dry season than the rainy season (0.42 kg and 6.27 kg·ha−1. There was higher (p < 0.005 phosphorous uptake in cabbage from Urine + PD treated soil than those from other treatments. Nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, and potassium (K uptake in the dry season was significantly higher than the rainy season. Soils treated with Urine + DFS and Urine + PD were high in total N content. Urine + PD and Urine + DFS treated soils gave fairly high yield than PD + NPK with a net gain of US$1452.0 and US$1663.5, respectively. The application of urine in combination with poultry droppings has the potential to improve cabbage yields, nutrient uptake, and soil nitrogen and phosphorous content.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of photosynthetic characteristics and quality improvement of purple cabbage under different combinations of monochromatic light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyun Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R, monochromic blue (B, monochromic yellow (Y, monochromic green (G and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB, red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY, red /blue/green (3/1/1,RBG and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1 treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1 significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 29.99% and 14.29% compared with the control respectively, RBY (3/1/1 appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.63% and 4.07% respectively compared with the control. Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1 light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables

  18. Comprehensive Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Quality Improvement of Purple Cabbage under Different Combinations of Monochromatic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biyun; Zhou, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ru; Wang, Jin; Lin, Yizhang; Pang, Jie; Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod, and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition) of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R), monochromic blue (B), monochromic yellow (Y), monochromic green (G), and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB), red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY), red/blue/green (3/1/1,RBG), and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1) treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1) significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 30.0 and 14.3% compared with the control, respectively), RBY (3/1/1) appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.6 and 4.1%, respectively compared with the control). Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1) light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables grown in

  19. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  20. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyang Wu; Yong Chen; Shah Faisal; Aman Khan; Zhengjun Chen; Zhenmin Ling; Pu Liu; Xiangkai Li

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55?g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134?mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold hig...

  1. Development of Species-Specific Primers for Plasmodiophora brassicae, Clubroot Pathogen of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin is one of the most damaging diseases of Brassicaceae family. In this study, we developed species-specific primer sets for rapid and accurate detection of P. brassicae. The primer sets developed amplified a specific fragment only from P. brassicae DNA while they did not amplify a band from 10 other soilborne pathogens or from Kimchi cabbage. In sensitivity test, the species-specific primer set ITS1-1/ITS1-2 could work for approximately 10 spores/ml of genomic DNA showing more sensitivity and accuracy than previous methods. With quantitative real-time PCR test, the primer set detected less spores of P. brassicae than before, confirming that the species-specific primer set could be useful for rapid and accurate detection of P. brassicae.

  2. Factors affecting uptake of {sup 131}I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk; Cheung, T.; Luo, D.L.; Li, M.F

    2000-06-01

    The factors affecting the uptake of {sup 131}I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg{sup -1} dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg{sup -1} dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10{sup -2} to 1.1x10{sup -2} when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of {sup 131}I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3{+-}4.4)x10{sup -2}.

  3. VIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS IN CABBAGE SEEDS IN DEPENDS ON STAGE OF MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Panayotov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the present study were to establish the changes during different stage of maturity and development of cabbage seed as well as earliest behaviors of viability and harvesting data. The experiments were carried out with two typical Bulgarian cultivars Balkan and Ditmarsko ranno. Samples of seeds in different days after fl owering – 30, 40, 50 and 60 days were analyzed. The physiological parameters and viability and vigor were investigated. The weight of one seeds was highest between 40 and 50 days. The primary germination was observed in seed harvested in 30 days, but the stability one was registered on 60 day. The intensity of respiration and activity of enzyme peroxides changed during seed development and maturity.

  4. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  6. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kawamura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers.

  7. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the growth-regulating factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Fengde; Qiu, Nianwei; Ding, Qian; Li, Jingjuan; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Gao, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    .... GRF genes represent a large multigene family in plants. Recently, genome-wide structural and evolutionary analyses of the GRF gene families in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize have been reported. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis...

  8. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical composition and herbicidal potent of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage turnip (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes). Saad, I., Rinez, I., Ghezal, N., and Haouala, R. (Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Inès Saad; Imen Rinez; Nadia Ghezal; Rabiaa Haouala

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical content and allelopathic potential of two cabbages botanical varieties leaves, ie. cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage turnip (B. oleracea var. gongylodes). Their aqueous and organic extracts were evaluated on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and one of the most dominant weeds in Tunisia, nettle-leaf goosefoot (Chenopodium murale). Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the smothering potential of the two v...

  10. Antioxidative properties of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) external leaves against DPPH, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid

    OpenAIRE

    Vrchovska, V.; Sousa, C.; Valentão, P.; Ferreres, F.; PEREIRA, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of the aqueous extract of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) external leaves to act as a scavenger of DPPH- and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid) was investigated. A phytochemical study was also undertaken, and thirteen phenolic compounds and five organic acids were identified and quantified. Tronchuda cabbage extracts exhibited antioxidant capacity in a concentration-dependent manner in all assays, ...

  11. Yield, quality, and concentration of seven heavy metals in cabbage and broccoli grown in sewage sludge and chicken manure amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Coolong, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of heavy metals from soil into the food chain and their subsequent bioaccumulation has increased the attention they receive as major environmental pollutants. The objectives of this investigation were to: i) study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or chicken manure (CM) on yield and quality of cabbage and broccoli, ii) quantify the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in soil amended with SS or CM, and iii) determine bioavailability of heavy metals to cabbage leaves and broccoli heads at harvest. Analysis of the two soil amendments used in this investigation indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and organic matter content were significantly greater (P grown in soil amended with CM was low compared to plants grown in no-mulch soil. No significant differences were found in Cd and Pb accumulation between cabbage and broccoli. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo were greater in broccoli than cabbage. Total metals and plant available metals were also determined in the native and amended soils. Results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals in soils did not necessary reflect metals available to plants. Regardless of soil amendments, the overall bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of seven heavy metals in cabbage leaves and broccoli heads revealed that cabbage and broccoli were poor accumulators of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb (BAF 1 for Zn and Mo. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF >1) of cabbage grown in chicken manure mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when cabbage is grown on sites having high concentrations of these two metals.

  12. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  13. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  14. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  15. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  16. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels.

  17. A SIX1 Homolog in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans Is Required for Full Virulence on Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erfeng; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Jiling; Ling, Jian; Yang, Yuhong; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-born fungus that induces wilt and root rot on a variety of plants. F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) can cause wilt disease on cabbage. This study showed that a homolog of SIX1 protein in the Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176 (Fo5176-SIX1) had four isoforms in the conidia of Foc by proteomic analysis. Thus, we analyzed the roles of protein Foc-SIX1. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared to the expression in mycelia, dramatically altered expression of Foc-SIX1 could be detected after infecting cabbages, and Foc-SIX1 was highly expressed in conidia under axenic culture condition. Furthermore, we knocked out the Foc-SIX1 gene and found that Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants had significantly reduced virulence compared with wild type isolate, and full virulence was restored by complementation of Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants with Foc-SIX1. Thus, we concluded that SIX1 in Foc was required for full virulence on cabbage. We also complemented Foc-ΔSIX1 with SIX1 gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and found Foc-ΔSIX1::Fol-SIX1 mutants did not affect the virulence of Foc-ΔSIX1. The results confirmed that Fol-SIX1 was not capable of replacing the role of Foc-SIX1 in Foc on the disease symptom development of cabbage. The roles of Fol-SIX1 on virulence might rely on host specificity.

  18. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  19. Evaluation of antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) on Wistar rat gastric ulceration

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Camilo Amaro de; Fernandes,Kenner Moraes; Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Silva, Marcelo Barreto da; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Fonseca, Cláudio César

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: The cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata) is an herbaceous and leafy plant which belongs to the Brassicaceae family, native to coastal southern and Western Europe. Used in cooking for its nutritional value also has known anti-inflammatory activity. OBJECTIVE We studied the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (AEB) in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the gastric disorders. METHOD: Acute gastric ulcers we...

  20. Effects of the size and morphology of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the germination of Chinese cabbage seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lei; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Li, Yan-Wen; Huang, Xian-Pei; Wu, Xiao-Lian; Zhai, Teng; Yuan, Yue; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2015-07-01

    The toxicity of four zinc oxide nanoparticles (i.e., spheric ZnO-30, spheric ZnO-50, columnar ZnO-90, and hexagon rod-like ZnO-150) to the seed germination of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) was investigated in this study. The results showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) did not affect germination rates at concentrations of 1-80 mg/L but significantly inhibited the root and shoot elongation of Chinese cabbage seedlings, with the roots being more sensitive. The inhibition was evident mainly during seed incubation rather than the seed soaking process. Both the production of free hydroxyl groups (·OH) and the Zn bioaccumulation in roots or shoots resulted in toxicity of nano-ZnOs to Chinese cabbage seedlings. The toxicity of nano-ZnOs was affected significantly by their primary particle sizes in the minimum dimensionality, but large columnar ZnO-90 and small spherical ZnO-50 had comparable toxicities. Therefore, both the particle size and morphology affected the toxicity of nano-ZnOs.

  1. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  2. Effects of band placement and nitrogen rate on dry matter accumulation, yield and nitrogen uptake of cabbage, carrot and onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nitrogen (N nutrition is essential for producing high vegetable yields of good quality. Fertilizer N not taken up by the plants is, however, economically wasteful and can be lost to the environment. Therefore the efficient use of N fertilizer, involving accurate estimation of crop N demand, choice of application method and timing of N fertilization, is an important research area. The effects of band placement and rate of N fertilization on inorganic N in the soil and the dry matter accumulation, yield and N uptake of cabbage, carrot and onion were studied in a three-year field experiment between 1993 and 1995. The plants were sampled during the growing season to determine the dry matter accumulation and plant N concentration. The inorganic N in the soil was determined during the growing period and after harvest. The N uptake was 3.8 kg, 1.6 kg and 2.5 kg per ton of edible yield of cabbage, carrot and onion, respectively. At the highest yield levels the N uptake including crop residues was 300 kg ha-1, 150 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 in cabbage, carrot and onion, respectively. In cabbage, almost 50% of N was in crop residues, whereas in carrot and onion only about 30% of N was in crop residues. Nitrogen uptake from non-fertilized soil varied from 29 to 160 kg ha-1, depending on the growing season and the crop. Cabbage and carrot utilised soil N efficiently, usually taking up more than 100 kg ha-1 from non-fertilized soil. Onion, on the contrary, utilised soil N relatively poorly, usually less than 50 kg ha-1 from non-fertilized soil. The rate of N uptake was low with all crops in early summer. After one month, N uptake increased in cabbage and onion. This uptake continued until harvest, i.e. mid-August for onion and early September for cabbage. Nitrogen uptake by carrot started rapidly only two months after sowing and continued until harvest at the end of September. High N rates often resulted in high N concentrations and N uptakes, but

  3. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    .), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial...... related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L...

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect...... related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.), “tri...

  6. Volatile-Mediated Interactions between Cabbage Plants in the Field and the Impact of Ozone Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron-Calva, Patricia Sarai; Li, Tao; Blande, James D

    2017-04-01

    Plants constitutively release volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but qualitatively and quantitatively alter their emission of VOCs in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. The blend of VOCs emitted reflects the physiological status of the plant. Plants may be exposed to the VOC blend emitted by their near neighbors and gain information that allows them to adjust their own defenses. These plant-plant interactions may potentially be exploited to protect crops from pests, but they can be disturbed by abiotic factors making the process sensitive to environmental perturbation. Despite numerous studies describing plant-plant interactions, relatively few have been conducted with agriculturally significant cultivated plant varieties under field conditions. Here we studied plant-plant interactions in a conspecific association of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) and show that undamaged plants exposed to neighbors damaged by the herbivore Pieris brassicae are primed for stronger volatile emissions upon subsequent herbivore attack. We conducted a field study in an ozone free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) facility with ambient and elevated ozone levels and found that elevated tropospheric ozone significantly alters the priming of VOCs in receiver plants. We conclude that plant-plant interactions may prime defensive attributes of receiver plants under field conditions, but are impaired by ozone pollution. Therefore, when planning the manipulation of plant-plant interactions for agricultural purposes, the potential effects of atmospheric pollutants should be considered.

  7. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  8. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nobuto; Okamoto, Naoki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs) after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid.

  9. Phenology of cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala L in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodeschrysocephala (L. is an important pest of winter oilseed rape in Serbia. Beetles colonize oilseed rape in early October and are active in the field until first frost and wintertime. In autumn, adults can be seen laying eggs in the soil around plants. Larvae of P. chrysocephala developed intensively on leaf petioles in November, reaching their highest numbers at the end of the month. No infested plants were found in a conventional field, while 14.5% of all dissected leaf petioles were infested on an integrated field. On unprotected plants in an organic field, 76.0% of the plants were infested with larvae at the growth-stage BBCH 18-19, with 31.1% infested leaves on average. As a results, the number of plants was reduced by 51%, i.e. from 43.0/m2 recorded in the autumn to 22.0/m2 in the following spring. A new generation of P. chrysocephala beetles emerged from the soil in the first half of June and rapidly escaped the fields from almost dry plants. Our results showed that a part of the population stayed in aestivation and emerged in the following crop during the next season. On the following 5 March, 0.5 beetles/m2 were found in emergence cages in the organic field, while 0.81 beetles/m2 were found in the former trap crop.

  10. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  11. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  12. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  13. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  14. Reference material certification of chinese cabbage composition for selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Chupakhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. The reference material of composition with the established metrological characteristics including a certified value and an expanded uncertainty is necessary to ensure an effective accuracy and precision control of results of element composition determination in food ingredients and products. This paper represents the development of a reference material of food crop composition for selenium, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. Methods. To identify the selenium the hybrid atomic absorption method was used, to identify the nitrogen and phosphorus the photometric method was used, to determine the potassium flame-photometric method was used. When determining the metrological characteristics of the reference material the Russian national instructions and recommendations MI 3174-2009 and P 50.2.058-2007 were applied. Results. Based on the research findings the reference material of Chinese cabbage composition with a certified value and an expanded uncertainty was developed: for selenium 0.044 ± 0.017 mg/kg; for nitrogen 4.09 ± 0.27 %; for phosphorus 0.69 ± 0.14 %; for potassium 2.87 ± 0.22 %.

  15. Development of an Effective Nonchemical Method against Plasmodiophora brassicae on Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot disease, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is a serious soil-borne disease of crucifer worldwide, and it can significantly reduce yield and quality. Although some agrochemicals have been used to manage clubroot and can provide effective control, increasing use of chemical inputs causes several negative effects. In this study, using Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis as the test crop, we developed an effective nonchemical method that would protect the roots against P. brassicae infection by using a combination heat treatment and a cocktail of biocontrol agents. The data showed that this method could cause 91.7% inhibition of P. brassicae infection. The average height of plants (13.5 cm using this method was about twice higher than that in control group (6.7 cm, and the average plant weight (3.19 g was about three times increased compared to that in control set (1.23 g.

  16. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  17. {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 134}Cs levels in mature Chinese cabbage related to time of foliar application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H.; Lim, K.M.; Park, H.G.; Park, D.W.; Lee, W.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    For analyzing the direct contamination pathway of radionuclides in Chinese cabbage, a solution containing {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 134}Cs was applied to Chinese cabbage in a greenhouse via foliar spraying at 5 different times during plant growth. Interception of the applied activity by the plant showed no difference among radionuclides and increased with decreasing time intervals between RI application and harvest. The highest observed interception factor was 0.87. The fractions of the initial plant deposition that remained in the mature plant varied 10-61% for {sup 57}Co, 16-58% for {sup 85}Sr and 33-64% for {sup 134}Cs but these values decreased to 3-37%, 2-35% and 14-40%, respectively, when the 6 outmost leaves were removed. It was indicated that rain plays an important role in the weathering loss of the activity from plant. Tying the upper end of the plant just before the last application markedly reduced the radionuclide concentrations in the edible portion of mature Chinese cabbage. The present results can be referred to in predicting the radionuclide concentrations in Chinese cabbage and deciding counter-measures when an accidental release occurs during the growing season of Chinese cabbage. (author)

  18. One more step toward a push-pull strategy combining both a trap crop and plant volatile organic compounds against the cabbage root fly Delia radicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Fabrice; Dugravot, Sébastien; Cortesero, Anne Marie; Chaminade, Valérie; Faloya, Vincent; Poinsot, Denis

    2017-07-24

    The "push-pull" strategy aims at manipulating insect pest behavior using a combination of attractive and repulsive stimuli using either plants derived volatile organic compounds or insect host plant preferences. In a field experiment using broccoli as a crop, we combined in a "push-pull" context the oviposition deterrent effect of dimethyl disulfide and the attractive effect of a Chinese cabbage strip enhanced with Z-3-hexenyl-acetate. The push component dimethyl disulfide reduced Delia radicum L. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) oviposition on broccoli by nearly 30%, and applying Z-3-hexenyl-acetate in the pull component of Chinese cabbage increased it by 40%. Moreover, pest infestation was 40% higher in Chinese cabbage compared to broccoli and parasitism by Trybliographa rapae Westwood (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) was four times higher on this trap plant. In addition, lab experiments confirmed that Chinese cabbage is a more suitable host plant than broccoli for the cabbage root fly. Taken together, our results demonstrate the technical possibility of using a push-pull strategy to manipulate the egg-laying behavior of D. radicum in the field.

  19. Immobilization of starch phosphorylase from cabbage leaves: production of glucose-1-phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Garg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch phosphorylase has been isolated from cabbage (Elephantopus scabar leaves and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The partially purified enzyme was desalted using Sephadex-G-25 chromatography. In the direction of polysaccharide synthesis, the enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 6.0 with two half pH optima at pH 5.3 and pH 7.1 whereas in the direction of glucose-1-phosphate formation, it showed optimum pH at pH 7.0 with half pH-optima at pH 6.4 and 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme activity has been found to be 37ºC with two half temperature optima at 34ºC and 40ºC. The partially purified enzyme has been immobilized using egg shell as solid support. The percentage retention of the enzyme on egg shell was nearly 56%. After immobilization, specific activity of the enzyme increased from 0. 0225 to 0.0452. Upon immobilization, there was a slight alkaline shift in the optimum pH when assayed in both the directions. The immobilized enzyme also displayed increased optimum temperature and thermo-stability and could be reused number of times. The increase in thermo-stability and reusability of the immobilized enzyme has been exploited for the production of glucose-1-phosphate, a cytostatic compound used in cardio-therapy. The glucose-1-phosphate produced has been purified with nearly 95% purity after adsorption chromatography on norite and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose.

  20. Microbial Community Structure of Korean Cabbage Kimchi and Ingredients with Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Wook; Choi, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Hae-Won; Yang, Ji-Hee; Lee, Mi-Ai

    2016-06-28

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable food, the production of which involves brining of Korean cabbage, blending with various other ingredients (red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, salt-pickled seafood, etc.), and fermentation. Recently, kimchi has also become popular in the Western world because of its unique taste and beneficial properties such as antioxidant and antimutagenic activities, which are derived from the various raw materials and secondary metabolites of the fermentative microorganisms used during production. Despite these useful activities, analysis of the microbial community present in kimchi has received relatively little attention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bacterial community structure from the raw materials, additives, and final kimchi product using the culture-independent method. Specifically, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to analyze the 16S rRNA partial sequences of the microflora. One primer set for bacteria, 341F(GC)-518R, reliably produced amplicons from kimchi and its raw materials, and these bands were clearly separated on a 35-65% denaturing gradient gel. Overall, 117 16S rRNA fragments were identified by PCR-DGGE analysis. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc gelidum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant bacteria in kimchi. The other strains identified were Tetragenococcus, Pseudomonas, Weissella, and uncultured bacterium. Comprehensive analysis of these microorganisms could provide a more detailed understanding of the biologically active components of kimchi and help improve its quality. PCR-DGGE analysis can be successfully applied to a fermented food to detect unculturable or other species.

  1. Does Aphid Infestation Interfere with Indirect Plant Defense against Lepidopteran Caterpillars in Wild Cabbage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yehua; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Chamontri, Surachet; Dicke, Marcel; Gols, Rieta

    2017-05-01

    Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids. Using plants originating from three chemically distinct wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, Diadegma semiclausum switched preference for dually infested plants to preference for plants infested with Plutella xylostella hosts alone when the duration of pre-aphid infestation doubled from 7 to 14 days. Microplitis mediator, a parasitoid of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars, preferred dually-infested plants irrespective of aphid-infestation duration. Separation of the volatile blends emitted by plants infested with hosts plus aphids or with hosts only was poor, based on multivariate statistics. However, emission rates of individual compounds were often reduced in plants infested with aphids plus hosts compared to those emitted by plants infested with hosts alone. This effect depended on host caterpillar species and plant population and was little affected by aphid infestation duration. Thus, the interactive effect of aphids and hosts on plant volatile production and parasitoid attraction can be dynamic and parasitoid specific. The characteristics of the multi-component volatile blends that determine parasitoid attraction are too complex to be deduced from simple correlative statistical analyses.

  2. Safety evaluations on ethanolic extract of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Sankhari, Jayanta M; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    The present study has carried out safety evaluations on an ethanolic extract of red cabbage (RC) leaves in terms of acute and subchronic oral toxicity tests as per Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines in Swiss albino mice. Single-dose administration of RC extract (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 5000 mg/kg body weight) to Swiss albino mice did not manifest toxicity or any significant adverse behavioral alterations. Chronic administration of RC extract (1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 d also did not register any significant alterations in fluid intake, organ weights, plasma lipid profile, plasma creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine, electrolytes, and calcium levels, and the total blood count showed a nonsignificant change. However, significant reduction in body-weight gain, food intake, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin content along with higher alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and urea levels was observed in mice treated with 3000 mg/kg body weight for 28 d. Since there was no mortality up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight, 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) could not be determined, and hence, it can be assumed that, LD(50) of RC extract is >5000 mg/kg. No observable adverse effect level dose of the RC extract was found to be 2000 mg/kg body weight. Hence, consumption of RC extract for various medicinal purposes is safe. Practical Application: RC is a popularly consumed foodstuff that has been ubiquitously reported to exert medicinal properties. It is mandatory to understand the highest permissible consumption limit of any food supplement to avoid toxicity. This study establishes the safe dose of RC. These results can be of relevance for the scientific fraternity as well as laymen who consume this vegetable or its phytochemical preparation.

  3. Cabbage waxes affect Trissolcus brochymenae response to short-range synomones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Francesca; Salerno, Gianandrea; Conti, Eric

    2013-12-01

    We show that induced synomones, emitted as a consequence of Murgantia histrionica activity on Brassica oleracea, are adsorbed by the epicuticular waxes of leaves and perceived by the egg parasitoid Trissolcus brochymenae. Leaves were exposed to M. histrionica females placed on the abaxial leaf surface. After 24 h, the leaves were treated mechanically using gum arabic, or chemically using chloroform, on the adaxial surface, and finally the adaxial surface was assayed with T. brochymenae by two-choice tests in a closed arena. Wasp females responded to mechanically dewaxed cabbage leaf portions with feeding punctures and footprints (Ff) and with feeding punctures, oviposition and footprints (FOf), showing no effect of wax removal. In contrast, the removal of the epicuticular waxes from leaf portions close to FOf, and from leaves with oviposition and footprints (Of), determined the lack of responses by T. brochymenae. Solvent extracts of different treatments were bioassayed, but only FOf triggered parasitoid response. Thus the detection of oviposition-induced synomones by the parasitoid depends on their adsorption by the epicuticular waxes. Mechanical wax removal from leaf portions contaminated with host footprints (f) also determined a lack of wasp responses, suggesting that the footprints might trigger the induction of a "footprint-induced synomone" adsorbed onto the epicuticular waxes and exploited by the parasitoid. Leaf portions with the abaxial lamina previously dewaxed and then contaminated by footprints (D+f) of M. histrionica did not affect the parasitoid response, indicating that the abaxial epicuticular waxes are not directly involved in the chemicals induced by M. histrionica footprints. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. Fate of HTO following its acute soil deposition at different growth stages of Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Ho [Nuclear Environment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yhchoi1@kaeri.re.kr; Kang, Hee-Seok; Jun, In; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Hansoo [Nuclear Environment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Bog [Environmental Research Branch, Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Lee, Chang-Woo [Nuclear Environment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Lysimeter experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to study the fate of HTO following its soil deposition at different growth stages of Chinese cabbage. An HTO solution was applied to the surface of an acidic sandy soil at a time before, and four different times after, sowing. The transfer of HTO to the plants was quantified with the areal transfer factor (TF{sub a}, m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}-fresh) defined as the ratio of the plant concentration at harvest to the areal activity deposition. In the four post-sowing applications, the TF{sub a} values were in the ranges of 1.6 x 10{sup -5}-4.9 x 10{sup -3} for TFWT and 4.5 x 10{sup -6}-4.3 x 10{sup -5} for OBT, increasing with a decrease in the time interval between application and harvest. In the pre-sowing application, which was followed by a soil mixing, the TF{sub a} values for TFWT and OBT were 1.3 x 10{sup -4} and 8.6 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. One week after harvest, soil samplings were made for the applications at 26 (A(26)) and 63 d (A(63)) after sowing. Peaks of the depth profiles of the soil HTO appeared in the 10-15 cm layer for A(26) and the 5-10 cm layer for A(63). The top 30 cm of soil contained 0.5% and 20% of the applied activity for A(26) and A(63), respectively. Negligible fractions seemed to be in the deeper zone. It was estimated that almost all or most of the applied HTO had escaped to the air before plants' harvest.

  5. Carrageenans, sulphated polysaccharides of red seaweeds, differentially affect Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper.

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    Jatinder S Sangha

    Full Text Available Carrageenans are a collective family of linear, sulphated galactans found in a number of commercially important species of marine red alga. These polysaccharides are known to elicit defense responses in plant and animals and possess anti-viral properties. We investigated the effect of foliar application of ι-, κ- and λ-carrageenans (representing various levels of sulphation on Arabidopsis thaliana in resistance to the generalist insect Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper which is known to cause serious economic losses in crop plants. Plants treated with ι- and κ-carrageenan showed reduced leaf damage, whereas those treated with λ- carrageenan were similar to that of the control. In a no-choice test, larval weight was reduced by more than 20% in ι- and κ- carrageenan treatments, but unaffected by λ-carrageenan. In multiple choice tests, carrageenan treated plants attracted fewer T. ni larvae by the fourth day following infestation as compared to the control. The application of carrageenans did not affect oviposition behaviour of T. ni. Growth of T. ni feeding on an artificial diet amended with carrageenans was not different from that fed with untreated control diet. ι-carrageenan induced the expression of defense genes; PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, but κ- and λ-carrageenans did not. Besides PR1, PDF1.2, and TI1, the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis genes CYP79B2, CYP83B1 and glucosinolate hydrolysing QTL, ESM1 were up-regulated by ι-carrageenan treatment at 48 h post infestation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of carrageenan treated leaves showed increased concentrations of both isothiocyanates and nitriles. Taken together, these results show that carrageenans have differential effects on Arabidopsis resistance to T. ni and that the degree of sulphation of the polysaccharide chain may well mediate this effect.

  6. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    , measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant...... (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  7. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  8. Correlation between Changes in Microbial/Physicochemical Properties and Persistence of Human Norovirus during Cabbage Kimchi Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Min; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, So-Ra; Lee, Jae Yong; Ha, Ji-Hyoung

    2017-11-28

    Recently, cabbage kimchi has occasionally been associated with the foodborne diseases of enteric viruses such as human norovirus (HuNoV). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between microbial/physicochemical properties and persistence of HuNoV in experimentally contaminated cabbage kimchi fermented and stored at 4°C or 10°C for 28 days. Changes in organic acid content, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acidity, pH, and salinity were analyzed. The recovery of structurally intact HuNoV was examined for up to 28 days post-inoculation, using a NoV GII.4 monoclonal antibody-conjugated immuno-magnetic separation method combined with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. On day 0, LAB loads were 4.70 log 10 colony forming units/g and HuNoV GII.4 titers were 2.57 log 10 genomic copies/μl, at both temperatures. After 28 days, intact HuNoV titers decreased to 1.58 (4°C) and 1.04 (10°C) log 10 genomic copies/μl, whereas the LAB density increased. This correlated with a gradual increase in lactic acid and acetic acid at both temperatures. Our findings support a statistical correlation between changes in physicochemical properties and the recovery of structurally intact HuNoV GII.4. Moreover, we determined that the production of organic acid and low pH could affect HuNoV GII.4 titers in cabbage kimchi during fermentation. However, HuNoV GII.4 was not completely eliminated by microbial/physicochemical factors during fermentation, although HuNoV GII.4 was reduced. Based on this, we speculate that the persistence of HuNoV GII.4 may be affected by the continually changing conditions during kimchi fermentation.

  9. Expression Analyses of ABCDE Model Genes and Changes in Levels of Endogenous Hormones in Chinese Cabbage Exhibiting Petal-Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan MENG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal formation of floral organs affects plant reproduction and can directly interfere with the progress of breeding programs. Using PCR amplification, ABCDE model genes BraAP2, BraAP3, BraPI, BraAG, BraSHP, and BraSEP were isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis. We examined six development stages of floral buds collected from Chinese cabbage and compared between a line demonstrating normal flowering (A-8 and two mutated lines that exhibited plants having petal-loss (A-16 and A-17. The expression of ABCDE model genes has been analyzed by qRT-PCR. Compared with flower buds of petal-loss plants and normal plants, the expression of A-class gene BraAP2 was significantly decreased during the first to fourth stages, C-class gene BraAG expression was significantly decreased during the first to fifth stages, and D-class gene BraSHP expression was significantly decreased during the first to third stages. Furthermore, B-class gene BraAP3 and BraPI and E-class gene BraSEP expressions were significantly decreased during all six stages of petal-loss plants compared with normal plants. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays detected nine endogenous phytohormones during all stages examined here. Except for the second-stage and third-stage buds, levels of the auxin IAA and cytokinin dhZR were always higher in the petal-loss plants than the normal plants at corresponding time points. Meanwhile, concentrations of GA1+3 at the first, fourth, and fifth stages were higher in the petal-loss plants than in the normal plants. Our results provide a theoretical basis for future exploration of the molecular mechanism that determines petal loss and the effects that hormones have on such development in Chinese cabbage plants.

  10. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  11. Estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado sob diferentes sistemas de embalagem Storage of minimally processed cabbage in differents packaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado acondicionado em embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade com atmosfera modificada ativa e passiva, e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido revestidas com filme de policloreto de vinila. O produto foi armazenado por 16 dias em câmara frigorífica na temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e 95 ± 5 % de umidade relativa, e em um balcão refrigerado similar aos utilizados em lojas de conveniência, com o intuito de representar os locais de comercialização no varejo, com temperatura média de 2,7 ± 3,3 °C. Analisou-se a concentração de oxigênio e dióxido de carbono no interior das embalagens, e no repolho minimamente processado o incremento no escurecimento, luminosidade, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, perda de massa fresca e teor de ácido ascórbico. A estabilidade do repolho minimamente processado mostrou-se superior na temperatura de 5 °C quando comparada ao armazenamento no balcão refrigerado. A atmosfera modificada ativa não foi efetiva no aumento da vida útil do repolho minimamente processado quando comparada aos outros tratamentos. A embalagem de PEBD foi a mais adequada ao acondicionamento do repolho minimamente processado. No entanto, a embalagem de PVC também apresentou resultados satisfatórios.Stability of fresh-cut cabbage packed in low density polyethylene under active modified atmosphere and in expanded polyestyrene trays wrapped with PVC was evaluated. The fresh-cut product was stored for 16 days in a cold room at 5 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 5% RH and in a refrigerated display case similar to those found in grocery stores. The following variables were analyzed: content of oxygen and carbon dioxide inside the package headspace; browning, luminosity, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities, pH, titratable acidity; soluble solids, fresh mass loss, and ascorbic acid content. The stability of fresh-cut cabbage was higher

  12. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  13. The control of club-root (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. on cabbage seedlings with trifluralin and napropamid herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Robak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The herbicides Treflan EC 2 (24% trifluralin and Devrinol 50 (50% napropamid applied separately decreased efficiently the incidence of club-root on cabbage seedlings in pot experiments. If these herbicides were applied together with the fungicide Bavistin {50% carbendazim the control of the disease was in some cases more efficient, as compared with Bavistin used alone. The higher the organic matter content in the soil, the lower the phytotoxicity and dub-root controlling activity of herbicides. Thus, on peat soil the 'herbicides could be applied in much higher rates than on pseudopodsolic soil.

  14. Multi-residue method for determination of 238 pesticides in Chinese cabbage and cucumber by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison of different purification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Ai; Feng, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2014-11-26

    This paper describes the comparison of five sample cleanup procedures for the determination of 238 pesticides via triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, with only 10 min of chromatographic running time) in Chinese cabbage and cucumber. Samples were extracted with a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuECHERS) preparation method and cleanup with different sorbents, including primary secondary amine (PSA), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and polystyrene (PLS), to find out the most suitable cleanup methods for Chinese cabbage and cucumber. The recovery and matrix effect were evaluated by monitoring the main parameters in one group of 238 pesticides at the spiked level of 8 and 40 μg/kg. In Chinese cabbage, when PSA dispersive solid-phase extraction (D-SPE) was applied, recoveries of 183 pesticides ranged between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values lower than 20% at a spiked level of 40 μg/kg, indicating the effectiveness of the purification step. In cucumber, 203 pesticides were in the 70-120% recovery range with good reproducibility by PSA mini-cartridge column cleanup at a spiked level of 40 μg/kg and RSD values were generally below 20%. The limits of quantitation [LOQs; signal-to-noise (S/N) = 10] were in the range of 0.16-10.20 μg/kg for Chinese cabbage and 0.06-21.06 μg/kg for cucumber, while the limits of detection (LODs; S/N = 3) were between 0.05 and 3.06 μg/kg and between 0.02 and 6.32 μg/kg in Chinese cabbage and cucumber, respectively. The proposed methods that might be applied for the multi-residue analysis in Chinese cabbage and cucumber are contributed to their rapid speed and good recoveries.

  15. The effect of micro-architectural structure of cabbage substratum and or background bacterial flora on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Vermeulen, An; Devlieghere, Frank

    2007-11-01

    The effect of micro-architectural structure of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) substratum and or background bacterial flora on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of incubation temperature was investigated. A cocktail mixture of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pantoea agglomerans and Lactobacillus plantarum was constituted to a population density of approximately 5 log CFU/ml in order to pseudo-simulate background bacterial flora of fresh-cut cabbage. This mixture was co-inoculated with L. monocytogenes (approximately 3 log CFU/ml) on fresh-cut cabbage or in autoclaved cabbage juice followed by incubation at different temperatures (4-30 degrees C). Data on growth of L. monocytogenes were fitted to the primary growth model of Baranyi in order to generate the growth kinetic parameters of the pathogen. During storage, microbial ecology was dominated by P. fluorescens and L. plantarum at refrigeration and abuse temperature, respectively. At all temperatures investigated, lag duration (lambda, h), maximum specific growth rate (micro(max), h(-1)) and maximum population density (MPD, log CFU/ml) of L. monocytogenes were only affected by medium micro-architectural structure, except at 4 degrees C where it had no effect on the micro(max) of the pathogen. Comparison of observed values of micro(max) with those obtained from the Pathogen Modelling Program (PMP), showed that PMP overestimated the growth rate of L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cabbage and in cabbage juice, respectively. Temperature dependency of micro(max) of L. monocytogenes, according to the models of Ratkowsky and Arrhenius, showed linearity for temperature range of 4-15 degrees C, discontinuities and linearity again for temperature range of 20-30 degrees C. The results of this experiment have shown that the constituted background bacterial flora had no effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes and that micro-architectural structure of the vegetable was the primary factor that limited the

  16. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  17. Screening for Cd-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage and a Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Cd Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjie Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L. cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs, analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation. Our field-culture experiments revealed that the Cd content in the edible parts of the cultivars were varied and were determined to possibly be CSCs. Hydroponics experiments were used to simulate six different degrees of soil contamination (high and low Cd concentrations on possible CSCs. The results indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05 in Cd concentration in the cultivars, and verified the safety of these possible CSCs. The analyses of the transport coefficient and expression levels showed that the differences in Cd accumulation among the Chinese cabbage cultivars were related to the expression of genes involved in absorption and transport rather than a root-to-shoot translocation limitation.

  18. Screening for Cd-Safe Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage and a Preliminary Study on the Mechanisms of Cd Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjie; Yu, Nan; Mu, Guangmao; Shinwari, Kamran I; Shen, Zhenguo; Zheng, Luqing

    2017-04-07

    With the rapid progress of industrialization, the effects of environmental contamination on plant toxicity, and subsequently on human health, is a growing concern. For example, the heavy metal pollution of soil such as that caused by cadmium (Cd) is a serious threat. Therefore, screening for pollution-safe edible plants is an essential approach for growing plants under heavy metal-contaminated soils. In the current study, 35 Chinese cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L.) cultivars were selected with the aim of screening for Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), analyzing their safety, and exploring the mechanism of Cd accumulation. Our field-culture experiments revealed that the Cd content in the edible parts of the cultivars were varied and were determined to possibly be CSCs. Hydroponics experiments were used to simulate six different degrees of soil contamination (high and low Cd concentrations) on possible CSCs. The results indicated a significant difference ( p < 0.05) in Cd concentration in the cultivars, and verified the safety of these possible CSCs. The analyses of the transport coefficient and expression levels showed that the differences in Cd accumulation among the Chinese cabbage cultivars were related to the expression of genes involved in absorption and transport rather than a root-to-shoot translocation limitation.

  19. Application of drum compost and vermicompost to improve soil health, growth, and yield parameters for tomato and cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Linee; Nath, Anil; Sutradhar, Sweety; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kalamdhad, Ajay; Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-09-15

    Utilization of different types of solid wastes through composting is important for environmental sustainability and restoring soil quality. Although drum composting is an efficient technology, the possibility of heavy metal contamination restricts its large-scale use. In this research, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of water hyacinth drum compost (DC) and traditional vermicompost (VC) on soil quality and crop growth in an agro-ecosystem cultivated intensively with tomato and cabbage as test crops. A substantial improvement in soil health was observed with respect to nutrient availability, physical stability, and microbial diversity due to the application of drum compost and traditional vermicompost. Moreover, soil organic carbon was enriched through increased humic and fulvic acid carbon. Interestingly, heavy metal contamination was less significant in vermicompost-treated soils than in those receiving the other treatments. The use of VC and DC in combination with recommended chemical fertilization effectively stimulated crop growth, yield, product quality, and storage longevity for both tomato and cabbage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictions of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs Concentrations in Rice Seeds and Chinese Cabbage after a Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Hwang, Won Tae; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    A method of more realistically predicting radionuclide concentrations in crop plants varying with time after a nuclear accident was established to estimate 50 years' concentration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in polished rice seeds and Chinese cabbage for unit dry deposition. After non-growing season accidents, concentrations of both nuclides decreased gradually with time and {sup 90}Sr concentrations were higher than those of {sup 137}Cs throughout the whole period. Radionuclide concentrations in the 1st year after growing season accidents were on the whole higher than those after non-growing season accidents by factors of up to 30 for {sup 90}Sr and up to 1,000 for {sup 137}Cs. In polished rice seeds, the 50 years-integrated concentration was higher for {sup 90}Sr than for {sup 137}Cs after non-growing season accidents, whereas the opposite was true after growing season accidents. In Chinese cabbage, however, it was higher for {sup 90}Sr than for {sup 137}Cs after both types of the accident. Generally speaking, the dominant pathway for the integrated concentration after the growing season accident was root uptake for {sup 90}Sr and direct plant contamination for {sup 137}Cs. The effect of resuspension was negligible. Based on the predicted results, the direction of planning countermeasures was suggested for various accident conditions.

  1. Molecular Characterization of a Leaf Senescence-Related Transcription Factor BrWRKY75 of Chinese Flowering Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available WRKY is a plant-specific transcription factor (TF involved in the regulation of many biological processes; however, its role in leaf senescence of leafy vegetables remains unknown. In the present work, a WRKY TF, termed BrWRKY75 was isolated from Chinese flowering cabbage [Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L. Mokino var. utilis Tsen et Lee]. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence and the phylogenetic tree showed that BrWRKY75 has high homology with WRKY75 from Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, and belongs to the II c sub-group. Sub-cellular localization and transcriptional activity analysis revealed that BrWRKY75 is a nuclear protein with transcriptional repression activity, and was up-regulated during leaf senescence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that BrWRKY75 directly bound to the W-box (TTGAC cis-element. Collectively, these results provide a basis for further investigation of the transcriptional regulation of Chinese flowering cabbage leaf senescence.

  2. Digestive recovery of sulfur-methyl-L-methionine and its bioaccessibility in Kimchi cabbages using a simulated in vitro digestion model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Rim; Cho, Sun-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Gun-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2014-01-15

    Sulfur-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) has been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study was to determine both the digestive stability of SMM and the amount released from Kimchi cabbages under a simulated in vitro digestion model system. The in vitro digestion model system simulating a human gastrointestinal tract was carried out for measuring digestive recovery and bioaccessibility of SMM. SMM was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Recovery of an SMM standard after digestion was 0.68 and 0.65% for fasted and fed conditions, respectively, indicating that the digestive stability of the SMM standard was not affected by dietary energy or co-ingested food matrix. The SMM standard was also significantly stable in acidic pH (P Kimchi cabbages was measured under a fasted condition, resulted in 8.83, 14.71 and 10.88%, for salivary, gastric and small intestinal phases, respectively. Results from our study suggest that SMM from Kimchi cabbages, a component of food sources, is more bioavailable than SMM by itself. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The effectiveness of cabbage leaf application (treatment) on pain and hardness in breast engorgement and its effect on the duration of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Boh; Koh, Serena; Gail, Desley

    2012-01-01

    Breast engorgement is a condition that affects breastfeeding mothers early in the postpartum. The discomfort and tenderness as a result of the engorgement is a major contributing factor to the early cessation of breastfeeding. Many treatments for breast engorgement have been attempted and explored. To examine the effectiveness of cabbage leaf treatment on pain and hardness of the engorged breasts of post-partum women and its influence on the duration of breastfeeding in women with breast engorgement. Postpartum lactating mothers 13 to 50 years of age and of any parity in the first two weeks postpartum with breast engorgement.Cabbage leaf treatment on breast engorgement in reducing pain, hardness and increasing the duration of breastfeeding.Primary outcomes: engorgement, severity of the distention, hardness to touch and pain associated with breast engorgement. Secondary outcome: duration of breastfeeding.Quantitative studies including RCTs, quasi-randomized trials and quasi-experimental studies. Studies in English language from inception of the relevant databases to 2010 were considered for inclusion in this review.The databases searched included: CINAHL, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct. The search for unpublished studies included: Google Scholar, Mednar, Proquest. Studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity using standardised critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted using the standardised data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The results were presented in narrative format as the meta-analysis was not appropriate because study methods were heterogeneous. Four studies were included in this review: one RCT and two quasi-randomised studies and one quasi-experimental study. In one RCT after the first cabbage leaf application, fewer mothers were reporting breast engorgement through their second to fourth assessments as compared to the control group. On the

  4. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants.

  5. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomeic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. Thi...

  6. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

  7. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K Magnus; Forshed, Jenny; Lindahl, Anna; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Olsson, Marie; Knuthsen, Pia; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Husted, Søren

    2014-05-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83 % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products.

  8. Characterization and expression profiling of MYB transcription factors against stresses and during male organ development in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gopal; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kayum, Md Abdul; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-07-01

    MYB proteins comprise a large family of plant transcription factors that play regulatory roles in different biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and defense responses. To gain insight into this gene superfamily and to elucidate its roles in stress resistance, we performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of MYB genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). We identified 475 Chinese cabbage MYB genes, among which most were from R2R3-MYB (256 genes) and MYB-related (202) subfamilies. Analysis of sequence characteristics, phylogenetic classification, and protein motif structures confirmed the existence of several categories (1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, and 5R) of Chinese cabbage MYB genes, which is comparable with MYB genes of other crops. An extensive in silico functional analysis, based on established functional properties of MYB genes from different crop species, revealed 11 and four functional clades within the Chinese cabbage R2R3-MYB and MYB-related subfamilies, respectively. In this study, we reported a MYB-like group within the MYB-related subfamily contains 77 MYB genes. Expression analysis using low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data revealed variable transcript abundance of 1R/2R/3R/4R/5R-MYB genes in 11 clusters between two inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, Chiifu and Kenshin, which differ in cold tolerance. In further validation tests, we used qRT-PCR to examine the cold-responsive expression patterns of 27 BrMYB genes; surprisingly, the MYB-related genes were induced more highly than the R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, we identified 10 genes with corresponsive expression patterns from a set of salt-, drought-, ABA-, JA-, and SA-induced R2R3-MYB genes. We identified 11 R2R3-MYBs functioning in resistance against biotic stress, including 10 against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans and one against Pectobacterium carotovoram subsp. caratovorum. Furthermore, based on

  9. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of dark septate endophytic fungal isolates in the accumulation of cesium by chinese cabbage and tomato plants under contaminated environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane Diene

    Full Text Available Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm. On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments.

  11. Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suxia eYuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 - 76.9%, compared with 52.2 - 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9 - 12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3 - 9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6 - 12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  12. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  13. A novel class of heat-responsive small RNAs derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruiter Marjo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding small RNAs play critical roles in various cellular processes in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic organisms. Their responses to abiotic stress have become a popular topic of economic and scientific importance in biological research. Several studies in recent years have reported a small number of non-coding small RNAs that map to chloroplast genomes. However, it remains uncertain whether small RNAs are generated from chloroplast genome and how they respond to environmental stress, such as high temperature. Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop, and heat stress usually causes great losses in yields and quality. Under heat stress, the leaves become etiolated due to the disruption and disassembly of chloroplasts. In an attempt to determine the heat-responsive small RNAs in chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage, we carried out deep sequencing, using heat-treated samples, and analysed the proportion of small RNAs that were matched to chloroplast genome. Results Deep sequencing provided evidence that a novel subset of small RNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage. The chloroplast small RNAs (csRNAs include those derived from mRNA, rRNA, tRNA and intergenic RNA. The rRNA-derived csRNAs were preferentially located at the 3'-ends of the rRNAs, while the tRNA-derived csRNAs were mainly located at 5'-termini of the tRNAs. After heat treatment, the abundance of csRNAs decreased in seedlings, except those of 24 nt in length. The novel heat-responsive csRNAs and their locations in the chloroplast were verified by Northern blotting. The regulation of some csRNAs to the putative target genes were identified by real-time PCR. Our results reveal that high temperature suppresses the production of some csRNAs, which have potential roles in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions In addition to nucleus, the chloroplast is another important organelle that generates a number of small

  14. Efeito da embalagem e temperatura de armazenamento em repolho minimamente processado Minimally processed cabbage: effects of packaging and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações no repolho minimamente processado quando armazenado em diferentes embalagens e temperaturas. O processamento mínimo consistiu em seleção, classificação e resfriamento da matéria-prima, seguido do processo de corte em tiras, enxágüe em água tratada para a remoção dos exudados celulares, sanitização em solução com 150mgL-1 de cloro ativo, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem, acondicionamento em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, revestidas com filme flexível de policloreto de vinila (PVC, 12µm, e embalagens de tereftalato de polietileno (PET, e armazenamento por 15 dias em temperaturas de 0, 5 e 10ºC. A cada três dias avaliou-se a concentração de O2 e CO2 na atmosfera interna das embal agens, bem como o pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis e vitamina C no repolho minimamente processado. Concluiu-se que o repolho acondicionado na embalagem PVC apresentou menor perda de vitamina C durante os 15 dias de armazenamento nas três temperaturas. Esta embalagem também apresentou maior concentração de CO2 e menor de O2 , porém dentro dos níveis aceitáveis, garantindo assim maior vida útil ao repolho minimamente processado. Observou-se que não houve diferença significativa na vida útil do produto armazenado em temperaturas de 0 e 5ºC, nas duas embalagens avaliadas, porém a 10ºC a mesma reduziu-se significativamente, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in the minimally processed cabbage when stored in different packages and temperatures. The minimum process consisted of selection, classification and refrigeration of the raw material, followed by cutting in slices, rinsed with treated tap water for the elimination of cellular exudates, sanitization in solutions with 150mgL-1 of active chlorine, rinsing, centrifugation, weighing, conditioning in polystyrene expanded trays covered with polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 12µm

  15. Biological Aspects for Forecasting of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    hatching in the autumn. The focus of this project is the problematic aspect of the existing monitoring of the activity density as the only basis of forecasting and the variation in abundance between years. The main focus has been on the influence of temperature on five parameters of reproduction (the......Summary The cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest in winter oilseed rape (WOSR) Brassica napus L. with variation in abundance and damage between years. The adult beetles invade fields at the time of crop emergence and cause...... of field invasion. Uncertainties are attached to this forecasting as it is based on monitoring of a non-damaging stage. Further, there is not always a direct correlation between trap catches and subsequent larval density since temperature influences the number of eggs laid as well as the number of eggs...

  16. Effect of temperature, sodium chloride, and pH on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D E; Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

    1986-01-01

    Human illness and death have resulted from the consumption of milk, cheese, and cole slaw contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Since the effects of temperature, NaCl, and pH on the growth of the organism in cabbage were unknown, a series of experiments was designed to investigate these factors. Two strains (LCDC 81-861 and Scott A, both serotype 4b) were examined. At 30 degrees C, the viable population of the LCDC 81-861 strain increased in sterile unclarified cabbage juice (CJ) containing 0 to 1.5% NaCl; a decrease in the population of both strains occurred in juice containing greater than or equal to 2% NaCl. At 5 degrees C, the population of the Scott A strain in CJ containing up to 5% NaCl was reduced by about 90% over a 70-day period; the LCDC 81-861 strain was more sensitive to refrigeration but remained viable in CJ containing less than or equal to 3.5% NaCl for 70 days. Growth in CJ at 30 degrees C resulted in a decrease in pH from 5.6 to 4.1 within 8 days. Death of L. monocytogenes occurred at 30 degrees C when the organism was inoculated into sterile CJ adjusted to pH less than or equal to 4.6 with lactic acid. No viable cells were detected after 3 days at pH less than or equal to 4.2. At 5 degrees C, the rate of death at pH less than or equal to 4.8 was slower than at 30 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3089158

  17. Efficacy of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa GAERTN. and black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. in reducing the occurrence of Phyllotreta spp., some lepidopteran pests and diamondback moth parasitoids on white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and black elderberry Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., as well as lepidopteran pests like the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, small white butterfly Pieris rapae, large white butterfly Pieris brassicae, cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae and the Plutella xylostella parasitoid complex were investigated on white cabbage in 2008-2009. Aqueous extracts of black elderberry Sambucus nigra significantly reduced numbers of flea beetles Phyllotreta spp., eggs of Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, and larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella on the cabbage. The aqueous extract of Alnus glutinosa was less effective. Parasitoids had the greatest impact on reducing numbers of diamondback moth: the dominant species was Diadegma fenestralis. The smallest number of parasitoids was reared from pupae collected from plots where the cabbages had been sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM LEVELS IN WHITE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L., SOIL, AND IRRIGATION WATER OF URBAN AGRICULTURAL SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiyanto Hardiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture comprises a variety of farming systems, ranging from subsistence to fully commercialized agriculture. Pollution from automobile exhaust, industrial and commercialactivities may affect humans, crops, soil, and water in and around urban agriculture areas. The research aimed to investigate the level and distribution of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in white cabbage (Brassica rapa L., soil, and irrigation water taken from urban sites. The research was conducted in Las Piñas and Parañaque, Metro Manila, Philippines. The field area was divided into three sections based on its distance from the main road (0, 25, and 50 m. Irrigation water was taken from canal (Las Piñas and river (Parañaque. Pb and Cd contents of the extract were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Combined analysis over locations was used. The relationship between distance from the main road and metal contents was measured by Pearson’s correlation. Based on combined analyses, highly significant difference over locations was only showed on Cd content in white cabbage. Cd content in white cabbage grown in Parañaque was higher than that cultivated in Las Piñas, while Cd content in the soil between both sites was comparable.The average Pb content (1.09 µg g-1 dry weight was highest in the white cabbage grown right beside the main road. A similar trend was also observed in the soil, with the highest concentration being recorded at 26 µg g-1 dry weight. There was a negative relationship between distance from the main road and Pb and Cd contents in white cabbage and the soil. Level of Pb in water taken from the canal and river was similar (0.12 mg l-1, whereaslevels of Cd were 0.0084 and 0.0095 mg l-1, respectively. In general, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in white cabbage and soil as well as irrigation water were still in the acceptable limits. In terms of environmental hazards and polluted city environment, it seems that

  19. Intensive flux measurements and analysis of greenhouse gases from an upland cabbage field at Kunsan, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Na, U.

    2010-12-01

    It has been recognized that intensively managed agricultural soil is a dominant source of atmospheric N2O through increase in use of nitrogen fertilizer and soil microbial processes, contributing to about 57% (9Tg y-1) of total N2O annual global emission. Organic carbons in soil and wetland sediment including tidal flat affect the CO2 and CH4 emission in such environments depending on their physicochemical conditions. From October 2009 to June 2010, CO2, CH4, and N2O (GHG) soil emission measurements were conducted from upland cabbage field at Kunsan (35o56’23’’N, 126o43’14’’E), Korea by using closed static chamber method. During the experimental period, hourly GHG emissions were conducted mostly from 1000 to 1800LST in each field measurement day (total 28 days). After placing each chamber over soil surface of two neighboring plots, 50 ml of air sample inside the chambers was taken for every 15 min over a 30 min period by using plastic syringes (total of three samples). GHG concentrations were simultaneously analyzed in the laboratory by using a GC equipped with a methanizer, FID and ECD (Varian CP3800). The GHG fluxes were calculated from a linear regression of the changes in the concentrations. Negative values indicate GHG uptake by the soil surface, and positive values indicate GHG emission to the atmosphere. In addition, soil parameters (e.g. soil moisture, temperature, pH, organic C, soil N) were measured at the sampling plot. The average soil pH and soil moisture during the experimental period was ~pH5.4±0.4 and 70.0±19.7 %WFPS, respectively. The average fluxes and ranges of GHG during the experimental period were -0.004±0.032 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-0.087 ~ 0.045 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CH4, 5.32±57.63 mg-m-2 hr-1 (-92.96 ~ 139.38 mg-m-2 hr-1) for CO2, and 1.119±1.918 mg-m-2 hr-1 (0.077 ~ 8.409 mg-m-2 hr-1) for N2O, respectively. Monthly base flux measurement results revealed that monthly means of CO2 and CH4 flux during October (fall) was positive and

  20. Influence of the form of nitrogen (NH/sub 4/ or NO/sub 3/) on the incidence of black speck of cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gysi, C.; Stoll, K.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the quantity and form of nitrogen on the development, the incidence of black speck and the constituents of cabbage was studied in a three year field experiment. Ammonium sulfate compared to sodium nitrate increased the incidence of black speck, the availability of K, Ca and Mg in the soil and thus the content of these cations in the plant. In contradiction to results obtained on hydroculture, high incidence of black speck was associated to increased K and Ca contents in cabbage. The significance of results from hydroculture versus field experiments is discussed. To minimize incidence of black speck, measures to reduce an excessive growth rate are recommended. 21 references, 3 figures.

  1. Enhancement of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae following application of commercial seaweed extracts of the brown seaweed, (Ascophyllum nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Lola-Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica crops are rich is phytochemical compounds and frequent consumption of these vegetables has been associated with a lower risk in cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. The effect of three commercial extracts of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, on phytochemical content and yield in cabbage plants was tested under field conditions in two consecutive crops. Total phenolic content was higher in all seaweed treated plants, with the highest increase recorded with AlgaeGreenTM (3.5 l ha-1 with a 2 fold increase relative to the control. The other commercial seaweed extract, XT achieved a lower increases of 1.3 fold (3.5 l ha-1. Similar increases were recorded in total flavonoid content. No statistically significant increases in yield were recorded with any of the seaweed extracts tested. The results suggest that seaweed extracts stimulated an increased accumulation of phytochemicals in cabbage but had no significant effect in yield under these experimental conditions.

  2. Quantitative profiling of glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis reveals several cultivars of cabbage and kale as promising sources of sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsunori; Neyazaki, Makiko; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ogawa, Toshiya; Momose, Masaki

    2012-08-15

    Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate well known for its potential health benefits. With the aim of finding sulforaphane supply sources, its precursor, glucoraphanin, was widely searched for among Brassica oleracea varieties. Quantitative profiling of seven glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis was performed on 6 cultivars of broccoli, 32 of cabbage and 24 cultivars of kale. The glucoraphanin levels found in three cultivars of cabbage and six cultivars of kale were comparable with, or even higher than, the highest of broccoli (119.4 mg/100g FW). The most promising group belonged to the black kale, Cavolo nero. Use of a C30 column and an ammonium formate buffer in LC-MS and a micro plate solid phase extraction technique was highly effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The morphological signs of plants of white cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. convar. capitata (L. Alef. var. alba DC and their variability depending on type of sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of the morphological signs of type of sort on white cabbage plants Dutch flat, Belarus, Amager, Langendijker winter and their variability are the presented. It is established low and average factor of a variation at the majority of the morphological signs. Strong high-quality and ecological variability of signs “height external rake” and “its size leafy parts” at type of sort Dutch flat is defined.

  4. Substantial Mortality of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) From Predators in Urban Agriculture Is not Influenced by Scale of Production or Variation in Local and Landscape-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, David M; Gharehaghaji, Maryam; Wise, David H

    2017-02-01

    As Midwestern (United States) cities experience population decline, there is growing interest in converting underutilized vacant spaces to agricultural production. Urban agriculture varies in area and scope, yet most growers use similar cultivation practices such as avoiding chemical control of crop pests. For community gardens and farms that sell produce commercially, effective pest suppression by natural enemies is important for both societal, economic, and marketing reasons. To gauge the amount of prey suppression at 28 urban food-production sites, we measured removal of sentinel eggs and larvae of the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), a caterpillar pest that defoliates Brassica. We investigated how landscape and local factors, such as scale of production, influence cabbage looper mortality caused by predators. Predators removed 50% of eggs and 25% of larvae over a 3-d period. Landscape factors did not predict mortality rates, and the amount of loss and damage to sentinel prey were similar across sites that differed in scale (residential gardens, community gardens, and farms). To confirm that removal of sentinel items was likely caused by natural enemies, we set up a laboratory assay that measured predation of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by several predators occurring in urban gardens. Lady beetles caused the highest mortality rates, suggesting their potential value for biocontrol; spiders and pirate bugs also consumed both eggs and larvae at high rates. Our results suggest that urban growers benefit from high consumption rates of cabbage looper eggs and larvae by arthropod predators. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. MicroRNA319a-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TCP genes modulate head shape in chinese cabbage by differential cell division arrest in leaf regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yanfei; Wu, Feijie; Yu, Xiang; Bai, Jinjuan; Zhong, Weili; He, Yuke

    2014-02-01

    Leafy heads of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are composed of extremely incurved leaves. The shape of these heads often dictates the quality, and thus the commercial value, of these crops. Using quantitative trait locus mapping of head traits within a population of 150 recombinant inbred lines of Chinese cabbage, we investigated the relationship between expression levels of microRNA-targeted Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, cycloidea, and PCF transcription factor4 (BrpTCP4) genes and head shape. Here, we demonstrate that a cylindrical head shape is associated with relatively low BrpTCP4-1 expression, whereas a round head shape is associated with high BrpTCP4-1 expression. In the round-type Chinese cabbage, microRNA319 (miR319) accumulation and BrpTCP4-1 expression decrease from the apical to central regions of leaves. Overexpression of BrpMIR319a2 reduced the expression levels of BrpTCP4 and resulted in an even distribution of BrpTCP4 transcripts within all leaf regions. Changes in temporal and spatial patterns of BrpTCP4 expression appear to be associated with excess growth of both apical and interveinal regions, straightened leaf tips, and a transition from the round to the cylindrical head shape. These results suggest that the miR319a-targeted BrpTCP gene regulates the round shape of leafy heads via differential cell division arrest in leaf regions. Therefore, the manipulation of miR319a and BrpTCP4 genes is a potentially important tool for use in the genetic improvement of head shape in these crops.

  6. Kinetics of changes in glucosinolate concentrations during long-term cooking of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Jon; Wicklund, Trude; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2008-03-26

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba cv. 'Bartolo') was experimentally determined and mathematically modeled. Cabbage was boiled, resulting in a dramatic decrease of 56% in the total GLS levels within the plant matrix during the first 2 min. After 8-12 min of boiling, the decrease progressed to over 70%. Progoitrin had an exceptionally higher decline rate in comparison to all other GLS. As boiling progressed the concentration of all GLS continued to decrease at a lower rate for the remaining cooking period. A mathematical model was used to describe the concentration profile of the GLS in the plant matrix, based on leaching of GLS to the water phase due to cell lysis and thermal degradation of the GLS both in the plant matrix and in the water phase. The model described the concentration profiles very well. Estimated lysis and degradation rate constants for white cabbage differed from those reported in the literature for red cabbage. The degradation rate constants found were significantly higher in the plant matrix when compared to those in the water phase for all GLS. Identification of the kinetics of decline of GLS during cooking can aid in designing processing and preparation methods and determining the conditions for the optimal effects of ingestion of Brassicaceae toward cancer prevention.

  7. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Chen

    Full Text Available Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs. From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51% under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  8. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the VQ Motif-Containing Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyuan Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have showed that the VQ motif–containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa play an important role in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, little is known about the functions of the VQ genes in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage. In this study, we performed genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the VQ genes in Chinese cabbage, especially under adverse environment. We identified 57 VQ genes and classified them into seven subgroups (I–VII, which were dispersedly distributed on chromosomes 1 to 10. The expansion of these genes mainly contributed to segmental and tandem duplication. Fifty-four VQ genes contained no introns and 50 VQ proteins were less than 300 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the VQ genes were differentially expressed in various tissues and during different abiotic stresses and plant hormone treatments. This study provides a comprehensive overview of Chinese cabbage VQ genes and will benefit the molecular breeding for resistance to stresses and disease, as well as further studies on the biological functions of the VQ proteins.

  10. Piriformospora indica confers drought tolerance in Chinese cabbage leaves by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, the expression of drought-related genes and the plastid-localized CAS protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Johnson, Joy M; Cai, Daguang; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Lou, Binggan

    2010-08-15

    Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The fungus strongly colonizes the roots of Chinese cabbage, promotes root and shoot growth, and promotes lateral root formation. When colonized plants were exposed to polyethylene glycol to mimic drought stress, the activities of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases in the leaves were upregulated within 24h. The fungus retarded the drought-induced decline in the photosynthetic efficiency and the degradation of chlorophylls and thylakoid proteins. The expression levels of the drought-related genes DREB2A, CBL1, ANAC072 and RD29A were upregulated in the drought-stressed leaves of colonized plants. Furthermore, the CAS mRNA level for the thylakoid membrane associated Ca(2+)-sensing regulator and the amount of the CAS protein increased. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities, drought-related genes and CAS are three crucial targets of P. indica in Chinese cabbage leaves during the establishment of drought tolerance. P. indica-colonized Chinese cabbage provides a good model system to study root-to-shoot communication. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of selenate and sulphate supply on the accumulation and volatilization of Se by cabbage, kohlrabi and alfalfa plants grown hydroponically

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    R. HAJIBOLAND

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Selenium (Se supplementation at five levels of 0 (control, 5, 10, 15, 20 ìM in plants supplied with one of four concentrations of sulphur (S including 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mM was investigated in two varieties of Brassica oleracea (cabbage and kohlrabi and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in a hydroponic experiment. In severely S deficient plants (0.05 mM, Se acted as a toxic element, alfalfa was the most susceptible plant that died at this treatment. However, in plants supplied with near adequate (0.5 mM or adequate (1.0 mM S, Se acted as a growth promoting element. The most pronounced stimulation of growth was observed in cabbage and the lowest in alfalfa. Increasing S concentration in the medium, reduced Se uptake and transport. In contrast, S uptake and transport increased in response to Se addition. Se volatilization was higher in alfalfa than cabbage and kohlrabi when expressed on unit shoot dry weight or leaf area basis, but not when expressed per plant. Results suggested that Se supplementation of plants supplied with adequate S, not only had beneficial effects on plants growth but also can have application in enrichment of livestock fodder and human food.;

  12. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

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    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  13. BoALMT1, an Al-Induced Malate Transporter in Cabbage, Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al is present in approximately 50% of the arable land worldwide and is regarded as the main limiting factor of crop yield on acidic soil. Al-induced root malate efflux plays an important role in the Al tolerance of plants. Here, the aluminum induced malate transporter BoALMT1 (KF322104 was cloned from cabbage (Brassica oleracea. BoALMT1 showed higher expression in roots than in shoots. The expression of BoALMT1 was specifically induced by Al treatment, but not the trivalent cations lanthanum (La, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, or copper (Cu. Subcellular localization studies were performed in onion epidermal cells and revealed that BoALMT1 was localized at the plasma membrane. Scanning Ion-selective Electrode Technique was used to analyze H+ flux. Xenopus oocytes and Arabidopsis thaliana expressing BoALMT1 excreted more H+ under Al treatment. Overexpressing BoALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced Al tolerance and increased malate secretion. The results suggested that BoALMT1 functions as an Al-resistant gene and encodes a malate transporter. Expressing BoALMT1 in Xenopus oocytes or A. thaliana indicated that BoALMT1 could increase malate secretion and H+ efflux to resist Al tolerance.

  14. Construction and analysis of a high-density genetic linkage map in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

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    Wang Wanxing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brassica oleracea encompass a family of vegetables and cabbage that are among the most widely cultivated crops. In 2009, the B. oleracea Genome Sequencing Project was launched using next generation sequencing technology. None of the available maps were detailed enough to anchor the sequence scaffolds for the Genome Sequencing Project. This report describes the development of a large number of SSR and SNP markers from the whole genome shotgun sequence data of B. oleracea, and the construction of a high-density genetic linkage map using a double haploid mapping population. Results The B. oleracea high-density genetic linkage map that was constructed includes 1,227 markers in nine linkage groups spanning a total of 1197.9 cM with an average of 0.98 cM between adjacent loci. There were 602 SSR markers and 625 SNP markers on the map. The chromosome with the highest number of markers (186 was C03, and the chromosome with smallest number of markers (99 was C09. Conclusions This first high-density map allowed the assembled scaffolds to be anchored to pseudochromosomes. The map also provides useful information for positional cloning, molecular breeding, and integration of information of genes and traits in B. oleracea. All the markers on the map will be transferable and could be used for the construction of other genetic maps.

  15. Identification of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes and their expression during pupal diapause in the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, M H; Ikeda, H; Yamada, N; Hikiba, J; Nakaoka, T; Fujimoto, Y; Suzuki, Y; Saito, K; Mizoguchi, A; Kataoka, H

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we identified ecdysteroidogenic enzymes in the cabbage armyworm, Mamestra brassicae, and demonstrated reduced expression of these genes during diapause. Some insects employ a temporary developmental arrest, diapause, to survive in severe environments. The titres of the moulting hormone ecdysteroid were reduced in diapause pupae of M. brassicae; therefore, ecdysteroidogenesis might be suppressed by a diapause-specific mechanism. To clarify expression changes of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes during diapause in M. brassicae, we first identified the genes for seven ecdysteroidogenic enzymes: Neverland, Non-molting glossy (Nm-g), CYP307A1 (Spook), CYP306A1 (Phantom), CYP302A1 (Disembodied), CYP315A1 (Shadow) and CYP314A1 (Shade). Enzymatic assays using heterologous expression in Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells and analysis of mRNA distribution indicated that the identified genes were ecdysteroidogenic enzymes of M. brassicae. Expression levels of these ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes were compared between prothoracic glands in different pupal stages throughout diapause. Immediately after pupation, diapause-destined pupae showed similar expression levels of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes to those of nondiapause pupae. All of these genes showed reduced gene expression after diapause initiation. Expression was immediately increased in diapause-destined pupae at the postdiapause quiescence phase. These results indicate that reduced expression of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes suppresses ecdysteroidogenesis and maintains developmental arrest during diapause. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Antidiabetic effect of Korean traditional Baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi in a type 2 diabetes model of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Choi, Haymie

    2009-04-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the antidiabetic effects of two dietary dosages (0.5% and 2.0%) of freeze-dried Korean traditional Baechu (Chinese cabbage) kimchi in a high-fat (HF) diet-fed, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HF diet for 2 weeks and then randomly divided into four groups of eight animals: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DBC), kimchi low (KML) (0.5%), and kimchi high (KMH) (2.0%) groups. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40 mg/kg of body weight) in all groups except the NC group. After 4 weeks of feeding of experimental diets, serum insulin concentrations and Homeostatic Model Assessment pancreatic beta-cell function were increased and blood glycated hemoglobin was decreased in the kimchi-fed groups compared to the DBC group, while a significant (P KML groups; however, differences were not significant. Food intake, body weight gain, Homeostatic Model Assessment insulin resistance index, and serum lipid profiles were not significantly influenced by kimchi-containing diets. Data of this study suggest that dietary Baechu kimchi has some antidiabetic effects even when fed with a HF-containing diet. Better results are possible if it is consumed with normal or low-fat rather than HF-containing diet.

  17. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B.

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10–20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90–97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production. PMID:27804972

  18. Colored and white sectors from star-patterned petunia flowers display differential resistance to corn earworm and cabbage looper larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric T; Berhow, Mark A; Dowd, Patrick F

    2008-06-01

    Anthocyanins are likely a visual aid that attract pollinators. However, there is also the possibility that anthocyanins are present in some flowers as defensive molecules that protect them from excess light, pathogens, or herbivores. In this study, resistance due to anthocyanins from commercial petunia flowers (Petunia hybrida) was examined for insecticide/antifeedant activity against corn earworm (CEW, Helicoverpa zea) and cabbage looper (CL, Trichoplusia ni). The petunia flowers studied contained a star pattern, with colored and white sectors. CEW larvae ate significantly less colored sectors than white sectors in no-choice bioassays in most cases. All CEW larvae feeding on blue sectors weighed significantly less after 2 days than larvae feeding on white sectors, which was negatively correlated with total anthocyanin levels. CL larvae ate less of blue sectors than white sectors, and blue sectors from one petunia cultivar caused significantly higher CL mortality than white sectors. Partially purified anthocyanin mixtures isolated from petunia flowers, when added to insect diet discs at approximately natural concentrations, reduced both CEW and CL larva weights compared to the controls. These studies demonstrate that the colored sectors of these petunia cultivars slow the development of these lepidopteran larvae and indicate that anthocyanins play some part in flower defense in petunia.

  19. Development of a colorimetric pH indicator based on bacterial cellulose nanofibers and red cabbage (Brassica oleraceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourjavaher, Simin; Almasi, Hadi; Meshkini, Saeed; Pirsa, Sajad; Parandi, Ehsan

    2017-01-20

    This work aimed to develop and characterize a smart label for pH monitoring based on bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers doped with anthocyanins extracted from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea). The relationship between the concentration of anthocyanins (32 and 193mgL(-1)) and the morphological properties and color response efficiency of pH indicator labels was investigated. The FT-IR results reflected that some new interactions have occurred between BC membrane and anthocyanins. The XRD analyses showed a decrease in diffraction intensities of BC by addition of concentrated form of anthocyanins. SEM results indicated that concentrated anthocyanins caused to partial disintegration and deformation of the cellulose microfibrils with more cracks on the labels. But the intrinsic morphology and structure of the BC nanofibers were preserved by addition of diluted anthocyanins. A concentration dependent decrease was observed in the tensile strength of anthocyanin loaded labels but elongation percentage and moisture absorption of BC was increased by addition of anthocyanins. The color variation in different pH range (2-10) was measured with the CIELab methodology. The label containing diluted anthocyanins showed a more clear response to pH variation. Therefore, it has potential to be used as a visual indicator of the pH variations during storage of packaged food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase from Pseudomonas fluorescens promoting the growth of Chinese cabbage and its polyclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Byoung Yul; Lee, Gun Woong; Go, Eun Byeul; Kim, Byeo-Ri; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxlyate (ACC) deaminase (AcdS) is an enzyme that cleaves ACC, a precursor of the plant hormone ethylene, into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. The acdS gene was cloned from Pseudomonas fluorescens, which was capable of improving the seedling of Chinese cabbage under salinity condition. The recombinant AcdS (rAcdS) exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.5 and 30°C. Strong activity was sustained at up to 100 mM NaCl. The polyclonal anti-P. fluorescens AcdS antibody was produced in a rabbit that had been immunized with the purified rAcdS. This antibody successfully recognized the homologous antigens derived from the total proteins of isolated plant growth-promoting microorganisms. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the intensity of hybridization signal and AcdS activity measured by a biochemical method, suggesting its application as a useful indicator for active deaminases.

  1. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Akhtar, Yasmin; Gonçalves, Gabriel Luiz Padoan; Zanuncio, José Cola; Isman, Murray B

    2016-11-02

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated. The concentration of ar-turmerone in C. longa rhizomes harvested was 0.32% (dwt). Turmeric powder and its derivatives caused 10-20% mortality in third instar T. ni at a very low dose (10 μg/larva). Addition of PBO increased toxicity of turmeric powder and its derivatives (90-97% mortality) in most binary combinations (5 μg of turmeric powder or its derivatives +5 μg of PBO), but neither piperonal nor sesamol were active as synergists. The compound ar-turmerone alone and the combination with PBO reduced larval weight on treated Brassica oleracea in the laboratory and in greenhouse experiments, compared with the negative control. The compound ar-turmerone could be used as a low cost botanical insecticide for integrated management of cabbage looper in vegetable production.

  2. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-02-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  3. Metabolomic compounds identified in Piriformospora indica-colonized Chinese cabbage roots delineate symbiotic functions of the interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Mo Da-Sang; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Tian, Zhihong; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2017-08-24

    Root colonization by endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica facilitating growth/development and stress tolerance has been demonstrated in various host plants. However, global metabolomic studies are rare. By using high-throughput gas-chromatography-based mass spectrometry, 549 metabolites of 1,126 total compounds observed were identified in colonized and uncolonized Chinese cabbage roots, and hyphae of P. indica. The analyses demonstrate that the host metabolomic compounds and metabolite pathways are globally reprogrammed after symbiosis with P. indica. Especially, γ-amino butyrate (GABA), oxylipin-family compounds, poly-saturated fatty acids, and auxin and its intermediates were highly induced and de novo synthesized in colonized roots. Conversely, nicotinic acid (niacin) and dimethylallylpyrophosphate were strongly decreased. In vivo assays with exogenously applied compounds confirmed that GABA primes plant immunity toward pathogen attack and enhances high salinity and temperature tolerance. Moreover, generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species stimulated by nicotinic acid is repressed by P. indica, and causes the feasibility of symbiotic interaction. This global metabolomic analysis and the identification of symbiosis-specific metabolites may help to understand how P. indica confers benefits to the host plant.

  4. Evaluation of antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage on Wistar rat gastric ulceration

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    Camilo Amaro de Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an herbaceous and leafy plant which belongs to the Brassicaceae family, native to coastal southern and Western Europe. Used in cooking for its nutritional value also has known anti-inflammatory activity. OBJECTIVE We studied the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (AEB in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the gastric disorders. METHOD: Acute gastric ulcers were induced in rats by the oral administration of acetylsalicylic acid. The gastroprotective potential of the AEB (0.250, 0.500 and 1.000 mg.kg-1/body weight was compared with omeprazole (20 mg.kg-1/body weight. RESULTS: The stomach analysis indicated that treatment with AEB inhibited the gastric damage. The gastroprotective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition in the formation of ulcers induced by chemical agent with a maximum of 99.44% curation (250 mg.kg-1 body weight in acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. CONCLUSIONS: The AEB demonstrated good antiulcerogenic activities which justify the inclusion of this plant in the management of gastric disorders. Further experiments are underway to determine which antiulcer mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  5. Whitefly, aphids and thrips attack on cabbage Ataque de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em repolho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, daylight and median temperature on the intensity of whitefly, aphid, and thrips attack on cabbage. Whitefly, aphids and thrips population tended to proliferate in the final stage of plant or reached a peak population about 40 days after plantation. The whitefly and thrips tended to increase with an increase in the median temperature. A dependence of Cheiracanthium inclusum and Adialytus spp. populations on whitefly and aphids populations, respectively, was observed. No significant effect was detected between K and nonacosane leaf content and aphid population. However, an increase in leaf N content was followed by a decrease of this insect population. No significant relation was observed between leaf N, K and nonacosane and whitefly and thrips populations. Highest nonacosane levels were observed in plants 40 days after transplant, and relative humidity correlated negatively with nonacosane. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp. and the spiders can be useful controlling agents of the whitefly and aphids in cabbage. Median temperature can increase whitefly and thrips populations.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as relações entre predadores, parasitóides, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e de potássio foliar, pluviosidade, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na intensidade de ataque de mosca-branca, pulgão e tripes em repolho. As populações de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes tenderam a aumentar no final do cultivo ou apresentaram pico 40 dias depois do transplantio. As populações de mosca-branca e tripes tenderam a aumentar sob temperaturas mais elevadas. As populações de Cheiracanthium inclusum e Adialytus spp. dependiam das populações de mosca-branca e pulg

  6. Evidence for inbreeding depression and pre-copulatory, but not post copulatory inbreeding avoidance in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

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    XingPing Liu

    Full Text Available Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi.

  7. Egg laying of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae on Arabidopsis thaliana affects subsequent performance of the larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Geiselhardt

    Full Text Available Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant--herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants. Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2 , a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content.

  8. Immunomodulatory Activity of Lactococcus lactis A17 from Taiwan Fermented Cabbage in OVA-Sensitized BALB/c Mice

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    Hui-Ching Mei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From fermented Taiwan foods, we have isolated numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB of plant origin and investigated their biological activities. This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effect and mechanism of Lactococcus lactis A17 (A17, isolated from Taiwan fermented cabbage, on ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized mice. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to verify immune responses of A17 by IFN-γ production. Live (A17-A and heat-killed A17 (A17-H were orally administered to OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice to investigate their effects on immunoglobulin (Ig and cytokine production. The mRNA expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD-like protein receptors in spleen cells was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Both live and heat-killed A17 modulate OVA-induced allergic effects. B-cell response was modulated by diminishing IgE production and raising OVA-specific IgG2a production, while T-cell response was modulated by increasing IFN-γ production and decreasing IL-4 production. The mRNA expression of NOD-1, NOD-2, and TLR-4 was down-regulated by A17 as well. This is the first report to describe a naïve Lactococcus lactis A17 strain as a promising candidate for prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of allergic diseases via oral administration. Our results suggest the ameliorative effects of A17 may be caused by modulating NOD-1 NOD-2, and TLR-4 expression.

  9. Application of gamma radiation for the reduction of norovirus and the quality stability in optimally ripened cabbage kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-10-01

    Optimally ripened commercial cabbage kimchi is considered the main cause of enteric norovirus (NoV) outbreaks in Korea. This study investigated the effect of 1-10kGy gamma radiation on the inactivation of murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1; initial inoculum of 5-6log 10 PFU/ml), used as a human NoV surrogate, in kimchi. The effects of gamma radiation on the pH and acidity were also examined to address the index of quality and fermentation, respectively. Titers of MNV-1 significantly reduced (pkimchi subjected to increasing gamma radiation doses: MNV-1 titers in kimchi after 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10kGy were 4.82 (0.34-log 10 reduction), 4.45 (0.71-log 10 reduction), 4.18 (0.98-log 10 reduction), 3.71 (1.45-log 10 reduction), and 3.40 (1.76-log 10 reduction) log 10 PFU/ml, respectively. However, the values of pH (4.5-4.6) and acidity (0.6-0.7%) were not significantly different between non-irradiated and irradiated kimchi (p>0.05). The D-value (1-log reduction) for MNV-1 in kimchi, calculated using first-order kinetics, was 5.75kGy (R 2 =0.98, RMSE=0.10). Therefore, this study suggests that the use of ≥5.75kGy gamma radiation in the kimchi manufacturing industry could be very effective in reducing NoV contamination by >90% (1 log), without causing changes in quality and fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides on important parasitoids of cabbage butterflies in cruciferous ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firake, D M; Thubru, D P; Behere, G T

    2017-02-01

    Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides was estimated on three important parasitoids of butterflies viz., Hyposoter ebeninus, Cotesia glomerata and Pteromalus puparum. Four commonly used pesticides were evaluated using standard protocol (of IOBC/WPRS-group). In laboratory tests, the survival of the female wasps decreased significantly on fresh contact and ingestion of deltamethrin, spinosad and azadirachtin; whereas Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk) was found harmless pesticide. Under semi-field conditions, parasitoid mortality decreased significantly on fresh contact with the pesticides. Although, at 72 h after treatment, spinosad and deltamethrin were found harmful (Class-IV) and azadirachtin was moderately harmful (Class-III), whereas Btk was harmless (Class-I). Furthermore, 15-day-old residues of pesticides (except deltamethrin) were harmless to all parasitoid species under semi-field conditions. Notably, adult emergence and pupal duration in pesticide-treated cocoons were not significantly affected; however, their survival decreased after emergence except in Btk. The contact and oral toxicity trends of the pesticides were almost similar for three species of parasitoid females and pupae; however little variability was observed in toxicity to the host caterpillars parasitized by H. ebeninus (HCPHE) and C. glomerata (HCPCG). In semi-field tests, fresh residues of all the pesticides were harmful to HCPHE and HCPCG. However, action of Btk was slightly delayed and toxicity was rather low for HCPCG. In 15-day-old residues, deltamethrin and azadirachtin were slightly harmful to the parasitized caterpillars, whereas those of Btk and spinosad were harmless. Since, Btk appeared to be safe for parasitoids; it could be used for managing cabbage butterflies in brassicaceous crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Temperature on Systemic Infection and Symptom Expression of Turnip mosaic virus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris

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    Bong Nam Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cultivar ‘Chun-goang’ as a host and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV as a pathogen, we studied the effects of ambient temperature (13°C, 18°C, 23°C, 28°C and 33°C on disease intensity and the speed of systemic infection. The optimal temperature for symptom expression of TuMV was 18–28°C. However, symptoms of viral infection were initiated at 23–28°C and 6 days post infection (dpi. Plants maintained at 33°C were systemically infected as early as 6 dpi and remained symptomless until 12 or 22 dpi, depending on growth stage at the time of inoculation. It took 45 days for infection of plants grown at 13°C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR results showed that the accumulation of virus coat protein was greater in plants grown at 23–28°C. The speed of systemic infection increased linearly with rising ambient temperature, up to 23°C. The zero-infection temperature was 10.1°C. To study the effects of abruptly elevated temperatures on systemic infection, plants inoculated with TuMV were maintained at 10°C for 20 d; transferred to a growth chamber at temperatures of 13°C, 18°C, 23°C, 28°C, or 33°C for 1, 2, or 3 d; and then moved back to 10°C. The numbers of plants infected increased as duration of exposure to higher temperatures and dpi increased.

  12. Evidence for inbreeding depression and pre-copulatory, but not post copulatory inbreeding avoidance in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, XingPing; Tu, XiaoYun; He, HaiMin; Chen, Chao; Xue, FangSen

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi.

  13. Fine Mapping of a Clubroot Resistance Gene in Chinese Cabbage Using SNP Markers Identified from Bulked Segregant RNA Sequencing

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    Zhen Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease of canola (Brassica napus in western Canada and worldwide. In this study, a clubroot resistance gene (Rcr2 was identified and fine mapped in Chinese cabbage cv. “Jazz” using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP markers identified from bulked segregant RNA sequencing (BSR-Seq and molecular markers were developed for use in marker assisted selection. In total, 203.9 million raw reads were generated from one pooled resistant (R and one pooled susceptible (S sample, and >173,000 polymorphic SNP sites were identified between the R and S samples. One significant peak was observed between 22 and 26 Mb of chromosome A03, which had been predicted by BSR-Seq to contain the causal gene Rcr2. There were 490 polymorphic SNP sites identified in the region. A segregating population consisting of 675 plants was analyzed with 15 SNP sites in the region using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR method, and Rcr2 was fine mapped between two SNP markers, SNP_A03_32 and SNP_A03_67 with 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Rcr2, respectively. Five SNP markers co-segregated with Rcr2 in this region. Variants were identified in 14 of 36 genes annotated in the Rcr2 target region. The numbers of poly variants differed among the genes. Four genes encode TIR-NBS-LRR proteins and two of them Bra019410 and Bra019413, had high numbers of polymorphic variants and so are the most likely candidates of Rcr2.

  14. Molecular Cloning and Functional Expression of Chitinase-Encoding cDNA from the Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Aron; Park, Hee Yun; Jeong, Seong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Chitinase is a rate-limiting and endo-splitting enzyme involved in the bio-degradation of chitin, an important component of the cuticular exoskeleton and peritrophic matrix in insects. We isolated a cDNA-encoding chitinase from the last larval integument of the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae), cloned the ORF cDNA into E. coli to confirm its functionality, and analyzed the deduced amino acid sequence in comparison with previously described lepidopteran chitinases. M. brassicae chitinase expressed in the transformed E. coli cells with the chitinase-encoding cDNA enhanced cell proliferation to about 1.6 times of the untransformed wild type strain in a colloidal chitin-including medium with only a very limited amount of other nutrients. Compared with the wild type strain, the intracellular levels of chitin degradation derivatives, glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine were about 7.2 and 2.3 times higher, respectively, while the extracellular chitinase activity was about 2.2 times higher in the transformed strain. The ORF of M. brassicae chitinase-encoding cDNA consisted of 1686 nucleotides (562 amino acid residues) except for the stop codon, and its deduced amino acid composition revealed a calculated molecular weight of 62.7 and theoretical pI of 5.3. The ORF was composed of N-terminal leading signal peptide (AA 1-20), catalytic domain (AA 21–392), linker region (AA 393–498), and C-terminal chitin-binding domain (AA 499–562) showing its characteristic structure as a molting fluid chitinase. In phylogenetic analysis, the enzymes from 6 noctuid species were grouped together, separately from a group of 3 bombycid and 1 tortricid enzymes, corresponding to their taxonomic relationships at both the family and genus levels. PMID:22124732

  15. Genetic control of immunity to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) pathotype 1 in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydiate, Derek J; Pilcher, Rachel L Rusholme; Higgins, Erin E; Walsh, John A

    2014-08-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is the major virus infecting crops of the genus Brassica worldwide. A dominant resistance gene, TuRB01b, that confers immunity to the virus isolate UK 1 (a representative pathotype 1 isolate of TuMV) on Brassica rapa was identified in the Chinese cabbage cultivar Tropical Delight. The TuRB01b locus was mapped to a 2.9-cM interval on B. rapa chromosome 6 (A6) that was flanked by RFLP markers pN101e1 and pW137e1. This mapping used a first backcross (B(1)) population segregating for the resistance gene at TuRB01b and sets of RFLP markers employed in previous mapping experiments in Brassica. Virus-plant interaction phenotypes were assayed in inbred progeny derived from B(1) individuals to allow different virus isolates to be tested. Comparative mapping confirmed that A6 of B. rapa was equivalent to chromosome 6 of Brassica napus (A6) and that the map position of TuRB01b in B. rapa could be identical to that of TuRB01 in B. napus. Detailed evaluation of plant-virus interactions showed that TuRB01 and TuRB01b had indistinguishable specificities to a range of TuMV isolates. The possibility that TuRB01 and TuRB01b represent similar or identical alleles at the same A genome resistance locus suggests that B. napus acquired TuRB01 from the B. rapa gene pool.

  16. QTL Analysis of Head Splitting Resistance in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Using SSR and InDel Makers Based on Whole-Genome Re-Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Su

    Full Text Available Head splitting resistance (HSR in cabbage is an important trait closely related to both quality and yield of head. However, the genetic control of this trait remains unclear. In this study, a doubled haploid (DH population derived from an intra-cross between head splitting-susceptible inbred cabbage line 79-156 and resistant line 96-100 was obtained and used to analyze inheritance and detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs for HSR using a mixed major gene/polygene inheritance analysis and QTL mapping. HSR can be attributed to additive-epistatic effects of three major gene pairs combined with those of polygenes. Negative and significant correlations were also detected between head Hsr and head vertical diameter (Hvd, head transverse diameter (Htd and head weight (Hw. Using the DH population, a genetic map was constructed with simple sequence repeat (SSR and insertion-deletion (InDel markers, with a total length of 1065.9 cM and average interval length of 4.4 cM between adjacent markers. Nine QTLs for HSR were located on chromosomes C3, C4, C7, and C9 based on 2 years of phenotypic data using both multiple-QTL mapping and inclusive composite interval mapping. The identified QTLs collectively explained 39.4 to 59.1% of phenotypic variation. Three major QTLs (Hsr 3.2, 4.2, 9.2 showing a relatively larger effect were robustly detected in different years or with different mapping methods. The HSR trait was shown to have complex genetic mechanisms. Results from QTL mapping and classical genetic analysis were consistent. The QTLs obtained in this study should be useful for molecular marker-assisted selection in cabbage breeding and provide a foundation for further research on HSR genetic regulation.

  17. Three zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins in cabbage (Brassica rapa) play diverse roles in seed germination and plant growth under normal and abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ye Rin; Choi, Min Ji; Park, Su Jung; Kang, Hunseung

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing understanding of the stress-responsive roles of zinc-finger RNA-binding proteins (RZs) in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa), the functions of RZs in cabbage (Brassica rapa) have not yet been elucidated. In this study, the functional roles of the three RZ family members present in the cabbage genome, designated as BrRZ1, BrRZ2 and BrRZ3, were investigated in transgenic Arabidopsis under normal and environmental stress conditions. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that all BrRZ proteins were exclusively localized in the nucleus. The expression levels of each BrRZ were markedly increased by cold, drought or salt stress and by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Expression of BrRZ3 in Arabidopsis retarded seed germination and stem growth and reduced seed yield of Arabidopsis plants under normal growth conditions. Germination of BrRZ2- or BrRZ3-expressing Arabidopsis seeds was delayed compared with that of wild-type seeds under dehydration or salt stress conditions and cold stress conditions, respectively. Seedling growth of BrRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants was significantly inhibited under salt, dehydration or cold stress conditions. Notably, seedling growth of all three BrRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants was inhibited upon ABA treatment. Importantly, all BrRZs possessed RNA chaperone activity. Taken together, these results indicate that the three cabbage BrRZs harboring RNA chaperone activity play diverse roles in seed germination and seedling growth of plants under abiotic stress conditions as well as in the presence of ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Four years' root uptake and underground distribution of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in simulated rice and Chinese cabbage fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H.; Lim, K.M.; Park, H.G.; Park, D.W.; Lee, W.Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    For studying long-term behaviours of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in rice and Chinese cabbage fields, greenhouse experiments were carried out for 4 years with crop plants grown in lysimeters simulating paddy and upper-land fields. A solution of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs was mixed with the topsoil 1 day before transplanting or sowing in 1993. The {sup 60}Co transfer factor (TF) was higher than the {sup 137}Cs TF in straw while the opposite was mostly true in hulled seeds. The {sup 60}Co TF for straw was an order of magnitude higher than that for hulled seeds but the {sup 137}Cs TF for straw was only 2 - 3 times higher than that for hulled seed. In Chinese cabbage, the TFs of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs were not significantly different from each other in the first 2 years. The TFs of {sup 137}Cs decreased by factors of 8 - 10 in 3 years. The TFs of {sup 60}Co decreased a little only in the second year and remained almost constant thereafter. Depth profiles of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in the topsoil were very similar to each other. The uniformity of the activity distribution in the topsoil improved almost year by year. Negligible amounts of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs were leached out of the lysimeter. Leaching of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs decreased by factors of 10 and 7, respectively, in 3 years. The present results can be utilized for assessing the radiological impact and deciding counter-measures when rice and Chinese cabbage fields are contaminated with those radionuclides. (author)

  19. Influence of Commercial Antibiotics on Biocontrol of Soft Rot and Plant Growth Promotion in Chinese Cabbages by Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1 and BS07M

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    Mee Kyung Sang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated influence of three commercial antibiotics viz., oxolinic acid, streptomycin, and validamycin A, on biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities of Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1 and BS07M in Chinese cabbage. Plants were pre-drenched with these strains followed by antibiotics application at recommended and ten-fold diluted concentration to test the effect on biocontrol ability against soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum SCC1. The viability of the two biocontrol strains and bacterial pathogen SCC1 was significantly reduced by oxolinic acid and streptomycin in vitro assay, but not by validamycin A. In plant trials, strains EXTN- 1 and BS07M controlled soft rot in Chinese cabbage, and there was a significant difference in disease severity when the antibiotics were applied to the plants drenched with the two biocontrol agents. Additional foliar applications of oxolinic acid and streptomycin reduced the disease irrespective of pre-drench treatment of the PGPRs. However, when the plants were pre-drenched with EXTN-1 followed by spray of validamycin A at recommended concentration, soft rot significantly reduced compared to untreated control. Similarly, strains EXTN-1 and BS07M significantly enhanced plant growth, but it did not show synergistic effect with additional spray of antibiotics. Populations of the EXTN-1 or BS07M in the rhizosphere of plants sprayed with antibiotics were significantly affected as compared to control. Taken together, our results suggest that the three antibiotics used for soft rot control in Chinese cabbage could affect bacterial mediated biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities. Therefore, combined treatment of the PGPRs and the commercial antibiotics should be carefully applied to sustain environmental friendly disease management.

  20. Characterization and classification of one new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line based on morphological, cytological and molecular markers in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Shuangping; Shi, Dianyi; Hu, Zhenhua; Huang, Tao; Li, Jinping; Liu, Liyan; Xia, Chunxiu; Yuan, Zhenzhen; Xu, Yuejin; Fu, Tingdong; Wan, Zhengjie

    2015-09-01

    A new non-heading Chinese cabbage CMS line M119A was characterized and specific molecular markers were developed to classify different CMS types. One new non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line M119A was obtained by interspecific crosses between the recently discovered hau CMS line of Brassica juncea and B. rapa. Furthermore, the line was characterized and compared with other five isonuclear-alloplasmic CMS lines. The M119A line produced six stamens without pollen and only two stamen fused together in fewer flowers. Tissue section indicated that anther abortion in M119A may have occurred during differentiation of the archesporial cells without pollen sac. All the six CMS lines were grouped into three types based on the presence of three PCR fragments of 825, 465 and 772 bp amplified with different mitochondrial genes specific primers. The 825-bp fragment was amplified both in 09-10A and H201A using the specific primer pair P-orf224-atp6, and showed 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of pol CMS. The 465-bp fragment was amplified in 30A and 105A using the primer pair P-orf138 and shared 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of ogu CMS. The 772-bp fragment was amplified in M119A and H203A using the primer pair P-orf288 and showed 100 % identity with the mitochondrial gene of hau CMS. Therefore, these markers could efficiently distinguish different types of isonuclear-alloplasmic CMS lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage, which were useful for improving the efficiency of cross-breeding and heterosis utilization in cruciferous vegetables.

  1. Effect of intercropping of maize, bean, cabbage and toxicants on the population levels of some insect pests and associated predators in sugar beet plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K.M. El-Fakharany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out at El-Riad district, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate in two successive growing seasons (2009/10 and 2010/11 to study the effect of intercropping of faba bean, maize and cabbage with sugar beet on the population density of Empoasca spp. (nymphs and adults, Aphis spp. (nymphs and adults, Bemisia tabaci (adults, Pegomyia mixta (eggs and larvae, Cassida vittata (larvae, pupae and adults and predators in sugar beet plantations compared with the non-intercropped plants and the resulting yield. The toxicity of certain compounds: fenitrothion, super misrona, sour orange oil, acidless orange oil, and Bermectine in reducing the population density of P. mixta and C. vittata larvae infesting sugar beet was evaluated. The rate of infestation was higher in the sole sugar beet plants than in those intercropped with faba bean, maize and cabbage plants which caused reduction of sucking pests and P. mixta eggs in the two seasons. The intercropping of faba bean plants led to higher infestation rate of P. mixta larvae in the two seasons and C. vittata (larvae, pupae and adults in the first season. The intercropping with maize led to a higher population density of Chrysoperla carnea, Paederus alfierii and Scymnus spp. in the two seasons. Low population density of true spiders was observed in sole sugar beet (control when compared with faba bean, maize and cabbage plants intercropped in the two seasons. Concerning the obtained root yield, the intercropping with maize and cabbage plants reduced the resultant yield of sugar beet roots in the two seasons. Bermectine and fenitrothion were the most effective toxicants followed by super misrona and then, sour orange that induced the lowest reduction in P. mixta larvae. Also, fenitrothion and Bermectine were the most potent compounds in reducing the population density of C. vittata larvae followed by super misrona and then, plant oil extracts. Concerning the side effects of these compounds on

  2. Feeding Deterrent Activity of Melia azedarach Linn. and Phytolacca dodecondra (L’Herit) Plant Extracts Against Cabbage Flea Beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze)

    OpenAIRE

    Geleta Mathewos; Alemayehu Bayable; Tedbabe Nigatu; Zewdinesh Aboset; Birtukan Mulat; Nagappan Raja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate feeding deterrent activity of cold and hot water extracts of Melia azedarach and Phytolacca dodecandra plant parts against cabbage flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae. Tap water was used for cold water extraction and 100°C boiled water was used for hot water extraction. Five concentrations (w/v) such as 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 g, respectively of powder/100 mL of water was used to check feeding deterrent activity by leaf discs method. Feeding deterrent activ...

  3. Wavelength-dependent photooxidation and photoreduction of protochlorophyllide and protochlorophyll in the innermost leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Anna Laura; Kósa, Annamária; Kovács-Smirová, Lilla; Böddi, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The photoreduction and photooxidation processes of different protochlorophyll(ide) forms were studied in the innermost leaves of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) under monochromatic irradiations. Room-temperature fluorescence emission spectra were measured from the same leaf spots before and after illumination to follow the wavelength dependence of the photochemical reactions. Short-wavelength light of 7 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) (625-630 nm) provoked mainly bleaching, and longer wavelengths (630-640 nm) caused both bleaching and photoreduction, while above 640 nm resulted in basically photoreduction. When bleached leaves were kept in darkness at room temperature, all protochlorophyll(ide) forms regenerated during 72 h. Oxygen-reduced environment decreased the extent of bleaching suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species. These results confirm that the short-wavelength, 628 nm absorbing, and 633 nm emitting protochlorophyll(ide) form in etiolated cabbage leaves sensibilizes photooxidation. However, the 628 nm light at low intensities stimulates the photoreduction of the longer wavelength protochlorophyllide forms. Kinetic measurements showed that photoreduction saturates at a low PFD (photon flux density) compared to bleaching, suggesting that the quantum yield of photoreduction is higher than that of bleaching.

  4. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  5. Synthesis Of Three Analogues Of Trypsin-Modulating Oostatic Factor TMOF And Screening Of Their Insecticidal Properties Towards Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar

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    Rani Maharani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three analogues of TMOF PP H-Pro-Pro-OH PPPPPP H-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-OH and APPPPPP H-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-Pro-OH were successfully synthesised and screened for their insecticidal properties against cabbage cluster caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana. All compounds were prepared through Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis SPPS method. The synthesis employed chlorotrityl resin as solid support. A combination of NN-diisopropylcarbodiimide DIC and ethyl 2-cyano-2-hydroxyiminoacetate oxyma was chosen as coupling reagent in the synthesis. The peptide was cleaved by using TFA cocktail. All peptide crudes were purified by using reversed-phase flash chromatography with octadecyl silane ODS as stationary phase. All purified peptides were characterized by using TOF-ESMS and their purity was analysed using thin layer chromatography and analytical RP-HPLC. The synthesised TMOF analogues together with TMOF were biologically tested towards the C. pavonana at 1000 ppm. The results indicated that TMOF and the analogues were less effective for the cabbage cluster caterpillar compared to previously reported activity of TMOF towards Aedes aegypty.

  6. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  7. Quality of white cabbage yield and potential risk of ground water nitrogen pollution, as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maršić, Nina Kacjan; Sturm, Martina; Zupanc, Vesna; Lojen, Sonja; Pintar, Marina

    2012-01-15

    The effect of different fertilisation (broadcast solid NPK application and fertigation with water-soluble fertiliser) and irrigation practices (sprinkler and drip irrigation) on yield, the nitrate content in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and the cabbage N uptake was detected, in order to assess the potential risk for N losses, by cultivation on sandy-loam soil. The N rate applied on the plots was 200 kg N ha(-1). The highest yield (93 t ha(-1)) and nitrate content (1256 mg kg(-1) DW) were found with treatments using broadcast fertilisation and sprinkler irrigation. On those plots the negative N balance (-30 kg N ha(-1)) was recorded, which comes mainly from the highest crop N uptake (234 kg N ha(-1)) indicating the lowest potential for N losses. In terms of yield quality and the potential risk for N losses, broadcast fertilisation combined with sprinkler irrigation proved to be the most effective combination among the tested practices under the given experimental conditions. The importance of adequate irrigation is also evident, namely in plots on which 50% drip irrigation was applied, the lowest yield was detected and according to the positive N balance, a higher potential for N losses is expected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The green peach aphid Myzus persicae perform better on pre-infested Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis by enhancing host plant nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, He-He; Liu, Hui-Ru; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-02-24

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer, is a notorious pest on vegetables, which often aggregates in high densities on crop leaves. In this study, we investigated whether M. persicae could suppress the resistance level of Chinese cabbage Brassica pekinensis. M. persicae performed better in terms of weight gain (~33% increase) and population growth (~110% increase) when feeding on previously infested (pre-infested) Chinese cabbage compared with those on non-infested plants. However, when given a choice, 64% of the aphids preferred to settle on non-infested leaves, while 29% of aphids chose pre-infested leaves that had a 2.9 times higher concentration of glucosinolates. Aphid feeding significantly enhanced the amino acid:sugar ratio of phloem sap and the absolute amino acid concentration in plant leaves. Aphid infestation significantly increased the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) marker genes, while it had marginal effects on the expression of jasmonate marker genes. Exogenously applied SA or methyl jasmonate had no significant effects on M. persicae performance, although these chemicals increased glucosinolates concentration in plant leaves. M. persicae infestation increase amino acid:sugar ratio and activate plant defenses, but aphid performed better on pre-infested plants, suggesting that both nutrition and toxics should be considered in insect-plant interaction.

  9. Rapid Separation of Indole Glucosinolates in Roots of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa Subsp. Pekinensis by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection

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    Alfredo Aires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates are a class of sulphur-containing plant compounds with diverse biological properties. They have been found exclusively in the Brassicaceae family plants and studied exhaustively in biosynthetic and application perspectives. The aim of this current study is to present a simple and updated method to quantify indole glucosinolate content in hairy root cultures of Chinese cabbage by HPLC-DAD-UV/Vis. Method validation controls were performed and recovery experiments were assayed. The data was statically treated and compared with published works. The current method allowed a feasible identification of indole glucosinolates and it was possible to identify accurately three indole glucosinolate compounds (glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 1-methoxyglucobrassicin in roots of Chinese cabbage. The method demonstrated a good linearity (R2>0.99, a good precision, and selectivity sensitivity. In conclusion, this protocol provides an accessible method to extract and quantify glucosinolates in plant samples. Thus, based on our results, the method is valid and can be extended to other plant or food matrices.

  10. Over-expression of rice leucine-rich repeat protein results in activation of defense response, thereby enhancing resistance to bacterial soft rot in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Ho; Choi, Changhyun; Park, Eun Mi; Kim, Hyo Sun; Park, Hong Jae; Bae, Shin Cheol; Ahn, Ilpyung; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju

    2012-10-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. The simple extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain proteins have been implicated in disease resistance. Rice leucine-rich repeat protein (OsLRP), a rice simple eLRR domain protein, is induced by pathogens, phytohormones, and salt. To see whether OsLRP enhances disease resistance to bacterial soft rot, OsLRP was introduced into Chinese cabbage by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two independent transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP were generated and further analyzed. Transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP showed enhanced disease resistance to bacterial soft rot compared to non-transgenic control. Bacterial growth was retarded in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP compared to non-transgenic controls. We propose that OsLRP confers enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot. Monitoring expression of defense-associated genes in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP, two different glucanases and Brassica rapa polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 2, PDF1 were constitutively activated in transgenic lines compared to non-transgenic control. Taken together, heterologous expression of OsLRP results in the activation of defense response and enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot.

  11. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  12. BrWRKY65, a WRKY Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Regulating Three Leaf Senescence-Associated Genes in Chinese Flowering Cabbage

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    Zhong-Qi Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs have been implicated to function as regulators of leaf senescence, but their association with postharvest leaf senescence of economically important leafy vegetables, is poorly understood. In this work, the characterization of a Group IIe WRKY TF, BrWRKY65, from Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis is reported. The expression of BrWRKY65 was up-regulated following leaf chlorophyll degradation and yellowing during postharvest senescence. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation assays showed that BrWRKY65 was localized in the nucleus and exhibited trans-activation ability. Further electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and transient expression analysis clearly revealed that BrWRKY65 directly bound to the W-box motifs in the promoters of three senescence-associated genes (SAGs such as BrNYC1 and BrSGR1 associated with chlorophyll degradation, and BrDIN1, and subsequently activated their expressions. These findings demonstrate that BrWRKY65 may be positively associated with postharvest leaf senescence, at least partially, by the direct activation of SAGs. Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of postharvest leaf senescence in Chinese flowering cabbage.

  13. BrWRKY65, a WRKY Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Regulating Three Leaf Senescence-Associated Genes in Chinese Flowering Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-Qi; Tan, Xiao-Li; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-06-08

    Plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to function as regulators of leaf senescence, but their association with postharvest leaf senescence of economically important leafy vegetables, is poorly understood. In this work, the characterization of a Group IIe WRKY TF, BrWRKY65, from Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa var. parachinensis) is reported. The expression of BrWRKY65 was up-regulated following leaf chlorophyll degradation and yellowing during postharvest senescence. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation assays showed that BrWRKY65 was localized in the nucleus and exhibited trans-activation ability. Further electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and transient expression analysis clearly revealed that BrWRKY65 directly bound to the W-box motifs in the promoters of three senescence-associated genes (SAGs) such as BrNYC1 and BrSGR1 associated with chlorophyll degradation, and BrDIN1, and subsequently activated their expressions. These findings demonstrate that BrWRKY65 may be positively associated with postharvest leaf senescence, at least partially, by the direct activation of SAGs. Taken together, these findings provide new insights into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of postharvest leaf senescence in Chinese flowering cabbage.

  14. Different influences of cadmium on soil microbial activity and structure with Chinese cabbage cultivated and non-cultivated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Min; Ma Aili; Peng Ying [Dept. of Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Hangzhou (China); Xie Xiaomei [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal, accumulated in soil by anthropogenic activities and has serious effects on soil microbial activities in contaminated soils. Moreover, there is a lack of reliable data on the effects of Cd in the soil-plant system, since most of the information on Cd-microorganism interactions in soils are based on sewage sludge without plants. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of Cd on soil microbial activities and community structure during growth of plant. Materials and methods: A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of different concentrations of Cd on soil microbial activities during the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) in two different soils. The field soils were used in this short-term (60 days) greenhouse pot experiment. The soils were spiked with different Cd concentrations, namely, 0, 1, 3, 8, 15, 30 mg Cd kg{sup -1} oven dry soil, respectively. The experimental design was a 2 (soil) x 2 (vegetation/non-vegetation) x 5 (treatments (Cd)) x 3 (replicate factorial experiment). After 60 days, the study was terminated and soils were analyzed for selected microbial parameters, such as, microbial biomass carbon (C{sub mic}), basal respiration and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Results and discussion: Application of Cd at lower concentrations (1 and 3 mg kg{sup -1}) resulted in a slight increase in C{sub mic}, whereas Cd concentrations >8 mg kg{sup -1} caused an immediate significant decline in C{sub mic}, the ratio of C{sub mic} to total organic C (C{sub mic}/C{sub org}) decreased and the metabolic quotient (qCO{sub 2}, namely, the basal respiration CO{sub 2}/C{sub mic}) increased with elevated Cd concentration. However, the impact on soil C{sub mic} and basal respiration caused by Cd was dependent from plant cover or soil properties. The results of PLFAs showed relative increase in fatty acid indicators for fungi and actinomycetes and gradual increase in the ratio of

  15. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cabbage at the Cabaret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Hans G.

    1976-01-01

    The so-called "threshold level," defined as minimum basic vocabulary, is analyzed. It is felt that the "Lexicon for Threshold-Level English" contains too many rare words and exemplary sentences that are empty of expression and sometimes unidiomatic. (Text is in German.) (IFS/MS)

  17. Avaliação da intenção de compra de couve minimamente processada Consumer intention to purchase for minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. S. Dantas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários fatores influenciam a percepção do produto pelo consumidor e, conseqüentemente, sua intenção de compra. Dentre tais fatores pode estar a expectativa criada pelas características da embalagem e do rótulo, pois representam o primeiro contato entre o indivíduo e o produto. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das características da embalagem na intenção de compra de couve minimamente processada, considerando as diferenças individuais dos consumidores para processar as informações. Cinco características da embalagem de couve minimamente processada (informação, tipo de produção, cor, preço e visibilidade do produto foram manipuladas e 12 embalagens criadas seguindo delineamento fatorial incompleto. A intenção de compra para o produto foi avaliada por 144 consumidores baseada apenas na observação das referidas embalagens. Os dados foram analisados utilizando Conjoint e Cluster Analyses. Os resultados apontaram para um segmento único de consumidores, composto por indivíduos com percepção do produto bastante similar quanto à intenção de compra. Dentre as características da embalagem, a informação foi a que obteve maior importância relativa (77%, enfatizando seu papel na intenção de compra para esse grupo de consumidores. Em seguida, o tipo de produção, cor e preço também contribuíram significativamente (pSeveral factors affect the consumer product perception and, consequently, his/her intention to purchase. Among such factors is the expectation which can be created by the food label/packaging, which represents the first contact between the person and the product. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the manipulated package characteristics on the consumer intention to purchase for minimally processed cabbage, taking into account the consumer individual differences. Five minimally processed cabbage package characteristics (information, production type, colour, price and product

  18. Evaluación de la gallinaza en el control de Plasmodiophora brassicae en repollo Poultry manure Evaluation in the control of Plasmodiophora brassicae in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velandia Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available En el campo no se cuenta con un control químico eficaz para la hernia de las crucíferas, causada por Plasmodiophora brassicae. En el presente ensayo, se utilizó un lote de repollo sembrado en la Sabana de Bogotá e infestado naturalmente por el patógeno, para evaluar la aplicación de gallinaza
    como medio de control cultural de la enfermedad. Plántulas de la variedad Bola Verde de repollo de 60 días de  germinadas, fueron transplantadas al terreno con la aplicación de gallinaza pura y de piso, de dos y cuatro
    meses de descomposición, respectivamente. Se probaron dosis de 100, 200, 300 y 400 g de gallinaza de piso por planta y 50, 100, 200 y 300 g de gallinaza pura por planta. A los 120 días del trasplante, se cosecharon las plantas y se midió la producción del cultivo y los niveles de daño causados por el patógeno. Todas las plantas muestreadas presentaron
    síntomas. El índice de enfermedad en la parcela testigo fue de 9.9. En las parcelas con gallinaza, la severidad de la enfermedad disminuyó significativamente, especialmente cuando se empleó gallinaza pura. El índice de enfermedad mínimo (6.6 se obtuvo aplicando 300 g de gallinaza pura.Club root, a disease of crucifers caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae fields does not have an ettsctive chemical control in Colombian cabbage crops. In this experiment, both poultry litter and poultry manure application were tested as a means to control the occurrence of the in a naturally infested
    cabbage field in the savanna of Bogotá (Colombia, South America. Cabbage seedlings of Bola Verde variety received the application of poultry litter or poultry manure at transplanting, sixty days after germination. Four doses were used, in g/plant: 100,200, 300 and 400 of poultry litter, and 50, 100, 200 y 300 of poultry manure. At harvest, 120 days after transplanting, cabbage was harvested and yield, incidence and severity were recorded. All plants showed the presence of the

  19. Chemical mutagenesis in head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.: III effect of ethyl methane sulphonate on mycosporogenesis and pollen fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Vesselina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present investigation was to study the effect of different ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS concentrations (0.5, 0.6 and 0.7% on microsporogenesis and on the expression of pollen fertility in M1 plants, obtained from treated cabbage seeds (variety "Ditmarsko". The investigation was conducted to identify particular stages of male sterility expression at cytological level. It was established that the increase of EMS concentration resulted in decrease of pollen fertility values and in increase of the percentage of plants with low level of this trait. Cytological analysis in plants with 10.0 % pollen fertility showed, that EMS has a negative effect on the homologous chromosome pairing (early stages of PMC meiosis and on chromosomes correct division and migration to the spindle poles (second metaphase - anaphase. As a result of this the microsporogenesis runs with disturbances and formation of non - reduced and non - balanced gametes.

  20. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E. Fatouros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated with eggs of Cabbage White butterflies (Pieris spp. induce chemical changes in Brussels sprouts plants recruiting egg-killing parasitoids. Only secretions of mated female butterflies contain minute amounts of male-derived anti-aphrodisiac compounds that elicit this indirect plant defense. Here, we used the black mustard (Brassica nigra to investigate how eggs of the Large Cabbage White butterfly (P. brassicae induce, either an egg-killing direct (i.e. hypersensitive response (HR-like necrosis or indirect defense (i.e. oviposition-induced plant volatiles attracting Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Plants induced by P. brassicae egg-associated secretions expressed both traits and previous mating enhanced elicitation. Treatment with the anti-aphrodisiac compound of P. brassicae, benzyl cyanide, induced stronger HR when compared to controls. Expression of the salicylic (SA pathway- and HR-marker PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 (PR1 was induced only in plants showing an HR-like necrosis. Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles induced by secretion of mated P. brassicae females but application of benzyl cyanide did not elicit the parasitoid-attracting volatiles. We conclude that egg-associated secretions of Pieris butterflies contain specific elicitors of the different plant defense traits against eggs in Brassica plants. While in Brussels sprouts plants anti-aphrodisiac compounds in Pieris egg-associated secretions were clearly shown to elicit indirect defense, the wild relative B. nigra, recognizes different herbivore cues that mediate the defensive responses. These results add another level of specificity to the mechanisms by which plants recognize their

  1. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (p5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at kimchi production (pH 5.1-5.3 and 1.5-2.0%, respectively). These results suggest that this novel method of salting food ensures microbiological safety and reduces the production time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criollo Escobar Hernando Artemio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In modern agriculture, the use of agrochemicals has grown considerably, increasing production costs and causing serious problems for the environment. The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables. Given that bio-fertilizers can be produced on the farm and used successfully in crop production, this research focused on the effect of three bio-fertilizers on the production of lettuce and cabbage, biweekly applications were made with liquid fertilizers produced from the manure of cows (BFC, guinea pigs (BFGp and pigs (BFPi and compared to a commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF and a control without an application. We observed the presence of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces in the BFC and BFGp fertilizers and Bacillus in the BFPi fertilizer. The weight and head diameter and yield of lettuce and cabbage favored the bio-fertilizer applications compared to the control, but no statistical differences were found compared to the commercial foliar fertilizer (CFF. This behavior is attributed not only to the mineral content, but also to the presence of metabolite regulators of plant physiology, produced by the microbial action of the bio-fertilizers.

  3. Comparative transcript profiling of fertile and sterile flower buds from multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; Liu, Zhiyong; Ji, Ruiqin; Feng, Hui

    2017-05-10

    We studied the underlying causes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis) by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to pollen sterility between fertile and sterile flower buds. In this work, we verified the stages of sterility microscopically and then performed transcriptome analysis of mRNA isolated from fertile and sterile buds using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform sequencing. Approximately 80% of ~229 million high-quality paired-end reads were uniquely mapped to the reference genome. In sterile buds, 699 genes were significantly up-regulated and 4096 genes were down-regulated. Among the DEGs, 28 pollen cell wall-related genes, 54 transcription factor genes, 45 phytohormone-related genes, 20 anther and pollen-related genes, 212 specifically expressed transcripts, and 417 DEGs located on linkage group A07 were identified. Six transcription factor genes BrAMS, BrMS1, BrbHLH089, BrbHLH091, BrAtMYB103, and BrANAC025 were identified as putative sterility-related genes. The weak auxin signal that is regulated by BrABP1 may be one of the key factors causing pollen sterility observed here. Moreover, several significantly enriched GO terms such as "cell wall organization or biogenesis" (GO:0071554), "intrinsic to membrane" (GO:0031224), "integral to membrane" (GO:0016021), "hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds" (GO:0016788), and one significantly enriched pathway "starch and sucrose metabolism" (ath00500) were identified in this work. qRT-PCR, PCR, and in situ hybridization experiments validated our RNA-seq transcriptome analysis as accurate and reliable. This study will lay the foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) that underly sterility and provide valuable information for studying multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in the Chinese cabbage line 'AB01'.

  4. Beyond genomic variation--comparison and functional annotation of three Brassica rapa genomes: a turnip, a rapid cycling and a Chinese cabbage.

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    Lin, Ke; Zhang, Ningwen; Severing, Edouard I; Nijveen, Harm; Cheng, Feng; Visser, Richard G F; Wang, Xiaowu; de Ridder, Dick; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-03-31

    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop species. During its long breeding history, a large number of morphotypes have been generated, including leafy vegetables such as Chinese cabbage and pakchoi, turnip tuber crops and oil crops. To investigate the genetic variation underlying this morphological variation, we re-sequenced, assembled and annotated the genomes of two B. rapa subspecies, turnip crops (turnip) and a rapid cycling. We then analysed the two resulting genomes together with the Chinese cabbage Chiifu reference genome to obtain an impression of the B. rapa pan-genome. The number of genes with protein-coding changes between the three genotypes was lower than that among different accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be explained by the smaller effective population size of B. rapa due to its domestication. Based on orthology to a number of non-brassica species, we estimated the date of divergence among the three B. rapa morphotypes at approximately 250,000 YA, far predating Brassica domestication (5,000-10,000 YA). By analysing genes unique to turnip we found evidence for copy number differences in peroxidases, pointing to a role for the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway in the generation of morphological variation. The estimated date of divergence among three B. rapa morphotypes implies that prior to domestication there was already considerably divergence among B. rapa genotypes. Our study thus provides two new B. rapa reference genomes, delivers a set of computer tools to analyse the resulting pan-genome and uses these to shed light on genetic drivers behind the rich morphological variation found in B. rapa.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

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    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  6. Qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com diferentes produtos Quality of Chinese cabbage minimally processed and treated with different products

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    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C, ácido etileno-diamino-tetracético (EDTA e mantida sob refrigeração. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: T1: testemunha (imersão em água contendo 50 mg L-1 clorin/5 minutos; T2: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 1%/5 minutos; T3: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 2%/5 minutos; T4: imersão em solução contendo vitamina C a 1%/5 minutos; T5: imersão em solução contendo Vitamina C a 2%/5 minutos; T6: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 1%/5 minutos; e T7: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 2%/5 minutos. Após a realização dos tratamentos a couve-chinesa foi centrifugada, embalada em bandejas de polietileno expandido, recoberta com policloreto de vinila (PVC e armazenada em temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e umidade relativa (UR de 90 ± 2% por 8 dias. As análises físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais foram realizadas de dois em dois dias. A presença de Salmonella foi verificada somente após a realização dos tratamentos. A partir dos resultados obtidos procedeu-se à análise de variância (ANAVA e aplicou-se o teste de Tukey considerando-se um nível de significância p The present research aimed at evaluating the quality of minimally processed Chinese cabbage treated with calcium chloride (CaCl2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, and ethylene-diamine-tetracetic acid (EDTA and kept under refrigeration. Treatments were as follows: T1: control (immersion in water containing 50 mg L-1 Clorin/5 minutes; T2: immersion in 1% CaCl2 solution/5 minutes; T3: immersion in 2% aCl2 solution/5 minutes; T4: immersion in 1% vitamin C solution/5 minutes; T5: immersion in 2% vitamin C solution/5 minutes, T6: immersion in 1% EDTA solution/5 minutes; and T7: immersion in 2% EDTA solution/5 minutes. After the treatments, the Chinese cabbage was centrifuged, wrapped with polyvinyl

  7. Characteristics of Color Development in Seeds of Brown- and Yellow-Seeded Heading Chinese Cabbage and Molecular Analysis of Brsc, the Candidate Gene Controlling Seed Coat Color

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    Yanjing Ren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The proanthocyanidin (PA is the main flavonoids which affect the seed coat color in Brassica species. In this paper, characteristics of color development and accumulation of flavonoids were analyzed in the seeds of brown-seeded (B147 and yellow-seeded (B80 heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis. It is found that the content of phenolic compounds in B147 were significantly more than that of B80 by using dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA staining and toluidine blue O (TBO staining. In previous studies, the locus associated with seed coat color has been mapped. The results of whole genome re-sequencing showed that there are large fragment deletions variation in the mapping region between the brown-seeded parent ‘92S105’ and the yellow-seeded parent ‘91-125.’ Based on the B. rapa genome annotation information, the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1, is likely to be the candidate gene controlling seed coat color. A 94-base deletion was found in the 96th base downstream of the initiation codon in the TTG1 of yellow seed, thus, the termination codon TGA was occurred in the 297th base which makes the full length of TTG1 of yellow seed is 300 bp. Based on the differential sequences of TTG1 of brown and yellow seed, a functional marker, Brsc-yettg1, was developed to detect the variation of TTG1. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of BrTTG1 in different tissues showed that expression levels of BrTTG1 was not tissue-specific. During the whole seed development period, the expression of BrTTG1 in B147 was higher than that of B80. The expression levels of four structural genes, BrDFR, BrANS, BrANR1, and BrANR2 in B147 were also higher than those in B80. The co-segregation molecular markers obtained in this report and TTG1 related information provide a basis for further understanding of the molecular mechanism of seed coat color in heading Chinese cabbage.

  8. The effect of the method and time of seedling production on red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. oleracea convar. capitata (L Alef. var. capitata L. f. rubra DC. yield

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    Maria Tendaj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted in the period 2006-2008, involved an evaluation of yield and commercially useful traits of red cabbage grown from seedlings produced from seeds sown at three different times (the second decade of April, the third decade of April, and the first decade of May. Seedlings were produced in multicell trays in an unheated greenhouse and in a nursery bed from seeds sown at the same time. The experiment included 6 red cabbage cultivars (‘Huzaro F1’, ‘Kalibos’, ‘Langedijker Polana’, ‘Rodeo F1’, ‘Roxy F1’, ‘Zelox F1’. After cabbage heads were harvested in the second decade of October (in each year, total and marketable yield as well as head weight and the head shape index were determined. Red cabbage yield was shown to be significantly dependent on the cultivar, time of sowing, and method of seedling production. Among the cultivars studied, the following proved to be the most productive, irrespective of the other experimental factors: ‘Zelox F1’ (marketable yield averaged 398.11 kg×100 m-2, ‘Roxy F1’ (marketable yield averaged 368.82 kg×100 m-2, and ‘Rodeo F1’ (marketable yield averaged 331.59 kg×100 m-2. The cultivar ‘Kalibos’ was characterized by the lowest marketable yield (on average 257.09 kg×100 m-2. Delayed sowing (to produce seedlings by 10 and 20 days, compared to the earliest sowing time, had a significant effect on the reduction in total and marketable yield. Irrespective of the time of sowing, the production of seedlings in multicell trays did not have a significant effect on higher head weight. But the influence of the cultivar was significant - heads of the highest weight were found in the yield of the cultivar ‘Zelox F1’ (head weight was on average 1.71 kg. The head shape index was more than 1 and on average it did not exceed 1.35. The cultivar ‘Kalibos’ had the most elongated heads (with a conical shape, while cabbage heads in the cultivar ‘Langedijker Polana

  9. Rapid Introgression of the Fusarium Wilt Resistance Gene into an Elite Cabbage Line through the Combined Application of a Microspore Culture, Genome Background Analysis, and Disease Resistance-Specific Marker Assisted Foreground Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Han, Fengqing; Kong, Congcong; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Lv, Honghao

    2017-01-01

    Cabbage is an economically important vegetable worldwide. Cabbage Fusarium Wilt (CFW) is a destructive disease that results in considerable yield and quality losses in cole crops. The use of CFW-resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to mitigate the effects of CFW. 01-20 is an elite cabbage line with desirable traits and a high combining ability, but it is highly susceptible to CFW. To rapidly transfer a CFW resistance gene into 01-20 plants, we used microspore cultures to develop 230 doubled haploid (DH) lines from a cross between 01-20 (highly susceptible) and 96-100 (highly resistant). One of the generated DH lines (i.e., D134) was highly resistant to CFW and exhibited a phenotypic performance that was similar to that of line 01-20. Therefore, D134 was applied as the resistance donor parent. We generated 24 insertion-deletion markers using whole genome resequencing data for lines 01-20 and 96-100 to analyze the genomic backgrounds of backcross (BC) progenies. Based on the CFW resistance gene FOC1, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker (i.e., Frg13) was developed for foreground selections. We screened 240 BC1 individuals and 280 BC2 individuals with these markers and assessed their phenotypic performance. The proportion of recurrent parent genome (PRPG) of the best individuals in BC1 and BC2 were 95.8 and 99.1%. Finally, a best individual designated as YR01-20 was identified from 80 BC2F1 individuals, with homozygous FOC1 allele and genomic background and phenotype almost the same as those of 01-20. Our results may provide a rapid and efficient way of improving elite lines through the combined application of microspore culture, whole-genome background analysis, and disease resistance-specific marker selection. Additionally, the cabbage lines developed in this study represent elite materials useful for the breeding of new CFW-resistant cabbage varieties.

  10. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

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    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Absence of juvenile hormone signalling regulates the dynamic expression profiles of nutritional metabolism genes during diapause preparation in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

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    Liu, W; Tan, Q-Q; Zhu, L; Li, Y; Zhu, F; Lei, C-L; Wang, X-P

    2017-10-01

    Temperate insects have evolved diapause, a period of programmed developmental arrest during specific life stages, to survive unfavourable conditions. During the diapause preparation phase (DPP), diapause-destined individuals generally store large amounts of fat by regulating nutrition distribution for the energy requirement during diapause maintenance and postdiapause development. Although nutritional patterns during the DPP have been investigated at physiological and biochemical levels in many insects, it remains largely unknown how nutritional metabolism is regulated during the DPP at molecular levels. We used RNA sequencing to compare gene expression profiles of adult female cabbage beetles Colaphellus bowringi during the preoviposition phase (POP) and the DPP. Most differentially expressed genes were involved in specific metabolic pathways during the DPP. Genes related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways were clearly highly expressed during the DPP, whereas genes related to protein metabolic pathways were highly expressed during the POP. Hormone challenge and RNA interference experiments revealed that juvenile hormone via its nuclear receptor methoprene-tolerant mediated the expression of genes associated with nutritional metabolism during the DPP. This work not only sheds light on the mechanisms of diapause preparation, but also provides new insights into the molecular basis of environmental plasticity in insects. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. A genetic analysis of diapause in crosses of a southern and a northern strain of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi (Coleoptera: chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Xiao, L; He, H M; Xu, J; Xue, F S

    2014-10-01

    As a consequence of geographical variation in diapause mechanism in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, the southern strains enter diapause as an adult in response to long photoperiod, whereas the northern strains enter diapause in response to temperature. In the present study, we examined the inheritance of diapause by crossing a southern Xiushui strain (XS) with a most-northern Harbin strain (HB). The southern XS strain showed a clear short-day response for the induction of diapause, whereas the most-northern strain entered diapause regardless of photoperiod. Interestingly, the XS×HB progeny showed a short-day response, but the HB×XS progeny had no photoperiodic response, indicating that photoperiodic induction of diapause is influenced by maternal genotype. The incidence of diapause of F1 progeny was intermediate between their parents under short daylengths of 12 and 13 h. However, there was a sexual asymmetry, with the female parent exerting a greater effect on diapause incidence than the male parent, indicating a sex linkage in the inheritance of diapause induction. The χ2 test in C. bowringi revealed that the inheritance of diapause does not fit an additive hypothesis and also that the capacity for diapause is transmitted genetically (or possibly epigenetically) in a manner of incomplete dominance. These results suggest that a number of genetic factors are associated with differences in diapause capability in this beetle.

  13. Study on Thermodynamics and Adsorption kinetics of Purified endoglucanase (CMCase from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 produced under mixed solid-state fermentation of waste cabbage and Bagasse

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    Arpan Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, one thermostable endoglucanase was purified from Penicillium notatum NCIM NO-923 through mixed solid state fermentation of waste cabbage and bagasse. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 55kDa as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The enzyme had low activation energy (Ea of 36.39KJ mol-1 for carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis and the enthalpy and entropy for irreversible inactivation was 87 kJ mol −1 and 59.3 J mol −1 K−1 respectively. The enzyme was quite thermostable with a Tm value of 62.2˚C. The pKa1 and pKa2 of ionizable groups of the active sites were 2.5 and 5.3 respectively. Apparent Km, Vmax and Kcat of the enzyme were found to be 5.2 mg mL-1, 80 U/gds and 322.4 sec-1 respectively. The enzyme showed about 1.4 fold increased activity in presence of 10mM MgSO4. Adsorption of endoglucanase on Avicel at wide pH range was studied at different temperatures. Langmuir type adsorption isotherm at 10˚C showed maximum adsorption strength of enzyme at pH 3.0, which was in a range of optimum pH of the enzyme.

  14. Decontamination of tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion inoculated with Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri by some Essential oils (in vitro condition

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    Farhang Aliakbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils and their major constituents are useful sources of antimicrobial compounds. There are a few reports on the decontamination and antimicrobial activity of essential oils towards Shigella spp.Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimicrobial and decontamination potentials of essential oils at different concentrations, belonging to plants such as Thymus vulgaris, Saturiea hortensis, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint, towards Shigella sonnei and Shigella  flexneri were investigated. The disk diffusion method demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of the essential oils.Results: The ability of essential oils to decontaminate vegetables such as, tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion that were previously inoculated with Shigella spp. was determined. Inhibitory effects of essential oils towards Shigella spp. were noted in the disk diffusion method. There was a reduction in Shigella population following inoculation of cultures with 0.5% and 0.1% (v/v essential oils.Conclusion: This study confirmed that essential oils have the potential to be used for decontamination of vegetables.

  15. Development of edible films from tapioca starch and agar, enriched with red cabbage (Brassica oleracea) as a sausage deterioration bio-indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya Wardana, Ata; Dewanti Widyaningsih, Tri

    2017-12-01

    Sausage spoilage has been identified as a cause of some food poisoning cases. Development of a bioindicator film is one of the alternative methods to detect sausage deterioration. The objectives of this paper were to develop a bioindicator edible films (BEF) from tapioca starch (TS), agar, and red cabbage juice (RC), and to evaluate its performance on sausage deterioration detection. The experiment had a 3x3 randomized factorial experimental design (agar: 3, 5, 7% by weight of TS; RC: 10, 15, 20% v/v based on 100% of suspension). Glycerol was used as the plasticizer. The results showed that the addition of agar into the film solution increased the thickness, elongation, and tensile strength, and decreased water vapour transmission rate (WVTR). While the addition of RC increased the thickness, but decreased elongation, tensile strength, and WVTR. BEF consisting of 2% tapioca starch, 7% (w/w) agar and 10 % (v/v) RC was chosen to apply on sausage. It could detect an increase in the microbial population and in the pH variations as result of sausage deterioration at 24, 48, and 72 h shown through color changes of BEF from bright purple at 0 h to light purple, dark purple-blue, and purple-green color respectively.

  16. Patterns of phenotypic plasticity in common and rare environments: a study of host use and color learning in the cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Papaj, Daniel R

    2009-05-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is adaptive in variable environments but, given its costs, may be disfavored if only one environment is commonly encountered. Yet species in relatively constant environments often adjust phenotypes successfully in rare or novel environments. Developmental biases may reduce the costs of plasticity in common environments, favoring the maintenance of plasticity. We explored this proposition by studying the flexibility of visually guided host-selection behavior in cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae), wherein common and rare environments consisted of green and red host types, respectively. We demonstrated in greenhouse assays that adult females display an innate bias toward green color during host search but alter that bias through learning in red-host assemblages such that, after several hours of experience, red hosts are located as efficiently as green hosts. Full-sib analyses suggested there was genetic variation in host and color choice that was more pronounced in the red-host environment. We found no evidence of genetic correlations in behavior across host environments or of fitness costs of plasticity in color choice. Our results support the idea that learning may persist in less variable environments through the evolution of innate biases that reduce operating costs in common environments.

  17. High-performance liquid-phase separation of glycosides. III. Determination of total glucosinolates in cabbage and rapeseed by capillary electrophoresis via the enzymatically released glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, A; Melouk, H A; El Rassi, Z

    1999-02-01

    A selective and sensitive method for the determination of total glucosinolates (GSs) in plant extracts by capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed. It was based on the enzymatically released glucose from glucosinolates in the presence of the hydrolyzing enzyme myrosinase. The released glucose was converted to gluconic acid (GA) by the action of glucose oxidase. The resulting GA was then labeled selectively with the fluorescent tag 7-aminonaphthalene-1, 3-disulfonic acid (ANDSA). The peak area resulting from the GA-ANDSA derived from free and bound glucose was subtracted from the peak area of the GA-ANDSA resulting from the free glucose in the sample. This gave the total glucosinolates in the sample. The peak areas were normalized to the internal standard, N-acetylneuraminic acid derivatized with ANDSA. The method was validated using four different plant extracts, white cabbage leaves, rapeseed leaves, rapeseed roots, and rapeseed seeds. Furthermore, a capillary electrophoresis-UV detection method for profiling GS in plant extracts was developed. In addition to providing a fingerprint of the glucosinolates in plant extracts, the method allowed the experimenter to rapidly check the various steps involved in the extraction and sample cleanup. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and Wild Cabbage (Brassica macrocarpa Guss.) in Response to Plasmodiophora brassicae during Different Infection Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yumei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Li, Zhansheng; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot, one of the most devastating diseases to the Brassicaceae family, is caused by the obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. However, studies of the molecular basis of disease resistance are still poor especially in quantitative resistance. In the present paper, two previously identified genotypes, a clubroot-resistant genotype (wild cabbage, B2013) and a clubroot-susceptible genotype (broccoli, 90196) were inoculated by P. brassicae for 0 (T0), 7 (T7), and 14 (T14) day after inoculation (DAI). Gene expression pattern analysis suggested that response changes in transcript level of two genotypes under P. brassicae infection were mainly activated at the primary stage (T7). Based on the results of DEGs functional enrichments from two infection stages, genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis, glucosinolate biosynthesis, and plant hormone signal transduction showed down-regulated at T14 compared to T7, indicating that defense responses to P. brassicae were induced earlier, and related pathways were repressed at T14. In addition, the genes related to NBS-LRR proteins, SA signal transduction, cell wall and phytoalexins biosynthesis, chitinase, Ca2+ signals and RBOH proteins were mainly up-regulated in B2013 by comparing those of 90196, indicating the pathways of response defense to clubroot were activated in the resistant genotype. This is the first report about comparative transcriptome analysis for broccoli and its wild relative during the different stages of P. brassicae infection and the results should be useful for molecular assisted screening and breeding of clubroot-resistant genotypes.

  19. Hurdle enhancement of slightly acidic electrolyzed water antimicrobial efficacy on Chinese cabbage, lettuce, sesame leaf and spinach using ultrasonication and water wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani, Fereidoun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2013-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is well known as a good sanitizer against foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables. However, microbial reductions from SAEW treatment are not enough to ensure produce safety. Therefore, it is necessary to improve its antimicrobial efficiency by combining it with other appropriate approaches. This study examined the microbicidal activity of SAEW (pH 5.2-5.5, oxidation reduction potential 500-600 mV, available chlorine concentration 21-22 mg/l) on Chinese cabbage, lettuce, sesame leaf and spinach, four common fresh vegetables in Korea under same laboratory conditions. Subsequently, effects of ultrasonication and water wash to enhance the sanitizing efficacy of SAEW were studied, separately. Finally, an optimized simple and easy approach consisting of simultaneous SAEW treatment with ultrasonication (3 min) followed by water wash (150 rpm, 1 min) was developed (SAEW + US-WW). This newly developed hurdle treatment significantly enhanced the microbial reductions compared to SAEW treatment alone, SAEW treatment with ultrasonication (SAEW + US) and SAEW treatment followed by water wash (SAEW-WW) at room temperature (23 ± 2 °C). Microbial reductions of yeasts and molds, total bacteria count and inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes were in the range of 1.76-2.8 log cfu/g on different samples using the new hurdle approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (LINNAEUS, 1753 GAERTNER, 1791 and elder (Sambucus nigra LINNAEUS, 1753 on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae LINNAEUS, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’INTOSH, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage

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    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and elder Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage were investigated in 2008-2009. Both extracts reduced the number of cabbage aphids, although the Sambucus nigra extract proved to have a better effect. Differences were seen both in the numbers of winged aphids settling on plants and in the overall numbers of aphids on plants during the entire season. There were no significant differences in the degree of parasitization by Diaeretiella rapae in the three experimental combinations. Eight species of Syrphidae were found in the Brevicoryne brassicae colonies: Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria scripta, S. rueppelli, S. menthastri, Eupeodes corollae, Scaeva pyrastri, Scaeva selenitica and Syrphus vitripennis. The dominant species was Episyrphus balteatus. The largest numbers of syrphid larvae and pupae were collected from cabbage aphid colonies on the control plants. Smaller numbers were recorded on the plot where the cabbages were sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract. The results of this study indicate that botanical insecticides based on S. nigra have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for the cabbage aphid.

  1. Viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete Feasibility of intercropping pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish

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    Bráulio Luciano A Rezende

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, de setembro/2003 a janeiro/2004, com objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com as culturas de repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete. O experimento constou de 15 tratamentos, correspondentes a 10 cultivos consorciados (combinações das cinco hortaliças e cinco monocultivos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Foram utilizados os híbridos Magali R e Kenzan, respectivamente, para pimentão e repolho; e as cultivares Vera, Cultivada e Crimson Gigante, respectivamente, para alface, rúcula e rabanete. As produtividades de pimentão e repolho em cultivo consorciado não diferiram significativamente das obtidas em monocultivo. Maior massa fresca de parte aérea de plantas de alface (438,86 g/planta foi observada quando a alface foi consorciada com pimentão, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais cultivos que obtiveram em média 323,05 g/planta de alface. Aumento na produtividade de raízes comerciais de rabanete foi observado quando consorciado com pimentão, porém, foi significativamente superior apenas ao cultivo consorciado de pimentão+repolho+rabanete. A massa fresca da parte aérea da rúcula mostrou diferença estatística apenas entre os consórcios de pimentão+rúcula+alface e pimentão+repolho+rúcula. Exceto o consórcio pimentão+repolho que obteve índice de uso eficiente da terra (UET de 1,92; todos os outros consórcios apresentaram UET superior a 2,0, com maior UET (2,64 obtido no consórcio pimentão+alface. A superioridade de 92 a 164% na produção de alimento por área dos consórcios sobre os monocultivos, demonstra a viabilidade dos policultivos e maior eficiência do uso da terra.This work was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, from September 2003 to January 2004, to evaluate the feasibility of an intercropping system of pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish, in relation

  2. Physiological functions at single-cell level of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage in response to different pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Magdalena A; Kocot, Aleksandra M; Łaniewska-Trokenheim, Łucja

    2015-04-20

    Changes in pH are significant environmental stresses that may be encountered by lactobacilli during fermentation processes or passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the cell response of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditionally fermented cabbage subjected to acid/alkaline treatments at pH 2.5, 7.4 and 8.1, which represented pH conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Among six isolates, four species of Lactobacillus plantarum and two of Lactobacillus brevis were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The fluorescence-based strategy of combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and propidium iodine (PI) into a dual-staining assay was used together with epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM) for viability assessment. The results showed that the cells maintained esterase activity and membrane integrity at pH 8.1 and 7.4. There was also no loss of culturability as shown by plate counts. In contrast, the majority of 2.5 pH-treated cells had a low extent of esterase activity, and experienced membrane perturbation. For these samples, an extensive loss of culturability was demonstrated. Comparison of the results of an in situ assessment with that of the conventional culturing method has revealed that although part of the stressed population was unable to grow on the growth media, it was deemed viable using a CFDA/PI assay. However, there was no significant change in the cell morphology among pH-treated lactobacilli populations. These analyses are expected to be useful in understanding the cell response of Lactobacillus strains to pH stress and may facilitate future investigation into functional and industrial aspects of this response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Latitudinal cogradient variation of development time and growth rate and a negative latitudinal body weight cline in a widely distributed cabbage beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianjun; He, Haimin; Chen, Chao; Fu, Shu; Xue, Fangsen

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary and phenotypic responses to environmental gradients are often assumed to be the same, a phenomenon known as "cogradient variation". However, only a few insect species display cogradient variation in physiological traits along a latitudinal gradient. We found evidence for such a response in the examination of the life history traits of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi from 6 different geographical populations at 16, 19, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C. Our results showed that larval and pupal development times significantly decreased as rearing temperature increased, and that growth rates were positively correlated with temperature. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing temperature, consistent with the general pattern in ectothermic animals. Larval development time was positively correlated with latitude, whereas the growth rate decreased as latitude increased, showing an example of latitudinal cogradient variation. Body weight significantly decreased with increasing latitude in a stepwise manner, showing a negative latitudinal body weight cline. Females were significantly larger than males, consistent with the female biased sex dimorphism in insects. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing rearing temperature, whereas the differences in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) tended to decrease with increasing body weight, which biased our results toward acceptance of Rensch's rule. We found that weight loss was an important regulator of SSD, and because male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis than female pupae, SSD was greater in adults than in pupae. Overall, our data provide a new example that a latitudinal cogradient variation in physiological traits is associated with a negative latitudinal body weight cline.

  4. VISIBE AND INFRARED SPECTRAL CHARACTERISATION OF CHINESE CABBAGE (BRASSICA RAPA L. SUBSPECIES CHINENSIS, GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN, POTASSIUM AND PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Mokoatsi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to intensify research efforts on improving productivity of indigenous vegetables in South Africa. One research avenue is operationalizing remote sensing techniques to monitor crop health status. This study aimed at characterising the spectral properties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica Rapa L. subspecies Chinensis grown under varying fertilizer treatments: nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 75 kg/ha, 125 kg/ha, 175 kg/ha and 225 kg/ha, phosphorus (0 kg/ha, 9.4 kg/ha, 15.6, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha and potassium (0 kg/ha, 9.4  kg/ha, 15.6 kg/ha, 21.9 kg/ha and 28.1 kg/ha. Visible and infrared spectral measurements were taken from a total of 60 samples inside the laboratory. Contiguous spectral regions were plotted to show spectral profiles of the different fertilizer treatments and then classified using gradient boosting and random forest classifiers. ANOVA revealed the potential of spectral reflectance data in discriminating different fertiliser treatments from crops. There was also a significant difference between the capabilities of the two classifiers. Gradient boost model (GBM yielded higher classification accuracies than random forest (RF. The important variables identified by each model improved the classification accuracy. Overall, the results indicate a potential for the use of spectroscopy in monitoring food quality parameters, thereby reducing the cost of traditional methods. Further research into advanced statistical analysis techniques is needed to improve the accuracy with which fertiliser concentrations in crops could be quantified. The random forest model particularly requires improvements.

  5. Latitudinal cogradient variation of development time and growth rate and a negative latitudinal body weight cline in a widely distributed cabbage beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Tang

    Full Text Available The evolutionary and phenotypic responses to environmental gradients are often assumed to be the same, a phenomenon known as "cogradient variation". However, only a few insect species display cogradient variation in physiological traits along a latitudinal gradient. We found evidence for such a response in the examination of the life history traits of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi from 6 different geographical populations at 16, 19, 22, 24, 26 and 28°C. Our results showed that larval and pupal development times significantly decreased as rearing temperature increased, and that growth rates were positively correlated with temperature. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing temperature, consistent with the general pattern in ectothermic animals. Larval development time was positively correlated with latitude, whereas the growth rate decreased as latitude increased, showing an example of latitudinal cogradient variation. Body weight significantly decreased with increasing latitude in a stepwise manner, showing a negative latitudinal body weight cline. Females were significantly larger than males, consistent with the female biased sex dimorphism in insects. Body weight tended to decrease with increasing rearing temperature, whereas the differences in sexual size dimorphism (SSD tended to decrease with increasing body weight, which biased our results toward acceptance of Rensch's rule. We found that weight loss was an important regulator of SSD, and because male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis than female pupae, SSD was greater in adults than in pupae. Overall, our data provide a new example that a latitudinal cogradient variation in physiological traits is associated with a negative latitudinal body weight cline.

  6. Microwave irradiation effects on vermicasts potency, and plant growth and antioxidant activity in seedlings of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lord Abbey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vermicasts is rich in beneficial microorganisms and plant growth factors. Unlike soils, the effect of microwave irradiation (MWI on vermicasts potency has not been reported. This study investigated MWI effects on vermicasts potency, plant growth and biochemical activity in Chinese cabbage ‘Bilko’ seedlings. Fresh, moist vermicasts were microwaved at power output levels: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 800 Watts (W. Water loss, nutrients and total aerobic plate content were assessed. A complete randomized design greenhouse experiment was used to evaluate seedlings growth performance and tissue bioactivity. Water loss increased from 5 mg/g (0 W to 215 mg/g (800 W. Total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of the vermicasts gradually increased with an increase in MWI power output level from 0 to 200 W. This was followed by a steep rise through treatment 300 W and a peak at 400 W. Total nitrogen and nitrate decreased, while ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen increased at higher power levels. Similarly, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, barium and molybdenum contents increased while sodium and barium remained fairly constant. However, MWI irradiation reduced total aerobic plate count by ≥50%. Plant growth and biomass were increased by the 400 W and 800 W MWI treatments. Antioxidant activity was highest in 200, 400 and 800 W treated plants. Collectively the finding indicated that the 400 W treatment increased the bioavailability of nutrients, and represents the best option for plant growth enhancement and improved antioxidant activity.

  7. Effects of the simultaneous application of potassium and calcium on the soil-to-Chinese cabbage transfer of radiocesium and radiostrontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Ho [Nuclear Environment Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yhchoi1@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Chang-Woo [Nuclear Environment Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse to investigate how effectively the transfer of radiocesium and radiostrontium from soil to Chinese cabbage could be reduced by applying K and Ca simultaneously to the soil. The sources of these elements were KCl and Ca(OH){sub 2} at agrochemical grades. Varying dosages of K and Ca were tested for an acid loamy soil treated with a mixed solution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 85}Sr at two different times - 3 d before sowing and 32 d after sowing. For the pre-sowing deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs decreased sharply with increasing dosages of K and Ca (K/Ca, g m{sup -2}) from 4.8/46 up to 22.4/215 but the {sup 85}Sr transfer had the greatest reduction at a dosage of 12.8/123. At this dosage, an about 60% reduction occurred for each radionuclide. Plant growth was inhibited from the dosage of 22.4/215, above which all the plants died young. Both dosages of 4.8/46 and 12.8/123 tested following the growing-time deposition produced around 95% reductions for {sup 137}Cs and 50% reductions for {sup 85}Sr. In the second year after the 12.8/123 applications, the effects for {sup 85}Sr were almost the same as in the first year, whereas those for {sup 137}Cs were diminished slightly for the pre-sowing deposition and markedly for the growing-time deposition. Considerably (K) or slightly (Ca) higher doses than 12.8/123 would be allowable for the maximum TF reductions achievable without a growth inhibition.

  8. Bacterial feeding induces changes in immune-related gene expression and has trans-generational impacts in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Heiko

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly- and oligophagous insects are able to feed on various host plants with a wide range of defense strategies. However, diverse food plants are also inhabited by microbiota differing in quality and quantity, posing a potential challenge for immune system mediated homeostasis in the herbivore. Recent studies highlight the complex interactions between environmentally encountered microorganisms and herbivorous insects, pointing to a potential adaptational alteration of the insects' physiology. We performed a differential gene expression analysis in whole larvae and eggs laid by parents grown on different diets to identify potential novel genes related to elevated microbial content in the caterpillars' food. Results We used GeneFishing, a novel differential display method, to study the effects of dietary bacteria on the general gene expression in different life stages and tissues of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni. We were able to visualize several hundred transcripts on agarose gels, one fifth of which were differentially expressed between treatments. The largest number of differentially expressed genes was found in defense-related processes (13 and in recognition and metabolism (16. 21 genes were picked out and further tested for differential gene expression by an independent method (qRT-PCR in various tissues of larvae grown on bacterial and bacteria-free diet, and also in adults. We detected a number of genes indicative of an altered physiological status of the insect, depending on the diet, developmental stage and tissue. Conclusion Changes in immune status are accompanied by specific changes in the transcript levels of genes connected to metabolism and homeostasis of the organism. Our findings show that larval feeding on bacteria-rich diet leads to substantial gene expression changes, potentially resulting in a reorganization of the insects' metabolism to maintain organismal homeostasis, not only in the larval but also

  9. Influence of Interval Between Postharvest Lettuce Residue Management and Subsequent Seeding of Broccoli on Cabbage Maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Infestation on Broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Godfrey, Larry D; Bettiga, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Larval stages of cabbage maggot, Delia radicum (L.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), attack the roots of Brassica crops and cause severe economic damage. In the Salinas Valley of California, Brassica crops are often planted after successive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops. The interval between postharvest soil incorporation of lettuce residue and the subsequent Brassica crop can be as short as 7 d, which could influence D. radicum infestation on broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck). In 2014 and 2015, the effect of intervals between crops (IBC) on D. radicum infestation was evaluated. The treatments were 7, 20, 33, and 48 d IBC, and NL (no lettuce), 7, 21, 36, and 49 d IBC in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Insect counts and feeding damage on broccoli was assessed during 3-6 wk after planting. Adult Delia fly captures were significantly greater at 7 d than 36-49 d IBC in both years. In both years, D. radicum eggs collected were significantly greater at 7 d than at 33 d or 36 d IBC plots. Larvae collected were significantly greater at 7 d IBC than all other treatments in 2014, but not in 2015. Similarly, severity of feeding injury was significantly greater in 7 d than 33 d or 48 d IBC in 2014, but not in 2015. In 2015, broccoli with no prior lettuce had significantly lower Delia flies and D. radicum egg densities than 7 d or 21 d IBC. The implication of these results as a cultural control tactic for D. radicum infestation is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Allelism analysis of BrRfp locus in different restorer lines and map-based cloning of a fertility restorer gene, BrRfp1, for pol CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huamin; Wu, Junqing; Dai, Zihui; Qin, Meiling; Hao, Lingyu; Ren, Yanjing; Li, Qingfei; Zhang, Lugang

    2017-03-01

    In Chinese cabbage, there are two Rf loci for pol CMS and one of them was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding PPR protein. In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), polima cytoplasmic male sterility (pol CMS) is an important CMS type and is widely used for hybrid breeding. By extensive test crossing in Chinese cabbage, four restorer lines (92s105, 01s325, 00s109, and 88s148) for pol CMS were screened. By analyzing the allelism of the four restorer lines, it was found that 92s105, 01s325, and 00s109 had the same "restorers of fertility" (Rf) locus (designated as BrRfp1), but 88s148 had a different Rf locus (designated as BrRfp2). For fine mapping the BrRfp1 locus of 92s105, a BC1F1 population with 487 individuals and a BC1F2 population with 2485 individuals were successively constructed. Using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from Brassica rapa reference genome and InDel markers derived from whole-genome resequencing data of 94c9 and 92s105, BrRfp1 was mapped to a 12.6-kb region containing a potential candidate gene encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein. Based on the nucleotide polymorphisms of the candidate gene sequence between the restoring and nonrestoring alleles, a co-segregating marker SC718 was developed, which would be helpful for hybrid breeding by marker-assisted screening and for detecting new restorer lines.

  11. Produção de repolho em função da aplicação de boro associada a adubo orgânico Cabbage yield in relation to boron fertilization associated with organic manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guilherme Bergamin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Em condições de campo, em solo argiloso com teor médio de boro, foram avaliados os efeitos da adubação com boro, associada à adubação orgânica, na produção de repolho híbrido Kenzan. Cinco doses de B (0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0 kg ha-1 foram associadas, em esquema fatorial, à ausência e presença (0 e 10 t ha-1 de vermicomposto de esterco bovino. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com três repetições e as adubações orgânica e química foram feitas no sulco, por ocasião do transplantio das mudas. O ponto de colheita foi atingido 75 a 90 dias após o transplantio. A adubação com vermicomposto de esterco de bovino elevou a produção em 3,8 t ha-1, o diâmetro das cabeças de repolho em 0,8 cm e o peso das cabeças em 170 g. A produção de repolho aumentou linearmente com a adubação com B e variou de 52,94 t ha-1 a 65,95 t ha-1. A relação entre B no solo e produção foi linear e positiva.A field experiment was carried out in a clayey soil to determine the effects of boron fertilizer and organic manure on 'Kenzan' cabbage yield. The treatments consisted of 0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 and 8,0 kg ha-1 B and presence (10 t ha-1 and absence of cattle manure vermicompost (CMV arranged in a factorial scheme (5x2. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with three replications. The organic and chemical fertilization was applied in bands, before the seedlings transplant, and the harvest was done 75 to 90 days after transplant. The CMV application increased the cabbage yield in 3.8 t ha-1, the diameter in 0.8 cm and the cabbage weight in 170 g. The cabbage yield increased linearly with boron application and ranged from 52.94 t ha-1 to 65.95 t ha-1. The relation between soil B and yield was linear and positive.

  12. Ectopic expression of a phytochrome B gene from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) in Arabidopsis thaliana promotes seedling de-etiolation, dwarfing in mature plants, and delayed flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Pei; Shang, Hong-Zhong; Gu, Hai-Ke; Li, Jing-Juan; Xiao, Yang; Guo, Lin; Su, Liang; Gao, Jian-Wei; Yang, Jian-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Phytochrome B (phyB) is an essential red light receptor that predominantly mediates seedling de-etiolation, shade-avoidance response, and flowering time. In this study, we isolate a full-length cDNA of PHYB, designated BrPHYB, from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), and we find that BrphyB protein has high amino acid sequence similarity and the closest evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana phyB (i.e., AtphyB). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results indicate that the BrPHYB gene is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues under all light conditions. Constitutive expression of the BrPHYB gene in A. thaliana significantly enhances seedling de-etiolation under red- and white-light conditions, and causes dwarf stature in mature plants. Unexpectedly, overexpression of BrPHYB in transgenic A. thaliana resulted in reduced expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes and delayed flowering under short-day conditions, whereas AtPHYB overexpression caused enhanced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and earlier flowering. Our results suggest that BrphyB might play an important role in regulating the development of Chinese cabbage. BrphyB and AtphyB have conserved functions during de-etiolation and vegetative plant growth and divergent functions in the regulation of flowering time.

  13. Ectopic expression of BraYAB1-702, a member of YABBY gene family in Chinese cabbage, causes leaf curling, inhibition of development of shoot apical meristem and flowering stage delaying in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Ling; Yang, Ze-Ping; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2013-07-16

    YABBY gene family plays an important role in the polarity development of lateral organs. We isolated the BraYAB1-702 gene, a member of the YABBY gene family, from young leaves of Chinese cabbage line 06J45. The full-length gene has a 937 bp CDNA sequence and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 702 bp. The subcellular localization analysis showed that the expression product of the gene was localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of BraYAB1-702 in Arabidopsis thaliana caused leaf curling from the adaxial epidermises to abaxial epidermises; the partial abaxialization of the adaxial epidermises of leaves; leaf trichomes and stomata numbers being significantly increased; the plants being severely stunted; the flowering stage being remarkably delayed and inhibiting the development of shoot apical meristem (SAM) with the down-regulation of the expression of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM), Brevipedicellus (BP) and KNAT2 which were related to the development of shoot apical meristem. These results from the present research help to reveal the molecular mechanism of BraYAB1-702 gene in the establishment of adaxial-abaxial polarity of the lateral organs in Chinese cabbage.

  14. Resposta de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho à adubação com boro em solo arenoso Response of boron fertilization on broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage planted in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pizetta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados em condições de campo, em solo arenoso, com baixo teor de boro, os efeitos da adubação com cinco doses de boro (0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 kg ha-1 de B na forma de bórax na produção de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho. O experimento obedeceu a um esquema fatorial com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. As adubações orgânica e química, inclusive o bórax, foram feitas no sulco antes do transplantio das mudas e a colheita foi feita entre 63 e 93 dias após o transplantio. A produtividade de brócolis variou de 16,9 a 20,5 t ha-1; a de couve-flor de 21,6 a 29,6 t ha-1 e a de repolho de 40,5 a 46,4 t ha-1. O aumento observado na produtividade de brócolis e de repolho foi linear e o efeito das doses de boro na produtividade de couve-flor foi quadrático, sendo necessários 5,1 kg ha-1 de B para atingir a produtividade máxima de 30 t ha-1. Brócolis e repolho mostraram-se menos sensíveis do que a couve-flor tanto à deficiência quanto ao excesso de boro. No caso da couve-flor, com a aplicação de 2 kg ha-1 ou de 6 kg ha-1 de B houve significativa perda de qualidade do produto.The effects of boron fertilization on yield of broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage were evaluated through a field experiment carried out on a sandy soil low in available boron. Five boron levels (0; 2; 4; 6; and 8 kg ha-1 B as borax were applied in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage using a factorial scheme and a randomized block design with three replicates. Organic manure and chemical fertilizers, including borax, were applied in the planting furrow before seedlings transplant and plants were harvested 63 to 93 days after planting date. The yield intervals obtained with broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage varied according to the following intervals: 16.9 to 20.5 t ha-1, 21.6 to 29.6 t ha-1 and 40.5 to 46.3 t ha-1, respectively. The increase in production observed in broccoli and cabbage yield was linear with boron levels and the

  15. Desempenho do consórcio entre repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico Performance of cabbage and radish intercropping under organic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica, em Seropédica, (RJ, durante dois anos consecutivos. O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho do consórcio entre as culturas de repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com sete repetições, em parcelas subdivididas, representando um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator o pré-cultivo, com Crotalaria juncea e pousio (vegetação espontânea; e o segundo fator o sistema de cultivo (consórcio entre repolho e rabanete e os respectivos monocultivos. Não houve diferença significativa no tocante à produtividade do repolho ou rabanete, entre C. juncea e pousio, independentemente do tipo de manejo (monocultivos ou consórcio. O desenvolvimento do repolho não foi influenciado pela presença do rabanete, no consórcio entre essas espécies sob cultivo orgânico. O rabanete sob consórcio apresentou redução no diâmetro médio, massa média e produtividade de raízes, sem, contudo, desqualificar o padrão comercial das raízes colhidas. Considerando a média dos dois anos experimentais, o IEA atingiu 1,59, o que indicou a viabilidade do consórcio, otimizando práticas culturais, incluindo adubação, capina e irrigação.Field experiments were carried out during two consecutive years in the Integrated Agroecological Production System, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the performance of cabbageradish intercropping under organic management on the basis of agronomic traits and Area Equivalency Index (AEI. The contribution of green manure pre-planting to the system also was evaluated. A randomized complete blocks design with seven replicates in a 2x3 split-plot factorial scheme was used. Treatments in the main plots consisted of Crotalaria juncea pre-planting or fallow. Cabbage or radish single crops and the respective intercropping were distributed in the subplots. No

  16. UMEDECIMENTO E SUBSTRATOS PARA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE REPOLHO SUBSTRATES AND MOISTURE LEVELS IN THE GERMINATION OF CABBAGE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvaneide Alves de Azeredo

    2009-12-01

    ="JUSTIFY">PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Brassica oleracea var. capitata; quantidade de água; análise de sementes, teste de germinação.

    The availability of water for seeds is closely related to their germination, since hydration is a limiting factor for their metabolic processes. Therefore, in tests carried out in laboratory, substrate must be sufficiently moistened, in order to assure both the embryo growth and seedling formation. This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of different quantities of water, in different substrates, for cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seeds germination. The seeds, processed with Thiran 0.1%, were obtained in shops located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Germination tests were made in germitest rolled paper towel substrates, between and on draft paper, moistened with quantities of water equivalent to 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; and 4.0 times the dry substrate weight. For each treatment, four repetitions of 50 seeds were used. The seeds were kept in a germinator, at an alternate temperature of 20-30ºC, without further addition of water to the substrate. The evaluations were made on the fifth and tenth days after the experiment preparation. The results obtained revealed that the quantities of water ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 times the paper weight were favorable for seeds germination, mainly in the substrate on and between the paper, while water levels above 3.0 times the substrate weight were

  17. Effect of mulching cabbage with banana residues on cabbage yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface mulching with banana residues was not effective in weed suppression or moisture conservation but increased earthworm population densities. Banana pseudostems decayed more rapidly than leaves, and excluding soil macrofauna from both decaying tissues delayed decomposition. Plastic mulching increased ...

  18. Selenium enrichment pattern in flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Zhang, M.

    2006-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS - Within a certain range, selenium accumulation in three studied vegetables was lineally correlated with spraying concentration. However, a too high concentration caused the reduction of vegetable output and damage in quality. - Twice spraying with lower concentration of selenium was a

  19. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes and transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun eWei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H+-ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants

  20. Tamanho de amostras para quantificação da podridão-mole da alface e da couve-chinesa Sample size for assessment of soft rot in lettuce and Chinese cabbage

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    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivos de alface e couve-chinesa podem ter a produção reduzida devido à ocorrência da podridão-mole, causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os tamanhos ideais das amostras para quantificação da incidência dessa doença em levantamentos no campo. Foram realizadas amostragens da incidência da podridão-mole em oito áreas de plantio de alface e cinco de couve-chinesa, situadas nos principais municípios produtores do Estado de Pernambuco. Considerando os resultados obtidos e um erro aceitável de 20%, em futuros levantamentos da incidência da podridão-mole em alface recomenda-se a amostragem de 32 parcelas de 4,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela, enquanto em couve-chinesa a amostragem de 22 parcelas de 10,5 m²/ha e 20 plantas/parcela. Para ambas as culturas não houve correlação significativa (P=0,05 entre os níveis de incidência da doença e os tamanhos das amostras.Lettuce and Chinese cabbage may present yield reduction due to the occurrence of soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This study aimed to determine the ideal sample size for assessing disease incidence in field surveys. Samples of soft rot incidence were conducted in eight lettuce growing areas and five Chinese cabbage growing areas, located in the main production cities around Pernambuco State. Considering 20% of acceptable error, the results pointed out that future surveys of the soft rot incidence on lettuce should analyze 32 plots with 4.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot, while for Chinese cabbage the sample should include 32 plots with 10.5 m²/ha and 20 plants/plot. No significant correlation (P=0.05 was found between disease incidence levels and sample sizes for both crops.

  1. Cabbage production in function of seedling age. = Produção de repolho em função da idade das mudas.

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    Felipe Oliveira Magro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The seedling transplanting ages is a factor of great importance because it can affect the quality and yield of plants if the volume of the cell is not compatible with the phenology of seedlings at time of transplantation. The experiment was conducted at São Manuel Experimental farm, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP, from March to August, 2009. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seedling age on cabbage production, hybrid Kenzan. The seedlings were grown in polystyrene trays containing 128 cells. Seedings were done every four days and contained the following streatments: 37, 41, 45, 49 and 53 days after sowing (DAS. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replications. On transplantation’s day (11/05/2009,the number of leaves, fresh and dry weight and height, were evaluated to the characterization of seedlings. It was observed that the seedling age had no influence on traits at harvest: number of leaves inside and outside of “head”,fresh weight of shoot and “head”, dry mass of shoot and “head” and length of “heart”. =A idade de transplante das mudas é um fator de grande importância, pois pode afetar a qualidade e a produtividade das plantas se o volume da célula não for compatível às condições fenológicas das mudas no momento do transplante. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental São Manuel, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP, no período de março a agosto de 2009. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da idade das mudas na produção de repolho, híbrido Kenzan. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido contendo 128 células, sendo que as semeaduras foram realizadas a cada quatro dias compondo os seguintes tratamentos: 37, 41, 45, 49 e 53 dias após a semeadura (DAS. O delineamentoexperimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Foram avaliados, no dia do transplante (11/05/2009, o n

  2. Influência da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura na conservação do repolho minimamente processado Effects of low density polyethylene packaging and temperature in the conservation of fresh-cut cabbage

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    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura de armazenagem na conservação de repolho minimamente processado. Os repolhos, previamente resfriados à temperatura de 10 ºC, foram submetidos à seleção, lavagem, corte em quatro partes com a retirada do talo central, sanitização, corte em tiras, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem e acondicionamento em embalagens plásticas de polietileno de baixa densidade (70 µm e armazenados em câmaras frias nas temperaturas de 1 e 10 ºC por 20 dias. Avaliaram-se dióxido de carbono, oxigênio e etileno na atmosfera interna da embalagem, bem como pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez no repolho minimamente processado. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os parâmetros de análise, com exceção da vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e etileno, apresentaram variação significativa entre as temperaturas e dias de armazenamento. O repolho armazenado na temperatura de 1 ºC apresentou vida de prateleira ao redor de 15 dias, significativamente maior que a 10 ºC. Nesta última, no 8º dia de armazenamento, o produto encontrava-se totalmente deteriorado, sem condições de comercialização e consumo.This research studied the effect of low density polyethylene packaging and storage temperature on the preservation of fresh-cut (minimally processed cabbage. The cabbages, previously cooled to a temperature of 10 ºC, were selected, washed, cut in four parts (with the central stalk removed, sanitized, cut in strips, rinsed, put in the centrifuge, weighed and stored in plastic packaging of low density polyethylene (70 µm, and then stored in cold chambers at temperatures of 1 and 10 ºC for 20 days. The following aspects were evaluated: carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethylene in the internal atmosphere of the package

  3. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis for the characterization and discrimination of extractable and nonextractable polyphenols and glucosinolates from red cabbage and Brussels sprout waste streams.

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    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Raes, Katleen; Vanhoutte, Hanne; Coelus, Sofie; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John

    2015-07-10

    Nonextractable polyphenol (NEP) fractions are usually ignored because conventional extraction methods do not release them from the plant matrix. In this study, we optimized the conditions for sonicated alkaline hydrolysis to the residues left after conventional polyphenol extraction of Brussels sprouts top (80°C, 4M NaOH, 30min) and stalks (60°C, 4M NaOH, 30min), and red cabbage waste streams (80°C, 4M NaOH, 45min) to release and characterize the NEP fraction. The NEP fractions of Brussels sprouts top (4.8±1.2mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g dry waste) and stalks (3.3±0.2mg GAE/g dry waste), and red cabbage (11.5mg GAE/g dry waste) waste have significantly higher total polyphenol contents compared to their respective extractable polyphenol (EP) fractions (1.5±0.0, 2.0±0.0 and 3.7±0.0mg GAE/g dry waste, respectively). An LC-MS method combined with principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to tentatively identify and discriminate the polyphenol and glucosinolate composition of the EP and NEP fractions. Results revealed that phenolic profiles of the EP and NEP fractions are different and some compounds are only found in either fraction in all of the plant matrices. This suggests the need to account both fractions when analyzing the polyphenol and glucosinolate profiles of plant matrices to attain a global view of their composition. This is the first report on the discrimination of the phenolic and glucosinolate profiles of the EP and NEP fractions using metabolomics techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Novas linhagens de repôlho e couve-flor para o Estado de São Paulo Improved cabbage and cauliflower types for São Paulo

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    Leocádio de Souza Camargo

    1956-01-01

    ça, e a colheita dura cêrca de 60 dias. Iniciou-se o melhoramento da couve-flor "Campinas" em 1944, de material adquirido em casa comercial de São Paulo, com o nome "Quatro Estações". Após alguns anos de trabalho, criaram-se na E. E. Central em Campinas e na E. E. de Monte Alegre do Sul, linhagens muito boas. A variedade "Campinas" (I.A.C. n.° 1587 é de média precocidade, tendo produzido em 1950 e 1951, em campo de cooperação, respectivamente 398 e 1244 kg de sementes, ou uma média de 30 g por planta, ou sejam, 60 g por m², Para produção de sementes a melhor época de semeadura é fevereiro. As cabeças formam-se em junho e desde 120 dias após, as sementes são colhidas, durando a colheita 16 dias em média.Investigations on the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and cauliflower (B. oleracea var. cauliflora, Gars, D.C. plants at the Instituto Agronômico and its various experiment stations were intensified since 1941. From 1944 on, a great deal of attention has been given to the variety problem, to improvement of local and imported types, and to their seed production. Seventy four varieties of cabbage and 59 varieties of cauliflower have been tested. The majority of these grew well in the cool season, when the average monthly temperature was around 22.5°C during the vegetative period and about 16.6°C at the time when heads were formed. In order to supply the local markets with cabbage and cauliflower during the warmer months, attention was turned to types that were capable of making satisfactory growth and forming heads during those months of the year when temperature was high. The local variety of cabbage named "Louco" (I.A.C. N.° 758, as well as the cauliflower Early Benares from India, could be cultivated in summer and fall in most mparts of São Paulo. Satisfactory growth of these types was obtained at average monthly temperatures from 20.4 to 22.6°C, and good heading when the average monthly was from 18 to 22.2°C. Improvement of the

  5. Antagonism of yeasts to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on cabbage phylloplane in field Antagonismo de leveduras a Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris no filoplano de repolho em condições de campo

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    Sayonara M.P. Assis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty yeast isolates, obtained from cabbage phylloplane, were evaluated for antagonistic activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, in field. Plants of cabbage cv. Midori were pulverized simultaneously with suspensions of antagonists and pathogen. After 10 days, plants were evaluated through percentage of foliar area with lesions. Percentage of disease severity reduction (DSR% was also calculated. Yeast isolates LR32, LR42 and LR19 showed, respectively, 72, 75 and 79% of DSR. These antagonists were tested in seven different application periods in relation to pathogen inoculation (T1=4 d before; T2=simultaneously; T3=4 d after; T4=4 d before + simultaneously; T5=4 d after + simultaneously; T6=4 d before + 4 d after; T7=4 d before + simultaneously + 4 d after. The highest DSRs were showed by LR42 (71%, LR42 (67%, LR35 (69% and LR19 (68% in the treatments T7, T4, T5 and T6, which significantly differed from the others. The same yeast antagonists were also tested for black rot control using different cabbage cultivars (Fuyutoyo, Master-325, Matsukaze, Midori, Sekai I and Red Winner. The DSRs varied from 58 to 61%, and there was no significant difference among cultivars.Vinte isolados de leveduras, obtidos a partir do filoplano de repolho foram avaliados pela atividade antagônica contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em condições de campo. Plantas de repolho cv. Midori foram pulverizadas simultaneamente com suspensões do antagonista e do patógeno. Após 10 dias, as plantas foram avaliadas através da porcentagem de área foliar infectada. A porcentagem de redução da severidade da doença (DSR%, também foi calculada. Os isolados de leveduras LR32, LR42 e LR19 apresentaram, respectivamente, 72, 75 e 79% de DSR. Estes isolados foram testados em sete diferentes períodos de aplicação dos antagonistas em relação a inoculação do patógeno. (T1=4d antes; T2=simultaneamente; T3=4 d após; T4=4 d antes + simultaneamente; T5

  6. Avaliação da disponibilidade de ferro em ovo, cenoura e couve e em suas misturas Iron availability in egg, carrot and cabbage and in their mixtures

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    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi Machado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A desordem nutricional mais comum no mundo é a deficiência de ferro. Sua disponibilidade é influenciada por outras substâncias. Os objetivos da pesquisa foram: avaliar a disponibilidade de ferro em alimentos fonte deste e de vitamina A, ovo (o, cenoura (c e couve (cv, e verificar interação do ferro com alfa e beta-caroteno, e com outros interferentes. As misturas foram de ovo com cenoura e ovo com couve nas proporções (1:1, (1:1,5, (1:2, (1:2,5 e (1:3 e 3 alimentos sozinhos, totalizando 13 amostras. As amostras, após preparo, foram submetidas às análises de composição centesimal, ferro total, taninos, ácido fítico, ácido oxálico, alfa-caroteno e b-caroteno e diálise de ferro. Os dados foram analisados por teste de Tukey e correlação. Foi observada correlação positiva do ferro dialisável em relação à umidade e beta-caroteno e negativa para extrato etéreo, proteínas e cinza. A amostra 1,5 c apresentou teores mais elevados de taninos. As amostras 1 cv e 1,5 cv maiores teores de oxalato e ferro dialisável mais baixo. Pode ser concluído que misturas com maiores proporções de cenoura e couve aumentaram a disponibilidade do ferro e não houve interferência dos fatores antinutricionais. O beta-caroteno apresentou correlação positiva com ferro dialisável, exercendo influência na diminuição do efeito dos fatores antinutricionais.The most common nutritional disorder in the world is a deficiency in iron. The availability of iron is influenced by other substances. The aim of this research is to evaluate the availability of iron in food iron sources and vitamin A, egg (e, carrot (c and cabbage (cb, as well as to analyse the interaction of the iron with alpha, beta-carotene and with other interferences. The mixtures were egg with carrot and egg with cabbage in the proportions of (1:1, (1:1.5, (1:2, (1:2.5 and (1:3 plus the three food types alone, which totalled 13 food mixtures. After being prepared, the food mixtures

  7. Effectively simultaneous naked-eye detection of Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) using cyanidin extracted from red cabbage as chelating agent.

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    Khaodee, Warangkhana; Aeungmaitrepirom, Wanlapa; Tuntulani, Thawatchai

    2014-05-21

    Simultaneous determination of Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) using cyanidin as a chelating agent was investigated in terms of both quantitative and qualitative detections. Cyanidin was extracted and purified from red cabbage which is a local plant in Thailand. The selectivity of this method was examined by regulating the pH of cyanidin solution operated together with masking agents. It was found that Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) simultaneously responded with the color change at pH 7, pH 6, pH 5 and pH 4, respectively. KF, DMG and the mixture of KF and DMG were used as masking agents for the determination of Fe(III), Al(III) and Pb(II), respectively. Results from naked-eye detection were evaluated by comparing with those of inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and there was no significant difference noticed. Cyanidin using as a multianalyte reagent could be employed for simultaneous determination of Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) at the lowest concentration at 50, 80, 50 and 200μM, respectively, by slightly varying pHs. Moreover, the proposed method could be potentially applied for real water samples with simplicity, rapidity, low cost and environmental safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. TiO2/Chitosan-NH4I(+I2-BMII-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anthocyanin Dyes Extracted from Black Rice and Red Cabbage

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    M. H. Buraidah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using anthocyanin dye and polymer electrolyte with ammonium iodide (NH4I salt. The study was designed to focus on increasing the efficiency of the DSSC. DSSC using 26.9 wt. % chitosan-22 wt. % NH4I(+2.2 wt.% I2-48.9 wt. % IL solid electrolyte, black rice anthocyanin with Pt counter electrode showed Jsc of 172 μA cm−2 and Voc of 195 mV. The performance of the cell with Pt electrode was further improved by coating a blocking layer on the indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. The black rice DSSC using 11 wt. % (chitosan:PEO, wt. ratio 30:70-9 wt. % NH4I-80 wt. % BMII gel electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 1213 μA cm−2, Voc of 400 mV, FF of 0.47, and η of 0.23%. The red cabbage anthocyanin DSSC containing (phthaloyl chitosan-PEO-NH4I-BMII gel electrolyte using tartaric acid to adjust the pH of anthocyanin solution showed the best performance with the fill factor of 0.39, Jsc of 3503 μA cm−2, Voc of 340 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.46%.

  9. Características produtivas do repolho em função de espaçamentos e doses de nitrogênio Production of cabbage with relation to spacing and doses of nitrogen

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    Leonardo A. de Aquino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se características produtivas do repolho 'Kenzan', em função de espaçamentos (80 x 30; 60 x 30 e 40 x 30 cm e doses de N (0; 75; 150; 225 e 300 kg ha-1. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de campo, em solo com baixo teor de N, de setembro a dezembro/2002. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições, tendo os fatores espaçamentos e doses de N nas parcelas e subparcelas, respectivamente. As doses de N foram parceladas: 20% no transplante e aos 20 dias após o transplante (DAT e 30% aos 35 e aos 50 DAT. A colheita iniciou-se aos 65 e estendeu-se até aos 83 DAT. Foram avaliadas a produção de massa fresca de cabeças/área, massa fresca média de cabeça, área foliar das folhas externas à cabeça, índice de área foliar, precocidade de colheita e renda líquida. Com o aumento das doses de N observou-se aumento de todas as características avaliadas, enquanto que com a redução dos espaçamentos observou-se diminuição da massa fresca média de cabeça. Para área foliar externa à cabeça e precocidade de colheita, a redução foi significativa apenas com uso das maiores doses de N. Considerando a produção de massa fresca de cabeças/área, a massa fresca média de cabeça adequada às exigências do mercado e dos consumidores brasileiros e a renda líquida obtida, o espaçamento de 40 x 30 cm e a dose de 253 kg ha-1 de N foram os mais indicados para o cultivo do repolho no período de primavera.Yield of 'Kenzan' cabbage was evaluated under plant spacing (80 x 30; 60 x 30 and 40 x 30 cm and doses of N (0; 75; 150; 225 and 300 kg ha-1. The experiment was conduced in field conditions, using a soil with low N content, from September to December/2002. The experimental design was a completely randomized split-pot scheme and four replicates, where the factors spacing and doses of N were in the plot and split-plot, respectively. The doses of N were applied

  10. Influência da biomassa de leguminosas sobre a produção de repolho em dois cultivos consecutivos Influence of the biomass of legumes on cabbage yield held in two consecutive crops

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    Thiago de O Vargas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos de avaliação do desempenho de culturas em sequência à adubação verde, geralmente não se considera o efeito das raízes dos adubos verdes. Entretanto, tais efeitos podem contribuir para maior entendimento científico da adubação verde. Foram avaliados o efeito da raiz e da parte aérea das leguminosas Crotalaria juncea e Canavalia ensiformis sobre a produção do repolho em dois cultivos. O experimento foi instalado em esquema fatorial (2 x 3 + 2, sendo 2 espécies de leguminosas e 3 partes das plantas (raiz, parte aérea ou planta inteira e 2 tratamentos adicionais (adubação mineral com 100% ou 50% da dose recomendada de N, em blocos casualizados com 4 repetições. A parte aérea do adubo verde foi aplicada em superfície. O cultivo sobre a massa da parte aérea ou da planta inteira de crotalária ou feijão de porco reduziu a necessidade de adubação com N-mineral em 50%, mas a produção de repolho foi reduzida com o cultivo sobre o sistema radicular de feijão de porco. Áreas em que foram deixadas a parte aérea ou a planta inteira de crotalária ou feijão de porco resultaram em maiores efeitos residuais sobre o segundo cultivo que a adubação com N-mineral. O cultivo sobre as raízes destas leguminosas não resultou em efeito residual diferente da adubação mineral com 50 ou 100% da recomendação da adubação N.In studies assessing the performance of crops in response to green manure generally are not considered the effect of roots. However, such effects may contribute to increase the scientific understanding towards this technique. The effect of the root and of the aboveground part of two legume species, Crotalaria juncea and Canavalia ensiformis, were evaluated on cabbage yield in two crops. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with 4 replications in a factorial design (2 x 3 + 2 (2 legumes species - Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp and Canavalia ensiformis (jack beans, 3 plant parts (root, aboveground

  11. Produção agroecológica de mudas e desenvolvimento a campo de couve-chinesa Agroecological production of seedlings and field development of Chinese cabbage

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    Dinéia Tessaro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido em duas etapas: a produção de mudas de couve-chinesa em bandejas e posterior transplante para o campo, objetivando avaliar o desempenho de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura. Para isso determinou-se, tanto na fase de formação das mudas, quanto nas plantas adultas, o comprimento da parte aérea, número de folhas, comprimento da raiz, massa seca da parte aérea, massa seca da raiz e diâmetro do coleto. A etapa de produção de mudas foi conduzida em ambiente protegido, com os seguintes tratamentos: T0 substrato comercial Plantmax® (HA; T1: 100% composto; T2: 95% composto + 2,5% areia + 2,5% pó de rocha; T3: 90% composto + 3% areia + 7% de pó de rocha e T4: 85% composto + 6% areia + 9% pó de rocha. Na produção de mudas, os substratos orgânicos, formulados com 100% e 85% composto, apresentaram melhores resultados, aos 15 e 28 DAS, respectivamente. Os resultados de campo demonstraram que adição de pó de rocha é um fator determinante no desempenho das mudas, sendo os melhores resultados obtidos nas parcelas cultivadas com mudas obtidas nos substratos formulados com 7 e 9% de pó de basalto.The research was carried out in two stages: the production of seedlings of chinese cabbage in trays with subsequent transplantation for the field, aiming to evaluate the performance of different substrates on the culture development. For this reason it was determined, both at the stage of formation of the seedlings, as in adult plants the length of the aerial part, number of leaves, root length, dry mass of the aerial part, root dry mass and diameter of the root collar. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment with the following treatments: T0 Plantmax substrate® (HA; T1: 100% compound; T2: 95% compost + 2.5% sand + 2.5% rock powder; T3: 90% compost + 3% sand + 7% powdered rock and T4: 85% compost + 6% sand + 9% rock powder. In the production of seedlings, the organic substrates

  12. Uso de esterco bovino e húmus de minhoca na produção de repolho híbrido Utilization of cattle manure and earthworm compost on hybrid cabbage production

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    Ademar P. Oliveira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a eficácia do esterco bovino e húmus de minhoca na produção de repolho, híbrido Matsukaze, em experimento realizado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFPB, Areia, de 10/12/97 a 05/03/98. Os tratamentos utilizados foram 20; 30; 40; 50 e 60 t/ha de esterco bovino e 10; 15; 20; 25 e 30 t/ha de húmus de minhoca e tratamento testemunha (sem matéria orgânica. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com onze tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 + 1, em quatro repetições. Foram avaliados o diâmetro longitudinal, transversal, índice de formato e compacidade da cabeça, peso médio e produção total de cabeças. A dose de 46,0 t/ha de esterco bovino e 29,0 t/ha de húmus de minhoca resultaram em maiores diâmetros longitudinais na cabeça de repolho (13 e 12 cm, respectivamente. A dose de 47,0 t/ha de esterco bovino e 20,0 t/ha de humus de minhoca proporcionaram a formação de cabeças com maiores diâmetros transversais (13 e 11 cm, respectivamente. Todas as doses de esterco bovino induziram a formação de cabeças mais uniformes e compactas, enquanto a dose de 20 t/ha de húmus de minhoca propiciou a formação de cabeças desuniformes de baixa aceitação comercial. A dose de 41,0 t/ha de esterco bovino promoveu máximo peso médio (900 g e máxima produtividade (47,0 t/ha de cabeças, enquanto as doses de 27,0 e 29,0 t/ha de húmus foram responsáveis pelo peso médio máximo (700 g e máxima produtividade (38,0 t/ha, respectivamente.The use of bovine manure and earthworm compost were compared in cabbage production, hybrid Matsukaze, at the Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil, from December 1997 to March, 1998. The treatments consisted of 20; 30; 40; 50 and 60 t/ha of bovine manure and 10; 15; 20; 25 and 30 t/ha of earthworm compost and a treatment without organic matter (control. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with eleven treatments arranged in a factorial

  13. Uso de antibióticos e leveduras para controle da podridão-mole em couve-chinesa Use of antibiotics and yeasts for controlling Chinese cabbage soft rot

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    MRF Mello

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão-mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc pode ocorrer em plantios de couve-chinesa (Brassica pekinensis com até 67% de incidência. O trabalho visou avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de Pcc a bactericidas, o efeito de Mycoshield® nas dosagens de 3,0 e 1,5 g L-1, e de leveduras a 10(8 cel/mL no controle da doença em casa de vegetação e em campo. As plantas foram pulverizadas com Mycoshield® (oxitetraciclina 20% e leveduras (Rh1 e Rh2 (Rhodotorula spp. e Sc1 (Saccharomyces cerevisae sete dias após o transplante, e inoculadas por picada com o isolado Pcc120, sete dias e 12 h após o tratamento, respectivamente. Em todos os experimentos foram avaliados os componentes epidemiológicos da doença. In vitro, 40 isolados de Pcc testados apresentaram resistência ao sulfato de cobre e sensibilidade a oxitetraciclina, estreptomicina, oxitetraciclina+estreptomicina e oxitetraciclina+sulfato de cobre, todos na concentração de 0,2 g L-1. Seis isolados de Pcc foram mais inibidos por Mycoshield® do que por Agri-Micina® (oxitetraciclina 1,5% + estreptomicina 15% ambos a 3,0 g L-1, não sendo inibidos por Kasumin® (casugamicina 2% (2,0 mL L-1. Em casa de vegetação, Mycoshield® (3,0 g L-1 reduziu a severidade e o índice de doença em até 47,4 e 19%; já a levedura Sc1 reduziu a severidade da doença e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD em até 27,6 e 39,3%, respectivamente, enquanto Rh1 reduziu a AACPD em até 33,5%. Em campo, Mycoshield® reduziu o índice de doença (14,4% a severidade (15,5% e a AACPD (28,9%; enquanto que Rh1 reduziu o índice de doença (8,8% e Sc1 reduziu a AACPD (15,7%. Conclui-se que o Mycoshield® e as leveduras apresentaram baixa eficiência para controle da podridão-mole da couve-chinesa em campo.The soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc may occur in Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis plantations presenting till 67% of incidence

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _oleracea_S.png Brassica_oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  15. Formas de parcelamento e fontes de adubação nitrogenada para produção de couve-da-Malásia Split forms and sources of nitrogen fertilization for the flowering white cabbage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A couve-da-Malásia, Brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (Bailey é muito cultivada na China, Austrália e outros países do sudeste asiático e foi introduzida no Brasil em 1992. Existem poucas informações referentes à nutrição mineral desta Brássica nas condições brasileiras. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de fontes e parcelamento do nitrogênio na produtividade e teores de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea desta hortaliça. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos de 5 dm³ de volume com 4,8 kg de solo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em fatorial 2 x 6, com três repetições. As fontes nitrogenadas, uréia e nitrato de cálcio, foram avaliadas em diferentes parcelamentos da dose de 105 mg dm-3 de N em três aplicações (na semeadura, 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura, nas seguintes proporções: 50%-50%-0%, 0%-50%-50%, 75%-25%-0%, 25%-75%-0%, 25%-50%-25% e 33%-33%-33%. As plantas foram colhidas aos 40 dias após a semeadura. A melhor fonte de nitrogênio foi a nítrica (nitrato de cálcio, proporcionando maiores produções de massa fresca e seca da parte aérea, massa seca de raízes, produção de folhas por planta e maiores teores de N, Ca e Mn na parte aérea. Quanto ao parcelamento, os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando se realizou adubação na semeadura seguida de duas coberturas, uma aos 15 e outra aos 30 dias após a semeadura, nas proporções 33%-33%-33% e 25%-50%-25%, para as duas fontes avaliadas.The flowering white cabbage plant, Brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (Bailey Sinskaja is often cultivated in China, Australia and other southeastern Asian countries and introduced in Brazil in 1992. There is little information regarding the mineral nutrition of this Brassica in the Brazilian conditions. The effect of sources and splitting of nitrogen in the productivity and ratio of macro and micronutrients in the shoot of this vegetable were

  16. Toxicidade, deterrência e repelência de extratos aquosos de Cabralea canjerana ssp. polytricha (a. juss. penn. (Meliaceae sobre o curuquerê-da-couve ascia monuste orseis (godart (Lepidoptera: pieridae Toxicity, deterrence and repellence of aqueous extracts of Cabralea canjerana ssp. polytricha (Meliaceae on ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera, the cabbage caterpillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely F. F. Mata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em laboratório, a toxicidade, a repelência e a deterrência de extratos aquosos de sementes, de folhas e de frutos de Cabralea canjerana ssp. polytricha (Meliaceae sobre o curuquerê-da-couve Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera. Extratos aquosos a 3, 5 e 10% foram obtidos por infusão do material biológico seco triturado em água destilada e filtrado após 24 h. Dentro de 48 h após o preparo, folhas de couve foram mergulhadas nos extratos ou em água destilada e utilizadas para avaliar o efeito dos extratos na percentagem de sobrevivência e no tempo de vida das larvas. A repelência e a deterrência dos extratos foram avaliadas em testes com e sem chance de escolha de folhas tratadas ou não, avaliando-se, comparativamente, a área consumida e o número de larvas por porção foliar. Houve 100% de mortalidade das larvas nos tratamentos, em contraste com a sobrevivência de 87% delas no controle. Larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas sobreviveram significativamente menos que larvas do controle. Ao contrário de extratos de folhas e frutos, extratos de sementes apresentaram efeito repelente, mas não intenso o suficiente para evitar o consumo foliar. Houve redução no consumo foliar pelas larvas submetidas ao extrato a 10% nos experimentos com chance de escolha. Quando larvas não tiveram opção de consumir folhas sem extratos, alimentavam-se de folhas tratadas, porém com menor consumo, principalmente nas concentrações de 10 e 5%.The toxicity, deterrence and repellence of aqueous extracts of seeds, leaves and fruits of Cabralea canjerana ssp. polytricha (Meliaceae on the cabbage caterpillar, Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera, were evaluated in laboratory. Aqueous extract of 3, 5 and 10% were obtained by infusion of dried and pulverized biological material in distilled water, filtered after 24h. Within 48h after preparation, cabbage leaves were immersed in the extracts or in distilled water and used in tests to

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Bai

    Full Text Available bZIP (basic leucine zipper transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5. Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14 and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13, are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy or LUC (LUCIFERASE expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage.

  18. Produção de repolho 'Chato de Quintal' e da capuchinha 'Jewel', solteiros e consorciados, sem e com cama-de-frango semidecomposta incorporada no solo Yield of 'Chato de quintal' cabbage and of 'Jewel' nasturtium, in monocrop and intercrop system, with and without semi-decomposed chicken manure added to the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antunes Moraes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de "cabeças" de repolho e de flores de capuchinha. A capuchinha 'Jewel' (Ca e o repolho 'Chato de Quintal' (R foram alocados no campo em experimento conjunto, sendo estudados cada um deles como fatorial 2 (cultivos solteiro e consorciado x 2 (sem-S e com-C cobertura do solo com cama-de-frango, na dose de 6,5 t ha-1, perfazendo, no total, seis tratamentos (CaS, CaC, RS, RC, CaRS, CaRC, arranjados no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As colheitas das flores de capuchinha foram efetuadas entre 35 e 98 dias após o transplante (DAT e a do repolho entre 83 e 104 DAT. A altura das plantas de repolho apresentou crescimento linear, com taxas variáveis, em função dos dias após o transplante, com o uso de cama-de-frango no solo, e com o sistema de cultivo. As produções de repolho foram de 32,76 t ha-1 no arranjo em cultivo solteiro e de 27,65 t ha-1 no cultivo consorciado e de 35,78 t ha-¹ e 24,62 t ha-¹, com e sem o uso de cama-de-frango, respectivamente. A maior produção de capuchinha foi sem o uso de cama-de-frango, em cultivo solteiro, com 15.825.000 flores e 10,63 t ha-¹ de massa fresca. Altura de plantas, diâmetro e comprimento das flores de capuchinha foram influenciados apenas pelas épocas de avaliação. O cálculo da razão de área equivalente para o consórcio foi de 1,35 com uso de cama-de-frango e de 1,25 sem o uso, indicando ser viável o cultivo misto de repolho com a capuchinha. A renda bruta para o consórcio foi de R$38.065,20 e R$28.587,50 com e sem uso de cama-de-frango, respectivamente.This work has as objective to study yield of cabbage and nasturtium flowers. 'Jewel' nasturtium (Ca and 'Chato de quintal' cabbage were placed at field in jointed experiment, and they were studied as 2 (monocrop and intercrop system x 2 (with or without soil covering with chicken manure, in dose of 6.5 t ha-1 factorial scheme, which resulted in

  19. Produção de biomassa, teor e exportação de macronutrientes em plantas de repolho em função de doses de nitrogênio e de espaçamentos Biomass yield, macronutrient uptake and tissue concentration of cabbage as a function of nitrogen rates and plant spacings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Angelo de Aquino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de três espaçamentos (80x30, 60x30 e 40x30 cm e de cinco doses de N (0, 75, 150, 225 e 300 kg ha-1 sobre a produção de massa seca (MS, teores e exportação de macronutrientes na cultura do repolho. Conduziu-se o experimento a campo, na Horta de Pesquisas do Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, no período de 23/09 a 20/12/2002. Utilizou-se o esquema parcelas subdivididas, delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo os espaçamentos dispostos nas parcelas e as doses de N nas subparcelas. Na colheita das cabeças, retiraram-se amostras das folhas as quais, após secas a 65ºC, foram submetidas às análises para os teores de N (N-NO3- e N-total, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Incremento das doses de N proporcionou aumento da produção de MS, dos teores de N (N-NO3- e N-total, P e Mg e das quantidades de macronutrientes exportadas pela cultura. Aumento no espaçamento proporcionou maiores teores de N (N-NO3- e N-total, P, S e Ca, e menor produção de massa seca e da quantidade de K exportada pela colheita.The effects of three plant spacings (80x30, 60x30, and 40x30 cm and five nitrogen rates (0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg ha-1 were evaluated on biomass yield, macronutrient uptake and tissue concentration of cabbage. A field experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa from 09/23 to 12/20/2002. The experiment was set in a split-plot design with four replications. Spacings were assigned to the main plots and the N rates were set in the split-plot, arranged in a completely randomized design. At the harvest time, leaves were detached, oven dried and analyzed for N (N-NO3- and N-total, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S contents. Increasing N rates led to an increase in biomass yield, N (N-NO3- and N-total, P, and Mg contents and macronutrient uptake of cabbage. Increasing plant spacings led to lower biomass yield and K uptake and increase in N (N-NO3- and N-total, P, S, and Ca

  20. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE BORO, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA, NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BORAX RATES AND MANURE ON CABBAGE (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de boro na cultura do repolho, na presença e ausência de matéria orgânica, foi instalado na Escola de Agronomia da UFG um experimento em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições. A cultivar utilizada foi Matsukase. Os tratamentos com boro constaram da aplicação de 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg/ha de Bórax comercial, combinadas com doses de 0 e 75 t/ha de esterco de curral. A adubação orgânica aumentou o diâmetro, a altura e o peso de cabeça, mas as relações peso de cabeça/peso total e diâmetro/altura de cabeça não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A aplicação de boro apresentou respostas significativas, na ausência de adubação orgânica, para peso de cabeça, altura de cabeça e relação peso/diâmetro de cabeça. A produção física máxima foi estimada para uma dosagem de 101 kg/ha de bórax. Na presença de adubação orgânica, não houve efeito significativo da adubação com Bórax sobre a produção do repolho.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação orgânica; boro; Brassica oleraceae var. captata; repolho.

    The experiment was carried out at Goiás Federal University (UFG, Brazil, in order to verify the effect of different borax levels in presence or absence of manure, for cabbage cv. Matsukase crop. Boron was applied at 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha of commercial Borax, combined to doses of 0 or 75 ton/ha corral manure. Organic fertilization increased head diameter, height and weight, but did not interfere on head weight/total weight nor head diameter/head height ratios. Boron application showed significant responses when organic fertilization was absent, regarding to head weight, head height and weight/head diameter ratio. The highest

  1. Custo de produção e rentabilidade das culturas de alface, rabanete, rúcula e repolho em cultivo solteiro e consorciadas com pimentão Production cost and profitability of lettuce, radish, arugula and cabbage sole crop and intercropped with sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Luciano Alves Rezende

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o trabalho na UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, com o objetivo de avaliar a rentabilidade das culturas de alface, rabanete, rúcula e repolho, em cultivo solteiro e consorciadas com pimentão. A determinação dos custos de produção das culturas em cultivo solteiro e em consórcio foi realizada com base na metodologia do custo operacional total (COT, com valores referentes a março de 2005. Para o cálculo da receita bruta, considerou-se o preço do setor atacadista, CEAGESP, no mês de março de 2005. Os COT das culturas de repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete, quando consorciadas com pimentão, tiveram redução de 34,0%, 24,7%, 21,3% e 20,8% em relação aos seus respectivos cultivos solteiros. As culturas de alface e rabanete consorciadas com pimentão apresentaram aumento na receita líquida em 49,6% e 13,9%, respectivamente, quando comparadas com seus cultivos solteiros. A maior rentabilidade foi obtida em consórcio de pimentão com alface. A taxa de retorno e índice de lucratividade dos consórcios foram superiores aos observados nas monoculturas.This work was carried out at UNESP, in Jaboticabal, SP, with the aim of evaluating the production cost and profitability of lettuce, radish, arugula and cabbage sole crop and intercropped with sweet pepper. The determination of the production cost was accomplished with base on the methodology of the total operational cost (TOC, in March of 2005. For the calculation of the gross revenue, the price of the wholesale sector, CEAGESP, applied in March 2005, was considered,. The TOC of the cultures cabbage, arugula, lettuce and radish when intercropped with sweet pepper had a reduction of 34.0%, 24.7%, 21.3% and 20.8%, when compared to their respective single cultivation. The cultures of lettuce and radish intercropped with sweet pepper had net revenue increase of 49.6% and 13.9%, respectively, when compared to their single cultivation. The largest profitability was obtained when sweet pepper was

  2. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    .The Portuguese are one of the greatest brassica consumers in the entire world. Tall cabbage is grown in Portugal over an area greater than 1000 ha. Tall cabbage consumption is very popular at Christmas time. In this work, results from nitrogen and boron application, as conventional fertilisers, and from the use of Dix10, an organic amendment (˜ 10 % total N permitted in organic farming, are reported. Young cabbage plants were prepared in a greenhouse in micro-pots and transplanted with protected roots on August 29, 2005, spaced at 0.8x0.5 m between and within rows. The soil was loamy textured with 0.83 % organic matter, pH(H2O 5.2, and with median P and high K content levels. Six treatments were established: SAd treatment, without any fertilization; Dix10, applied in a rate equivalent to 80 kg N/ha; NB and N+, with 80 and 160 kg N/ha as urea, respectively; and B-and B+ treatments, without B and with 4.4 kg B/ha as borax. Boron treatments were fertilised with 80 kg N/ha and N treatments with 2.2 kg B/ha. Thus, NB is a median treatment with 80 kg N/ha and 2.2 kg B/ha. SAd plants yielded 13.7 Mg biomass/ha and took up 33.9 kg N/ha and 40.9 g B/ha, which are values significantly lower than that obtained on fertilised plots. In Dix10 treatment, cabbage yielded 18 Mg biomass/ha and took up 45.1 and 51.3 g B/ha. NB treatment produced higher biomass (38.6 Mg/ha and N uptake (107.9 kg/ha than SAd and Dix10 treatments. N+ treatment did not increase the yield, neither N uptake if compared with NB. B+ treatment has not any influence in biomass yield but increased tissue B content and B uptake. In N+ treatment there was a significant decrease in tissue B concentration and B uptake, which suggests antagonism of N over the uptake of B. The biomass yields and the apparent N and B recoveries showed that the lower biomass yielded in SAd and Dix10 treatments were due to a shortage of soil N availability in these treatments during the growing season.

  3. Performance of cabbage and radish intercropping under organic management

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fábio Luiz de; Ribas, Rodolfo Gustavo T.; Junqueira, Rodrigo M.; Padovan, Milton P.; Guerra, José Guilherme M.; Almeida, Dejair L. de; Ribeiro, Raul de L.Duarte

    2005-01-01

    Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica, em Seropédica, (RJ), durante dois anos consecutivos. O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho do consórcio entre as culturas de repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com sete repetições, em parcelas subdivididas, representando um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator o pré-cultivo, com Crotalaria juncea e pousio (vegetação espontâ...

  4. A survey of cabbage production and constraints in Ghana | Timbilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both direct planting of seeds and transplanting of seedlings were practised. Notwithstanding, the first method had the problem of poor crop establishment. Major constraints identified included insect pests, namely Plutella xylostella and Hullela undalis, land acquisition and marketing. Plutella xylostella had become resistant ...

  5. Cabbages and condoms: packaging and channels of distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1984-12-01

    Contraception is only rarely a therapy for disease. Usually, contraceptives help adults implement informed choices. Therefore, wider channels of distribution and promotion are possible and necessary than in the case of curative therapies. The more channels of distribution that are available for the same method of contraception, the higher the prevalence of use. Establishing new channels of distribution can be as important as developing new methods of contraception. Family planning is an important element in public health, and active promotion enhances the health of individuals and physicians. Other health professionals need to understand the role of non-medical skills and channels of contraceptive distribution.

  6. Stability of head weight in cabbage accessions ( Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study years and accessions x year interactions. The parameter stability test showed that seven of the accessions (Kopenhaski and Elisa-F1 as early type; Tucana-F1 as summer type; Srpski melez, SG-3014, Ljubljanski and Rodeo-F1 as late type) significantly deviated from the regression line. Four of the seven accessions ...

  7. response of cabbage cultivars to black rot infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    techniques. Inoculum was prepared at 5 x 108 cells/ml. The bacterium was grown on yeast peptone glucose agar maintained at a pH of 7 and temperature 27 "C for .... g x y 18 4.88 0.80* g xi 9 14.44 2.37“ gxyxl 18 14.53 2.88”. Replication in l*y 12 18.952 3.11. Error 110 6.09. Injection. G 9 8307.05 875.01 **. Y 2 14.96 1.58*.

  8. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Navntoft, Søren; Philipsen, Holger Frederik

    2013-01-01

    observed in the conventional compared to all organic systems, indicating that immature survival from oviposition to pupation was reduced under all the three organic farming practices. In organic system O2 most small coleopteran predators were recorded, but predation on fly eggs was not significantly higher...... in external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition by D. radicum was generally not reduced in organic cropping systems. However, higher pupae/egg ratios were...... in organic treatments. Pupal parasitization rates ranged from 26.5% to 59.5%, but no significant differences among farming systems were found. Although reduced D. radicum survival could not be attributed solely to natural enemies, the results indicated that organic farming practices in general contribute...

  9. Influência de genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. na biologia de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae Influence of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on the biology of Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência de alguns genótipos de couve (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. no desenvolvimento de Plutella xylostella (L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Os genótipos avaliados foram: Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I-919, Manteiga de São José, Manteiga de Monte Alegre, Pires 2 de Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve de Arthur Nogueira 1. Lagartas recém-eclodidas foram mantida em discos foliares de 8 cm de diâmetro para cada genótipo. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: duração e viabilidade das fases larval e pupal, longevidade e fecundidade de adultos, utilizando análises paramétricas e de agrupamentos para interpretação dos dados. Observou-se um prolongamento em dias no ciclo de P. xylostella, aumento no peso de pupa e maiores valores de viabilidade e fecundidade, durante a segunda geração. O genótipo Couve de Arthur Nogueira 2 foi menos favorável ao desenvolvimento de P. xylostella nas duas gerações, e Couve Comum demonstrou maior influência negativa ao inseto na segunda geração. Manteiga de Ribeirão Pires I-2620 foi o mais suscetível nas duas gerações, agrupando com este na segunda geração Pires 2 de Campinas e Manteiga de São José.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cabbage genotypes (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. on growth of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. The genotypes evaluated were: Manteiga of Ribeirão Pires I-2620, Roxa I919, Manteiga of São José, Manteiga of Monte Alegre, Pires 2 of Campinas, Couve Comum, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 2, Couve of Arthur Nogueira 1. Neonate larvae were reared in 8 cm leaf discs of each genotype. The parameters evaluated were: period and viability of the larval and pupal stages, sex ratio, longevity and fecundity of adults. Parametric and Cluster analyses were used for data analysis. Overall, it was observed a developmental delay in the P

  10. Assessment of a cabbage/pak choï crop association to manage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-20

    Jul 20, 2005 ... individually in pill-boxes to monitor parasitoids ... head formation (52th day after transplanting). (Figure 2). ... day after transplanting) (Figure 3). Diaeretiella rapae parasitism was zero during the two first observations. The number of aphids parasitized by D. rapae is highest in the third week followed by a ...

  11. Inherited sterility in cabbage pest crocidolomia binotalis zell as induced by gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutrisno, S. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-12-01

    Male moths of crocidolomia binotalis which have been irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 0.325 kGy were mated with the untreated females. The resulting sterility observed from this mating was 70.86%. A higher sterility was obtained from either male or female F1 offspring when mated with untreated insects (88.62% and 89.46%, respectively). Irradiation of female moths at a dose of 0.15 kGy resulted in 79.6% sterility, however, the sterility of their first offsprings was lower.

  12. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on soil organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Van Dam, N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  13. Interactions between a belowground herbivore and primary and secondary root metabolites in wild cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geem, Moniek; Harvey, Jeff; Cortesero, A.M.; Raaijmakers, Ciska; Gols, R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are attacked by both above- and belowground herbivores. Toxic secondary compounds are part of the chemical defense arsenal of plants against a range of antagonists, and are subject to genetic variation. Plants also produce primary metabolites (amino acids, nutrients, sugars) that function as

  14. The Influence of pH on Microspore Embryogenesis of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Oana CRISTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro microspore culture is one of the top techniques utilised now-a-days for the obtaining of double haploid plants in many plant species, including Brassica. The pH of the medium is a critical factor for the success of In vitro microspore culture as it influences the invertase enzyme activity, translated at cellular level through an acceleration or reduction of sucrose cleavage. The results published until now shows rather contradictory findings, as the response of microspores have been proved to be highly depending on genotypes, most of them being focused on Brassica napus. Thus, in the present study, the effect of different NLN liquid medium pH, ranging between 5.0 to 7.0 were tested in order to establish the most suitable pH for the expression of embryogenic competences of microspores cultivated on medium In vitro and ultimately for the obtaining of microspore-derived embryos. Among the 11 values of pH tested, the best results were obtained on variants with pH 5.8 and 6.0, both in what concern the maintaining of microspores viability and the number of microspore-derived embryos. The findings of the present study provide a strong base for the establishment of an efficient protocol for the In vitro culture of microspore at Brassica oleracea L. genotypes with Romanian origin.

  15. Weaker resource diffusion effect at coarser spatial scales observed for egg distribution of cabbage white butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbank, Marc; Hartley, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Mobile organisms frequently forage for patchy resources; e.g. herbivorous insects searching for host plants. The resource diffusion hypothesis predicts that insect herbivores, such as Pieris rapae butterflies, are disproportionally attracted to more isolated, or 'diffused', host plants. Surprisingly little is known about how this response to variation in resource density manifests itself at different spatial scales. We measured the outcome of oviposition by P. rapae butterflies foraging among groups of host plants, with plant density experimentally varied to achieve comparability between three nested scales: fine (1 × 1 m), medium (6 × 6 m), and coarse (36 × 36 m). Hierarchical linear models were used to measure density-dependent responses in the number of eggs laid per plant, with plant density measured at nested spatial scales. At a fine scale, isolated plants received significantly more eggs, while at medium and coarse scales the differences were less pronounced, and tended towards a neutral distribution of eggs across plants. Larger plants also tended to receive more eggs. Since multiple processes, acting at multiple scales, are likely to be the rule rather than the exception in ecology, methods for detecting and characterising multi-scale responses are important to ensure a robust transfer of ecological models from one situation to another.

  16. Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amein, T.; Wright, Al S.; Wikstrom, M.; Koch, E.; Schmitt, A.; Stephan, D.; Jahn, M.; Tinivella, F.; Gullino, M.L.; Forsberg, G.; Werner, S.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effec­tively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of

  17. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  18. Changes in the Physicochemical Quality Characteristics of Cabbage Kimchi with respect to Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon You

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in pH, organic acid content, acidity, and salinity of kimchi prepared at 0 days, stored 1–8 weeks at 4 and 10°C, and stored at room temperature for two days were analyzed. Organic acids content was analyzed by using analytical technique of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. This method was also validated using quality assurance parameters of linearity, limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ, precision, and spike recovery experiments. In the analysis of organic acids content (mg/kg, it was found that the kimchi stored for 1–8 weeks at 4 and 10°C showed gradual increase in the organic acids content during storage period. The order of organic acids was lactic acid > acetic acid > citric acid > malic acid > succinic acid > oxalic acid > fumaric acid. The pH values of kimchi stored at 4°C, 10°C, and 25°C were 4.1, 3.6–3.7, and 4.1, respectively.

  19. Root-lesion nematodes suppress cabbage aphid population development by reducing aphid daily reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Mons, Ilse; Meyer, Katrin M.; van Dam, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that belowground feeding herbivores can affect the performance of aboveground herbivores in different ways. Often the critical life-history parameters underlying the observed performance effects remain unexplored. In order to better understand the cause for the observed

  20. Enzymatic comparison and mortality of Beauveria bassiana against cabbage caterpillar Pieris brassicae LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Dhawan

    Full Text Available Abstract Beauveria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, is the alternative biocontrol agent exploited against major economic crop pests. Pieris brassicae L. is an emerging pest of the Brassicaceae family. Therefore, in the present study, fungal isolates of Beauveria bassiana, viz. MTCC 2028, MTCC 4495, MTCC 6291, and NBAII-11, were evaluated for their virulence against third instar larvae of P. brassicae. Among all these fungal isolates, maximum mortality (86.66% was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 4495 at higher concentration of spores (109 conidia/ml, and the minimum mortality (30.00% was recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291 at a lower concentration (107 conidia/ml after ten days of treatment. The extracellular cuticle-degrading enzyme activities of fungal isolates were measured. Variability was observed both in the pattern of enzyme secretion and the level of enzyme activities among various fungal isolates. B. bassiana MTCC 4495 recorded the maximum mean chitinase (0.51 U/ml, protease (1.12 U/ml, and lipase activities (1.36 U/ml. The minimum mean chitinase and protease activities (0.37 and 0.91 U/ml, respectively were recorded in B. bassiana MTCC 6291. The minimum mean lipase activity (1.04 U/ml was recorded in B. bassiana NBAII-11. Our studies revealed B. bassiana MTCC 4495 as the most pathogenic isolate against P. brassicae, which also recorded maximum extracellular enzyme activities, suggesting the possible roles of extracellular enzymes in the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against P. brassicae.

  1. effect of sun drying on microbial load in fresh produce cabbage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jonas chips

    however makes them costly to transport, difficult to handle and easy to spoil. Chin (2002) ... treatment. In this century, the risk of spreading disease is a concern for producers and regulations were .... and coliforms and other micro-organisms may result from dirty equipment used at harvesting, transportation,. The South ...

  2. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... 2Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, China ... content in China. Our results suggested that application of sewage sludge could enhance the output of vegetable while the risk of heavy metal should be ..... consumption of vegetables.

  3. [Health statistics aren't born in a cabbage patch: Jesuits, political arithmetic, stigmergy and oligopticons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Yuri; Yuing, Tuillang

    2013-04-01

    By analyzing the content and network of production of a map from 1751, created by the circular mission of the Jesuits in Chiloé (an archipelago located off the southern coast of Chile), that contains birth, death and population data, this article discusses the role that health statistics play historically, philosophically, technically and sociologically. In doing so, the article seeks to comprehend the genesis of a process of production of data and references in order to debate what health statistics are composed of, what ends they are used for, what their connection is to the formation of collectives and the differential conditions of possibility that exist for producing statistics. We attempt to develop hypotheses that demonstrate statistics as a hybrid articulation between diverse elements, epistemological, biopolitical, historical and philosophical in nature, with facets at once religious and demographic, ontological and ethnic, scientific and governmental.

  4. Direct plantlet inoculation with soil or insect-associated fungi may control cabbage root fly maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Palmisano, Marilena; Wohler, Christian; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    A potential Delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. In addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. The following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. gamsii, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, M. brunneum and Clonostachys solani. A commercial carbosulfan-based insecticide was used as a positive control. Additionally, two commercial products, one based on B. bassiana (Naturalis) and one on Bacillus thuringiensis (Delfin) were used as reference biocontrol agents. The aims were (i) to assess the pathogenicity of the selected fungal isolates to Delia radicum, (ii) to evaluate the fungal isolates' rhizosphere competence, with the emphasis on the persistence of the original inoculum on the growing roots, (iii) to assess possible endophytic plant tissue colonization, and (iv) to evaluate potential plant growth stimulating effects of the added inoculi. Significant pathogenicity of tested fungi against Delia radicum was confirmed in in vitro and glasshouse experiments. All tested fungi persisted on cauliflower rhizoplane. More importantly, the added fungi were found on thoroughly washed roots outside the original point of inoculation. This provided us with evidence that our tested fungi could be transferred via or grow with the elongating roots. In addition to colonizing the rhizoplane, some fungi were found inside the plant root or stem tissue, thus exhibiting endophytic characteristics. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion in appropriate biological control agent selection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dam Fish Research Station at five months of age (approx. 3-5 g) and were maintained in six 200l glass aquaria. Each tank was covered with netting to prevent the fish from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- gravel filter which covered one third of the base. This filtration system had been used extensively prior to ...

  6. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) on soil ogranisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  7. Assessment of a cabbage/pak choï crop association to manage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Senegal, vegetable production is an important area within the agricultural sector and contributes to improve the local diet. Damage caused by aphids in particular puts heavy pressure on vegetables production. Crop associations play an important role in controlling insect pests in some countries. The aims of this study ...

  8. Fitness of Bt-resistant cabbage loopers on Bt cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ran; Wang, Ping

    2017-10-01

    Development of resistance to the insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in insects is the major threat to the continued success of transgenic Bt crops in agriculture. The fitness of Bt-resistant insects on Bt and non-Bt plants is a key parameter that determines the development of Bt resistance in insect populations. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the fitness of Bt-resistant Trichoplusia ni strains on Bt cotton leaves was conducted. The Bt-resistant T. ni strains carried two genetically independent mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The effects of the two resistance mechanisms, individually and in combination, on the fitness of the T. ni strains on conventional non-Bt cotton and on transgenic Bt cotton leaves expressing a single-toxin Cry1Ac (Bollgard I) or two Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab (Bollgard II) were examined. The presence of Bt toxins in plants reduced the fitness of resistant insects, indicated by decreased net reproductive rate (R0 ) and intrinsic rate of increase (r). The reduction in fitness in resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was greater than that on Bollgard I leaves. A 12.4-day asynchrony of adult emergence between the susceptible T. ni grown on non-Bt cotton leaves and the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni on Bollgard II leaves was observed. Therefore, multitoxin Bt plants not only reduce the probability for T. ni to develop resistance but also strongly reduce the fitness of resistant insects feeding on the plants. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Aluminum fluoride inhibition of cabbage phospholipase D by a phosphate-mimicking mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Liang; Fleming, Norman

    1999-01-01

    ... inhibited by aluminum fluoride (AlF 4 − ), by a GTP‐binding protein‐independent mechanism [4] . A direct inhibitory effect of AlF 4 − on the enzyme itself was suggested. This possibility was f...

  10. In vitro screening of selected probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented cabbage and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Dorota; Rzepkowska, Anna; Radawska, Anna; Zieliński, Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Most important during probiotic selection are gastric acid and bile tolerance, the adhesion to the luminal epithelium to colonize the lower gastrointestinal tract of a human and safety for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected probiotic in vitro properties of Lactobacillus spp. Strains isolated from traditional fermented food. A total 38 strains were isolated from the pickled samples and 14 were identified as Lactobacillus spp. The survival of almost all strains after incubation at pH 2.5 did not change markedly, and remained at above 90 % (10(9) CFU/mL). The strains also exhibited a high survival rate at pH 3.5 (>90 %), whereas pH 1.5 all were died. Just four strains could survive 90 min. at pH 1.5 (Safety evaluation excluded four of tested strains as candidate probiotics, according to antibiotic resistance patterns and certain metabolic activities. On the basis on the results 10 of the selected Lactobacillus strains are safe and can survive under gastrointestinal conditions, which requires them to future in vitro and in vivo probiotic studies.

  11. Impact of sulfate deprivation and H2S exposure on the metabolites of the activated methyl cycle in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, M.-H.; Yang, C.K.; Stuiver, C.E.E.; Chang, C.‐C.; De Kok, L.J.; De Kok, L.J.; Hawkesford, M.J.; Haneklaus, S.H.; Schnug, E.

    2017-01-01

    The activated methyl cycle is a central metabolic pathway used to generate (and recycle) several important sulfur-containing metabolites including methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and enable methylation. We have developed a precise and sensitive method for the

  12. The viscosity of diesel oil and mixtures with straight vegetable oils: Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolle, Abolle; Kouakou, Loukou; Planche, Henri [Unite de Chimie et Procedes de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, 32 Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2009-09-15

    The feed back experience of using straight vegetable oil (SVO) as a fuel in the existing diesel engines evidences the need for fitting several physical properties, among them the fuel viscosity. An empirical modelling is proposed in order to interpolate viscosity to any kind of diesel oil/SVO blend. This model is fitted on an experimental viscosity database on blends, varying the SVO mass proportion in the blend, the blend temperature between cloud point and 353 K, and including six vegetable oils varying the fatty acids composition. Extrusion rheology was also checked by varying the pressure drop. Measurements show that blends behave Newtonian. (author)

  13. Using mortality compost in vegetable production: A comparison between summer and winter composting and its use in cabbage production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of composting to breakdown the carcasses of daily poultry mortality and in the process destroy pathogenic microorganisms that may be present. The study was conducted during the summer and repeated in the winter to determine whether the time of yea...

  14. Smelling the wood from the trees: Non-linear parasitoid responses to volatile attractants produced by wild and cultivated cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Bullock, J.M.; Dicke, M.; Bukovinszky, T.; Harvey, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies on herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), little is known about which specific compounds are used by natural enemies to locate prey- or host- infested plants. In addition, the role of HIPVs in attracting natural enemies has been restricted largely to

  15. Smelling the Wood from the Trees: Non-Linear Parasitoid Responses to Volatile Attractants Produced by Wild and Cultivated Cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Bullock, J.M.; Dicke, M.; Bukovinszky, T.; Harvey, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies on herbivoreinduced plant volatiles (HIPVs), little is known about which specific compounds are used by natural enemies to locate prey- or host- infested plants. In addition, the role of HIPVs in attracting natural enemies has been restricted largely to agricultural

  16. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could impr...

  17. Effect of chlormequat (cycocel) on the growth of ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea) cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Abdollah; Hashemabadi, Davood; Sedaghathoor, Shahram; Kaviani, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concentration and application method of chlormequat (cycocel), a plant growth retardant, on plant height and some other traits in Brassica oleracea cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' was assessed. Plant growth retardants are commonly applied to limit stem elongation and produce a more compact plant. The experiment was done as a factorial in randomized completely blocks design (RCBD) with four replications. Plants (40 days after transplanting) were sprayed and drenched with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel. In each experiment, control untreated plants. Data were recorded the 60 and 90 days after transplanting. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), the effect of different treatments and their interaction on all traits was significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level of probability. Treatment of 1500 mg I(-1) cycocel resulted in about 50 and 20% shorter plants than control plants, 60 and 90 days after transplant. The growth of Brassica oleracea cultivar 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' decreased with increased cycocel concentration. Foliar sprays of cycocel controlled plant height of both cultivars. Results indicated that the shortest plants (9.94 and 11.59 cm) were those sprayed with 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel in cultivar 'Kamome White' after 60 and 90 days, respectively. The largest number of leaves (33.94) and highest leaf diameter (9.39 cm) occurred in cv. 'Nagoya Red', when drench was used. Maximum dry matter (14.31%) accumulated in cv. 'Nagoya Red', treated with spray.

  18. Ejaculation Timing of Eupyrene and Apyrene Sperm in the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera : Pieridae) during Copulation

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Wiklund, Christer; BONNO, Minetaka

    1998-01-01

    During copulation, the male small white, Pieris rapae, fills a single spermatophore in the bursa copulatrix of the female. Artificial interruption of copulation showed that the male filled first white gel after which the spermatophore was structured. No sperm were found in the gel. Both eupyrene sperm bundles and free apyrene sperm were ejaculated into the structured spermatophore immediately before the completion of copulation. A male transferred about 11, 000 eupyrene sperm, whereas about 4...

  19. Nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle assemblies with mesoscale morphologies: nano-cabbage versus sea-anemone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandi, Masih; Gebre, Tesfaye; Mitchell, Lucas; Erwin, William; Bardhan, Rizia; Levan, M. Douglas; Mochena, Mogus D.; Dickerson, James H.

    2014-05-01

    We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation.We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization procedures, TEM/XRD of samples prepared at different temperature and water content, table of nitrogen adsorption-desorption values of different samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06154j

  20. Integrated analysis of leaf morphological and color traits in different populations of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Ryun; Yu, Xiaona; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Li, Xiaonan; Wang, Zhi; Lee, Seo Yeon; Oh, Sang Heon; Pang, Wenxing; Ramchiary, Nirala; Hong, Chang Pyo; Park, Suhyoung; Piao, Zhongyun; Kim, HyeRan; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2017-08-01

    QTLs and candidate gene markers associated with leaf morphological and color traits were identified in two immortalized populations of Brassica rapa, which will provide genetic information for marker-assisted breeding. Brassica rapa is an important leafy vegetable consumed worldwide and morphology is a key character for its breeding. To enhance genetic control, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for leaf color and plant architecture were identified using two immortalized populations with replications of 2 and 4 years. Overall, 158 and 80 QTLs associated with 23 and 14 traits were detected in the DH and RIL populations, respectively. Among them, 23 common robust-QTLs belonging to 12 traits were detected in common loci over the replications. Through comparative analysis, five crucifer genetic blocks corresponding to morphology trait (R, J&U, F and E) and color trait (F, E) were identified in three major linkage groups (A2, A3 and A7). These might be key conserved genomic regions involved with the respective traits. Through synteny analysis with Arabidopsis, 64 candidate genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell proliferation and elongation were co-localized within QTL intervals. Among them, SCO3, ABI3, FLU, HCF153, HEMB1, CAB3 were mapped within QTLs for leaf color; and CYCD3;1, CYCB2;4, AN3, ULT1 and ANT were co-localized in QTL regions for leaf size. These robust QTLs and their candidate genes provide useful information for further research into leaf architecture with crop breeding.

  1. Red cabbage microgreens lower circulating LDL, liver cholesterol and inflammatory cytokines in mice fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risks through the modulation of...

  2. Community structure and abundance of insects in response to early-season aphid infestation in wild cabbage populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yehua; Stam, Jeltje M.; Poelman, Erik H.; Dicke, Marcel; Gols, Rieta

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the arthropod community structure can be attributed to differences in constitutively expressed plant traits or those that change depending on environmental conditions such as herbivory. Early-season herbivory may have community-wide effects on successive insect colonisation of host

  3. Identification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. isolate suppressing clubroot resistance in ‘Kilaxy’ F1 white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesołowska Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Celem badań była ocena patogeniczności izolatów Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. pobranych z porażonych kiłą roślin kapusty głowiastej białej pochodzących z różnych rejonów Polski. Oceniano wirulencję siedmiu izolatów tego patogena. Do określenia wirulencji izolatów P. brassicae użyte zostały obiekty wzorcowe, były to materiały hodowlane kapusty głowiastej białej odporne i podatne na kiłę. Nasiona kapusty inokulowano poprzez moczenie ich w zawiesinie zarodników przetrwalnikowych patogena. Ocenę podatności roślin na kiłę prowadzono w oparciu o 9-cio stopniową skalę porażenia korzeni roślin w stadium ośmiotygodniowej rozsady i podczas jesiennego zbioru roślin na polu zainfekowanym P. brassicae. Izolaty pochodzące z Pobiednika i Goźlic były bardziej wirulentne. Izolat P z Pobiednika spowodował porażenie roślin odmiany ‘Kilaxy’ F1 co oznaczało przełamanie cechującej tę odmianę odporności na kiłę. Odmiana ta w stosunku do pozostałych izolatów potwierdziła swoją odporność. Wrażliwa linia HTM charakteryzowała się najwyższym stopniem porażenia. Odnotowano różny poziom wrażliwości na zastosowane izolaty pomiędzy liniami pochodzącymi z mających geny odporności odmian ‘Oregon123’ i ‘Badger Shipper’. Mniej podatna na zastosowane izolaty była linia ‘Oregon123’. Obserwowano wpływ zastosowanych do inokulacji nasion izolatów na reakcję na patogena dojrzałych roślin kapusty na polu kiłowym

  4. Identification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. isolate suppressing clubroot resistance in ‘Kilaxy’ F1 white cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Wesołowska Maria

    2014-01-01

    Celem badań była ocena patogeniczności izolatów Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. pobranych z porażonych kiłą roślin kapusty głowiastej białej pochodzących z różnych rejonów Polski. Oceniano wirulencję siedmiu izolatów tego patogena. Do określenia wirulencji izolatów P. brassicae użyte zostały obiekty wzorcowe, były to materiały hodowlane kapusty głowiastej białej odporne i podatne na kiłę. Nasiona kapusty inokulowano poprzez moczenie ich w zawiesinie zarodników przetrwalnikowych patogena. Ocenę ...

  5. Turmeric powder and its derivatives from Curcuma longa rhizomes: Insecticidal effects on cabbage looper and the role of synergists

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner de Souza Tavares; Yasmin Akhtar; Gabriel Luiz Padoan Gonçalves; José Cola Zanuncio; Murray B Isman

    2016-01-01

    Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under lab...

  6. Survival of cabbage stem flea beetle larvae, Psylliodes chrysocephala, exposed to low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Bligaard, J.; Esbjerg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , yet to what degree is unknown. This study investigates the effect of exposure time, cold acclimation, and larval stage on survival at −5 and −10 °C. Exposure time at −5 °C was 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days and 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h at −10 °C. Mortality increased with increasing...... exposure time and was significantly lower for cold-acclimated larvae. Estimated time until an expected mortality of 50% (LT50) and 90% (LT90) of larvae exposed to −5 °C was 7.4 and 9.6 days (non-acclimated) and 11.0 and 15.1 days (acclimated), respectively. Estimated LT50 for non-acclimated and acclimated...... larvae exposed to −10 °C was 32.6 and 70.5 h, respectively, and estimated LT90 66.8 and 132.2 h. Significant differences in mortality between larval stages were observed only at −5 °C. When exposed to −5 °C for 8 days, mortality of first and second instars was 81.2 and 51.3%, respectively. When exposed...

  7. 75 FR 29475 - Maneb; Proposed Tolerance Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... application only)); bean, dry, seed; beet, sugar, tops; broccoli; Brussels sprouts; cabbage; cabbage, Chinese...; onion; papaya; pepper; potato; pumpkin; squash, summer; squash, winter; tomato; turnip, greens; and...

  8. Reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-10-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively, while in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4,500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5,000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot.

  9. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, C.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  10. Comprehensive analysis of the flowering genes in Chinese cabbage and examination of evolutionary pattern of CO-like genes in plant kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoming; Duan, Weike; Huang, Zhinan; Liu, Gaofeng; Wu, Peng; Liu, Tongkun; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    In plants, flowering is the most important transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. The flowering patterns of monocots and eudicots are distinctly different, but few studies have described the evolutionary patterns of the flowering genes in them. In this study, we analysed the evolutionary pattern, duplication and expression level of these genes. The main results were as follows: (i) characterization of flowering genes in monocots and eudicots, including the identification of family-specific, orthologous and collinear genes; (ii) full characterization of CONSTANS-like genes in Brassica rapa (BraCOL genes), the key flowering genes; (iii) exploration of the evolution of COL genes in plant kingdom and construction of the evolutionary pattern of COL genes; (iv) comparative analysis of CO and FT genes between Brassicaceae and Grass, which identified several family-specific amino acids, and revealed that CO and FT protein structures were similar in B. rapa and Arabidopsis but different in rice; and (v) expression analysis of photoperiod pathway-related genes in B. rapa under different photoperiod treatments by RT-qPCR. This analysis will provide resources for understanding the flowering mechanisms and evolutionary pattern of COL genes. In addition, this genome-wide comparative study of COL genes may also provide clues for evolution of other flowering genes.

  11. BrWRKY65, a WRKY Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Regulating Three Leaf Senescence-Associated Genes in Chinese Flowering Cabbage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhong-Qi Fan; Xiao-Li Tan; Wei Shan; Jian-Fei Kuang; Wang-Jin Lu; Jian-Ye Chen

    2017-01-01

    Plant-specific WRKY transcription factors (TFs) have been implicated to function as regulators of leaf senescence, but their association with postharvest leaf senescence of economically important leafy vegetables, is poorly understood...

  12. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Voirol, L.R.P.; Drizou, Fryni; Doan, Quyen T.; Pineda, Ana; Frago, Enric; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated

  13. Host generated cues alter the foraging behavior of Cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae and its larval parasitoids, Cotesia glomerata and Hyposoter ebeninus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Debarma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of host-generated cues on foraging speed of herbivore as well as its natural enemies was studied under net house conditions in Meghalaya, India. Foraging speed of P. brassicae was significantly higher towards the healthy plants, whereas it was lowest towards the damaged plants along with herbivore cues. In contrast foraging speed of parasitoids H. ebeninus and C. glomerata was highest towards damaged plants along with herbivore cues and lowest towards healthy plants. It indicates that herbivore and its parasitoids respond to the volatiles generated by their host. In addition to host plants natural enemies also utilize herbivore-generated cues for their detection.

  14. Detection of ethanol and acetaldehyde released from cabbage seeds of different quality : laser photoacoustic spectroscopy versus FTIR and headspace gaschromatographydetection of ethylene and acetaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Persijn, S.; Taylor, A.; Cozijnsen, J.L.; Veldhuyzen, van B.; Lenssen, G.; Wegh, H.C.P.

    2003-01-01

    Detecting early ageing stages of seeds in storage is of great concern to vegetable seed companies. Despite their reliability conventional germination tests are destructive and time consuming. One alternative towards assessing the quality of seed is to monitor the concentration of certain volatiles

  15. A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, caused by low-salt pickled Napa cabbage in nursing homes, Japan, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ayako Tabuchi; Taku Wakui; Yuichiro Yahata; Koichi Yano; Kotaro Azuma; Takuya Yamagishi; Kazutoshi Nakashima; Tomimasa Sunagawa; Tamano Matsui; Kazunori Oishi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In August 2012, an outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 infection was investigated by the City of Sapporo and Hokkaido Prefectural Government. The initial notification reported an illness affecting 94 residents of 10 private nursing homes distributed across multiple areas of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan; at this time three cases were confirmed as EHEC O157 infection. The objectives of the investigation were to identify the source of infection an...

  16. A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, caused by low-salt pickled Napa cabbage in nursing homes, Japan, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Ayako; Wakui, Taku; Yano, Koichi; Azuma, Kotaro; Yamagishi, Takuya; Nakashima, Kazutoshi; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Matsui, Tamano; Oishi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective In August 2012, an outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 infection was investigated by the City of Sapporo and Hokkaido Prefectural Government. The initial notification reported an illness affecting 94 residents of 10 private nursing homes distributed across multiple areas of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan; at this time three cases were confirmed as EHEC O157 infection. The objectives of the investigation were to identify the source of infection and recommend control measures to prevent further illness. Methods A suspected case was defined as a resident of one of the private nursing homes in Hokkaido who had at least one of the following gastrointestinal symptoms: diarrhoea, bloody stool, abdominal pain or vomiting between 10 July and 10 September 2012. Cases were confirmed by the presence of Shiga toxin 1- and 2-producing EHEC O157 in stool samples of suspected cases. We conducted an epidemiological analysis and an environmental investigation. Results We identified 54 confirmed and 53 suspected cases in 12 private nursing homes including five fatalities. Of the 107 cases, 102 (95%) had consumed pickles, all of which had been manufactured at the same facility. EHEC O157 isolates from two pickle samples, 11 cases and two staff members of the processing company were indistinguishable. The company that produced the pickles used inadequate techniques to wash and sanitize the vegetables. Discussion Contaminated pickles were the likely source of this outbreak. We recommended that the processing company improve their methods of washing and sanitizing raw vegetables. As a result of this outbreak, the sanitation requirements for processing pickles were revised. PMID:26306209

  17. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: improved net returns via scouting and timing of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2008-04-01

    During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program.

  18. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach an Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Gols, R.; Hordijk, K.A.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5®, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two

  19. Fertilizantes e espaçamento entre plantas na produtividade da couve-da-Malásia Fertilizers and spacing between plants in the yield of Malaysian cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Wanessa Resende Ferreira; Marli A. Ranal; Fernando Antônio Reis Filgueira

    2002-01-01

    As brássicas têm sido objeto constante de pesquisa devido à sua importância na alimentação humana, seja pela quantidade consumida, pelo alto valor nutricional ou por sua elevada produtividade. Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis foi introduzida no Brasil, Uberlândia, em 1992, destacando-se em relação a outras brássicas por seu alto teor de vitaminas A e C, cálcio e ferro, estando pronta para consumo em aproximadamente 30 dias. A produtividade biológica e agronômica dessa variedade foi anali...

  20. The density and cloud point of diesel oil mixtures with the straight vegetable oils (SVO): Palm, cabbage palm, cotton, groundnut, copra and sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolle, Abolle; Loukou, Kouakou; Henri, Planche [Unite de Chimie et Procedes de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, 32 boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The densities and cloud points of six vegetable oils mixed in variable proportions to diesel oils (commercial vehicle fuels) are measured. Simple correlations are reported between these properties and the fatty acids vegetable oil composition. A simple modelling summarises experimental data informations. (author)

  1. Differences among cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata) genotypes for Cd uptake and accumulation in fruiting portion and possible inhibition through use of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils may become progressively enriched with cadmium as a consequence of industrial activities, fertilization, and waste disposal. The current widespread interest in Cd uptake and translocation arises not only from its toxicity to plants, but also from the harmful health effects of its dietary inta...

  2. Paracin 1.7, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus paracasei HD1.7 isolated from Chinese cabbage sauerkraut, a traditional Chinese fermented vegetable food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingping; Ping, Wenxiang; Song, Gang; Du, Chunmei; Ling, Hongzhi; Sun, Xin; Gao, Ying

    2009-05-01

    To purify and characterize bacteriocin produced by L. paracasei HD1.7. Paracin 1.7 was purified by chromatography and its molecular weight was measured by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Antibacterial activity was measured by using the agar-well diffusion method. The bacterial strain for the fermentation was identified as Lactobacillus subsp. paracasei. Paracin 1.7 had the activity of inhibiting the growth of other bacteria. Maximum production of Paracin 1.7 was in the stationary phase. Paracin 1.7 can be well purified with Cation exchange chromatography, Sephedex (G50, G25, G10) gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on C18 column and its determined molecular weight was about 11 kDa by Tricine-SDS-PAGE. Paracin 1.7 shows a broad spectrum of activities against various strains in the genera of Proteus, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Microccus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Saccharomyces, some of which belong to food borne pathogenic bacteria. Although Paracin 1.7 displayed stability toward heat and acidic pH, it was sensitive to several proteolytic enzymes. The inhibitory activities remain well after stored at 4 degrees C for 4 months; the inhibitory activity declined only 4.19%. Paracin 1.7 can be a potential food preservative on the basis of its antibacterial characters.

  3. Soil, wheat, cabbage and drinking water iodine in relation to human iodine status and iodine deficiency disorders in Xinjiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, F.M.; Ge, Xiaoli; Stewart, A.G.; Jiang, Ji Yong; Cave, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals. A lack in the diet can lead to iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) the most common manifestation being goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland in the neck. Infants born to severely Ideficient mothers may suffer cretinism and I-deficiency is the world's most common cause of preventable mental retardation. In many countries this problem has been tackled successfully using medical interventions such as the iodination o...

  4. Chemosensory basis of behavioural plasticity in response to deterrent plant chemicals in the larva of the Small Cabbage White butterfly Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, D.S.; Wang, C.Z.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responsiveness to three chemically different secondary plant substances was studied in larvae of Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Three groups of caterpillars were studied that during their larval development were exposed to different rearing diets: an

  5. Fertilizantes e espaçamento entre plantas na produtividade da couve-da-Malásia Fertilizers and spacing between plants in the yield of Malaysian cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Resende Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available As brássicas têm sido objeto constante de pesquisa devido à sua importância na alimentação humana, seja pela quantidade consumida, pelo alto valor nutricional ou por sua elevada produtividade. Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis foi introduzida no Brasil, Uberlândia, em 1992, destacando-se em relação a outras brássicas por seu alto teor de vitaminas A e C, cálcio e ferro, estando pronta para consumo em aproximadamente 30 dias. A produtividade biológica e agronômica dessa variedade foi analisada utilizando-se três tipos de fertilizantes e três espaçamentos entre plantas, visando subsidiar sua produção em escala comercial. A área foliar, massa da matéria seca e taxa de crescimento absoluto foram significativamente maiores com adubação mineral em relação à adubação orgânica. Os maiores valores referentes à taxa de crescimento relativo e taxa assimilatória líquida foram registrados em plantas mantidas nos maiores espaçamentos (30x20 e 30x30 cm. A maior produtividade agronômica foi alcançada no menor espaçamento (30x10 cm, com adubação mineral, sendo registrados 21,5 t ha-1, valor muito próximo ao registrado na Malásia e China onde essa hortaliça é cultivada em larga escala.Brassica crops have been widely studied due to their importance as food for human consumption, especially in relation to their nutritional value. Both yield and consumption are high. Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis was introduced in Brazil, in Uberlândia, in 1992, surpassing other Brassica due to its high content of vitamins A and C, calcium and iron, and being ready for consumption in about 30 days. The biological and agronomic yield of this variety was analyzed under three kinds of fertilizers and three spacings between plants with a view to its production on a commercial scale. The leaf area, dry matter mass, and absolute growth rate were higher with mineral than organic fertilizer. High values for relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were registered in plants growing in greater spacing (30x20 and 30x30 cm. The highest value of agronomic yield was reached in the smaller spacing (30x10 cm, with mineral fertilization, being registered 21.5 t ha-1. This value is near to that registered in Malaysia and China where this vegetable is cultivated on a large scale.

  6. The effect of three liquid bio-fertilizers in the production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernando Artemio Criollo Escobar; Tulio Cesar Lagos Burbano; Edwin Piarpuezan; Ruth Perez

    2011-01-01

    .... The use of bio-fertilizers is a viable alternative to improve the profitability of crops, particularly for agriculture on medium and small-sized farms with intensive production systems, such as vegetables...

  7. Influence of cornicle droplet secretions of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, on parasitism behavior of naïve and experienced Diaeretiella rapae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Rasekh, Arash; Enkegaard, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Insects have evolved amazing methods of defense to ward off enemies. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by predators and parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts other colony members of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the relea......Insects have evolved amazing methods of defense to ward off enemies. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by predators and parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts other colony members of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits...

  8. A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, caused by low-salt pickled Napa cabbage in nursing homes, Japan, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Tabuchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In August 2012, an outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157 infection was investigated by the City of Sapporo and Hokkaido Prefectural Government. The initial notification reported an illness affecting 94 residents of 10 private nursing homes distributed across multiple areas of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan; at this time three cases were confirmed as EHEC O157 infection. The objectives of the investigation were to identify the source of infection and recommend control measures to prevent further illness. Methods: A suspected case was defined as a resident of one of the private nursing homes in Hokkaido who had at least one of the following gastrointestinal symptoms: diarrhoea, bloody stool, abdominal pain or vomiting between 10 July and 10 September 2012. Cases were confirmed by the presence of Shiga toxin 1- and 2-producing EHEC O157 in stool samples of suspected cases. We conducted an epidemiological analysis and an environmental investigation. Results: We identified 54 confirmed and 53 suspected cases in 12 private nursing homes including five fatalities. Of the 107 cases, 102 (95% had consumed pickles, all of which had been manufactured at the same facility. EHEC O157 isolates from two pickle samples, 11 cases and two staff members of the processing company were indistinguishable. The company that produced the pickles used inadequate techniques to wash and sanitize the vegetables. Discussion: Contaminated pickles were the likely source of this outbreak. We recommended that the processing company improve their methods of washing and sanitizing raw vegetables. As a result of this outbreak, the sanitation requirements for processing pickles were revised.

  9. Healthy food trends -- microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be enjoyed as a microgreen, such as lettuce, radish, basil, beets, celery, cabbage, and kale. Many people ... adult forms: Red cabbage -- Vitamin C Green daikon radish -- Vitamin E Cilantro -- Carotenoids (antioxidants that can turn ...

  10. Histopathology of Brassica oleracea var. capitata subvar. alba infected with Heterodera cruciferae Franklin, 1945 (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because anatomical changes induced by the cabbage cyst nematode (Heterodera cruciferae) have been insufficiently characterized, here we describe these changes in the root tissues of white head cabbage varieties commonly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, where cabbage-growing areas are heavily...

  11. Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metals, especially copper, chromium and lead, than the other vegetables. All vegetables from Tabata, Buguruni and Sinza had lead-levels higher then the FAO/WHO recommended permissible levels in foods. Amaranth, leafy and chinese cabbages had high zinc content. Zinc levels in chinese cabbage and leafy cabbage ...

  12. Ledakan Populasi Jenis Respo, Filicaulis bleekeri, di Sentra Produksi Sayur Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwinardi Apriyanto

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last two years a slug species, Filicaulis bleekeri (Keferst., has become important pest of some vegetable crops in vegetable production central Rejang Lebong,Bengkulu. This pest is called "respo" by local farmers, who majority are Javanese. Data from preliminary observation indicated that this pest population was very high and may caused harvest failure on some vegetable crops, particularly Cruciferae such as cabbage, chinese cabbage, and cauliflower. In several sampling activities in 2000 and 2001, the population density of respo reached >10 per mature cabbage plant and >7 per flowered cauliflower plant. Sampling on young cabbage and chinese cabbage resulted >2 respo per 1 m of row, but killed >80% of transplanted cabbage and 75% of transplanted chinese cabbage. Whereas sampling in fallow land resulted >60 respo per m2. There is no much information on this pest presently; therefore it is necessary to study the biology as well technology and as control strategy of the species.

  13. Resposta da couve-da-Malásia (Brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (Bailey Sinskaja à deficiência nutricional = Response of Malaysian cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (Bailey Sinskaja to nutritional deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magella Flôres da Mota

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis é uma hortaliça folhosa, de ciclo curto, introduzida no Brasil em 1992, em função de sua excelente qualidade nutricional. Apresenta elevado teor de b-caroteno, vitamina C, Ca e Fe, o que a torna importante alimento,especialmente no combate à anemia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade biológica e agronômica da couve-da-Malásia, cultivada sob deficiência de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo e Zn e comparada com o tratamento-testemunha que incluiu todos os macro e micronutrientes. As plantas cultivadas na ausência de N e Pconseguiram completar o ciclo, mas foram significativamente menos produtivas e pouco desenvolvidas em relação às que receberam nutrição completa. Além disso, apresentaram coloração das folhas verde-acinzentada e arroxeamento do pecíolo e nervuras. Na ausênciade B, todas as plantas morreram entre 30 e 37 dias após a semeadura e, na ausência de S, elas não produziram frutos, o que mostra a importância destes dois nutrientes para essa Brassicaceae.Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis is a vegetable with short cycle, which was introduced in Brazil in 1992 due to its highnutritional qualities. It presents high concentration of b-carotene, vitamin C, Ca, and Fe, becoming an important food for the prevention of anemia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the biological and agronomic productivity of plants grown under N, P, K, Ca, Mg,S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn deficiency. The results were compared with plants grown with all macro and micronutrients. Plants cultured without N and P completed their cycle, but had lower yield than those cultured with complete nutrition. Additionally, they had green-grayish leaves, and purple petiole and veins. Plants cultured without B died between 30 and 37 days after sowing, and without S they did not produce fruits. These results show the importance of S and B to this Brassicaceae.

  14. Effects of Biofertilizer Containing Microbial of N-fixer, P Solubilizer and Plant Growth Factor Producer on Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Growth And Soil Enzymatic Activities: A Greenhouse Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiya Antonius

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the effects of four different concentrations of biofertilizers containing Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Streptomyces sp. on soil properties and to evaluate the growth of Brassica oleraceae var. capitata. The application treatments included control (no fertilizer and four concentration of diluted biofertilizer per pot (20 ml, 40 ml, 60 mland 80 ml. The application of biofertilizer containing benefi cial bacteria signifi cantly increased the growth of B. oleraceae. The useof biofertilizer resulted higher biomass weight and length as well as root length. This greenhouse study also indicated that differentamount of biofertilizer application had almost similar effects. Microbial inoculum not only increased plant harvest, but also improvedsoil properties, such as number of microorganisms, respiration and urease activities.

  15. In vitro bile acid binding of mustard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with sautéing compared with raw or other methods of preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculating bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of can...

  16. Preparation and characterization of amino functionalized nano-composite material and its application for multi-residue analysis of pesticides in cabbage by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Shi, Jia-Wei; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2011-08-19

    In this paper, a novel and recyclable amino-functionalized nano-composite material (NCM) using tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) as a coupling agent was synthesized. The properties of the TEPA-NCM were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (EA). An effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure using the TEPA-NCM was developed, and comparative studies were carried out among Carbon/NH₂ SPE, primary secondary amine (PSA) dSPE and TEPA-NCM dSPE. The results showed that TEPA-NCM dSPE was faster, easier and more effective to clean and enrich than the Carbon/NH₂ cartridges, and the TEPA-NCM was much more effective to remove the pigments in vegetable samples than the PSA materials. The TEPA-NCM could be reused at least five times without much sacrifice of the cleanup efficiency. Furthermore, a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 29 pesticides (such as organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides) in vegetables by dSPE using acetonitrile as an extraction solvent and TEPA-NCM as an adsorbent instead of PSA. The recoveries were in the range of 75-114% for all analytes except for trans-chlordane. The RSDs were in the range of 2-17%. The linearities were in the range of 0.4-100.0 μg/kg with determination coefficients (r²) higher than 0.986 for all compounds. The limits of detection (LODs) for all pesticides were less than 0.29 μg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.17 and 0.95 μg/kg. The developed method was applied to fifteen real vegetable samples, and it was confirmed that the TEPA-NCM was one of a kind of highly effective dSPE materials used for the pesticides analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. China Report, Red Flag, Number 4, 16 February 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-12

    traditional industries of the rural areas. As to agricultural production technology, although the inorganic materials supplied by industry have brought...vegetables had been aroused, there was intensive cultivation, an increased amount of fertilizer was applied, and.per unit yield increased notably. At...increased, while the areas planted with common vegetables such as Chinese cabbage, cabbage,. radishes , and Tianjin cabbage saw marked decreases. For

  18. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip. (a) General description. (1...

  19. 76 FR 62740 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition and Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... for carrots, peas, bananas, plantains, coconuts, pineapples, apples, cabbages, and tomatoes; coffee is.... 15). Deforestation can also change the species composition and structure of a forest, rendering it...

  20. Deciphering the Diploid Ancestral Genome of the Mesohexaploid Brassica rapa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng Cheng; Terezie Mandáková; Jian Wu; Qi Xie; Martin A. Lysak; Xiaowu Wang

    2013-01-01

    .... The availability of several crucifer genome sequences, especially that of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), enables study of the evolution of the mesohexaploid Brassica genomes from their diploid progenitors...

  1. Heterosis for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the direction of heterosis for SOD, POX and CAT activ- ity; and identify promising parents and single cross-hybrids. (SCHs) having better inbuilt defense systems which could be used for breeding antioxidant-rich cabbage. Materials and methods. Sixteen cabbage genotypes (all inbreds) which included five female, viz.

  2. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cabbage, Chinese cabbage, thyme and lettuce. The group's leaders were concerned about the lack of a formal agreement as experience in the area suggested that it was possible for them to lose the land to a farmer who offered a higher rent to the landlord. This sense of insecurity means that the Group loathes investing in ...

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environment Assessment. U.S. Air Force, Space Division Advanced Launch System (ALS) Concept Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    six upland communities: oak scrub, Saw Palmetto scrub, slash pine flatwoods, cabbage palm hammocks, oak-cabbage palm hammock and xeric oak hammock...Psitotun nudum Whisk fern or fork fern T *Rhizophora mamle Red mangrove SP Rhynchosia cinerea Brown- haired snoutbean UR SP Setvinia rotundifolia Water

  4. Heavy Metal Contents in Some Commonly Consumed Vegetables

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    from eight varieties of green vegetables (amaranth, Chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, green pepper, leafy cabbage, lettuce, okra and pumpkin leaf) commonly grown in Dar es Salaam and marketed at Kariakoo, Tanzania. The amount of cadmium and lead ranged between 3-42 and 11-. 60 µg/kg respectively. The amount ...

  5. Heavy metals in green vegetables and soils from vegetable gardens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible portions of five varieties of green vegetables, namely amaranth, chinese cabbage, cowpea leaves, leafy cabbage and pumpkin leaves, collected from several areas in Dar es Salaam, were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper. Except for zinc, the levels of heavy metals in the vegetables ...

  6. determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Spinacea olarecea L. (spinach), Brassica olarecea V. (cabbage), Hibiscus sabdriffa L. and Lactuca ... particularly in areas where animal protein is .... oleracea var (cabbage), Hibiscus sabdriffa linn and Lactuca sativa l. (lettuce) found in Kano metropolis vegetable markets. Iodine %. Moisture %. Dry matter %.

  7. Several methods to detect the inheritance and resistance to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the transgenic plants had only a single copy of the inserted CryIA(c) gene. Leaf section bioassays showed that resistance against larvae of diamondback moth in CryIA(c) transgenic cabbage was significantly enhanced. The inheritance patterns of the transgene in T1 offspring of transgenic cabbage were ...

  8. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  9. Jasmonic acid-induced changes in Brassica oleracea affect oviposition preference of two specialist herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Dam, van N.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a key hormone involved in plant defense responses. The effect of JA treatment of cabbage plants on their acceptability for oviposition by two species of cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, was investigated. Both butterfly species laid fewer eggs on leaves

  10. ß-Glucosidase: an elicitor of herbivore-induced plant odor that attracts host-searching parasitic wasps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiacci, L.; Dicke, M.; Posthumus, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cabbage plants respond to caterpillar (Pieris brassicae) herbivory by releasing a mixture of volatiles that makes them highly attractive to parasitic wasps (Cotesia glomerata) that attack the herbivores. Cabbage leaves that are artificially damaged and subsequently treated with gut regurgitant of P.

  11. A endophytic fungus, Ramichloridium cerophilum , promotes growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fungal endophyte, Ramichloridium cerophilum, was identified as a Class 2 endophytes species obtained from the leaf of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L). This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized Chinese cabbage ...

  12. Variability of characteristics in new experimental hybrids of early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to get a better insight in the variability among the tested hybrids, we have analyzed them for 14 characteristics by the principal component analysis (PCA) method. ... Cabbage characteristics that constitute the first principal component are in fact the main objectives in programs of breeding early maturing cabbage.

  13. Linkage mapping of a dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 in Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

  14. A genome browser database for rice ( Oryza sativa ) and Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have constructed an integrated genome browser database for sequence analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) genomes. The genome browser for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was included to provide the comparative analysis with Chinese cabbage. The genome browser of rice ...

  15. Variability of characteristics in new experimental hybrids of early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... make them recognizable on the market. Key words: Cabbage, head weight, principal component analysis, useful portion. INTRODUCTION. Several experimental early cabbage hybrids have been developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi. Sad, in recent years. The objective was to develop.

  16. Assessment of cobalt levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    spinach, cabbage, tomato and okra) samples collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to ... Technol. availability and scarcity of fresh water. Irrigation ..... le s (mg. /Kg. ) Seasons. Fig. 3: Cobalt Concentration in Vegetables from Kubanni Stream. Channels, Zaria. Carrot. Lettuce. Onion. Spinach. Cabbage. Tomato. Okro ...

  17. Radioactive contamination of foods from fallout as a source of error in some animal experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C.G.

    1957-01-01

    Radioactivity in control animals since 1956 has increased so as to vitiate experiments. The activity of foods used was measured. The counts are given for rat cubes, milk, peas, sugar, flour, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, salt, semolina, and water. The high count of the cabbage is probably from /sup 137/Cs present as 4 micromicrocuries/g.

  18. Jasmonic acid-induced changes in Brassica oleracea affect oviposition preference of two specialist herbivores.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Van Dam, N.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a key hormone involved in plant defense responses. The effect of JA treatment of cabbage plants on their acceptability for oviposition by two species of cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, was investigated. Both butterfly species laid fewer eggs on leaves

  19. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KUBIS MERAH (Brassica oleraceae var. TERHADAP AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN TINGKAT KESUKAAN KONSUMEN PADA BISKUIT TEPUNG BIJI RAMBUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ristiana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seed flour could be utilized as a food especially as source of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Red cabbage could be used as natural food color because of their anthocyanin content. The aims of the research were to investigate the effect of red cabbage to the antioxidant activity and consumer preference of rambutan seed flour biscuit. This research was use completed randomized design with 9 combinations and 2 replications. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was biscuit made by 50 g of rambutan seed flour addition and 20% of red cabbage extract, e.i 19.48 % radical scavenging activity (RSA of DPPH. But biscuit which was most prefere by panel test was only 25 g of rambutan seed flour without any addition of red cabbage extract. Rambutan seed flour and red cabbage addition to the biscuit did affect the antioxidant activity and the consumer preference of the biscuit.

  20. Utilization of natural indicators for borax identification in the Indonesian tofu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbaningtias, Tri Esti; Lestari, Intan Dwi; Wiyantoko, Bayu; Kurniawati, Puji; Sriadryani, Devi

    2017-03-01

    Borax has been found in food products i.e. on the Indonesian Tofu that is often consumed by people. Generally, the identification of borax in food products hard to do by the public. Indicators of natural materials will allow the public to identify the presence of borax in food easier. Qualitative test for borax on Indonesian Tofu showed purple cabbage and sappanwood are the effective natural indicators. The result of determining borax on Indonesian Tofu indicated natural indicator from purple cabbage had the smallest correction factor (with conventional indicators PP) about 4.8%. The results of the validation method for purple cabbage indicator in acid-base titration showed that the purple cabbage indicator is homogenous but unstable. The natural indicators of purple cabbage could not be used again after three days of extraction time based on the results of control chart.

  1. AVALIAÇÃO PARASITOLÓGICA EM LACTUCA SATIVA (ALFACE E BRASSICA OLERACEA L. (COUVE PROCEDENTES DA CEASA NO MUNICÍPIO DE ANÁPOLIS – GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Resende Moura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the occurrence of intestinal parasites of interest to health in vegetables sold in Central de Abastecimento de Goiás S.A (CEASA in the city of Anapolis (GO. Methods: 42 samples of lettuce and cabbage were collected during the second half of January 2012 and submitted to the spontaneous sedimentation technique. Results: There were 11.9% and 14.2% of samples of lettuce and cabbage contaminated respectively. Conclusions: The most prevalent enteroparasites were Endolimax nana (lettuce: 19% and cabbage: 14.2%, Entamoeba coli (lettuce: 0 % and cabbage: 9.2% and Ascaris lumbricoides (lettuce: 4.7% and cabbage: 0 %. Possibly the lack of supervision for observance of compliance with standards for implementation of marketing within the CEASAAnapolis (GO promotes non-compliance with such rules and compromises the quality of products.

  2. Efeito de aditivos no valor nutritivo de silagens feitas com subproduto da extração do palmito de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K. Effect of additives on nutritive value of silages based on palm cabbage production by-products from pupunha (Bactris gasipaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Rodrigues Neto

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi determinar a qualidade e o valor nutritivo de silagens do subproduto da pupunha, produzidas com aditivos, conforme os tratamentos: T1 - Testemunha (sem aditivo; T2 - Adição de 2,5% de açúcar; T3 - Adição de 10,0% de polpa cítrica e T4 - Adição de 10,0% de milho moído, base da matéria natural. Verificou-se que a adição 10% de polpa cítrica (PC ou milho moído (MM elevou o teor de matéria seca da massa a ser ensilada, bem como da silagem, em 6,5 e 8,0 unidades percentuais, respectivamente. Silagens com aditivos apresentaram menores valores de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 / NT e pH. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior para as silagens feitas com PC ou MM, atingindo 85 g/kg PV0,75 ou 2,1% do PV, contra 44,7 g/kgPV0,75 ou 1,12%, para as silagens sem aditivo ou com 2,5% de açúcar. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, também foi superior para as silagens contendo 10% de PC ou MM (65,0% em relação à média das demais (52,0%. A digestibilidade da parede celular não mostrou tendência definida em função dos tratamentos. A silagem de subproduto da pupunha feita com a adição de 10% de polpa cítrica ou milho moído, apresentou valor nutritivo semelhante às silagens de forrageiras convencionais.The objective of this experiment was to evaluated the effect of additives on the quality and nutritive value of silages made with pejibaye palm by-product, according to the following treatments: T1 - Control (without additive; T2 - Addition of 2.5% of sugar; T3 - Addition of 10.0% of citric pulp and T4 - Addition of 10.0% of ground corn, based on natural matter. The use of 10.0% of citric pulp (CP or ground corn (GC increased dry matter content of the by-product prior to ensilage and of the silage by 6,5 and 8,0 percentage units, respectively. The use of additives resulted in smaller values of ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3/TN and pH. Dry matter intake was higher for silage made with CP or GC, mean value of 85.0 g/kgLW0.75 or 2.1% of LW, compared to the others (44.7 g/kgLW0.75 or 1.12% of LW. Also, apparent dry matter digestilibity coefficient was higher for silage containing 10% CP or GC (65.0% in comparison to the others (52.0%. Cell wall digestibility did not show a defined trend as a function of the treatments. Silage made of by-product pejibaye with 10.0% of citrus pulp or ground corn showed a nutritional value similar to conventional forage silages.

  3. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cabbage and carrot minimally processed salad after radiation treatment intended to immunocompromised patients or with special diets; Avaliacao microbiologica, fisico-quimica e sensorial de salada de repolho com cenoura minimamente processada apos o tratamento por radiacao gama destinado a pacientes imunocomprometidos ou com dietas especiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Thaise Cristine Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    During and after the treatment of cancer, people with HIV or transplants, the food intake can offer a well-being to the patient, because the action of eating right helps people to feel strong. Healthy people have their immune system working properly and can tolerate small amounts of bacteria. However, immunocompromised persons may not be able to and however immunocompromised people cannot fight this small amount of microorganisms and require a diet with very low microbiological count to avoid contact with potentially harmful bacteria. This is called neutropenic diet. These patients are susceptible to food contamination, so that it's not advisable the ingestion of raw products. The vegetable irradiation with low doses has the purpose of reducing the microbial load. The aim of this study was to obtain data on microbiological, sensorial e physicochemical aspects in minimally processed 'Primavera' salad irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation designed to immunocompromised patients. It were used doses of 1.0kGy, 2.0kGy, 3.0kGy and 4.0kGy irradiated in the Multipurpose Irradiator {sup 60}Co located in Radiation Technology Center. Microbiological analyzes were performed (n=25) using Petrifilm, sensory analysis using the sensory acceptance test (n=30) and triangular (n=15) and texture analysis (n=90) in the Food Microbiology Laboratory located at the Radiation Technology Center. The texture analysis was performed with the aid of a texturometer equipped with 5 kg load cell using a triangular cutting Warner-Bratzler Knife blade probe with the descent speed of 2mm/sec. All results were expressed in Newtons (N). The results showed that for microbiological analyzes the standards were followed according to the RDC 12/01 ANVISA. For the sensory test of acceptation no difference was found among the samples, however in the triangular test could be found slight differences between samples irradiated with 4.0kGy and control and there was significant difference among the sample, showing that the sample of 3.0kGy would be indicate for this specific public. It can be concluded that for a neutropenic diet the suggested dose is 2.0kGy. (author)

  4. Efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae sobre o controle de Brevicoryne brassicae em couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala Extracts effect of wild plants of the Solanaceae family on Brevicoryne brassicae control in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. acephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Braga Lovatto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi testar o efeito de extratos de plantas silvestres da família Solanaceae disponíveis na região do Vale do Rio Pardo, RS, sobre o pulgão-da-couve (Brevicoryne brassicae, praga agrícola de significativa importância. Nove espécies tóxicas de Solanaceae estão disponíveis na região de estudo: seis pertencem ao gênero Solanum, uma ao gênero Brugmansia e duas são cultivadas e pertencem ao gênero Nicotiana e Capsicum. A fim de determinar a capacidade de repelência e o efeito inseticida, foram testadas as seguintes espécies: B. suaveolens (trombeteira, C. annuum var. variegated (pimenta-de-jardim, N. tabacum var. virginia (fumo, S. aculeatissimum (joá-bravo, S. americanum (erva-moura, S. diflorum (tomatinho, S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (jurubeba, S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum (jurubeba e S. sisymbriifolium (arrebenta-cavalo. Para obtenção dos extratos foram utilizadas folhas, flores e frutos aplicando-se duas técnicas distintas de elaboração: decocção do material fresco e extração a frio do material seco. Quanto à capacidade de repelência dos extratos, os tratamentos utilizando material fresco de S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração e S. diflorum (frutos verdes e maduros, 2,5% e 5% de concentração demonstraram maior eficácia. Nos testes sobre a biologia do inseto os tratamentos mais eficazes como inseticida foram S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum e var. acicularium (folhas a 10% de concentração.The objective of this study was to test the effect of plant extracts from Solanaceae available in Vale do Rio Pardo region, RS, on the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae, agricultural pest of significant importance. Nine toxic Solanaceae species are available in the area of study: six are wild belonging to the genus Solanum, one to the genus Brugmansia, and two are cultivated and belong to the genus Nicotiana and Capsicum. To determine the repellency capacity and the insecticide effect, the following species were tested: B. suaveolens (trombeteira, C. annuum var. variegated (pimenta-de-jardim, N. tabacum var. virginia (fumo, S. aculeatissimum (joá-bravo, S. americanum (erva-moura, S. diflorum (tomatinho, S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (jurubeba, S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum (jurubeba and S. sisymbriifolium (arrebenta-cavalo. The extracts were obtained from leaves, flowers and fruits applying two different extraction techniques: infusion of fresh material and cold extraction of dry material. Regarding the repellency of the extracts, the treatments using fresh material of S. fastigiatum var. acicularium (green and ripe fruits, 2.5% and 5% concentrations and S. diflorum (green and ripe fruits, 2.5% and 5% concentrations had the highest effectiveness. The most effective treatments as insecticides affecting survival and reproduction were S. fastigiatum var. fastigiatum and var. acicularium (leaves, 10% concentration.

  5. Isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables: kinetics, biomarkers and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables like cabbages, broccoli, mustard and cress, have been reported to be beneficial for human health. They contain glucosinolates, which are hydrolysed into isothiocyanates that have shown anticarcinogenic properties in animal experiments. To study the bioavailability, kinetics

  6. Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fruits, like oranges cantaloupe strawberries tomatoes broccoli cabbage kiwi fruit sweet red peppers previous continue Vitamin D ... leafy green vegetables dairy products, like milk and yogurt broccoli soybean oil When your body gets this ...

  7. Taking warfarin (Coumadin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and raw green cabbage Endive, lettuce, spinach, parsley, watercress, garlic, and scallions (green onions) ... 35. Kager L, Evans WE. Pharmacogenomics and hematologic diseases. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, Silberstein LE, Heslop ...

  8. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when they eat or drink certain foods or beverages, including wheat, dairy products, citrus fruits, beans, cabbage, ... by tightening the muscles in your feet, then concentrate on slowly letting all of the tension go. ...

  9. Sulforaphane composition, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of crucifer vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur compounds in sulphur rich food have been shown to significantly reduce the risk of cancer development. One such compound is sulforaphane (SF, a cancer chemopreventive agent identified in broccoli (F. cruciferae. In this study, SF content was assessed in extracts of several crucifer vegetables including broccoli, brussels sprout, green cabbage, red cabbage, Chinese kale and turnip, in parallel with anticancer and antioxidant activity. Among tested crucifers, cabbage demonstrated a pronounced anticancer effect against A-549 lung cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 38 μg mL−1, and correlated with high SF levels at 540 μg g−1. Except for red cabbage and kale, crucifer extracts displayed moderate to weak activity in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH free radicals relative to vitamin E standard.

  10. PESQUISA DE PARASITOS EM ALFACE E COUVE PROVENIENTES DE FEIRAS DA REGIÃO CENTRAL E SUAS MEDIAÇÕES NA CIDADE DE ANÁPOLIS-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Resende Moura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the parasitological quality of vegetables lettuce (Lactuca sativa and cabbage (Brassica oleracea marketed by 28 stalls divided into four exhibitions located in central and mediations in the city of Anápolis-GO. Methods: A total of 28 samples of lettuce and 28 samples of cabbage by spontaneous sedimentation techniques and Craig. Results: We obtained 16% contamination by intestinal parasites in 56 samples. Lettuce showed greater contamination (25% and cabbage showed contamination of 7.1%. The enteroparasite more prevalent among the lettuce was Entamoeba coli (17.8%; on cabbage samples, as well as Entamoeba coli (3.5%, we found Ascaris lumbricoides (3.5%. Conclusions: Probably the presence of these enteroparasito can be related to a low hygienic standard in some management steps of greenery. There is a clear need to increase health education of vegetable handlers and improving the quality of water used in these vegetable crops processes.

  11. Comparison of Ascorbic Acid Content of some Selected Fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cucumber, Cabbage, Spinach and Tomatoes) sourced from Yankaba market, Kano state. Colorimetric method was used for the determination. The ascorbic acid content in the ... helps the body absorb iron from plant foods. (Chopra and Kanwar ...

  12. Assessment of cobalt levels in wastewater, soil and vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okra) samples collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results show cobalt levels in wastewater were in the range of ...

  13. Genetics, chemistry and ecology of a qualitative glucosinolate polymorphism in Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leur, H.

    2008-01-01

    Like many other plants, chemical defence compounds are involved in the defense of Barbarea vulgaris against natural enemies. Barbarea vulgaris produces glucosinolates, which are present in most crucifers such as cabbage, mustard, and the scientific model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Glucosinolates

  14. Fabrication and characterization of dye-sensitized solar cells based on natural plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peng; Yang, Dingyu; Zhu, Xinghua; Sun, Hui; Li, Jitao

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated based on natural dyes extracting from carrot, mulberry, purple cabbage, potato, and grapes. The ultraviolet-visible spectra suggested purple cabbage and mulberry possess better absorption at 300-550 nm. The solar cells using purple cabbage as dye achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.162% with short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 0.621 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.541 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.484. The Infrared spectra revealed the bond of Osbnd H, Csbnd C, Csbnd O, Csbnd H were existed in purple cabbage. Finally, the optimal extraction time of dyes is also presented.

  15. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  16. Calcium and Iron Levels in Some Fruits and Vegetables Commonly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Cabbage, Pepper, Spinach, and Tomato) in each case were analysed for their Calcium and iron levels using spectrophotometric method of analysis; From the results, it was found that the concentration of Calcium was highest in spinach ...

  17. Sample Set (SE): SE10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10 Effect of phosphorus nutrition for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassi...ca oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (high, low and no phosphorus nutrition

  18. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chronic illness creates. Medical bills can strain family finances; in some cases, a parent or guardian may ... strawberries blueberries raspberries pineapple cabbage boiled cauliflower mustard greens uncooked broccoli High-potassium fruits and vegetables include ...

  19. Sample Set (SE): SE26 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26 Effect of compost for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassica oleracea v...ar. capitata YR Seisyun leaf metabolites. 2 growth conditions (with or without 6t compost treatment) and 3 r

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... a result, blood pressure goes down. Central Acting Agents: Act in the brain to decrease nerve signals ...

  1. The 5′-UTR of Turnip yellow mosaic virus does not include a critical encapsidation signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shin, Hyun-Il; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Dreher, Theo W; Cho, Tae-Ju

    2009-01-01

    .... We have examined the role of the 5'-UTR in the amplification and packaging of TYMV RNA using agroinfiltration of Chinese cabbage leaves to express various TYMV constructs with mutations affecting...

  2. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as some fruits). Some foods are gas producing (e.g., beans, cabbage, legumes, cauliflower, broccoli, lentils, ... supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical ...

  3. Determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of iodine content of some commonly utilized leafy vegetables: Spinacea oleracea Linn (spinach), Brassica oleracea Var (cabbage), Hibiscus sabdriffa Linn and Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) found in Kano metropolis vegetable markets.

  4. Assessment of iron concentrations in wastewater, soil and vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples that were collected on seasonal basis from January, 2013 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed iron levels in wastewater were in the ...

  5. Community structure of actively growing bacterial populations in plant pathogen suppressive soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjort, K.; Lembke, A.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Smalla, K.; Jansson, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bacterial community in soil was screened by using various molecular approaches for bacterial populations that were activated upon addition of different supplements. Plasmodiophora brassicae spores, chitin, sodium acetate, and cabbage plants were added to activate specific bacterial populations

  6. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pressure. The DASH eating plan focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods that are heart ... such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and carrots Legumes, such ...

  7. Shortness of Breath and Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turnips beans (pinto, kidney, black, navy) cabbage cucumbers onions (raw) radishes sausage broccoli carbonated drinks melons peas ( ... Steroids and Nutrition Proper Hydration Reflux and Lung Disease Sodium Dangers Plant-Based Diets Why Breakfast Matters ...

  8. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  9. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  10. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  11. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  13. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  14. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Whole grains Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and prunes Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, ... ACE inhibitors block this process, which stops the production of Angiotensin II, lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin II ...

  16. Eldercare at Home: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avoid foods that produce gas such as beans, raw vegetables, raw fruits, broccoli, corn, cabbage, cauliflower, carbonated drinks, and ... DTM or DesitinTM . Carrying Out and Adjusting Your Plan : Problems You Might Have Carrying Out Your Plan ...

  17. Goiter - simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soy, peanuts, vegetables in the broccoli and cabbage family) Toxic nodular goiter, an enlarged thyroid gland that has a small, rounded growth or many growths called nodules, which ... People over age 40 People with a family history of goiter Women

  18. Saw Palmetto

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American dwarf palm tree, cabbage palm Latin Name: Serenoa repens, Serenoa serrulata, Sabal serrulata Background Saw palmetto is a ... Agbabiaka TB, Pittler MH, Wider B, et al. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse ...

  19. Role of female-produced sex pheromone in behavioral reproductive isolation betweenTrichoplusia ni (Hübner) andPseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, plusiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Heath, R R

    1987-05-01

    In laboratory flight tunnel bioassays, response rates of male cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), to female soybean looper,Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were similar to response rates of maleT. ni to conspecific females for plume tracking and source contact. Male soybean loopers, however, exhibited a greatly reduced response to female cabbage loopers compared to conspecific females. Similar differences were observed in male responses to extracts of female abdominal tips. Studies of flight tunnel responses of male soybean loopers to the different chemicals known to be components of the female cabbage looper sex pheromone indicated that the reduction in response was due to inhibitory effects of (Z)-5-dodecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, when added singly to (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate (major component of both species) at release rates and at ratios close to those observed in female cabbage loopers.

  20. Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not eat raw leafy vegetables (e.g. lettuce, spinach, cabbage) because they are hard to clean. Do ... to 10 glasses of clear fluids every day. Water or an oral rehydration solution is best. Drink ...

  1. Historic Archaeology of the Johnson (41DN248) and Jones (41DN250) Farmsteads in the Ray Roberts Lake Area: 1850-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-15

    garden. Garden crops included onions, cabbage, tomatoes, potatoes, squash, lettuce, cabbage, and okra . Families also had orchards, collected wild fruits...with the exception of Feature 12, also exhibited fewer burned t-lements. The diagnostic bottle glass in Feature 11 was mostly medicinal/ extract , followed...sherds). Data on vessel type for the bottle glass indicates that the majority of the identified bottle sherds were from medicine and/or extract 0 115

  2. Baseline growth and reproductive parameters in Lymnaea stagnalis for OECD test guideline development: optimization of diets and culturing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Tom

    guideline. Therefore, we have evaluated other diets based on a review of the published literature and report here the results for different feeds: namely, cabbage leaves, fish flakes, lettuce leaves or sliced sweet potato. For the feeding trial, 5 snails (shell size ca. 2.6 cm) were held in 1 L freshwater...... (sweet potato>cabbage leave diets (0.03 mm/snail/day). Similarly, in a 56-d ring-test study with 7 laboratories, the lettuce diet gave...

  3. Jasmonic acid-induced changes in Brassica oleracea affect oviposition preference of two specialist herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Bruinsma, M; Dam, van, J.T.P.; Loon, van, C.D.; Dicke, M

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a key hormone involved in plant defense responses. The effect of JA treatment of cabbage plants on their acceptability for oviposition by two species of cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, was investigated. Both butterfly species laid fewer eggs on leaves of JA-treated plants compared to control plants. We show that this is due to processes in the plant after JA treatment rather than an effect of JA itself. The oviposition preference for control pla...

  4. The Prisoners of War Experiences and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    rotten cabbage or seaweed varieties, and in the summer sewer greens--little green shoots that grew around sewers. These were thrown on top of the soup ...was safe. We were also fortunate that our food was always cooked. The normal fare consisted of six months of pumpkin soup , four months of cabbage soup ...POWs, however, realized the meager diet at least provided some basic nourishment. Navy Captain Howie Rutledge stated, Our food was basically the same

  5. KADAR SIANIDA DALAM SAYURAN DAN UMBI-UMBIAN DI DAERAH GANGGUAN AKIBAT KURANG YODIUM (GAKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ance Mudiana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyanida Contents of Vegetables and Tubers In Areas of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.Background: Thiocyanate goitrogenic shows different ways to prevent iodium absorption by thyroid gland. Thiocyanate is a result of detocification from cyanide content in food which occurs in the body then is excreted through urine. Cyanide is generally found in cabbage, cassava, bamboo shoot, chinese cabbage and "slada air/jembak".

  6. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony) may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endiv...

  7. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of selected Irish Brassica vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Rajauria, Gaurav; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Gupta, Shilpi

    2011-09-01

    Vegetables belonging to the Brassicaceae family are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and glucosinolates, and their hydrolysis products, which may have antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In the present study, phenolic composition, antibacterial activity and antioxidant capacity of selected Brassica vegetables, including York cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and white cabbage were evaluated after extraction with aqueous methanol. Results obtained showed that York cabbage extract had the highest total phenolic content, which was 33.5, followed by 23.6, 20.4 and 18.4 mg GAE/g of dried weight (dw) of the extracts for broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. All the vegetable extracts had high flavonoid contents in the order of 21.7, 17.5, 15.4 and 8.75 mg QE/g of extract (dw) for York cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that different vegetables contain a mixture of distinct groups of phenolic compounds. All the extracts studied showed a rapid and concentration dependent antioxidant capacity in diverse antioxidant systems. The antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. York cabbage extract exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes (100%) and Salmonella abony (94.3%), being the most susceptible at a concentration of 2.8%, whereas broccoli, Brussels sprouts and white cabbage had moderate to weak activity against all the test organisms. Good correlation (r2 0.97) was found between total phenolic content obtained by spectrophotometric analysis and the sum of the individual polyphenols monitored by HPLC-DAD.

  8. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  9. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, D S; Kfir, R; Vet, L E M; Dicke, M

    2005-10-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval behaviour. At higher doses the extracts showed feeding deterrent activity, with larvae preferring the untreated sides of cabbage leaves and consuming less of the treated half of cabbage leaves. The botanical insecticides had less of an effect on the oviposition behaviour of P. xylostella moths. In laboratory and glasshouse trials, significantly fewer eggs were oviposited on the plants that had been treated with syringa extracts. Therefore, the syringa extracts appear to have a repellent effect. In contrast, when exposed to the neem extracts the moths did not discriminate between control plants and treated plants. Behavioural observation indicated that, despite the lower number of eggs oviposited on cabbage treated with syringa extracts, the moths chose cabbage treated with the highest dose of syringa more often than they chose control cabbage plants. Similar observations were found in cabbage plants treated with neem, moths chose the medium dose more often than they chose the control. Oviposition and feeding deterrent properties are important factors in pest control, and results from this study indicate that botanical insecticides have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for P. xylostella in South Africa.

  10. Effects of digestate solid fraction fertilisation on yield and soil carbon dioxide emission in a horticulture succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomical and environmental effects of digestate solid fraction (DSF used as fertiliser in a vegetable crop succession (green bean, savoy cabbage, cabbage and cauliflower in Northeast Italy (45°20’ N; 11°57’ E. Three fertilisation treatments were tested using DSF to substitute 0% (Tmin, 50% (T50 and 100% (T100 optimal level of mineral nitrogen fertilisation. The experiment was carried out from 22nd May 2014 (green bean sowing to 3rd June 2015 (cabbage harvest. Summer and spring crops did not show significantly different marketable yield among fertilisation treatments with an average value (±standard error of 9.0±0.5, 9.9±1.2 and 51.3±6.4 Mg ha–1 for green bean, cauliflower and cabbage, respectively. Lower DSF fertilisation effect was monitored on winter crop (savoy cabbage with a marketable yield reduction of -35.1% than mineral fertilisation (25.9 Mg ha–1, whereas the T50 treatment was not significantly different compared to the two previous ones. Crop species significantly influenced the N use efficiencies with negative recovery and use efficiency indexes for the DSF fertilisation treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were not significantly influenced by fertilisation in all studied crops with median values always lower than 1 g m–2 h–1.

  11. Research on possibilities of utilization of chosen Brassicaceae plants in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Fusarium culmorum (W.G.SmithSacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew J. Burgieł

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to determine the usefulness of dried leaves of savoy cabbage, red cabbage, horse radish and fringed cabbage in protection of cucumber against damping-off caused by fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium culmorum. In the laboratory experiments, pathogens were grown on PDA containing dried leaves (3g·100 cm-3 and in atmosphere containing volatile substances evolved from plant material. The addition of radish horse leaves into PDA caused total inhibition of R. solani development. Remaining plants were also characterized by high fungistatic activity (% of growth inhibition about 85%. F. culmorum was less sensitive. The horse radish leaves showed the strongest activity (65 %, weakest in combination with fringed cabbage leaves (38,9%. The similar regularity in the case of fumigation activity was observed. The effectiveness of dried leaves in protection of cucumber against damping-off was confirmed in greenhouse experiment. The amendment of soil inoculated with R. solani in dose 2 g per 500 cm3 of soil significantly increased the number of cucumber sprouts compared to the control. In the experiment with F. culmorum only in combination with horse radish and red cabbage leaves significant action was observed.

  12. LEVANTAMENTO DA INTENSIDADE DA PODRIDÃOMOLE EM ALFACE E COUVE-CHINESA EM PERNAMBUCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Márcio Freire Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of the intensity of soft rot in plantations of lettuce and Chinese cabbage were performed from January to May 2004 in mesoregions of the Mata and Agreste of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Disease prevalence of 42.9% was observed in lettuce and 100% in Chinese cabbage. The incidence of soft rot ranged from 0 to 22% in lettuce and 1 to 67% in Chinese cabbage. In lettuce higher intensity of soft rot was observed in areas with more than 17 years of cultivation; planted with cultivars "Cacheada", "Elba" and "Tainá"; with clay soil type; irrigated by hosing; and having poor drainage. Lower disease intensity was detected in areas of cultivars "Verdinha" and "Salad Bowl"; when coriander was the previous crop; and when seedlings wereproduced in trays. In Chinese cabbage higher intensity of soft rot was found in areas having more than 10 years of cultivation, and in plantations with more than 50 days of growth. The sole subspecies detected causing soft rot in all areas of lettuce and Chinese cabbage was Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum.

  13. The utilization of Vallisneria aethiopica, Brassica oleracea and Pennisetum clandestinum by Tilapia rendalli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, S. N.; Moyo, N. A. G.

    A common lawn grass; kikuyu grass, an abundant vegetable; cabbage and vallisneria a common macrophyte were tested for utilisation by two size classes of a herbivorous fish, Tilapia rendalli held in glass aquarium tanks. The test feeds were given to sub-adult T. rendalli for 133 days at 8% body weight and juvenile fish for 84 days at 15% body weight. Sub-adult and juvenile fish fed kikuyu grass attained a higher specific growth rate, higher protein efficiency ratio and better food conversion ratio than those fed cabbage and vallisneria. This is explained by the differences in the protein content, higher levels of lysine and the sulphur-containing amino acid, methionine in kikuyu grass. Palatability studies of the juveniles also showed that kikuyu was most preferred. However, sub-adults preferred vallisneria, kikuyu and cabbage respectively. The possible reasons for the selection are discussed.

  14. Sauerkraut and sauerkraut juice fermented spontaneously using mineral salt, garlic and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. WIANDER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of mineral salt in natural fermentation of white cabbage into sauerkraut and sauerkraut juice, in order to evaluate whether the amount of NaCl could be lowered, was studied. Mineral salt differs from ordinary salt because NaCl is partially replaced by KCl. In the fermentations mineral salt was used in various amounts (0.8–1.5% and in combination with garlic and algae. The final NaCl concentrations in these fermentation trials were 0.5–0.9%. Fermentations were also carried out with cabbage sliced to different degrees. The sauerkraut juice fermented by using 0.8% mineral salt (0.5% NaCl was found to have the best sensory quality. The yield of sauerkraut juice increased as the coarseness of the cabbage mix decreased.;

  15. Les principaux ravageurs des choux pommés [Brassica oleracea var capitata subs sabouda à Bukavu et ses environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walangululu, JM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Major Pests of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata subs sabouda in Bukavu and Around. As stated by farmers growing vegetables and as observed on local markets, cabbage in Bukavu and around is damaged by pests. The present work was intended to identify pests damaging this crop, which is now a cash crop in this region, in order to design control methods. Results revealed that one aphid species (Brevicoryne brassicaej, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum and some Caterpillar species (Plutella xylostella, Hellula undalis, Spodoptera exempta and Trichoplusia ni are major pests causing a loss of plantlets estimated from 0 to 53.8 %, mainly one month after planting. Damage on the first five leaves of the head of cabbage, estimated from 3.5 to 55.8 % of plants were attributed to sporadic pests as the tobacco cricket (Brachytrupes mem-branaceus, the common cutworm (Agrotis segetum, chickens, some grasshoppers, snails and a tortoise beetle species (Henosepilachna elateris.

  16. [Antimutagenic activity of vegetable and fruit extracts against in-vitro benzo(a)pyrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenharder, R; John, K; Ivo-Boor, H

    1990-03-01

    About 80% of the juices from twenty vegetables and fruits showed antimutagenic activity when tested in the presence of the mutagen and carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene using the Ames' Salmonella/microsome assay. In a standardized test system juices from raw celeriac, broccoli, red cabbage, carrots, green, peppers, lettuce, asparagus, apricots, red-currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and pineapple showed more than 50% inhibition. Leek, kohlrabi, cucumber, zucchini, French beans, fennel leaves, rhubarb, and sweet cherries were less effective. No antimutagenic activity was detected in onions, Chinese cabbage, radish, and white cabbage. Cooking considerably reduced the antimutagenic activity of celeriac, leek, broccoli, French beans, carrots, asparagus, cherries, and pineapple, but was ineffective or only moderately effective with kohlrabi, zucchini, cucumber, fennel leaves, lettuce, apricots, red-currants, gooseberries, and raspberries.

  17. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis irrigated with low quality water in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mhongole, Ofred J.; Mdegela, Robinson H.; Kusiluka, Lughano J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low quality water has become valuable resource with restricted or unrestricted use in food production depending on its quality. This study has quantified the occurrence of Escherichia coli in Brassica rapa L. chinensis (Chinese cabbage) vegetables and low quality irrigation water. A total of 106...... samples including Chinese cabbage (69) and water (37) were collected. The E. coli were cultured in petri film selective E. coli plates at 44°C. The Chinese cabbage irrigated with river water at Fungafunga area indicated significantly (P... than those irrigated with treated wastewater at Mazimbu 10% (n=48, 0.00-1.36 log cfu/g). The mean counts of E. coli in untreated wastewater ranged from 4.59 to 5.56 log cfu/mL, while in treated wastewater was from 0.54 to 1.05 log cfu/mL and in river water it was 2.40 log cfu/mL. Treated wastewater...

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Juices Prepared from Individual Vegetables on CYP3A4 Activity in Recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Agawa, Chie; Ueda, Shinya; Yamane, Takayoshi; Kitayama, Haruna; Terao, Aya; Fukuda, Tomoya; Minegaki, Tetsuya; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2017-01-01

    Human intestinal absorption and drug metabolism vary to a large extent among individuals. For example, CYP3A4 activity has large individual variation that cannot be attributed to only genetic differences. Various flavonoids in vegetables, such as kaempferol and quercetin, possess inhibitory effects, and some vegetable and fruit juices have also been found to inhibit CYP3A4 activity. Therefore, differences in daily intake of flavonoid-containing vegetables may induce individual variation in intestinal bioavailability. To identify a vegetable that strongly inhibits CYP3A4, we investigated the effects of juices, prepared from individual vegetables, on CYP3A4 activity using recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 cells in this study. Nine vegetable juices (cabbage, Japanese radish, onion, tomato, eggplant, carrot, Chinese cabbage, green pepper, and lettuce), were prepared and recombinant CYP3A4 and LS180 cells were used for evaluation of CYP3A4 activity. Metabolism to 6β-hydroxytestosterone by recombinant CYP3A4 was strongly inhibited by cabbage, onion, and green pepper juices, and cabbage and green pepper juices significantly inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a preincubation time-dependent manner. In addition, CYP3A4 activity in LS180 cells was significantly inhibited by cabbage and onion juices. In conclusion, this study showed that juices prepared from some individual vegetables could significantly inhibit CYP3A4 activity. Therefore, variation in the daily intake of vegetables such as cabbage and onion may be one of the factors responsible for individual differences in intestinal bioavailability.

  19. HERBAL INDICATORS AS AN UPCOMING TREND IN TITREMETRIC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sidana Jaspreet; Arora Kanika; Nain Parminder; Deswal Geeta

    2011-01-01

    Indicators are very special chemicals, they will change color of the solution with change in pH by adding acid or alkali. Red cabbage is actually blue in color. It will be quite blue when slice it up and add some tap water but if we add some vinegar it will turn red. This is due to the pigment present in red cabbage which acts as pH indicator. The aim of this study is to investigate the activity of flower pigments extracts to replace the synthetic indicators. Synthetic indicator produces chem...

  20. Ethylene, light, and anthocyanin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craker, L E; Wetherbee, P J

    1973-03-01

    Ethylene control of anthocyanin formation functions only through light-initiated synthesis pathways of the rapid synthesis phase. Treatment with ethylene in the dark had no effect on dark anthocyanin synthesis in red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). Pretreatment of both red cabbage and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) with ethylene for 24 hours in the dark did increase the rate of synthesis when the tissue was placed in the light. Light-initiated anthocyanin synthesis is inhibited by ethylene when the tissue is returned to the dark.