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Sample records for cabbage white butterfly

  1. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an ovipos

  2. Robustness of the Bacterial Community in the Cabbage White Butterfly Larval Midgut

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Courtney J; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of commun...

  3. Quorum-sensing signals in the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut

    OpenAIRE

    Borlee, Bradley R; Geske, Grant D.; Robinson, Courtney J.; Blackwell, Helen E.; Handelsman, Jo

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to examine the role of quorum-sensing (QS) signals in a multispecies microbial community. Toward this aim, we studied QS signals produced by an indigenous member and an invading pathogen of the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly (CWB) larval midgut (Pieris rapae). As an initial step, we characterized the QS system in Pantoea CWB304, which was isolated from the larval midgut. A luxI homolog, designated panI, is necessary for the production of ...

  4. Robustness of the bacterial community in the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Courtney J; Schloss, Patrick; Ramos, Yolied; Raffa, Kenneth; Handelsman, Jo

    2010-02-01

    Microbial communities typically vary in composition and structure over space and time. Little is known about the inherent characteristics of communities that govern various drivers of these changes, such as random variation, changes in response to perturbation, or susceptibility to invasion. In this study, we use 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences to describe variation among bacterial communities in the midguts of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) larvae and examine the influence of community structure on susceptibility to invasion. We compared communities in larvae experiencing the same conditions at different times (temporal variation) or fed different diets (perturbation). The most highly represented phylum was Proteobacteria, which was present in all midgut communities. The observed species richness ranged from six to 15, and the most abundant members affiliated with the genera Methylobacteria, Asaia, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Pantoea. Individual larvae subjected to the same conditions at the same time harbored communities that were highly similar in structure and membership, whereas the communities observed within larval populations changed with diet and over time. In addition, structural changes due to perturbation coincided with enhanced susceptibility to invasion by Enterobacter sp. NAB3R and Pantoea stewartii CWB600, suggesting that resistance to invasion is in part governed by community structure. These findings along with the observed conservation of membership at the phylum level, variation in structure and membership at lower taxonomic levels, and its relative simplicity make the cabbage white butterfly larval community an attractive model for studying community dynamics and robustness. PMID:19924467

  5. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 protein from white cabbage butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Marimuthu, Satheesh Kumar; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar; Zhang, Wenqing; Subramanian, Selvi

    2016-06-01

    In this study, caspase-dependent apoptosis-inducing pierisin-5 gene was identified and characterized from cabbage white butterfly, Pieris canidia. A thousand-fold increase in expression of pierisin-5 gene was observed from second to third instar larvae, gradually decreasing before pupation. Pierisin-5 was purified from the fifth-instar larvae and was found to exhibit cytotoxicity against HeLa and HepG2 human cancer cell lines. Pierisin-5 showed growth inhibition and several morphological changes such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and apoptotic body formation with programmed cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was observed after gel electrophoresis analysis. Caspase substrate assay showed further cleavage of Ac-DEVD-pNA, suggesting the activation of Caspase-3. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in cancer cell lines treated with pierisin-5. These findings suggest that pierisin-5 could significantly induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines and is mediated by activation of caspase-3 in the mitochondrial pathway. Phylogenetic analysis using pierisin proteins from Pierid butterflies, ADP-ribosylating toxins from bacteria, human, rat, and mouse indicated the possibility of horizontal transfer of pierisin genes from bacteria to butterflies. The single copy of pierisin gene unlike other insect toxin genes also supports lateral transfer. PMID:26812112

  6. Egg laying of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae on Arabidopsis thaliana affects subsequent performance of the larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Geiselhardt

    Full Text Available Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant--herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants. Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2 , a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content.

  7. Study on the Effect of Allylisothiocyanate Formulations on Three Lepidopterous Insect Larvae, the Diamond Back Moth, Plutella xylostella (L., the Small Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae (L. and Tobacco Cut Worm, Spodoptera litura Fabr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Eltayeb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The toxicity of seven of Allylisothiocyanate (AITC formulations, AITC pure and in mixture with cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, was evaluated using spray application and fumigation method against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., the small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae (L. and the tobacco cut worm, Spodoptera litura Fabr. Approach: Response varied according to insect species, specific formulation and AITC application rates. Results: Fumigant toxicity of the oil based on 9 h exposure was evaluated against the three insect larvae, the diamond back moth, P. xylostella larvae were more susceptible followed by tobacco cut worm, S. litura and cabbage white, P. rapae larvae. To P. xylostella larvae, LC50 value was 1.5 µL L-1 air, S. litura larvae (LC50, 1.8 µL L-1 air and P. rapae larvae (LC50, 2.0 µL L-1 air. These three insect larvae were killed after 9 h exposure to a dose of 4.3 µL L-1 air of the oil, showed no significance difference with that of phosphine (40 µg L-1 air a recommended dose. On the other hand, on the spray application bioassays, mortality data counted 72h after treatment, the P. rapae larvae were most susceptible to AITC formulations followed by S. litura larvae and P. xylostella larvae. LC50 values, to P. xylostella larvae, HJ(A and HJ(B were the most potent toxicant (33 mg L -1 and (46 mg L-1 respectively, while the least toxic was HJ(C (556 mg L-1. To S. litura larvae, HJ(B and HJ(A were the most efficient (10 mg L-1 and (22 mg L-1 respectively, while HJ(D (LC50, 385 mg L-1 was found to be the least toxic. The both of HJ (B and HJ (C had similar insecticidal activity (LC50, 8 mg L-1 to Pieris rapae larvae followed by HD (B (LC50, 22 mg L-1 and HD (A (LC50, 82 mg L-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was concluded that the AITC oil showed promise findings and may be a good alternative to old fumigant “phosphine”. The others were found efficient on the spray application bioassays but the

  8. Cultivar Selection and Pest Control Techniques on Organic White Cabbage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile V. STOLERU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, as in many other countries, white cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crop species. The experiment was performed in the NE of the country during 2008-2009 in order to measure the impact of cultivar choice and pest control techniques on organic white cabbage [Brassica oleracea (L. var. capitata f. alba (D.C.]. This experiment included early, summer and autumn crops. The early crop compared four cultivars, the summer crop two cultivars, and the autumn crop three cultivars. The effect of various common organic pest control techniques was also measured. These techniques included: treatments with extract from neem (Azadirachta indica, potassium soap, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki toxins, application of a parasitic wasp (Trichogramma evanescens and covering the crop with an agrotextile. Data were collected regarding the effect of cultivar selection and pest control technique on common local cabbage pests: cabbage flea beetle (Phyllotreta atra, cabbage fly (Delia brassicae, cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae and cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. The highest yields for each respective growing season were obtained using the following combinations: Flavius agrotextile (early crop, Copenhagen Market agrotextile + 4 lha-1 azadirachtin + 12104 wasps/ha (summer crop and Buzau 4 lha-1 azadirachtin (autumn crop.

  9. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Shanks; Senthilarasu, S.; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-01-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficie...

  10. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  11. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of cadmium-treated white cabbage plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borek M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technique is a valuable tool to study the impact of heavy metal stress in plants. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of Cd on photosynthetic apparatus of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata f. alba plants. Two cabbage cultivars ‘Ditmarska Najwcześniejsza’ (‘DN’; early and ‘Amager Polana’ (‘AP’; late were used. Cd was applied before planting seedlings (10 mg Cd kg−1 DM of soil.. Measurements were performed at the 3rd leaf after 2 weeks of planting. The level of Cd-induced stress to plants was estimated by chlorophyll (Chl content (photometrically and analyses of images and numeric values of the major fluorescence parameters of Chl (Chl fluorescence imaging system FluorCam. Cd negatively affected the chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm, Fv’/Fm’, Φ PSII and qP in leaves of early cultivar of white cabbage. However, in the case of late cv. we did not observe such distinct changes. It suggests that late cultivars. are more resistant to Cd than the early ones. Considering methodological aspect of the study, Chl fluorescence imaging can better reveal some alterations within the leaf, because numeric values of specific parameters, which are the averaged data collected from the whole leaf, cannot reflect the tissue specificity. Abbreviations: HM – heavy metal, Cd – cadmium, Chl – chlorophyll, Fv/Fm – photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark-adapted state, F‘v’/F‘m’ – PSII maximum efficiency, Φ PSII – quantum efficiency of PSII electron transport, NPQ – nonphotochemical quenching of maximal Chl fluorescence, qP – photochemical quenching coefficient.

  12. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  13. Organic farming systems benefit biodiversity and natural pest regulation in white cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Eilenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Natural regulation of cabbage root flies works well in experimental organic cropping systems of white cabbage. Low input and complex organic systems benefit functional biodiversity by providing good living conditions to several groups of natural enemies. Intercropped green manure benefits large predators while small predatory beetles favour low input organic systems with bare soil between crop rows.

  14. Geographic expansion of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae)and the evolution of highly UV-reflecting females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuya Fukano; Toshiyuki Satoh; Tadao Hirota; Yudai Nishide; Yoshiaki Obara

    2012-01-01

    Reflection ofultraviolet (UV) light by the wings of the female Eurasian cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae,shows a large geographic variation.The wings of the female of the European subspecies,P rapae rapae,reflect little UV light,while butterflies of the Asian subspecies,P.rapae crucivora,may reflect it strongly or at only intermediate levels.The geographic region where P.rapae originated remains to be determined.Moreover,it is not clear if females with wings that reflect little UV light are ancestral to females with wings that reflect UV strongly or vice versa.In the present study,we aimed to determine the geographic origin and ancestral UV pattern of cabbage butterflies through mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.The results of these investigations suggest that P rapae is of European origin and that it has expanded its distribution eastward to Asia.It follows that the ancestral subspecies is the type with UV-absorbing wings.Lower nucleotide diversities and haplotype network patterns ofmtDNA derived from East Asian populations suggest that population expansion from Europe to East Asia probably occurred fairly recently and at a rapid rate.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF SOME STORAGE CONDITIONS UPON ASCORBIC ACID CONTENT IN WHITE AND RED CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Avramiuc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it has searched the influence of storage conditions upon ascorbic acid content in cabbage. Theascorbic acid content and pH evolution for 16 weeks has been carried out using, as biological material, cabbage samplesfrom two varieties: white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. f. alba DC. and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L. f. rubra (L. Thell. The cabbage samples were kept in containers of glass and wood, constituting, for eachsample, variants of experiences, in the presence and in the absence of oxygen, at following thermal thresholds: 4°C, 8°Cand 15°C. The ascorbic acid content of cabbages was determined through a method based on reduction by the ascorbicacid of 2.6-Dichlorphenol-indophenol (2.6-DCFIF to the corresponding leucoderivate. The investigations have beencarried out on freshly harvested material (week 0 and then every two weeks, for a total of 16 weeks. Compared to freshharvested cabbage, at the end of the analysed interval (after 16 weeks of storage, the ascorbic acid content has registereddifferent rates of diminution in the both varieties, depending on storage temperature, on storage length, and on variety.The ascorbic acid in white cabbage has registered losses, compared to red variety, so much the bigger as the temperaturewas higher and the storage duration was longer.

  16. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  17. [Spectrophotometric determination of scandium,gallium and vanadium in white cabbage leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, F; Połedniok, J

    1997-01-01

    Scandium, gallium and vanadium contents in plants is on the ppm level, although plants from industrial areas can show higher concentrations of these elements. In Department of Analytical Chemistry of Silesian University there have been elaborated new, sensitive, spectrophotometric methods of determination of scandium, gallium and vanadium using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) and Sterinol (ST). The aim of this study was the application of these methods in analysis of cultivated plants from polluted regions. White cabbage from Upper Silesia was chosen. Because the spectrophotometric methods are not selective, scandium, gallium and vanadium should be preliminary separated from interfering elements. The solvent reaction was applied for the isolation from main and trace components of investigated material. Tienoiltrifluoracetone solution in xylene was used for the extraction of scandium, mesithyloxide for vanadium and n-butyl acetate--for gallium. Interfering and not separated Fe(III) was isolated using the extraction with acetylacetone solution in CHCl3 in the case of scandium and the reduction to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid in the case of gallium and vanadium. Due to influence of Fe(II) on the vanadium determination, KCN was used as a masking agent directly after the reduction. Scandium, gallium and vanadium were determined in 6 independent samples of white cabbage after dry or wet mineralization and contents of these leemnets were found from calibration graphs. Obtain results were checked by the internal standard addition method and Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method (ICP AES). The amounts of gallium and vanadium in white cabbage from Upper Silesia District determined by elaborated methods are in good correlation with a literature data, although the contents of vanadium are on the toxic level. The scandium concentration is higher than in plants from not industrial areas. The standard recovery is satisfactory. The Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method gave comparable results. The

  18. Hitch-hiking parasitic wasp learns to exploit butterfly antiaphrodisiac

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Qian, M.H.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    Many insects possess a sexual communication system that is vulnerable to chemical espionage by parasitic wasps. We recently discovered that a hitch-hiking (H) egg parasitoid exploits the antiaphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide (BC) of the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae. This pheromo

  19. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  20. Factors affecting uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors affecting the uptake of 131I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg-1 dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg-1 dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10-2 to 1.1x10-2 when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of 131I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3±4.4)x10-2

  1. Mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the N2 amino groups of guanine residues in DNA by pierisin-2, from the cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierisin-2 is a cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing protein present in Pieris brassicae with a 91% homology in the deduced amino acid sequences to pierisin-1 from Pieris rapae. We earlier showed pierisin-1 to catalyze mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) in DNA to form N2-(ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine, this DNA modification appearing linked to its cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptosis in mammalian cell lines. In this paper, we documented evidence that pierisin-2 also catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of dG in DNA to give the same reaction product as demonstrated for pierisin-1, with similar efficiency. With oligonucleotides as substrates, ADP-ribosylation by pierisin-2 was suggested to occur by one-side attack of the carbon atom at 1 position of the ribose moiety in NAD toward N2 of dG. The presence of a unique ADP-ribosylation toxin targeting dG in DNA in two distinct species in a Pieris genus could be a quite important finding to better understand biological functions of pierisin-1 and -2 in Pieris butterflies and the generic evolution of these cabbage butterflies

  2. Structural or pigmentary? Origin of the distinctive white stripe on the blue wing of a Morpho butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2005-01-01

    A few species of Morpho butterflies have a distinctive white stripe pattern on their structurally coloured blue wings. Since the colour pattern of a butterfly wing is formed as a mosaic of differently coloured scales, several questions naturally arise: are the microstructures the same between the blue and white scales? How is the distinctive whiteness produced, structurally or by means of pigmentation? To answer these questions, we have performed structural and optical investigations of the s...

  3. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...... cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  4. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  5. Dynamic karyotype evolution and unique sex determination systems in Leptidea wood white butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    VOLENÍKOVÁ, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements such as fusions and fissions play an important role in promoting and maintaining speciation. To study these phenomena, genome architecture of three cryptic species of Leptidea wood white butterflies was investigated by means of standard and molecular cytogenetics. High variability in chromosome number and localization of cytogenetic markers was revealed, suggesting dynamic karyotype evolution in these species. Moreover, unique sex-determination system with 3-4 W chr...

  6. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  7. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K Magnus; Forshed, Jenny; Lindahl, Anna; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Olsson, Marie; Knuthsen, Pia; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Husted, Søren

    2014-05-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83 % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products. PMID:24618989

  8. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control wi...

  9. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control without application of sludge nor nitrogen fertilization, a treatment without sludge, but nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, applied at before sowing of wheat and five treatments where, respectively 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons sludge ha-1. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results showed that all the yield components of wheat and yield of white head cabbage and tomato increased significantly with increasing rates of sewage sludge as compared to control. As a result, 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge application could be recommended the suitable dose for the rotation of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato in soil and climatic conditions of Bafra Plain.

  10. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.-H., E-mail: martin.evans@soton.ac.uk [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Walker, J.C.; Ma, C.; Wang, L.; Wood, R.J.K. [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M{sub 3}C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M{sub 3}C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism.

  11. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M3C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M3C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism

  12. Effect of Milk Thistle, Silybium marianum, Extract on Toxicity, Development, Nutrition, and Enzyme Activities of the Small White Butterfly, Pieris rapae

    OpenAIRE

    Hasheminia, Seyedeh M.; Sendi, Jalal J.; Jahromi, Khalil T.; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of milk thistle, Silybium marianum L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), was investigated for its effects on the mortality, growth, feeding indices, enzymatic activity, and levels of non-enzymatic molecules of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), a pest of cruciferous plants. Feeding indices including approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), relative growth rate...

  13. Molecular characterization and transcriptome analysis of orange head Chinese cabbage (brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head leaves are a desirable quality trait for Chinese cabbage. Our previous fine mapping identified BrCRTISO as the Br-or candidate gene for the orange Chinese cabbage mutant. Here we examined the BrCRTISO gene from white and orange head Chinese cabbage. While BrCRTISO from the white control ...

  14. Liquid-feeding strategy of the proboscis of butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Lee, Sang Joon; CenterBiofluid; Biomimic Research Team

    2015-11-01

    The liquid-feeding strategy of the proboscis of butterflies was experimentally investigated. Firstly, the liquid uptake from a pool by the proboscis of a nectar-feeding butterfly, cabbage white (Pieris rapae) was tested. Liquid-intake flow phenomenon at the submerged proboscis was visualized by micro-particle image velocimetry. The periodic liquid-feeding flow is induced by the systaltic motion of the cibarial pump. Reynolds number and Womersley number of the liquid-intake flow in the proboscis are low enough to assume quasi-steady laminar flow. Next, the liquid feeding from wet surfaces by the brush-tipped proboscis of a nymphalid butterfly, Asian comma (Polygonia c-aureum) was investigated. The tip of the proboscis was observed especially brush-like sensilla styloconica. The liquid-feeding flow between the proboscis and wet surfaces was also quantitatively visualized. During liquid drinking from the wet surface, the sensilla styloconica enhance liquid uptake rate with accumulation of liquid. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  15. Dynamic karyotype evolution and unique sex determination systems in Leptidea wood white butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíchová, Jindra; Voleníková, A.; Dincă, A.; Nguyen, Petr; Vila, R.; Sahara, K.; Marec, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), article number 89. ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960925; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-35819P; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22765S Grant ostatní: GA JU(CZ) 063/2012/P; Spanish Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad(ES) CGL2013-48277-P; GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P; 7th European Community Framework Programme(CZ) 625997; JSPS(JP) 23380030 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * wood white butteflies * karyotype variability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014 http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12862-015-0375-4.pdf

  16. Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

    This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

  17. Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Stefanie M; Shukla, Kruti; Campbell, Lesley G; Hallett, Rebecca H; Smith, Sandy M; Packer, Laurence; Arts, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio) in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011), with smaller wings (p < 0.05) and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001). We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable. PMID:27011315

  18. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83. ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  19. From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödder Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (recolonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i Morocco, (ii Tunisia, (iii Sicily, (iv Italy and southern France, (v eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source

  20. Correlations between Colonization of Onion Thrips and Leaf Reflectance Measures across Six Cabbage Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Bálint, János; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Fail, József

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR) against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana – considered resistant – and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor – considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340–400 nm) and visible (401–650 nm) light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlat...

  1. Teaching and Learning with Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Saul

    1996-01-01

    Presents butterflies as an introduction to natural history. Describes observation tips and metamorphosis of butterflies in the classroom. Includes butterfly resources for naturalists and educators. (AIM)

  2. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, N.; Navntoft, S.; H. Philipsen; Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied in external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition b...

  3. Shiny wing scales cause spec(tac)ular camouflage of the angled sunbeam butterfly, Curetis acuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Pirih, Primoz; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Pirih, Primož

    2013-01-01

    The angled sunbeam butterfly, Curetis acuta (Lycaenidae), is a distinctly sexually dimorphic lycaenid butterfly from Asia. The dorsal wings of female and male butterflies have a similar pattern, with a large white area in the female and an orange area in the male, framed within brownblack margins. T

  4. On the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shnirelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.

  5. Colour constancy of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Arikawa, Kentaro; 充代, 木下

    2000-01-01

    We have recently shown that the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus uses colour vision when searching for food. In the field, these butterflies feed on nectar provided by flowers of various colours not only in direct sunlight but also in shaded places and on cloudy days, suggesting that they have colour constancy. Here, we tested this hypothesis. We trained newly emerged Papilio xuthus to feed on sucrose solution on a paper patch of a certain colour under white illumination. ...

  6. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Philipsen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    observed in the conventional compared to all organic systems, indicating that immature survival from oviposition to pupation was reduced under all the three organic farming practices. In organic system O2 most small coleopteran predators were recorded, but predation on fly eggs was not significantly higher......In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied in...... external nutrient input and N-recycling, and were compared to a conventionally farmed control. One organic system (O3) included an intercropped strip of green manure between crop rows. Oviposition by D. radicum was generally not reduced in organic cropping systems. However, higher pupae/egg ratios were...

  7. Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2008-01-01

    Depending on the species, the individual scales of butterfly wings have a longitudinal gradient in structure and reflectance properties, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. White scales of the male Small White, Pieris rapae crucivora, show a strong gradient in both t

  8. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Bálint

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm and visible (401-650 nm light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  9. Unprecedented within-species chromosome number cline in the Wood White butterfly Leptidea sinapis and its significance for karyotype evolution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Species generally have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cell nuclei while between-species differences are common and often pronounced. These differences could have evolved through multiple speciation events, each involving the fixation of a single chromosomal rearrangement. Alternatively, marked changes in the karyotype may be the consequence of within-species accumulation of multiple chromosomal fissions/fusions, resulting in highly polymorphic systems with the subsequent extinction of intermediate karyomorphs. Although this mechanism of chromosome number evolution is possible in theory, it has not been well documented. Results We present the discovery of exceptional intraspecific variability in the karyotype of the widespread Eurasian butterfly Leptidea sinapis. We show that within this species the diploid chromosome number gradually decreases from 2n = 106 in Spain to 2n = 56 in eastern Kazakhstan, resulting in a 6000 km-wide cline that originated recently (8,500 to 31,000 years ago). Remarkably, intrapopulational chromosome number polymorphism exists, the chromosome number range overlaps between some populations separated by hundreds of kilometers, and chromosomal heterozygotes are abundant. We demonstrate that this karyotypic variability is intraspecific because in L. sinapis a broad geographical distribution is coupled with a homogenous morphological and genetic structure. Conclusions The discovered system represents the first clearly documented case of explosive chromosome number evolution through intraspecific and intrapopulation accumulation of multiple chromosomal changes. Leptidea sinapis may be used as a model system for studying speciation by means of chromosomally-based suppressed recombination mechanisms, as well as clinal speciation, a process that is theoretically possible but difficult to document. The discovered cline seems to represent a narrow time-window of the very first steps of species formation linked to multiple chromosomal

  10. Unprecedented within-species chromosome number cline in the Wood White butterfly Leptidea sinapis and its significance for karyotype evolution and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincă Vlad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species generally have a fixed number of chromosomes in the cell nuclei while between-species differences are common and often pronounced. These differences could have evolved through multiple speciation events, each involving the fixation of a single chromosomal rearrangement. Alternatively, marked changes in the karyotype may be the consequence of within-species accumulation of multiple chromosomal fissions/fusions, resulting in highly polymorphic systems with the subsequent extinction of intermediate karyomorphs. Although this mechanism of chromosome number evolution is possible in theory, it has not been well documented. Results We present the discovery of exceptional intraspecific variability in the karyotype of the widespread Eurasian butterfly Leptidea sinapis. We show that within this species the diploid chromosome number gradually decreases from 2n = 106 in Spain to 2n = 56 in eastern Kazakhstan, resulting in a 6000 km-wide cline that originated recently (8,500 to 31,000 years ago. Remarkably, intrapopulational chromosome number polymorphism exists, the chromosome number range overlaps between some populations separated by hundreds of kilometers, and chromosomal heterozygotes are abundant. We demonstrate that this karyotypic variability is intraspecific because in L. sinapis a broad geographical distribution is coupled with a homogenous morphological and genetic structure. Conclusions The discovered system represents the first clearly documented case of explosive chromosome number evolution through intraspecific and intrapopulation accumulation of multiple chromosomal changes. Leptidea sinapis may be used as a model system for studying speciation by means of chromosomally-based suppressed recombination mechanisms, as well as clinal speciation, a process that is theoretically possible but difficult to document. The discovered cline seems to represent a narrow time-window of the very first steps of species formation

  11. Fine mapping and characterization of the or gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C L; Zheng, Y; Wang, P; Zhang, X; Wang, Y-H; Liu, Z Y; Feng, H

    2016-01-01

    Orange inner leaves/heads is a qualitative trait in Chinese cabbage that is controlled by a single recessive gene. Orange head Chinese cabbage contain more carotenoids than its white head counterpart; hence, this trait is of interest to both researchers and consumers. In this study, we selected the orange head Chinese cabbage line 07A163 and the white head Chinese cabbage line Chiifu as test materials. We localized the target gene controlling the orange head trait to the A09 linkage group, with a physical distance of approximately 19.9 kb between the two markers, syau26 and syau28. This region contains six candidate genes, including Bra031539, which was predicted to encode CRTISO, a carotenoid isomerase specifically required for carotenoid biosynthesis. A comparison of the nucleic acid sequences of the two test materials revealed 88 and 7-bp deletions and 88 SNPs in the promoter region of Bra031539 in line 07A163, along with a 6-bp deletion in the first exon and early termination at the 3' end of this gene. BLAST analysis revealed that 22 amino acids were altered and 17 amino acids were lost in Bra031539 in the orange head line 07A163. We developed the BrPro1 molecular marker in the promoter region of Bra031539 that can be used for early identification of orange head materials, thereby accelerating the breeding process of orange head Chinese cabbage. PMID:27173304

  12. Butterflies of Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document talks about species and habits of Myanmar butterflies that were mentioned by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division of the Forest Department under the Ministry of Forestry in Myanmar

  13. Chasing the Hofstadter Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indu

    2014-03-01

    The experimental observation of the Hofstadter butterfly, the fascinating quantum fractal that also encodes the Chern numbers associated with quantum Hall state, continues to remain a challenging task. It may be possible to observe the fine structure of the butterfly, consisting of small gaps of the spectrum characterized by topological invariants greater than unity, with a resolution matching that of the Chern-1 gaps that form the skeleton of the butterfly. The tiny gaps of the butterfly emanating from a rational flux p / q are found to be associated with infinity of possible solutions (of Diophantine equation)for the rational flux. Not supported by the simple square lattice nearest-neighbor hopping model of the Hofstadter system, these solutions are found to be hiding in neighborhood of these fluxes. By perturbing this simple system, it is possible to ``amplify'' these small gaps corresponding to higher Chern states where they replace the Chern 1 gap of the Hofstadter butterfly. In other words, by tuning a parameter, it is possible to induce topological quantum phase transitions where the finer gaps become the new major gaps that dominate the spectrum. This may provide a possible pathway to see the topological landscape of the Hofstadter butterfly fractal in its entirety.

  14. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  15. Butterfly valves for seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently in thermal and nuclear power stations and chemical plants which have become large capacity, large quantity of cooling water is required, and mostly seawater is utilized. In these cooling water systems, considering thermal efficiency and economy, the pipings become complex, and various control functions are demanded. For the purpose, the installation of shut-off valves and control valves for pipings is necessary. The various types of valves have been employed, and in particular, butterfly valves have many merits in their function, size, structure, operation, maintenance, usable period, price and so on. The corrosion behavior of seawater is complicated due to the pollution of seawater, therefore, the environment of the valves used for seawater became severe. The structure and the features of the butterfly valves for seawater, the change of the structure of the butterfly valves for seawater and the checkup of the butterfly valves for seawater are reported. The corrosion of metallic materials is complicatedly different due to the locating condition of plants, the state of pipings and the condition of use. The corrosion countermeasures for butterfly valves must be examined from the synthetic viewpoints. (K.I.)

  16. Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & H.E. Robins (Asteraceae), an important nectar source for adult butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Lakshmi; A.J.S. Raju

    2011-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata is a seasonal weed and grows like a cultivated crop. It flowers during October-December. The floral characteristics such as white to purple colour of florets, short-tubed narrow corolla with deep seated nectar, the morning anthesis and the flat-topped head inflorescence providing a standing platform are important attractants for visitation by butterflies. The florets attract butterflies of five families and sphingid hawk moths. Among the butterflies, nymphalids are diverse...

  17. Study on the Optimum N Rates Under Spring Cabbage-Maize-Winter Cabbage Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, field trials in two soils with different Nmin were conducted to study the effects of mineral N content (Nmin) in soil on the maximum yield N rate (MYNR), N recovery of cabbage under spring cabbage-maize-winter cabbage rotation system, and the correlation of N fertilization with cabbage yield and quality, and to provide the theoretical basis for N recommendation for high-yield, quality, and safety production of vegetables. The effects of six N rates of 0, 90, 180, 270,360, and 450 kg ha-1 on the yield, N recovery of spring cabbage, maize, and winter cabbage, water-soluble sugar, Vc, and nitrate content of vegetables were observed. The results showed that soil Nmin had a remarkable influence on the MYNR in the first spring cabbage season. The MYNR for spring cabbage lessened in the soil with high Nmin. Soil Nmin could be helpful to N recommendation only for the seasonal growing crop because its effects on the following crop yield was less with the active transformation of soil Nmin. The farmer's practice was 1.8-3.2 times higher than the MYNR of cabbage resulted in the nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Both N application rate and Nmin in the soil profile affected N recovery,whereas, the relay intercropping maize in the cabbage field increased the N recovery at a higher N application rate. Lower N rate (less than 90 kg ha-1) improved the yield and quality of cabbage at the same time; higher N rates increased cabbage yield, but decreased the quality; extremely high N rates of application deceased both yield and quality of cabbage. It was concluded that the soil Nmin had close correlations with MYNR and N recovery of the seasonal growing cabbage. Although the residual effects of the N fertilizer were obvious in Shajiang black meadow soil, cabbage-maize rotation increased the N recovery in treatments with higher N rates. Considering the effects of N rates on cabbage yield and quality, it is necessary to reduce the N rate and lower the yield target for

  18. A brachypterous butterfly?

    OpenAIRE

    Viloria, Angel L; Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Wojtusiak, Janusz; Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Beccaloni, George W; Sattler, Klaus; Lees, David C

    2003-01-01

    Butterflies of the genus Redonda Adams & Bernard (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) are endemic to the Andes of Venezuela. They comprise a monophyletic group of five allopatric taxa, females of which show various degrees of wing reduction and ability to fly. The female of Redonda bordoni Viloria & Pyrcz sp. nov. appears to be brachypterous and incapable of sustained flight, a phenomenon previously unknown within the Rhopalocera.

  19. The IBS Butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Lomolino, Mark V.

    2009-01-01

    cover: Butterfly logo designed by Mark V. Lomolino for the original Frontiers of Biogeography book , which we are adopting as the logo of this new journal. See the editorial From the Foundations to the Frontiers of Biogeography for further details.

  20. The real butterfly effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier–Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods. (invited article)

  1. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed. PMID:25033755

  2. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2014-02-04

    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Structural color of Morpho butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2009-11-01

    Structural color is caused by wavelength-selective scattering of light by microscopic features, such as those on the scales of some insects. The brilliant blue displayed by some male Morpho butterflies is a classic example of this phenomenon. In this paper, experiments used to distinguish structural color from color due to pigmentation are reviewed. A simple electromagnetic model is developed for the structural scattering from Morpho butterfly scales, and the blue color and iridescence normally seen for these butterflies are predicted by this model. The analysis is based on topics usually discussed in courses on electromagnetism and optics and can be used as an example to supplement classroom discussions of these topics.

  4. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  5. Chromolaena odorata (L. King & H.E. Robins (Asteraceae, an important nectar source for adult butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Lakshmi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromolaena odorata is a seasonal weed and grows like a cultivated crop. It flowers during October-December. The floral characteristics such as white to purple colour of florets, short-tubed narrow corolla with deep seated nectar, the morning anthesis and the flat-topped head inflorescence providing a standing platform are important attractants for visitation by butterflies. The florets attract butterflies of five families and sphingid hawk moths. Among the butterflies, nymphalids are diverse and visit the florets consistently; their visits effect pollination. The diurnal hawk moths, Macroglossum gyrans and Cephonodes hylas also visit the florets during dawn and dusk hours for nectar, and effect pollination. Therefore, C. odorata, being an exotic is an important nectar source for adult butterflies.

  6. Butterflies and topological quantum numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.; Osadchy, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hofstadter model illustrates the notion of topological quantum numbers and how they account for the quantization of the Hall conductance. It gives rise to colorful fractal diagrams of butterflies where the colors represent the topological quantum numbers.

  7. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  8. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  9. Contamination of Chinese Cabbage Soil with Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Woo Soh; Kyung-Sook Han; Seong-Chan Lee; Jung-Sup Lee

    2013-01-01

    This research was performed to establish basic technology for Chinese cabbage clubroot chemical control by investigating the soil contamination of Plasmodiophora brassicae in major producing regions of fall Chinese cabbage. PCR primers were developed to detect P. brassicae, a causal agent of Chinese cabbage club-root that generally occurs in Cruciferae family. A primer set, PbbtgF761 and PbbtgR961, specifically amplified a 245 bp fragment from P. brassicae only. At places well kno...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cabbage Brassica oleracea Brassica_oleracea_L.png Brassica_oleracea_NL.png Brassica_oleracea_S.png Brassica..._oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica...+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  11. Status of six endangered California Butterflies 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted from March-September 1977 to determine the current status of six federally endangered butterflies which reside in California. The butterflies...

  12. Evolution of color and vision of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Butterfly eyes consist of three types of ommatidia, which are more or less randomly arranged in a spatially regular lattice. The corneal nipple array and the tapetum, Optical Structures that many but not all butterflies share with moths, Suggest that moths are ancestral to butterflies, in agreement

  13. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the cabbage butterfly, Artogeia melete (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiyun Hong; Shaotong Jiang; Miao Yu; Ying Yang; Feng Li; Fangsen Xue; Zhaojun Wei

    2009-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Artogeia melete was determined as being composed of 15,140 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one control region.The gene order of A. melete mitogenome is typical of Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type in the location of trnM. The A. melete mitogenome has a total of 119 bp of intergenic spacer sequences spread over 10 regions, ranging in sizes between 1 and 48 bp.The nucleotide composition of the A. melete mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (79.77%),which is higher than that of Ochrogaster lunifer (77.84%), but lower than nine other lepidopterans sequenced. The PCGs have typical mitochondrial start codons, except for cox1, which contains the unusual CGA. The cox1, cox2, nad2, and had5 genes of the A.melete mitogenome have incomplete stop codons (T).The A. melete A + T-rich region contains some conserved structures that are similar to those found in other lepidopteran mitogenomes, including a structure combining the motif 'ATAGA', a 19-bp poly(T) stretch,a microsatellite (AT)n element, and a 9-bp poly(A)upstream trnM. The A. melete mitogenome contains a duplicated 36-bp repeat element, which consists of a 26-bp core sequence flanked by 10-bp perfectly inverted repeats.

  14. Mutant butterflies discovered at Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese study has shown that malformations are more and more common in butterflies (Zizeeria maha specie) leaving near the damaged nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi. A population of 144 butterflies were caught in 10 villages in a radius of 200 km around Fukushima in may 2011, the ratio of malformations was 12.4%. Obvious malformations were withered antennas and wings. In september 2011 a population of 238 butterflies were caught in the same places and the ratio of malformations was then 28.1%. The increase of the malformation ratio could be explained by a cumulative effect of the radiation exposition. In a second experiment, a population of butterflies was caught in a region non-affected by the radioactive contamination and was submitted in laboratory to radiations similar to that of the contamination around Fukushima and similar malformations appeared. The conclusion of the study is that radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident have caused genetic and physiological damages to this butterfly specie. (A.C.)

  15. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  16. Steamed Sliced Pork with Dried Mustard Cabbage (Meigancai Kourou)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    500 grams pork with skin75 grams dried mustard cabbage10 grams Shaoxing wine50 grams sugar100 grams soy sauce2 grams salt5 grams spring onions5 grams ginger500 grams clear stockClean the pork, soak the dried mustard cabbage until soft, and clean and slice the spring onion and ginger.Braise the pork in a wok, then

  17. 7 CFR 457.171 - Cabbage crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processor, containing at a minimum: (a) The producer's commitment to plant and grow cabbage, and to sell and deliver the cabbage production to the processor; (b) The processor's commitment to purchase all the... sales closing date, the Board of Directors or officers of the processor must execute and adopt...

  18. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free fert

  19. Extended season for northern butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  20. Ecology: Butterflies reset the calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.; Roy, David B.

    2011-05-01

    The timing of seasonal events such as flowering and migration is changing as the climate warms, reshuffling the order in which such events take place each year. Now research sheds light on the causes of changes in the timing of butterfly emergence.

  1. Controlling public speaking jitters: making the butterflies fly in formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Hannah; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Nearly every person who has been asked to give a speech or who has volunteered to make a presentation to a group of strangers develops fear and anxiety prior to the presentation. Most of us, the authors included, start hyperventilating, our pulse quickens, and we feel a little weak in the knees. We grab the lectern and our knuckles turn white as we hold on for dear life. This is a normal response that everyone experiences. However, this stress can be controlled and made manageable by understanding the stress response cycle and practicing a few techniques that calm those butterflies flying around in the pit of your stomach. PMID:25807629

  2. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    OpenAIRE

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR; ANNISA YULIANA

    2010-01-01

    Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010) Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conduct...

  3. Measuring Straight Line Segments Using HT Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; van Wyk, Barend J.; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently...

  4. Monitoring of butterflies within a landscape context

    OpenAIRE

    Jonason, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of butterflies is most often only directed towards the grassland fauna. Species associated with other vegetation types, as well as the impact of the surrounding landscape, often become neglected. The aim with this study was, in contrast, to perform a novel landscape-based monitoring method for butterflies in diverse vegetation types and more specifically (i) evaluate the impact of environmental variables on butterfly abundance, (ii) compare the distribution...

  5. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration. PMID:26473314

  6. The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions (knots) of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (≈ 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique chains, separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) ''activity streams'' approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  7. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  8. Production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Young; Woodams, Edward E; Hang, Yong D

    2006-08-01

    Research was undertaken to determine the suitability of cabbage as a raw material for production of probiotic cabbage juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum C3, Lactobacillus casei A4, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii D7). Cabbage juice was inoculated with a 24-h-old lactic culture and incubated at 30 degrees C. Changes in pH, acidity, sugar content, and viable cell counts during fermentation under controlled conditions were monitored. L. casei, L. delbrueckii, and L. plantarum grew well on cabbage juice and reached nearly 10x10(8) CFU/mL after 48 h of fermentation at 30 degrees C. L. casei, however, produced a smaller amount of titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid than L. delbrueckii or L. plantarum. After 4 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C, the viable cell counts of L. plantarum and L. delbrueckii were still 4.1x10(7) and 4.5x10(5) mL(-1), respectively. L. casei did not survive the low pH and high acidity conditions in fermented cabbage juice and lost cell viability completely after 2 weeks of cold storage at 4 degrees C. Fermented cabbage juice could serve as a healthy beverage for vegetarians and lactose-allergic consumers. PMID:16125381

  9. Blame it on the butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kate

    2009-08-01

    Last year at a science networking event in a Central London pub, I was cornered by the manager of an "alternative healing centre", who regaled me with stories about her patients' miraculous recoveries from ailments that modern medicine had been unable to address. "After all," she said, leaning forward with the air of someone confiding an esoteric, but unassailable, argument, "if a butterfly flapping its wings in a forest can cause a hurricane, imagine what a positive attitude can do!"

  10. Spatial synchrony of monarch butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, W D

    2006-01-01

    I examined spatial synchrony in Populations of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) during the summer breeding season across North America and while overwintering along the Pacific Coast. Spatial synchrony was observed in all analyses, but was particularly great among eastern summer populations and among overwintering populations on the Pacific Coast. Thus, in a year when relatively large numbers of monarchs were found at a particular breeding or wintering site in these populations, other s...

  11. The Butterfly Effect for Physics Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab…

  12. Ecology and evolution of mountain butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with speciation processes, thermal ecology and habitat use in Holarctic mountain and arctic butterflies. It demonstrates a crucial role of environmental heterogeneity for speciation, survival of butterfly lineages, coexistence of closely related species and, finally, for resource use of sexes with different habitats demands at the level of individual species.

  13. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  14. Transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youxi; Chiu, Li-Wei; Li, Li

    2009-11-01

    The color of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) is due to anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbage, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four green varieties had negligible amount of anthocyanins under normal growth condition, the four red cultivars contained up to 1.60 mg g(-1) fresh weight. HPLC analysis of the four red cultivars revealed that they produced similar composition of various forms of cyanidin glucosides but at different concentrations. Molecular analysis indicated that all the red cabbage shared common mechanism of regulatory control for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Except CHI which showed similar expression levels between green and red cultivars, the other structural genes, CHS, F3H, F3'H, DFR, LDOX, and GST, were constitutively up-regulated during all stages of vegetative growth in red varieties. The expression of these structural genes was also dramatically increased in green and red cabbage under nutrient stresses. The increased expression of the structural genes coincided with a coordinated increase in transcript levels of a bHLH gene, BoTT8, and a MYB transcription factor, BoMYB2. These results indicate that activation of these two regulatory factors by unknown mechanisms constitutively up-regulates nearly the entire pathway genes for the onset of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbage. Moreover, the amount of total anthocyanins in red cabbage was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidant power, implicating the potential health benefit of red cabbage to human health. PMID:19756724

  15. [Keratouveitis and lens opacity caused by butterfly hair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domngang Noche, C; Kengmogne, B; Bella, A L

    2012-01-01

    Butterfly hair is known to cause eye injury. In Africa, incriminated butterflies are Hylesia (spp). We report a case of a sub-epithelial keratitis associated with anterior uveitis following a trauma by a butterfly that was complicated by late lens opacity due to butterfly hair. Ocular lesions caused by butterfly hair are rare, but require an urgent management to prevent late and severe complications due to intraocular migration of the hairs. PMID:22978182

  16. The Butterfly House Industry: Conservation Risks and Education Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Boppré; Vane-Wright, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the mass supply and use of butterflies for live exhibits, discusses the risks to biodiversity which this creates, and the educational opportunities it presents. Over the past 30 years a new type of insect zoo has become popular worldwide: the butterfly house. This has given rise to the global Butterfly House Industry (BHI) based on the mass production of butterfly pupae as a cash crop. Production is largely carried out by privately-owned butterfly farms in tropical countr...

  17. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  18. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momen...

  19. Butterflies on the Stretched Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I return to the question of what kind of perturbations on Alice's side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge can send messages to Bob as he enters the horizon at the other end. By definition "easy" operators do not activate messages and "hard" operators do, but there are no clear criteria to identify the difference between easy and hard. In this paper I argue that the difference is related to the time evolution of a certain measure of computational complexity, associated with the stretched horizon of Alice's black hole. The arguments suggest that the AMPSS commutator argument is more connected with butterflies than with firewalls.

  20. Determination of Thioglucoside inCabbage by Using the Ultraviolet-visible Light Spectrophotometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer method was adopted to determine thioglucoside in cabbage with the seeds. Individual plant of cabbage was used as test materials,palladium chloride as complexing agent and sodium cellulose glycolate as dispersing agent. The results showed that palladiumd thioglucoside method could be taken as a quick,easy and precise quantitative analysis method to determine thioglucoside in cabbage.

  1. Butterfly proboscis as a biomicrofluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, Konstantin; Monaenkova, Daria; Rea, Steven; Yore, Campbell; Klipowics, Caleb; Edmond, Kara; Sa, Vijoya

    2009-11-01

    It looks amazing how butterflies and moths with their thin feeding trunk are being able to sip very thick liquids like nectar or animal extractions. Their sucking ability goes beyond that: one can observe butterflies and moths probing liquids from porous materials like fruit flesh or wet soils. This suggests that the suction pressure produced by these insects is sufficiently high. The estimates based on engineering hydraulic formulas show that the pressure can be greater than one atmosphere, i.e. it can be greater than that any vacuum pump could supply. In this experimental study, the principles of interfacial flows are used to carefully analyze the feeding mechanism of butterflies and moths. We document the feeding rates and proboscis behavior of Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in different situations: when butterfly feeds from droplets, from vials modeling floral cavities, and from porous materials modeling fruits, wet soils, or dung. Using high speed imaging and simple models, we propose a scenario of butterfly feeding which is based on capillary action. According to the proposed mechanism, the trunk of butterflies and moths works like a fountain pen where the air bubbles play a significant role in controlling fluid flow.

  2. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. PMID:26397977

  3. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. PMID:24837935

  4. Mate choice and body pattern variations in the Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Keren; Lerner, Amit; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mate choice is an important ecological behavior in fish, and is often based on visual cues of body patterns. The Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae) is a monogamist, territorial species; it swims in close proximity to its partner throughout most of its life. This species is characterized by a pattern of 6–8 vertical black stripes on a white background, on both sides of its body. Our aim was to define spatial features (variations) in body patterns by evaluat...

  5. Butterfly Tachyons in Vacuum String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matlock, P

    2003-01-01

    We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in Vacuum String Field Theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation.

  6. Butterfly tachyons in vacuum string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in vacuum string field theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation

  7. Looking inside the butterfly diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, M.

    2007-12-01

    The suitability of Maunder's butterfly diagram to give a realistic picture of the photospheric magnetic flux large scale distribution is discussed. The evolution of the sunspot zone in cycle 20 through 23 is described. To reduce the noise which covers any structure in the diagram, a smoothing algorithm has been applied to the sunspot data. This operation has eliminated any short period fluctuation, and given visibility to long duration phenomena. One of these phenomena is the fact that the equatorward drift of the spot zone center of mass results from the alternation of several prograde (namely, equatorward) segments with other stationary or poleward segments. The long duration of the stationary/retrograde phases as well as the similarities among the spot zone alternating paths in the cycles under examination prevent us from considering these features as meaningless fluctuations, randomly superimposed on the continuous equatorward migration. On the contrary, these features should be considered physically meaningful phenomena, requiring adequate explanations. Moreover, even the smoothed spotted area markedly oscillates. The compared examination of area and spot zone evolution allows us to infer details about the spotted area distribution inside the butterfly diagram. Links between the changing structure of the spot zone and the tachocline rotation rate oscillations are proposed.

  8. SO2: Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free fertilizers. In this thesis, the interaction between atmospheric SO2 and sulfate nutrition of the root was studied in order to evaluate whether SO2 may be considered as toxin or nutrient for Chinese ca...

  9. Evaluation of red cabbage anthocyanins after partial purification on clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Jefferson Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the red cabbage anthocyanins quality after purification by static adsorption assays on clay (Tonsil Terrana 580FF. Thin-layer chromatography analysis and scan spectrometry on UV-Visible showed a good dye stability of the pigment interacting with the clay. The use of pH 3.0 buffer during the batch assays provided a protective effect on the cabbage anthocyanins, limiting the dye acid hydrolyses. Analyses of the reducing sugars contents of the extract showed that clay retained 20% average of total free sugars under the test conditions.

  10. Butterfly Surveys in North Dakota : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of this study was to conduct inventories of butterflies and skippers on a number of prairie and wetland sites in North Dakota and determine the...

  11. On Gallimard's Narcissistic Personality in M. Butterfly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Lanfeng

    2009-01-01

    The anti-orientalism in David Hwang's M. Butterfly has been discussed by many critics, but here it will be analyzed with the help of psychology. From the perspective of psychoanalysis, Gallimard's narcissistic personality is the root of his tragedy.

  12. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly (adult Lepidoptera) survey conducted monthly (May-Nov 2001) at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond,...

  13. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  14. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  15. The relationship between total cholinesterase activity and mortality in four butterfly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between total cholinesterase activity (TChE) and mortality in four butterfly species (great southern white [Ascia monuste], common buckeye [Junonia coenia], painted lady [Vanessa cardui], and julia butterflies [Dryas julia]) was investigated. Acute contact toxicity studies were conducted to evaluate the response (median lethal dose [LD50] and TChE) of the four species following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide naled. The LD50 for these butterflies ranged from 2.3 to 7.6 µg/g. The average level of TChE inhibition associated with significant mortality ranged from 26 to 67%, depending on the species. The lower bounds of normal TChE activity (2 standard deviations less than the average TChE for reference butterflies) ranged from 8.4 to 12.3 µM/min/g. As a percentage of the average reference TChE activity for the respective species, the lower bounds were similar to the inhibition levels associated with significant mortality, indicating there was little difference between the dose resulting in significant TChE inhibition and that resulting in mortality. PMID:22740147

  16. Characterization of Structural and Pigmentary Colors in Common Emigrant (Catopsilia Pomona) Butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies is important for their biomimic and biophotonics applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light while pigmentary color is produced by absorption of light by pigments. Common Emigrant butterfly is widely distributed in India. It is of moderate size with wing span of about 60-80 mm. The wings are broadly white with yellow or sulphur yellow coloration at places as well as few dark black patches. It belongs to family Pieridae. A study of structural color in case of Common Emigrant butterfly has been carried out in the present work. The characterization of wing color was performed using absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic study of the wings of Common Emigrant butterfly showed that three different types of scales are present on the wing surface dorsally. Diffracting structures are present in certain parts of the surfaces of the various scales. Bead like structures are embedded in the intricate structures of the scales. Absorption spectra revealed that a strong absorption peak is seen in the UV-range. Crystalline structure of beads was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

  17. Hofstadter's Butterfly in Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the recent conjectural solution to the spectral problem for the Hamiltonian $H=e^{x}+e^{-x}+e^{p}+e^{-p}$ in terms of the refined topological invariants of a local Calabi-Yau geometry has an intimate relation with two-dimensional non-interacting electrons moving in a periodic potential under a uniform magnetic field. In particular, we find that the quantum A-period, determining the relation between the energy eigenvalue and the Kahler modulus of the Calabi-Yau, can be found explicitly when the quantum parameter $q=e^{i\\hbar}$ is a root of unity, that its branch cuts are given by Hofstadter's butterfly, and that its imaginary part counts the number of states of the Hofstadter Hamiltonian. The modular double operation, exchanging $\\hbar$ and $4\\pi^2/\\hbar$, plays an important role.

  18. Studies on germination and vigour of cabbage seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liou, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of commercial storage of cabbage seeds on the germination of seeds and the emergence and growth of seedlings have been studied. Progressive ageing of seeds caused loss of seed vigour which resulted in poor emergence and growth of seedlings and the formation of abnormal seedlings. Loss of

  19. Cabbage-head development as affected by nitrogen and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabbage plants were grown at graded levels of nitrate nitrogen (20 and 100 ppm N) and temperature (15, 20, and 250C, and the effects of these treatments on cabbage-head development were investigated. The total plant dry weight and the cabbage-head yield were always higher at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N, and at each N level the values were in the order of 20>15>250C. The nitrogen content in the outer leaves was higher at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N, and increased slightly with increase in temperature. The total sugar content was higher in the inner head leaves than in the outer leaves, and was decreased greatly at 250C in both organs. The 14CO2 assimilation of the outer leaves was larger at 100 ppm N than at 20 ppm N. After 14CO2 assimilation by the plants, a greater amount of 14C was lost by respiration at 250C than at 15 and 200C, resulting in a low distribution of 14C-sugars in the inner head leaves. The highest yield and a better quality of cabbage-heads were obtained when the plants were grown at 200C with a high N supply and the outer leaves had a carbohydrate/nitrogen content ratio of about 7. (author)

  20. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  1. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lydia

    The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

  2. Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?

    OpenAIRE

    Stalleicken, J; Mukhida, M; Labhart, T.; Wehner, R; Frost, B; Mouritsen, H

    2005-01-01

    To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the...

  3. Colour vision of the foraging swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Shimada, Naoko; Arikawa, Kentaro; 充代, 木下

    1995-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that foraging summer-form females of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus have colour vision. The butterflies were trained to feed on sucrose solution placed on a disk of a particular colour in a cage set in the laboratory. After a few such training runs, a butterfly was presented with the training colour randomly positioned within an array of disks of other colours, but with no sucrose solution. The results indicate that the butterflies learn rapid...

  4. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  5. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  6. Monarch butterfly spatially discrete advection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz; Sáenz, Roberto; Stein, Julie; Jones, Laura E

    2004-08-01

    We study the population cycles of the Monarch butterfly using one of the simplest systems incorporating both migration and local dynamics. The annual migration of the Monarch involves four generations. Members of Generations 1-3 (occasionally 4) migrate from the over-wintering site in Central Mexico to breeding grounds that extend as far north as the Northern United States and Southern Canada. A portion of the Generation 3 and all members of the Generation 4 butterflies begin their return to the over-wintering grounds in August through October where they enter reproductive diapause for several months. We developed a simple discrete-time island chain model in which different fecundity functions are used to model the reproductive strategies of each generation. The fecundity functions are selected from broad classes of functions that capture the effects of either contest or scramble intraspecific competition in the Monarch population. The objectives of our research are multiple and include the study of the generationally dependent intraspecific competition and its effect on the pool size of migrants as well as the persistence of the overall butterfly populations. The stage structure used in modeling the Monarch butterfly dynamics and their generationally dependent reproductive strategies naturally support fluctuating patterns and multiple attractors. The implications of these fluctuations and attractors on the long-term survival of the Monarch butterfly population are explored. PMID:15234616

  7. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  8. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

    2013-06-01

    We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:23865963

  9. Cavitation noise from butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavitation in valves can produce levels of intense noise. It is possible to mathematically express a limit for a design level of cavitation noise in terms of the cavitation parameter sigma. Using the cavitation parameter or limit, it is then possible to calculate the flow conditions at which a design level of cavitation noise will occur. However, the intensity of cavitation increases with the upstream pressure and valve size at a constant sigma. Therefore, it is necessary to derive equations to correct or scale the cavitation limit for the effects of different upstream pressures and valve sizes. The following paper discusses and presents experimental data for the caviation noise limit as well as the cavitation limits of incipient, critical, incipient damage, and choking cavitation for butterfly valves. The main emphasis is on the design limit of caviation noise, and a noise level of 85 decibels was selected as the noise limit. Tables of data and scaling exponents are included for applying the design limits for the effects of upstream pressure and valve size. (orig.)

  10. Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; van Wyk, Barend J; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles. PMID:22479442

  11. Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhi Du

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles.

  12. Observation of pendular butterfly Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Niederprüm, Thomas; Eichert, Tanita; Lippe, Carsten; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H; Ott, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining full control over the internal and external quantum states of molecules is the central goal of ultracold chemistry and allows for the study of coherent molecular dynamics, collisions and tests of fundamental laws of physics. When the molecules additionally have a permanent electric dipole moment, the study of dipolar quantum gases and spin-systems with long-range interactions as well as applications in quantum information processing are possible. Rydberg molecules constitute a class of exotic molecules, which are bound by the interaction between the Rydberg electron and the ground state atom. They exhibit extreme bond lengths of hundreds of Bohr radii and giant permanent dipole moments in the kilo-Debye range. A special type with exceptional properties are the so-called butterfly molecules, whose electron density resembles the shape of a butterfly. Here, we report on the photoassociation of butterfly Rydberg molecules and their orientation in a weak electric field. Starting from a Bose-Einstein cond...

  13. Butterfly rash with periodontitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashes can occur in any part of the body. But rash which appears on face has got both psychological and cosmetic effect on the patient. Rashes on face can sometimes be very challenging to physicians and dermatologists and those associated with oral manifestations pose a challenge to dentists. Butterfly rash is a red flat facial rash involving the malar region bilaterally and the bridge of the nose. The presence of a butterfly rash is generally a sign of lupus erythematosus (LE, but it can also include a plethora of conditions. The case presented here is of a female with butterfly rash along with typical bright red discoloration of gingiva. The clinical, histopathological and biochemical investigations suggested the presence of rosacea.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CABBAGE (BRASSICA OLERACEA AFTER INFECTION OF PEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeplata Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Brassicaceae family include worldwide commercially grown crops. Experiments on this crop were conducted during the year 2011 in Vidhania and Jaisinghpura of Jaipur district Rajasthan, India. The aim of this study is to find out primary metabolites like chlorophyll, sugar starch protein total phenol of cauliflower. Levels of plant metabolites are strongly affected by genetic and environmental factors. Growth factors such as light, temperature, humidity, type of soil, application of fertilizers, damage caused by microorganisms and insects, stress induced by UV radiation, heavy metals and pesticides all alter metabolite composition of plants. Different types of pests’ cause changes in plant metabolite production. The results revealed the evidence of different infestation of cabbage by common herbivores. In this review we report primary metabolites of the cabbage along with the quantification after the pests’ effect.

  15. Resistance of cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) populations to Mamestra brassicae (L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Lema Márquez, Margarita; Vilar, Marta; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea capitata group) crops are severely damaged by different insect pests. Larvae of lepidopterous pests feed on foliage, creating large holes in leaves. Cabbage plants can tolerate some feeding damage before head formation. However, as larvae grow, they move to the center of the plant, boring into the cabbage head and resulting in head deformation, which reduce product marketability (Shelton et al., 1982). Feeding damage also increases the plants’ susceptibility to dise...

  16. Blanching as a Treatment Process: Effect on Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen; Jaiswal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Cabbage is considered an excellent source ofpolyphenolswith substantial antioxidant properties associated with the alleviation of oxidative stress and the prevention of free-radical mediated diseases. Many cabbage varieties are typically blanched prior to consumption mainly to enhance associated sensory attributes. Conventional hot water (80-100°C) or steam blanching are the most industrially applied methods. Blanching causes adverse losses in the antioxidant capacity of cabbage with over 70%...

  17. COST OF CABBAGE PRODUCTION IN MONROE COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dartt, Barbara; Black, J. Roy; Marks, Paul; Morrone, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin represents a tool that can help producers, consultants, educators, and agribusinesses working with producers estimate costs of production and expected profit based on "typical" cabbage management strategies found in Monroe County, Michigan. The budget included in this bulletin will allow users to revise inputs based on their management strategies and calculate their expected cost and profit. This flexibility provides a decision aid to search for systems that generate higher net ...

  18. Physiology and Proteomics of Cabbage Under Heat and Flooding Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang KY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and excess rain, which can lead to heat and flooding stresses, seriously impact the yield and quality of cabbages. Two cabbage cultivars were examined in this study: heat- and flooding-tolerant ‘Sha-sha-jieu’ and heat-tolerant but flooding-sensitive ‘Mi-ni’. The goals of this study were to investigate leaf proteomic and physiological changes in plants responding to treatments of high temperature, flooding, and both stresses combined. Fortyfive- day-old cabbage plants at temperatures of 22°C or 40°C were treated separately with or without flooding in growth chambers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Treatment at 22°C without flooding was used as the control. Changes in stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence of stressed leaves indicate that ‘Mi-ni’ suffered more severely than ‘Sha-sha-jieu’. Separated by 2-dimensional liquid phase fractionation, 25 and 26 expressed protein spots were extracted from the stressed leaves of ‘Mi-ni’ and ‘Sha-sha-jieu’, respectively. Most of the differentially expressed proteins identified by matrixassisted laser desorption/ ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were involved in photosynthesis and ATP synthesis. The most highly expressed proteins were ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO, oxygen evolving enhancer (OEE, and chloroplastic ATP synthase. However, both serine/threonine protein phosphatase 7 inactive homolog and entatricopeptide repeat-containing protein At1g79540 exhibited relatively lower expression under high temperature and flooding. In response to high temperature and flooding, proteins such as RubisCO, OEE protein 1, and chloroplastic ATP synthase generally increased, indicating that the regulation of energy production is critical for tolerating heat and flood stressing in cabbages.

  19. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb. DC. (Rubiaceae, a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season.

  20. Enantioselective degradation of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiyun; Zhang, Qing; Cong, Lujing; Yin, Wei; Wang, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective degradation behaviors of the acylamino acid fungicide metalaxyl in vegetables (cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi) under field and greenhouse conditions were elucidated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) chiral column (Lux Cellulose-2) was used for the chiral separation of the enantiomers using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution (40:60, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The two enantiomers could be completely separated with a resolution (Rs) of 5.2. The linearity range, matrix effect, precision and recovery were evaluated. The method was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi under different conditions. The results showed that R-enantiomer dissipated faster than S-enantiomer in cucumber of greenhouse. Inversely, a preferential degradation of S-form was found in spinach and pakchoi under field and greenhouse conditions. No stereoselective degradation in cabbage was observed. These results can be applied for evaluating the environmental risk and food safety. PMID:24080002

  1. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  2. Wheels and Butterflies: Title, Structure, Cover Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Warwick

    2015-01-01

    The gold-stamped heraldic design of Yeats’s Wheels and Butterflies (London: Macmillan, 1934; Wade 175), together with a colour to approximate to that of the cloth on that book, have been represented on the top board of the present volume. In Wheels and Butterflies that device was also replicated in black on the title-page. It was created by an unknown (and probably in-house) artist commissioned by Macmillan, working from photographs of masks by Hildo Van Krop for Vrouwe Emer’s Groote Strijd, ...

  3. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  4. Photonic structures in butterfly Thaumantis diores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; LI Qi; ZHOU Ji; LI Longtu

    2004-01-01

    @@ The beauty created by Nature always inspires people to fabricate artificial structures with certain functions in a bionic way. There has been a great interest in photonic band gap (PBG) materials since the concept was first proposed by Yablonovich[1] and John[2] in 1987. However, Nature had already created these PBG structures in living organisms long since, as was found recently in the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly[3], sea mouse Aphrodita[4], male Ancyluris meliboeus Fabricius butterflies[5], male peacock Pavo muticus feathers[6], and weevil Pachyrhynchus argus[7].

  5. Advantages of butterfly valves for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfly valves are increasingly used in nuclear power plants. They are used in CANDU reactors for class 2 and 3 service, to provide emergency and tight shutoff valves for all inlets and outlets of heat exchangers and all calandria penetrations. Guidelines for meeting nuclear power plant valve specifications are set out in ASME Section 3, Nuclear Power Plant Components. Some details of materials of construction, type of actuator, etc., for various classes of nuclear service are tabulated in the present article. The 'fishtail' butterfly valve is an improved design with reduced drag, as is illustrated and explained. (N.D.H.)

  6. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

  7. Variance components and correlations of agronomic traits among cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. maturity groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the variability and correlation of cabbage traits in different maturity groups. The study included early spring cabbages (planted in early spring, harvested in early summer and autumn cabbages (planted in mid-summer, harvested in late autumn. Using coefficients of variation and correlation coefficients, we analyzed 17 cabbage traits in 35 commercially grown cultivars, F1 hybrids, and experimental F1 hybrids. The traits were analyzed separately for each maturity group. In the early cabbages, the coefficients of variation ranged from 4.8 to 44.2%. The calculated correlation coefficients differed between the two maturity groups. The early cabbages had 26 significant positive correlations. The positive correlations calculated among different traits of early cabbages defined this group fully and made it distinct from the late-maturing genotypes. Plant height and rosette diameter in the early genotypes were highly positively correlated with rosette weight, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, head height, and head diameter. Plant height and rosette diameter participate in the formation of active photosynthetic area in early cabbages. Rosette width in these genotypes provides a greater influx of light and heat, which results in greater head weight. Also, in early cabbages that have greater plant height, the leaf rosette will not lie on the cold surface of the ground in the spring. The activity of the cabbage plant is thus more focused towards the formation of larger head weight. Head volume in the late genotypes was highly positively correlated with rosette diameter, whole plant weight, head weight, usable portion of head, inner stem length, and head height. In late cabbages plant activity is directed towards the formation of head volume due to the longer duration of the growth period, larger leaves, and differences in climatic conditions.

  8. Fine structure of the butterfly diagram revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Balázs

    The latitudinal time distribution of sunspots (butterfly diagram) was studied by Becker (1959) and Antalová & Gnevyshev (1985). Our goal is to revisit these studies. In the first case we check whether there is a poleward migration in sunspot activity. In the second case we confirm the results, and make more quantitative statements concerning their significance and the position of the activity peaks.

  9. A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report explores a unique and treatable "butterfly"- glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a "butterfly" lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast-enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic "broken-ring" pattern of enhancement, mass-effect and low perfusion; features favoring an alternative inflammatory pathology. This was peculiar as calloso-forniceal involvement of this nature has not been previously reported in inflammatory demyelinating mass lesions. This was confirmed as a tumefactive demyelination on histopathology. Following treatment, on clinical and imaging follow-up, significant resolution was evident suggesting a monophasic illness. This case highlights the stringent clinico-radiological-pathological approach required in the evaluation and management of butterfly lesions despite the striking imaging appearances. Tumefactive demyelination in this patient represents a clinically isolated syndromic presentation of an inflammatory pathology that can resemble gliomatosis cerebri. These "butterfly"-glioma mimics are scarcely reported in the literature, are eminently treatable with variable prognosis and prone for relapse.

  10. Lieb-Robinson and the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    As experiments are increasingly able to probe the quantum dynamics of systems with many degrees of freedom, it is interesting to probe fundamental bounds on the dynamics of quantum information. We elaborate on the relationship between one such bound---the Lieb-Robinson bound---and the butterfly effect in strongly-coupled quantum systems. The butterfly effect implies the ballistic growth of local operators in time, which can be quantified with the "butterfly" velocity $v_B$. Similarly, the Lieb-Robinson velocity places a state independent ballistic upper bound on the size of time evolved operators in non-relativistic lattice models. Here, we argue that $v_B$ is a state-dependent effective Lieb-Robinson velocity. We study the butterfly velocity in a wide variety of quantum field theories using holography and compare with free particle computations to understand the role of strong coupling. We find that, depending on the way length and time scale, $v_B$ acquires a temperature dependence and decreases towards the...

  11. An Opera Opportunity: Butterfly in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jeri

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a program of the Lyric Opera Company of Chicago (Illinois) that brought opera to the classroom of students with deafness in grades three through six. The four-session program explored vocabulary, music, story-telling, and Japanese culture and culminated in a student production of "Madame Butterfly." (JDD)

  12. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  13. Functional significance of butterfly wing morphology variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shreeve, T.; Konvička, Martin; Van Dyck, H.

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2009 - (Settele, J.; Shreeve, T.; Konvička, M.; Van Dyck, H.), s. 171-188 ISBN 978-0-521-76697-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  15. Tetrapterous butterfly attractors in modified Lorenz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the Lorenz-type tetrapterous butterfly attractors are firstly reported. With the introduction of multiple segment piecewise linear functions, these interesting and complex attractors are obtained from two different modified Lorenz models. This approach are verified in both simulations and experiments.

  16. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  17. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  18. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  19. A preliminary checklist of butterflies recorded from Jeypore-Dehing forest, eastern Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Gogoi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some of the rare butterfly species recorded during February 2010-October 2011 in the lowland semi-evergreen Jeypore rainforest of upper Assam along with a preliminary checklist of the area. Altogether, 292 species were recorded based on the survey conducted in different seasons. Important sightings include the report of White Punch longicaudata, Pale Striped Dawnfly Capilia zennara, Blue Quaker Pithecops fulgens etc and range extension of Andaman Yellow-banded Flat Celaenorrhinus andamanicus hanna to northeastern India.

  20. On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Xuan; Fu, Fang-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failure probability p.

  1. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity - a speed at which quantum information propagates - may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  2. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seas...

  3. Butterflies of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra State, central India

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Tiple

    2011-01-01

    Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State, India, is gifted with diverse butterfly habitats. A comprehensive review of various studies on butterflies from this region was carried out. Based on all previous studies, approximately 167 species of butterflies, belonging to 90 genera representing five families were reported. Besides this, seven species reported from the region by previous workers appear to be unusual records for the Vidarbha region. These are treated separately. Out of the 167 species ...

  4. Metamorphosis of a Butterfly-Associated Bacterial Community

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Tobin J.; Owen McMillan, W; Noah Fierer

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Ill...

  5. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. PMID:26314013

  6. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived

  7. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host-ant-dependent o......Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host...

  8. Navigational mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind their southward navigation while using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and are probably integrated in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs might also use a magnetic compass because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are now being used with the aim of identifying navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism in which to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. PMID:20627420

  9. Fractional Statistics and the Butterfly Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we point out a connection between quantum chaos, known as the "butterfly effect", in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characteristics of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  10. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. PMID:25863635

  11. A new experimental hybrid of cabbage suitable for early production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes experimental hybrids of early cabbage developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in the previous period. The hybrids were tested together for two years and then one (H17 was chosen and submitted to the Variety Commission of the Republic of Serbia. In 2011, the experimental hybrid H17 was officially released as an early cabbage hybrid and registered under the name of NS Mendo F1. The hybrid had been developed by crossing two early lines, one of which was sterile. It is characterized by a short growing season - 65 days from transplanting to harvest. The head weight ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 kg depending on the cultural practice applied. The head is light green in color, sweet-tasting, and suitable for fresh consumption. The hybrid’s traits that contributed significantly to the formation of the first principal component were in fact those that the breeders attach most importance to in their breeding programs. These are the traits that directly influence the market value of a new hybrid and make a given hybrid recognizable on the market. Most notable among such traits are head weight and the weight of the useful part of the head.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31030

  12. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  13. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the signifi...

  14. Navigational Mechanisms of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Reppert, Steven M.; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind the navigation south, using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and likely integrated in the brain’s central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs may also use...

  15. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly...

  16. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Underwater flight by the planktonic sea butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David W; Adhikari, Deepak; Webster, Donald R; Yen, Jeannette

    2016-02-01

    In a remarkable example of convergent evolution, we show that the zooplanktonic sea butterfly Limacina helicina 'flies' underwater in the same way that very small insects fly in the air. Both sea butterflies and flying insects stroke their wings in a characteristic figure-of-eight pattern to produce lift, and both generate extra lift by peeling their wings apart at the beginning of the power stroke (the well-known Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism). It is highly surprising to find a zooplankter 'mimicking' insect flight as almost all zooplankton swim in this intermediate Reynolds number range (Re=10-100) by using their appendages as paddles rather than wings. The sea butterfly is also unique in that it accomplishes its insect-like figure-of-eight wing stroke by extreme rotation of its body (what we call 'hyper-pitching'), a paradigm that has implications for micro aerial vehicle (MAV) design. No other animal, to our knowledge, pitches to this extent under normal locomotion. PMID:26889002

  18. Nonrandom Distribution of Cabbage Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Dryland Canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica napus L.), and their gradual spread over a 7-wk period was characterized. The small-plot experiment demonstrated gradient effects from plot centers and a nonrandom vertical distribution, with initial colonization occurring on the abaxial side of lower canopy leaves and, later, highest numbers of cabbage aphids occurring on racemes. We also conducted large-scale distribution analyses of cabbage aphid infestations in two commercial canola fields, using visual inspection and sweep net sampling. We used canola plant phenological and landscape features as explanatory variables of the spatial distribution of cabbage aphid counts. These large-scale experiments showed strong edge effects with negative associations between cabbage aphid counts and distance to crop edges, including tree lines and contour banks. Cabbage aphid distribution was more effectively displayed using logistic regression than ordinary regression, Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs, or both. Based on the study findings, a nonrandom or optimized inspection approach is proposed to focus monitoring efforts on canola plants within 20 m from field edges with particular attention to the abaxial side of lower-canopy leaves. Detection of advanced cabbage aphid infestations should target the racemes within 20 m from field edges. PMID:26313983

  19. Quantity of glucosinolates in 10 cabbage genotypes and their impact on the feeding of Mamestra brassicae caterpillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohinc Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, we studied the glucosinolate content in 5 cultivars and 5 cabbage hybrids grown outdoors in order to study their influence on the feeding of cabbage moth caterpillars (Mamestra brassicae. The selected genotypes were categorized into three groups, early (the growth period from 55 to 70 days, mid-early (80-90 days and mid-late (110-140 days, while the samples of cabbage for glucosinolate analysis were taken at five intervals, during which we also assessed genotypes for the extent of damage caused by caterpillars. We found that the feeding of caterpillars affected primarily the mid-early and mid-late genotypes of cabbage, and that the glucosinolate content among the different cabbage genotypes varies. The highest content of the analyzed glucosinolates was established in mid-late genotypes. Glucobrassicin was the only glucosinolate found in all cabbage genotypes, yet its antixenotic effect (r=0.20 was very low. We found that sinalbin negatively affects the feeding of cabbage moth caterpillars in mid-early cabbage genotypes (r=-0.34, while the same effect of sinigrin on the extent of damage can be observed in mid-late genotypes (r=-0.27. We have established a strong or moderate correlation between the gluconapin (r=0.87 and progoitrin (r=0.66 contents in mid-late genotypes and the extent of damage caused by caterpillars. Our research proves that different cabbage genotypes are responsible for different susceptibilities to damage by the cabbage moth, and that one of the factors of natural resistance of cabbage are also glucosinolates. Despite this, due to their variability in cabbage we cannot precisely determine the set of genotypes that would ensure a higher cabbage yield as a result of less damage caused by the cabbage moth. Thus, we need to identify in more detail the reasons for the time and quantum variability of glucosinolates in Brassicaceae.

  20. Climatic Risk Atlas of European Butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Settele

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overarching aim of the atlas is to communicate the potential risks of climatic change to the future of European butterflies. The main objectives are to: (1 provide a visual aid to discussions on climate change risks and impacts on biodiversity and thus contribute to risk communication as a core element of risk assessment; (2 present crucial data on a large group of species which could help to prioritise conservation efforts in the face of climatic change; (3 reach a broader audience through the combination of new scientific results with photographs of all treated species and some straight forward information about the species and their ecology. The results of this atlas show that climate change is likely to have a profound effect on European butterflies. Ways to mitigate some of the negative impacts are to (1 maintain large populations in diverse habitats; (2 encourage mobility across the landscape; (3 reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses; (4 allow maximum time for species adaptation; (4 conduct further research on climate change and its impacts on biodiversity. The book is a result of long-term research of a large international team of scientists, working at research institutes and non-governmental organizations, many within the framework of projects funded by the European Commission. Each chapter may be browsed/downloaded from the links below: 0. COVER, TITLE PAGE, CONTENTS [PDF, 608 KB] A. CLIMATE CHANGE, BIODIVERSITY, BUTTERFLIES, AND RISK ASSESSMENT [PDF, 208 KB] B. METHODOLOGY [PDF, 516 KB] C. CLIMATE RISKS OF EUROPEAN BUTTERFLY SPECIES. Introduction and Hesperidae [PDF, 5.6 MB]; Papilionidae [PDF, 1.61 MB]; Pieridae [PDF, 5.0 MB]; Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Libytheidae [PDF, 12 MB]; Nymphalidae, Danaidae [PDF, 21.2 MB]; Non-modelled species and summary [PDF, 328 KB] D. DISCUSSION OF METHODOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS [PDF, 572 KB] E. OUTLOOK: CLIMATE CHANGE AND BUTTERFLY CONSERVATION [PDF, 228 KB] F. APPENDICES, REFERENCES AND INDEX [PDF, 424

  1. Experimental confirmation of a new reversed butterfly-shaped attractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ling; Su Yan-Chen; Liu Chong-Xin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a new reverse butterfly-shaped chaotic attractor and its experimental confirmation. Some basic dynamical properties, and chaotic behaviours of this new reverse butterfly attractor are studied. Simulation results support brief theoretical derivations. Furthermore, the system is experimentally confirmed by a simple electronic circuit.

  2. Metamorphosis of a butterfly-associated bacterial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobin J Hammer

    Full Text Available Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies.

  3. A European perspective on butterfly habitats and their conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin

    Wageningen : De Vlinderstichting, 2008. s. 76-76. ISBN N. [International Symposium Future of Butterflies in Europe II. 17.04.2008-19.04.2008, Wageningen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Developing "Butterfly Warriors": A Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen…

  5. Metabolism of the insecticide metofluthrin in cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Daisuke; Fukushima, Masao; Fujisawa, Takuo; Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2012-03-14

    The metabolic fate of metofluthrin [2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl (E,Z)-(1R,3R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(prop-1-enyl)cyclopropanecarboxylate] separately labeled with (14)C at the carbonyl carbon and the α-position of the 4-methoxymethylbenzyl ring was studied in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ). An acetonitrile solution of (14)C-metofluthrin at 431 g ai ha(-1) was once applied topically to cabbage leaves at head-forming stage, and the plants were grown for up to 14 days. Each isomer of metofluthrin applied onto the leaf surface rapidly volatilized into the air and was scarcely translocated to the untreated portion. On the leaf surface, metofluthrin was primarily degraded through ozonolysis of the propenyl side chain to produce the secondary ozonide, which further decomposed to the corresponding aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives. In the leaf tissues, the 1R-trans-Z isomer was mainly metabolized to its dihydrodiol derivative probably via an epoxy intermediate followed by saccharide conjugation in parallel with the ester cleavage, whereas no specific metabolite was dominant for the 1R-trans-E isomer. Isomerization of metofluthrin at the cyclopropyl ring was negligible for both isomers. In this study, the chemical structure of each secondary ozonide derivative was fully elucidated by the various modes of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with cochromatography with the synthetic standard, and their cis/trans configuration was examined by the nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) difference NMR spectrum. PMID:22224911

  6. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes...

  7. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hong-Duck, E-mail: nanumenv@hanmail.net [Ministry of Environment, Geum River Basin Environmental Office, 409 Daehak-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chae-Sung, E-mail: shyknight@nate.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Koo, E-mail: minkookang@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Ill, E-mail: gatorlee@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  8. Yields, Quality and Metal Accumulation of Chinese Cabbage Irrigated with Diary Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Linxian Liao; Wangwei Cai; Xiaohou Shao; Junyi Tan

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the short-term effects of wastewater (dairy effluent) and EM treated wastewater on cabbage quality (vitamin C, nitrate), yield, Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) uptakes and heavy metals (i.e., Hg, Pb and Cd) accumulation in Cabbage, field experiments were conducted with the following irrigation treatments: Clean Water (CW), Waste Water (WW), Reclaimed Water-EM treated wastewater (RW), Clear Water-wastewater rotation (C/W) and clear water-treated wastewater rotation (C/...

  9. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips, R. E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with these differences, in field experiments with natural infestation in 2005 and 2006. One factor affecting the amount of thrips damage was the timing of the development of the head. In an experiment wit...

  10. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. ► The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. ► Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. ► The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  11. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  12. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by $D_c = C v_B^2/ (2 \\pi T)$ where $v_B$ is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality, $C$, depends only on the scaling exponents of the infra-red theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  13. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the significance of light migration. PMID:24960099

  14. Field Evaluation of a Novel Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Attracticide for the Management of Zonocerus variegatus on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbilla, J. A.; Lawson, B. W.; Yeboah-Gyan, K.

    Cabbage, Brassica oleraceae var. capitata is an important vegetable grown and consumed in Ghana. Apart from infestations of the lepidopterous Plutella xylostella and Hellula undalis resulting from continuous cultivation, a new pest Zonocerus variegatus has been reported to causing damage to the crop. The efficacy of a novel pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) based novel PA-attracticide developed from treating the roots of the neophyte, Chromolaena odorata which contains PAs with Carbofuran 3G for the management of Z. variegatus was tested using cabbage as a test crop in field caged plots. Field caged plots of cabbage artificially infested with Z. variegatus were treated with and without PA-attracticide in addition to a control treatment of caged cabbage plot with no insect and PA-attracticide. The experimental design was a RCB replicated three times in two ecological zones. The results showed that the establishment, leaf and head damage of cabbage was statistically the same in the PA-treated plots and the control treatment. These treatments, however, performed significantly better than the treatment without PA-attracticide. The results obtained holds promise for mitigating the menace of the grasshopper on cabbage using PA based attracticides.

  15. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroto [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  16. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  17. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  18. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  19. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

    2012-05-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

  20. Interactions between butterfly scales and unsteady flows during flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

    2008-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales could play a part in controlling separation in this 3-dimensional complex flow field. Biomimetic applications of butterfly scales may aid in the development of flapping wing micro air vehicles. In this study, we observed that the orientation of the scales may relate to the local flow field, and might move or shift during flight. Monarch butterflies were trained to fly in a low speed smoke tunnel for visualization. Scales were removed from the leading and trailing edges and specimens were photographed at 500 frames per second. Variation in flapping pattern and flight fitness are discussed.

  1. Karner blue butterfly: Annual summary for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses research being conducted on the Karner blue butterfly and historic landscape changes in Necedah National Wildlife Refuge.

  2. Butterfly Count 2001 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the data sheets from the annual butterfly count at Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge for 2001. There were 20 people involved in this one-day survey.

  3. Butterfly Count 2002 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the data sheets from the annual butterfly count at Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge for 2002. There were 20 people involved in this one-day survey.

  4. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales : biological photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron mic

  5. Butterflies of North Mississippi National Wildlife Refuges and

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Contains an inventory of collected and potential butterflies found on or near Dahomey and Tallahatchie NWRs. Report does not give specific locations of collected...

  6. Diversification of clearwing butterflies with the rise of the Andes

    OpenAIRE

    De-Silva, D. L.; Ellias, M.; Wilmott, K.; Mallet, J; Day, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Despite the greatest butterfly diversity on Earth occurring in the Neotrop- ical Andes and Amazonia, there is still keen debate about the origins of this exceptional biota. A densely sampled calibrated phylogeny for a widespread butterfly subtribe, Oleriina (Nymphalidae: Ithomiini) was used to estimate the origin, colonization history and diversification of this species-rich group. Location Neotropics. Methods Ancestral elevation and biogeographical ranges were reconstructed using data ge...

  7. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-01-01

    Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp.), Pieridae (17 spp), Lycaenidae (47 spp.), Nymphalidae (40 spp.) and Hesperiidae (28 spp.). The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  8. Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?

    OpenAIRE

    Schuessler, M.; Schmitt, D

    2004-01-01

    We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnet...

  9. Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark–release–r...

  10. BUTTERFLIES OF THE VLASINA REGION IN SOUTHEAST SERBIA (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tot, Ivan Stevica; Slacki, Anja; Đurić, Milan; Popović, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Although the Vlasina plateau has proved to be an interesting area hosting diverse and unique flora and fauna, its butterflies have not been thoroughly studied. Consolidating several known records and our field observations, a total of 101 butterfly species were listed for this region. The area hosts a number of important species to be conserved under Natura 2000 and Emerald networks and a significant number of nationally important species. The most interesting record is Colias caucasica, a bu...

  11. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp., Pieridae (17 spp, Lycaenidae (47 spp., Nymphalidae (40 spp. and Hesperiidae (28 spp.. The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  12. Fine mapping and identification of candidate Bo-or gene controlling orange head of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange head Chinese cabbage accumulates significant amounts of carotenoids with enhanced nutritional quality. To develop molecular markers for breeding of Chinese cabbage lines with high carotenoid content and to isolate the candidate gene underlying carotenoid synthesis, we performed fine mapping ...

  13. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. PMID:26654884

  14. Steel-fabricated butterfly valves for condenser circulating water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steel-fabricated butterfly valves, which are large in general, and gave rubber linings inside to prevent the corrosion due to sea Water, are utilized for the condenser circulating water systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. Cast iron butterfly valves, having been used hitherto, have some technical irrationalities, such as corrosion prevention, the techniques for manufacturing large castings, severe thermal transient operation. On the contrary, the steel plate-fabricated butterfly valves have the following advantages; much superior characteristics in strength, rigidity and shock resistance, the streamline shape of valve plates, the narrow width between two flanges, superior execution of works for rubber lining, the perfect sealed structure, safety to vibration, light weight and easy maintenance. The structural design and the main specifications for the steel plate butterfly valves with the nominal bore from 1350 mm to 3500 mm are presented. Concerning the design criteria, the torque of operating butterfly valves and the strength of valve bodies, valve plates and valve stems are explained. The performance tests utilizing the mock-up valve were carried out for the measurements of stress distribution, the deformation of valve body, the endurance and the operating torque. In the welding standards for steel plate butterfly valves, three kinds of welded parts are classified, and the inspection method for each part is stipulated. The vibration of the valves induced by flow vortexes and cavitation is explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  15. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  16. Developing `Butterfly Warriors': a Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-12-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen scientists. The butterfly unit included five lessons. The researchers observed the lessons and interviewed students and the classroom teacher. The students completed a unit evaluation survey after the unit. Findings indicate that the students enjoyed and were interested in activities such as reading about butterflies, learning and using new vocabulary, drawing butterfly life cycles, as well as hunting, tagging and releasing butterflies and publishing the data they had collected on a dedicated website. Through their participation in the unit, students had opportunities to act locally and globally, and to `see themselves' in science through `being there' experience. Units like this have the potential to develop students' interest for longer-term engagement in science, even those students who may never envision themselves as professional scientists.

  17. Butterfly cartilage graft versus fat graft myringoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Kanotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the graft take up rates of two minimally invasive techniques of butterfly cartilage graft (BCG and fat graft myringoplasty (FGM. Materials and Methods: Two groups of 30 patients each with small dry central perforations of the tympanic membrane (T.M. were randomly subjected to either of the two techniques of myringoplasty. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were compared using the Chi-square test. A value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The graft take up rate was 93.3% with BCG and 83.3% with fat graft. Conclusions: The BCG scores over FGM in small perforations of the T.M.

  18. Control of cabbage diamondback moth by integrating the sterile insect technique and parasitoids in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mass rearing of DBM was carried out on cauliflower, cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae collection on aluminum foil was tested. Storage of pupae and larvae was carried out in 16 deg. C incubator and 5-10 deg. C refrigerator. Different doses of gamma radiation: 10Kr, 15Kr and 20Kr were tested to established the effective gamma radiation dose. Each one hundred cabbage plants were selected and marked for regular observations of DBM populations in control plots to assess the frequency distribution of DBM adult population in cabbage fields. DBM larvae were collected in control plots to assess the rate of DBM larvae with the parasitoid - Cotesia plutellae in fields. Mass rearing of DBM on cauliflower was better than rearing on cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae collection on cauliflower was better than those of cabbage, mustard and artificial diet. Pupae could be stored successfully for 2 weeks in 16 deg. C incubator and 5-10 deg. C refrigerator. DBM larvae reared on cauliflower could be stored for 7 days at 5-10 deg. c refrigerator. Radiation doses of 10Kr gave better results than 15 Kr and 20 Kr. 1-5 DBM adults were found in most of the plants during the season. Percentage of DBM larvae parasitised by the parasitoid - Cotesia plutellae was 30-40% in the field. (author)

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties “GHA” and “XK,” respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Heat-Responsive Genes in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aihua; Hu, Jihong; Huang, Xingxue; Li, Xia; Zhou, Guolin; Yan, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27443222

  1. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. PMID:26743786

  2. Transfer of uranium and radium to Chinese cabbage from soil containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 238U and 226Ra to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt) was investigated from soils contaminated with uranium-mill tailings (UMT) by means of a pot experiment in laboratory-based conditions applying different levels of soil contamination under various growing conditions. Activity concentrations for 226Ra in Chinese cabbage varied from 56-276, 156-502 and 277-877 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 20, 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively, and for 238U from 1.0-2.3 and 2.3-4.7 Bq kg-1 dry mass for 40 and 60 % of UMT content in the soil, respectively. The results showed increased accumulation of 226Ra and low accumulation of 238U in cabbage leaves in more contaminated soil. (author)

  3. Identification of Chinese cabbage genotypes with low cadmium accumulation for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pot-culture experiment and field studies were conducted to screen out and identify cadmium (Cd) excluders from 40 Chinese cabbage genotypes for food safety. The results of the pot-culture experiment indicated that the shoot Cd concentrations under three treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg Cd kg-1 Soil) varied significantly (p -1, respectively. The Cd concentrations in 12 cabbage genotypes were lower than 0.50 mg kg-1. The enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) in 8 cabbage genotypes were lower than 1.0. The field studies further identified Lvxing 70 as a Cd-excluder genotype (CEG), which is suitable to be planted in low Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration should be lower than 1.25 mg kg-1) for food safety. - Lvxing 70 was identified as a Cd-excluder genotype (CEG) and suitable to be cultivated in low Cd-contaminated soils for food safety.

  4. Determining Crop and Pan Coefficients for Cauliflower and Red Cabbage Crops Under Cool Season Semiarid Climatic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ustun Sahin; Yasemin Kuslu; Talip Tunc; Fatih Mehmet Kiziloglu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the evapotranspiration of cauliflower and red cabbage crops grown under cool season semiarid climatic conditions from Class A pan evaporation. Actual evapotranspiration (Etc) of cauliflower and red cabbage crops was calculated according to the water balance approach. Reference evapotranspiration (Etc) was calculated with Fad Penman-Monteith equation. Pan evaporation (Epan) was measured by using Class A pan. Seasonal Etc was determined as 475 mm for cauliflower and 556 mm for red cabbage. Seasonal pan coefficient (kp=Eto/Epan) was determined as 0.82, and the seasonal crop coefficient (kc = Etc/Eto) was determined as 0.84 for cauliflower and 0.83 for red cabbage. So the evapotranspiration of cauliflower and red cabbage crops was estimated as 70% Class A pan evaporation.

  5. Phenotype microarray profiling of the antibacterial activity of red cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh RR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional food can be a potent source of wide array of biocomonents with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the antibacterial activity of red cabbage (RC extract on Gram negative and positive ATCC strains. Most intersting, we, for the first time, explored and analysed the complete phenotypic profile of RC-treated bacteria using Omnilog Phenotype Microarray. Results: This study revealed that the phenotype microarray (PM screen was a valuable tool in the search for compounds and their antibacterial mechanisms that can inhibit bacterial growth by affecting certain metabolic pathways. It was shown that RC exerted remarkable antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, and PM showed a wide range phenotypic profile of the exerted RC antibacterial activity. RC targeted the peptide, carbon, nutriontional assembly, and sulfur metbolic pathways altogether. The peptidoglycan synthesis pathway was inferred to be targeted by RC extract at a metabolic point different from other available cell wall-targeting drugs; these could be hot targets for the discovery of new therapy for many problematic microbes.Conclusions: Taken together, the phenotype microarray for functional food and medicinal plants can be a very useful tool for profiling their antimicrobial activity. Moreover, extracts of functional food can exert antibacterial activity by hitting a wide range of metabolic pathways, at the same time leading to very difficult condition for bacteria to rapidly develop resistance. Therefore, using functional foods or medicinal plants as such, or as extracts, can be superior on mono-targeting antibiotics if the optimal concentrations and conditions of these functional foods were sought.

  6. K+ Excretion: The Other Purpose for Puddling Behavior in Japanese Papilio Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water w...

  7. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'; Minahanggari Mukti; Muhammad Fathoni Hamzah; Arif Mustakim; Zainal Abidin

    2013-01-01

    Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in th...

  8. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, M; Bisch-Knaden, S.; Schäpers, A.; Mozuraitis, R.; Hansson, B; Janz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, w...

  9. Quality of Cabbage Cultivars Intended for Fermentation in the Ogulin Region

    OpenAIRE

    Nadica Dobričević; Stjepan Pliestić

    2004-01-01

    Fresh cabbage intended for fermentation should have solid and robust heads with the soluble dry matter content above 3% and light coloured external leaves. Heads are prepared in a 5.5% sodium chloride concentration brine. Biological fermentation proceeds at a temperature of 18-22 °C, in the dark and under anaerobic conditions. The research objective is to find out whether the quality of fresh and fermented cabbage of hybrid cultivars can compete with and replace the cultivar ´Varaždinski´ in ...

  10. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria improved growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Turan, Metin; EKİNCİ, Melek; YILDIRIM, Ertan; GÜNEŞ, Adem; Karagöz, Kenan; KOTAN, Recep; Dursun, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to observe the effects of Bacillus megaterium strain TV-91C, Pantoea agglomerans strain RK-92, and B. subtilis strain TV-17C inoculation on the growth, nutrient, and hormone content of cabbage seedlings. The seeds of cabbage were incubated in flasks by shaking at 80 rpm for 2 h at 28 °C to coat the seeds with the rhizobacteria. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments increased fresh and dry shoot and root weight, stem diameter, seedling hei...

  11. Isolation of a cadmium-binding complex from cabbage and tobacco leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C

    1980-01-01

    Cd binding complexes with mol wts of approximately 10k daltons were observed in extracts, protoplast lysates, and protoplast cytosol obtained from the leaves of several plants. Extracts of the roots and stems of cabbage also contain the complex. In cabbage and tobacco the ligand appears to be both inducible and constitutive as determined by its association with Cd acquired either during growth of plants in the presence of the metal or after addition of the metal to extracts of Cd free leaves. Current efforts are directed toward determining the nature of the ligand.

  12. Comparison of the degradation and leaching kinetics of glucosinolates during processing of four Brassicaceae (broccoli, red cabbage, white cabbage, Brussels sprouts)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvan, I.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSs) are secondary metabolites of Brassica vegetables that are associated with health benefits. The concentrations of these compounds are strongly affected by processing of the vegetables. During thermal treatment of Brassicaceae, such as domestic cooking, different mechanisms affect

  13. The Butterfly House Industry: Conservation Risks and Education Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boppré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mass supply and use of butterflies for live exhibits, discusses the risks to biodiversity which this creates, and the educational opportunities it presents. Over the past 30 years a new type of insect zoo has become popular worldwide: the butterfly house. This has given rise to the global Butterfly House Industry (BHI based on the mass production of butterfly pupae as a cash crop. Production is largely carried out by privately-owned butterfly farms in tropical countries, notably Central America and Southeast Asia. Most pupae are exported to North America and Europe, although the number of butterfly houses in tropical countries is growing. The BHI is described with respect to its stakeholders, their diverse interests, and its extent. It is estimated that the global turnover of the BHI is in the order of USD 100 million. From a conservation perspective, there is a tension between risks and benefits. The risks to biodiversity are primarily unsustainable production, potential bastardisation of local faunas and floras, and genetic mixing within and even between butterfly species. This paper discusses general ways of managing these risks. Ethical concerns range from fair trade issues to animal husbandry and the use of wildlife for entertainment. For the risks to biodiversity and unresolved ethical issues to be tolerable, the BHI needs to make a significant contribution to conservation, primarily through effective education about butterfly biology as a means to raise public awareness of basic ecological processes, and conservation and environmental issues. It should also engage with local conservation initiatives. Currently the BHI′s great potential for public good in these respects is rarely realised. The paper concludes by looking at the special nature of the BHI, and its need for effective self-regulation if it is to continue to escape from public scrutiny and the introduction of restrictive regulations. The BHI needs to

  14. Refractive index dependence of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnaeni, Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang

    2016-02-01

    We have observed and utilized butterfly wings of Papilio Ulysses for refractive index sensor. We noticed this butterfly wings have photonic crystal structure, which causes blue color appearance on the wings. The photonic crystal structure, which consists of cuticle and air void, is approximated as one dimensional photonic crystal structure. This photonic crystal structure opens potential to several optical devices application, such as refractive index sensor. We have utilized small piece of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings to characterize refractive index of several liquid base on reflectance spectrum of butterfly wings in the presence of sample liquid. For comparison, we simulated reflectance spectrum of one dimensional photonic crystal structure having material parameter based on real structure of butterfly wings. We found that reflectance spectrum peaks shifted as refractive index of sample changes. Although there is a slight difference in reflectance spectrum peaks between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum, the trend of reflectance spectrum peaks as function of sample's refractive index is the similar. We assume that during the measurement, the air void that filled by sample liquid is expanded due to liquid pressure. This change of void shape causes non-similarity between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum.

  15. Butterfly fauna in Mount Gariwang-san, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Min Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, Korea. A field survey was conducted from 2010 to 2015 using the line transect method. A literature survey was also conducted. A total of 2,037 butterflies belonging to 105 species were recorded. In the estimation of species richness of butterfly, 116 species were estimated to live in Mt. Gariwang-san. In butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, the percentage of northern species was very high and the percentage of grassland species was relatively higher than that of forest edge species and forest interior species. Sixteen red list species were found. In particular, Mimathyma nycteis was only recorded in Mt. Gariwang-san. When comparing the percentage of northern species and southern species including those recorded in previous studies, the percentage of northern species was found to have decreased significantly whereas that of southern species increased. We suggest that the butterfly community, which is distributed at relatively high altitudes on Mt. Gariwang-san, will gradually change in response to climate change.

  16. Direct excitation of butterfly states in Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippe, Carsten; Niederpruem, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Ott, Herwig

    2016-05-01

    Since their first theoretical prediction Rydberg molecules have become an increasing field of research. These exotic states originate from the binding of a ground state atom in the electronic wave function of a highly-excited Rydberg atom mediated by a Fermi contact type interaction. A special class of long-range molecular states, the butterfly states, were first proposed by Greene et al.. These states arise from a shape resonance in the p-wave scattering channel of a ground state atom and a Rydberg electron and are characterized by an electron wavefunction whose density distribution resembles the shape of a butterfly. We report on the direct observation of deeply bound butterfly states of Rydberg molecules of 87 Rb. The butterfly states are studied by high resolution spectroscopy of UV-excited Rydberg molecules. We find states bound up to - 50 GHz from the 25 P1/2 , F = 1 state, corresponding to binding lengths of 50a0 to 500a0 and with permanent electric dipole moments of up to 500 Debye. This distinguishes the observed butterfly states from the previously observed long range Rydberg molecules in rubidium.

  17. Flight testing of live Monarch butterflies to determine the aerodynamic benefit of butterfly scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Amy; Cranford, Jacob; Conway, Jasmine; Slegers, Nathan; Dechello, Nicole; Wilroy, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary adaptations in the morphological structure of butterfly scales (0.1 mm in size) to develop a unique micro-patterning resulting in a surface drag alteration, stem from a probable aerodynamic benefit of minimizing the energy requirement to fly a very lightweight body with comparably large surface area in a low Re flow regime. Live Monarch butterflies were tested at UAHuntsville's Autonomous Tracking and Optical Measurement (ATOM) Laboratory, which uses 22 Vicon T40 cameras that allow for millimeter level tracking of reflective markers at 515 fps over a 4 m × 6 m × 7 m volume. Data recorded included the flight path as well as the wing flapping angle and wing-beat frequency. Insects were first tested with their scales intact, and then again with the scales carefully removed. Differences in flapping frequency and/or energy obtained during flight due to the removal of the scales will be discussed. Initial data analysis indicates that scale removal in some specimens leads to increased flapping frequencies for similar energetic flight or reduced flight speed for similar flapping frequencies. Both results point to the scales providing an aerodynamic benefit, which is hypothesized to be linked to leading-edge vortex formation and induced drag. Funding from the National Science Foundation (CBET and REU) is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Quantum computation over the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

  19. Selection on the wing in Heliconius butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Virginie M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Asbtract To what extent population structure favours the establishment of new phenotypes within a species remains a fundamental question in evolutionary studies. By reducing gene flow, habitat fragmentation is a major factor shaping the genetic structuring of populations, favouring isolation of small populations in which drift may rapidly change frequencies of new variants. When these variants provide advantages to individuals, the combined effect of selection and drift can lead to rapid shifts in phenotypes. In a study published in BMC Genetics, Albuquerque de Moura et al. asked whether such a general pattern of population structure can be observed in Heliconius species, which could have strong implication in the evolution of colour pattern diversification in these butterflies. In this commentary we discuss the potential roles of these three processes (drift, selection and dispersal on the evolution of Heliconius wing patterns in regard to the findings of a common fine-scale population structure within the co-mimetic species H. melpomene and H. erato. Indeed, a general pattern of population subdivision in the history of these two species may have provoked the major phenotypical shifts observed in their wing colour patterns. The suggestion that coupled environmental pressures (counter-selection of dispersal and selection on co-evolved traits could be responsible for identical genetic differentiation profiles in H. erato and H. melpomene clearly merits further investigations using both detailed population genetic (including landscape genetic and ecological studies.

  20. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Sony; P. R. Arun

    2015-01-01

     Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 speci...

  1. The Effect of Wing Scales on Monarch Butterfly Flight Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Angela; Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

    2010-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns in length) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales, which make up approximately 3% of the body weight or less, could play a part in controlling separation and vortex formation in this unsteady, three-dimensional complex flow field. A better understanding of this mechanism may lead to bio-inspired applications for flapping wing micro-air vehicles. In this study, the flight performance of Monarch (Danaus plexippus) butterflies with and without scales was analyzed. Scales were removed from the upper and lower wing surfaces and specimens were videotaped at 600 frames per second. Variation in flapping patterns and flight fitness were observed.

  2. Evaluation on physical properties of irradiated cabbage (Brassica oleracea l. var. acephala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brassica family is well known all over the world, and among their species, the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) is the most consumed in Brazil, as an ingredient of salads and also usual in preparation of a typical Brazilian dish called feijoada. Food irradiation is a world wide spread technology used to improve the quality of vegetables extending the shelf-life and reducing microorganisms present in leafs. Color is the first sensorial aspect realized by consumers, being an important factor of refuse. The objective of this paper was to analyze the color of irradiated cabbage treated by electron beam from a linear accelerator at different radiation doses. The cabbage samples were irradiated at IPEN-CNEN/SP in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics Inc. USA, 1.5 MeV, 25 mA) at doses of 1.0 - 1.5 kGy and also a control sample. Statistical analysis was done to compare the efficacy of different radiation doses. Slight differences in color measurement were observed in the irradiated samples, although the quality of cabbage was maintained until the 7th day of storage. (author)

  3. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  4. Chronic and acute risk assessment of human exposed to novaluron-bifenthrin mixture in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kaiwei; Li, Li; Li, Wei; Yuan, Longfei; Liu, Fengmao

    2016-09-01

    Based on the dissipation and residual level in cabbage determined by gas chromatography coupled with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD), chronic and acute risk assessments of the novaluron and bifenthrin were investigated. At different spiked levels, mean recoveries were between 81 and 108 % with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 1.1 to 6.8 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg kg(-1), and good linearity with correlation coefficient (>0.9997) were obtained. The half-lives of novaluron and bifenthrin in cabbage were in the range of 3.2~10 days. Based on the consumption data in China, the risk quotients (RQs) of novaluron and bifenthrin were all below 100 %. The chronic and acute risk of novaluron in cabbage was relatively low, while bifenthrin exerts higher acute risk to humans than chronic risk. The obtained results indicated that the use of novaluron-bifenthrin mixture does not seem to pose any chronic or acute risk to humans even if cabbages are consumed at high application dosages and short preharvest interval (PHI). PMID:27550439

  5. Rapid enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in artificially contaminated cabbage using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Angela J; Harbison, Sally-Ann; Savill, Marion G; Melton, Laurence D; Fletcher, Graham

    2002-08-01

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method specific for Listeria monocytogenes was developed, and studies involving pure culture showed that the response of the assay was linear over 7 log10 (log) cycles. The method was then applied to the detection of L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated onto cabbage, a vegetable chosen because it is a major component of coleslaw, which has been associated with an outbreak of listeriosis. After being allowed to attach to the food, cells were washed from the cabbage leaf surface and recovered by centrifugation. The DNA was purified by an organic solvent extraction technique and analyzed by real-time PCR. In this matrix, the method again produced a linear response over 7 log cycles from 1.4 x 10(2) to 1.4 x 10(9) CFU of L. monocytogenes in 25 g of cabbage, and analysis of the reproducibility of the system showed that log differences in L. monocytogenes numbers added to cabbage could be reliably distinguished. The system allowed quantitative results to be obtained within 8 h and was relatively inexpensive, showing good potential for routine analytical use. PMID:12182489

  6. Obtaining and Cytological Identification of a Set of Primary Trisomics in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-he; ZHU Hai-yan; LI Xiao-feng; SHEN Shu-xing; CHEN Xue-ping; MAN Hong; XUAN Shu-xin

    2006-01-01

    Selection of primary trisomics of the cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L) forms an important basis for gene chromosome mapping and for other genetic studies. The cabbage self-fertilization line - 9601 was used as material, using the root-tip cell chromosome number and pollen mother cell chromosome number identification and karyotype analysis to select the primary trisomics from the progenies of 3x × 2x in the cabbage. Many aneuploid plants with one or two extra chromosomes were obtained and a set of primary trisomics (Tri-1, Tri-2, Tri-3, Tri-4, Tri-5, Tri-6, Tri-7, Tri-8, and Tri-9, in which the Tri- 1 and Tri-4 were from 2n + 2 plants and others from 2n + 1 plants) was acquired from these plants. Each trisomic exhibited some unique features, such as plant height, plant type, leaf type, size of flower bud, and inflorescence.The triploid crossing by the diploid is a convenient and effective way to select trisomics in the cabbage.

  7. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  8. IMPACT OF BACTERIAL QUORUM SENSING SYSTEM ON CHANGES OF ORGANOLEPTIC MARKERS OF STORAGE CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Myszka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of phenotypes of vegetable-associated bacteria can be mediated through the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs. This knowledge is essential for successful control of bacterial diseases of vegetable. The purpose of these investigations was to define the AHL patterns of gram-negative bacteria presented in storage cabbage by LC/MS technique. The phenomenon of regulating the pectinolytic activity and the exopolysaccharide (EPS production by AHLs that are associated with microbial spoilage of cabbage was also examined. Among 100 strains isolated from storage cabbage, 47 isolates produced AHLs. The results of the 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that selected microflora was highly closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syringae, and Pseudomonas cedrina (approximately 98%-99% confidence. The chemical nature of AHLs produced by selected microflora differ from species to species. The pattern of AHLs of Ps. cedrina consisting of C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C10-HSL, and 3-hydroxy-C14-HSL, has not been previously reported. The present study demonstrates that bacterial spoilage of storage cabbage is influenced by quorum sensing. Application of furanone C-30 that acts as quorum sensing inhibitor, caused the significant reduction in the production of EPS and pectinolytic enzymes by examined bacteria.

  9. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P; Guo, W L; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential for the plant's normal development and stress responses, especially the heat stress response. The information regarding sHSP genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis) is sparse, hence we performed a genome-wide analysis to identify sHSP genes in this species. We identified 26 non-redundant sHSP genes distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome A7, with one additional sHSP gene identified from an expressed sequence tag library. Chinese cabbage was found to contain more sHSP genes than Arabidopsis. The 27 sHSP genes were classified into 11 subfamilies. We identified 22 groups of sHSP syntenic orthologous genes between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. In addition, eight groups of paralogous genes were uncovered in Chinese cabbage. Protein structures of the 27 Chinese cabbage sHSPs were modeled using Phyre2, which revealed that all of them contain several conserved β strands across different subfamilies. In general, gene structure was conserved within each subfamily between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, except for peroxisome sHSP. Analysis of promoter motifs showed that most sHSP genes contain heat shock elements or variants. We also found that biased gene loss has occurred during the evolution of the sHSP subfamily in Chinese cabbage. Expression analysis indicated that the greatest transcript abundance of most Chinese cabbage sHSP genes was found in siliques and early cotyledon embryos. Thus, genome-wide identification and characterization of sHSP genes is a first and important step in the investigation of sHSPs in Chinese cabbage. PMID:26505345

  10. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the...

  11. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  12. Both Palatable and Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors to Signal Difficulty of Capture to Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L; Campos, V C; DeVries, P J; Penz, C M

    2016-04-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies. The possibility that both palatable and unpalatable species signal difficulty of capture has not been fully explored, but helps explain the existence of aposematic coloration and escape mimicry in butterflies lacking defensive chemicals. This possibility may also change the role that putative Müllerian and Batesian mimics play in a variety of classical mimicry rings, thus opening new perspectives in the evolution of mimicry in butterflies. PMID:26911159

  13. Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?

    CERN Document Server

    Schüssler, M

    2004-01-01

    We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnetic flux by a flow. These properties seem to be generic for an oscillatory and migratory field of dipole parity and thus do not permit an observational distinction between different dynamo approaches.

  14. Fueling the fall migration of the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Lincoln P; Fink, Linda S; Walford, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Monarch butterflies in eastern North America accumulate lipids during their fall migration to central Mexico, and use them as their energy source during a 5 month overwintering period. When and where along their migratory journey the butterflies accumulate these lipids has implications for the importance of fall nectar sources in North America. We analyzed the lipid content of 765 summer breeding and fall migrant monarch butterflies collected at 1 nectaring site in central Virginia over 4 years (1998-2001), and compared them with 16 additional published and unpublished datasets from other sites, dating back to 1941. Virginia migrants store significantly more lipid than summer butterflies, and show significant intraseason and between-year variation. None of the Virginia samples, and none of the historical samples, with one exception, had lipid levels comparable with those found in migrants that had reached Texas and northern Mexico. This evidence suggests that upon reaching Texas, the butterflies undergo a behavioral shift and spend more time nectaring. The one exceptional sample led us to the discovery that monarchs that form roosts along their migratory routes have higher lipid contents than monarchs collected while nectaring at flowers. We propose that for much of their journey monarchs are opportunistic migrants, and the variation within and between samples reflects butterflies' individual experiences. The stored lipids appear to be of less importance as fuel for the butterflies' migration than for their survival during their overwintering period, in part because soaring on favorable winds reduces the energetic cost of flying. The conservation of nectar plants in Texas and northern Mexico is crucial to sustaining the monarch's migratory spectacle, and nectar abundance throughout eastern North America is also important. As generalists in their selection of nectar sources and nectaring habitats, monarchs are unlikely to be affected by small changes in plant

  15. AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

  16. Anomalous reparametrizations and butterfly states in string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reparametrization symmetries of Witten's vertex in ordinary or vacuum string field theories can be used to extract useful information about classical solutions of the equations of motion corresponding to D-branes. It follows, that the vacuum string field theory in general has to be regularized. For the regularization recently considered by Gaiotto et al., we show that the identities we derive, are so constraining, that among all surface states they uniquely select the simplest butterfly projector discovered numerically by these authors. The reparametrization symmetries are also used to give a simple proof that the butterfly states and their generalizations are indeed projectors

  17. A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David R; Als, Thomas Damm; Maile, Roland; Jones, Graeme R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry...... of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations...

  18. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    ’. We maintain a distinction, with White and with Frank Knight, of risk, on the one hand, and uncertainty, on the other, where ‘risk’ has to do with entities that are in principle insurable or calculable and ‘uncertainty’ has to do with what is not calculable/insurable. An entrepreneur’s decision...... to enter a market, to invest in and enter a production market, entails what White calls a ‘commitment to facilities’. This, for White and Knight, is inherently incalculable, and hence uncertain....

  19. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    -sets of different sizes were chosen randomly with several iterations and using the spectral-based sample selection algorithms DUPLEX and CADEX. An independent test set was used to validate the developed classification models. The results showed that 200 seeds were optimal in a calibration set for both...... cabbage and radish data. The misclassification rates at optimal sample size were 8%, 6% and 7% for cabbage and 3%, 3% and 2% for radish respectively for random method (averaged for 10 iterations), DUPLEX and CADEX algorithms. This was similar to the misclassification rate of 6% and 2% for cabbage and......The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub...

  20. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN POLLEN: PHENOLOGY AND MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bt corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the potential risk to monarc...

  1. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN: REPLACING HOOPLA WITH SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the...

  2. Subcutaneous infusion: non-metal cannulae vs metal butterfly needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Maria Carrion

    2002-07-01

    This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of non-metal cannulae compared to metal butterfly needles in maintaining subcutaneous infusion sites in patients receiving palliative care. The Cochrane Library, Medline, Pre-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Amed and Cancerlit were searched for relevant studies. Controlled trials comparing non-metal cannulae with metal butterfly needles for giving subcutaneous infusion to palliative care patients were included. The outcome considered was site duration in terms of hours of patency or until change was required. Four trials met the inclusion criteria although overall quality was poor due to low follow-up. Studies examined either Teflon or Vialon-coated catheters. All studies showed non-metal cannulae to be superior to metal. In individual studies estimates in mean increase in duration of the site range from 21 to 159 hours. It seems that non-metal cannulae are more effective in maintaining the duration of subcutaneous infusion sites than butterfly needles. Both types of non-metal catheter showed clear benefits. This review has not examined other outcomes but in general adverse effects lead to the removal of the catheter and so would be reflected in the outcome of considered. Although historically non-metal cannulae have been considerably more expensive there is now little difference between metal and Teflon-coated catheters. This review recommends the use of non-metal cannulae in preference to butterfly needles. PMID:12131852

  3. Palaearctic butterfly ecology model for Oriental species conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zdeněk; Pech, Pavel

    Hong Kong: Kadoorie Farm & Botainc Garden Corporation, 2007 - (Kendrick, R.), s. 63-69 ISBN 978-962-8869-49-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034; GA AV ČR KJB600070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : palaearctic butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. The Phase Shifts of the Paired Wings of Butterfly Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kejun; Feng, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from May 1874 to November 2008 and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989 are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, making the paired wings just and only keep the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, but a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram should bring about an almost same relative phase shift of hemis...

  5. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Jun Li; Hong-Fei Liang; Wen Feng

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities.Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups(or filaments)does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres,and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle,making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator.It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle,demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths,as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram,which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength.

  6. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Jun; Liang, Hong-Fei; Feng, Wen

    2010-11-01

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength.

  7. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, W S; Tatar, M

    2001-12-22

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome. PMID:11749703

  8. Contrasting supercooling ability in lowland and mountain European Colias butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, P.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Konvička, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 63-69. ISSN 0749-8004 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterfly ecology * diapause * frost survival Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2014

  9. Attack risk for butterflies changes with eyespot number and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sebastian; Schachat, Sandra R; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly eyespots are known to function in predator deflection and predator intimidation, but it is still unclear what factors cause eyespots to serve one function over the other. Both functions have been demonstrated in different species that varied in eyespot size, eyespot number and wing size, leaving the contribution of each of these factors to butterfly survival unclear. Here, we study how each of these factors contributes to eyespot function by using paper butterfly models, where each factor is varied in turn, and exposing these models to predation in the field. We find that the presence of multiple, small eyespots results in high predation, whereas single large eyespots (larger than 6 mm in diameter) results in low predation. These data indicate that single large eyespots intimidate predators, whereas multiple small eyespots produce a conspicuous, but non-intimidating signal to predators. We propose that eyespots may gain an intimidation function by increasing in size. Our measurements of eyespot size in 255 nymphalid butterfly species show that large eyespots are relatively rare and occur predominantly on ventral wing surfaces. By mapping eyespot size on the phylogeny of the family Nymphalidae, we show that these large eyespots, with a potential intimidation function, are dispersed throughout multiple nymphalid lineages, indicating that phylogeny is not a strong predictor of eyespot size. PMID:26909190

  10. Airspeed adjustment and lipid reserves in migratory Neotropical butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that migrant fliers should reduce their speed of flight as endogenous energy reserves are gradually consumed. This prediction was tested for butterfly species that engage in annual rainy season migrations through central Panama. Direct airspeed measurements together wit...

  11. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength. (research papers)

  12. Reverse altitudinal cline in cold hardiness among Erebia butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Konvička, Martin; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2012), s. 251-258. ISSN 0143-2044 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; University of South Bohemia(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alpine habitats * butterfly ecology * climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2012

  13. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  14. Becoming Butterflies: Making Metamorphosis Meaningful for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Baggett, Paige V.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although butterflies are a common topic of study in many early childhood classrooms, integrating art production broadens the scope of the study and allows children to deepen their knowledge and understanding through creative self-expression. This article presents a set of integrated activities that focus on helping children fully grasp the process…

  15. Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multifractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  17. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  18. Host generated cues alter the foraging behavior of Cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae and its larval parasitoids, Cotesia glomerata and Hyposoter ebeninus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Debarma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of host-generated cues on foraging speed of herbivore as well as its natural enemies was studied under net house conditions in Meghalaya, India. Foraging speed of P. brassicae was significantly higher towards the healthy plants, whereas it was lowest towards the damaged plants along with herbivore cues. In contrast foraging speed of parasitoids H. ebeninus and C. glomerata was highest towards damaged plants along with herbivore cues and lowest towards healthy plants. It indicates that herbivore and its parasitoids respond to the volatiles generated by their host. In addition to host plants natural enemies also utilize herbivore-generated cues for their detection.

  19. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. PMID:22278732

  20. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  1. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P < 0.05), and was concurrently extremely positively correlated with Cd concentration in shoot and root of cabbage (P < 0.01). Soil pH increased by 1.8%-45.5% and 6.1%-54.3% in the presence of zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and

  2. A meta-analysis of dispersal in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Virginie M; Turlure, Camille; Baguette, Michel

    2010-08-01

    Dispersal has recently gained much attention because of its crucial role in the conservation and evolution of species facing major environmental changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and their interactions. Butterflies have long been recognized as ideal model systems for the study of dispersal and a huge amount of data on their ability to disperse has been collected under various conditions. However, no single 'best' method seems to exist leading to the co-occurrence of various approaches to study butterfly mobility, and therefore a high heterogeneity among data on dispersal across this group. Accordingly, we here reviewed the knowledge accumulated on dispersal and mobility in butterflies, to detect general patterns. This meta-analysis specifically addressed two questions. Firstly, do the various methods provide a congruent picture of how dispersal ability is distributed across species? Secondly, is dispersal species-specific? Five sources of data were analysed: multisite mark-recapture experiments, genetic studies, experimental assessments, expert opinions, and transect surveys. We accounted for potential biases due to variation in genetic markers, sample sizes, spatial scales or the level of habitat fragmentation. We showed that the various dispersal estimates generally converged, and that the relative dispersal ability of species could reliably be predicted from their relative vagrancy (records of butterflies outside their normal habitat). Expert opinions gave much less reliable estimates of realized dispersal but instead reflected migration propensity of butterflies. Within-species comparisons showed that genetic estimates were relatively invariable, while other dispersal estimates were highly variable. This latter point questions dispersal as a species-specific, invariant trait. PMID:20055815

  3. Effect of NH4+-N/NO-3-N Ratios on Growth and Some Physiological Parameters of Chinese Cabbage Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; LUO Jin-Kui; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The responses of three cultivars of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), one of the main vegetable crops in China,to different ratios of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was investigated to find the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrate for maximal growth and to explore ways of decreasing the nitrate content, increasing nitrogen use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and determining distributions of nitrogen and carbon. Three cultivars of Chinese cabbage were hydroponically grown with three different NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratios (0:100, 25:75 and 50:50). The optimal ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N for maximal growth of Chinese cabbage was 25:75. The increase in the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N significantly decreased nitrate content in various tissues of Chinese cabbage in the order of petiole > leaf blade > root. The highest total nitrogen (N) content was found when the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was 25:75, and N contents in plant tissues were significantly different, mostly being in the order of leaf blade > petiole > root. At the NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratio of 25:75, the biomasses of Chinese cabbage nitrate and total nitrogen contents were lower. Thus, partial replacement of nitrate by ammonium could improve vegetable production by both increasing yields and decreasing nitrate content of the plants.

  4. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  5. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization. PMID:27390732

  6. Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolics of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Gi-Un; Hwang, In-Wook; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2016-05-15

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Pekinensis) is a green leafy vegetable used mainly in kimchi, salted and fermented dishes. Consumer preference for the leaf portion differs according to the type of dishes. In this study, Chinese cabbage was divided into three parts, and their antioxidant activities were investigated through in vitro assays. The total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and vitamin C contents were also determined as indicators of antioxidant contents. The phenolic acids and flavonoids were separated and identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The outer leaf had the strongest antioxidant activity with the maximum antioxidant contents, followed by the mid- and inner leaves. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that outer leaf is positively related to caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and myricetin contents, whereas the mid- and inner leaves are negatively related to sinapic acid contents. PMID:26776015

  7. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    A.J.S. Raju; K.V. Ramana; P.V. Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cyste...

  8. Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J

    2002-07-23

    A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly approximately southwest, those 6-h time-advanced fly southeast, and 6-h time-delayed butterflies fly in northwesterly directions. Moreover, butterflies flown in the same apparatus under simulated overcast in natural magnetic fields were randomly oriented and did not change direction when magnetic fields were rotated. Therefore, these experiments do not provide any evidence that monarch butterflies use a magnetic compass during migration. PMID:12107283

  9. Nonrandom distribution of cabbage aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in dryland canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Severtson, D; Flower, K.; Nansen, C

    2015-01-01

    © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica...

  10. Genome-wide SNP identification and QTL mapping for black rot resistance in cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonghoon; Izzah, Nur Kholilatul; Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Perumal, Sampath; Joh, Ho Jun; Lee, Hyeon Ju; Lee, Sang-Choon; Park, Jee Young; Yang, Ki-Woung; Nou, Il-Sup; Seo, Joodeok; Yoo, Jaeheung; Suh, Youngdeok; Ahn, Kyounggu; Lee, Ji Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Black rot is a destructive bacterial disease causing large yield and quality losses in Brassica oleracea. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for black rot resistance, we performed whole-genome resequencing of two cabbage parental lines and genome-wide SNP identification using the recently published B. oleracea genome sequences as reference. Results Approximately 11.5 Gb of sequencing data was produced from each parental line. Reference genome-guided mapping and SNP calling rev...

  11. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sang Hee; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible) and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant) of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum), black spot (Alternaria brassicicola) and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc) diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression in both cultiva...

  12. Root growth and soil nitrogen depletion by onion, lettuce, early cabbage and carrot

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2001-01-01

    Experiments examining root growth, the utilization of N and the effect of green manures were carried out on four vegetable crops. Large differences were observed both in rooting depth penetration rates, and in final rooting depth and distribution. Onion had a very low depth penetration rate, carrot an intermediate rate, and lettuce and cabbage showed high rates. A combination of depth penetration rates and duration of growth determined rooting depth at harvest. Therefore, lettuce, which had a...

  13. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically c...

  14. Optimisation of irrigation regime for early potatoes, late cauliflower, early cabbage and celery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with optimisation of threshold suction pressure of soil water on light soils for early potatoes, early cabbage, late cauliflower and celery on the basis of results from small-plot field experiments with differentiated irrigation regimes. Threshold suction pressures of soil water were identical for all crops: 15 kPa in treatment I, 30 kPa in treatment II, 60 kPa in treatment III, and 120 kPa in treatment IV. Precipitation, air temperature and relative humidity, global solar radiation, wind speed and direction were measured by an automated meteorological station. Reference and actual evapotranspirations were determined for the experimental crops according to FAO Paper No. 56 and by means of a biological curve (BC) in 2003-2005. To compare these two methods of calculation of actual evapotranspiration the soil moisture balance was found out. The optimum threshold suction pressure was 30 kPa for early potatoes, late cauliflower and cabbage and 15 kPa for celery. The seasonal irrigation depths determined on the basis of soil moisture balance, in which the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) was calculated either according to FAO 56 or by the BC, were substantially different from the really achieved irrigation depths with optimal suction pressure. The really achieved values were near to the depths calculated by the BC for potatoes, while for cauliflower, cabbage and celery they were similar to the depths calculated by the FAO 56 methodology. The theoretical irrigation depths calculated by the BC method sometimes differed substantially from those based on FAO 56. These differences were maximal for cauliflower and celery and minimal for cabbage. They decreased with decreasing irrigation depths. (author)

  15. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation. PMID:26611631

  16. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of acidic peroxidase from cabbage leaves (Brasicca olearacea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present work deals with extraction of cabbage peroxidase (CP from fresh cabbage leaves and subsequent purification using ammonium sulphate (80% w/v precipitation. The peroxidase extraction has been carried out by screening two different cabbage and then different parameters like different buffer systems, strength of buffers, buffer volumes, grinding time and cabbage leaves weight ratio to buffer volumes were optimized. The purified peroxidase showed maximum activity at pH 5.5 and at temperature 55 °C. The enzyme action followed the Michelis–Menton kinetics and gave a Km of 0.7018 mg/ml for Guaiacol oxidation over different concentrations (0 – 10 mg/ml at pH 5.0 and Vmax was obtained as 0.6498 mg/min.ml. The molecular weight of the partially purified enzyme was found to be about 67,000 Daltons using SDS-PAGE and zymogram method. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Kinetic Studies for the Preparation of Probiotic Cabbage Juice: Impact on Phytochemicals and Bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Amit; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2013-01-01

    A kinetic study for the production of probiotic cabbage juice was carried out under controlled pH and dissolved oxygen using several strains of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Furthermore, effect of probiotic fermentation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity was investigated. Results showed significant growth in Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus corresponding to 9.19, 9.47 and 10.6 log CFU/ml after 24 h of fermentation, which is satisfying crite...

  18. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ...

  19. Osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses: Mass transfer kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Filipčev Bojana V.; Lević Ljubinko B.; Koprivica Gordana B.; Mišljenović Nevena M.; Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a study of osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses of different concentrations (40, 60 and 80%) at 50°C and under atmospheric pressure. The best results were obtained at the sugar beet molasses of 80% as an osmotic medium. The most important kinetic parameters of the process were determined: water loss, solid uptake, weight reduction, normalized solid content and normalized moisture content. The kinetic parameters were determined after 1, 3 and 5 hours. M...

  20. IMPACT OF BACTERIAL QUORUM SENSING SYSTEM ON CHANGES OF ORGANOLEPTIC MARKERS OF STORAGE CABBAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Myszka; Mariola Olkowicz; Elżbieta Radziejewska-Kubzdela; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K.; Katarzyna Czaczyk

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of phenotypes of vegetable-associated bacteria can be mediated through the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). This knowledge is essential for successful control of bacterial diseases of vegetable. The purpose of these investigations was to define the AHL patterns of gram-negative bacteria presented in storage cabbage by LC/MS technique. The phenomenon of regulating the pectinolytic activity and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by AHLs that are associated w...

  1. White Lies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文龙

    2000-01-01

    Lillian Carter, the President s mother, once set up an interview with an aggressive reporter without benefitfrom the press office. "Your son," the reporter said, "has been travelling the country, telling people not to vote for him if he everlies to them. Can you, knowing a son as only a mother can, honestly say he s never lied?" "Well, perhaps a little white lie now and then," Mrs. Carter replied. "And what," retorted the reporter, "is the difference between a white lie and any other? Define a whi...

  2. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  3. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. PMID:26593594

  4. Effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on Chinese cabbage yield and soil phosphorus accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua LIAO; Jianling LIU; Xinjun Wang; Ke JIA; Na MENG

    2008-01-01

    The yield response of Chinese cabbage to phosphate fertilizer and manure was studied.The effect of over-application of phosphate fertilizer and manure on plant total phosphorus content and phosphorus accumulation in soil was also investigated.The experiment was arranged in a plastic barrel in the field for two years.Application of phosphate fertilizer at the rates of 150-Chinese cabbage.Application of manure at the rates of 33.3-133.2 g.kg-1 gave a yield increase of 18.2%-25.9% of the crop.There was no significant difference of yield resfertilizer,and no significant yield response to the application of phosphate fertilizer after applying manure.The total P content in Chinese cabbage was increased gradually with the rate increase of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Phosphorus was absorbed luxuriously by the plant with over-application phosphate fertilizer and manure.The content of total-P,Olsen-P,water-soluble P,biological available P in the soil was increased with the rate of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Organic phosphorus in the soil was increased by the application of manure.Olsen-P had high correlations with water-soluble-P and biological available-P,but there was a poor relationship between Olsen-P and organic-P.

  5. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-06-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  7. Phosphorus fertilization of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbages in phosphorus-rich Eutrustox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop fertilization with P is a practice that constantly needs to be improved because of its high cost, natural reserve constraints, and environmental impact caused by the excessive use of nutrients. Phosphorus rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the cultivation of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata in a P-rich Eutrustox soil (93 mg P dm-3 in Jaboticabal (21°15'22'' S, 48°15'58" W; 575 m a.s.l., São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Phosphorus rates influenced plant characteristics and soil P content. Maximum leaf and soil P content was obtained with 720 kg P2O5 ha-1, but maximum values of leaf area, leaf dry mass, cabbage head mass, and productivity were obtained with 420, 310, 430, and 437.5 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Results indicate that even crops grown in a P-rich soil benefit from applying P fertilizer, which has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of the 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage.

  8. Toxic Metals up taken by Cabbage Grown in Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L.O. Jimoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, iron and zinc were investigated in soil and lettuce obtained from irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained were compared with limit recommended by FAO/WHO standard (2007 so as to ascertain the extent of their pollution. The level of cadmium in cabbage ranged from 0.04-1.20μg/g. The concentrations of lead was found to be in range of 0.61-3.87 μg/g ,these were above the limit stipulated by WHO while iron concentration ranged from 0.50-12.40μg/g and zinc 2.72:g/g-18.53μg/g were within the recommended limit given by the FAO/WHO standard. This suggests that consumers of cabbage grown in the studied areas might be liable to lead and cadmium toxicity as at the time of this research work. Pearson correlation shows positive correlation between soil and cabbage in these irrigation sites.

  9. Effects of an environmental friendly slow-releasing woodchip fertilizer on cabbage production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh Ali Ahmed; Su Kyoung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Wood from three tree species was used for making slow-releasing woodchip fertilizer. Fertilizer made from Populus tomentiglandulosa retained the highest amounts of N(29. 04%),P2O5(26. 03%)and K2O(16. 93%). On the other hand, woodchip fertilizer made from Pinus koraiensis retained the lowest amounts of N(26. 22%),P2O5(21. 80%)and K2O(14. 49%). Afield experiment Was performed in a 50 m2 experimental plot at Gangwon Agricultural Research and Extension Services,Chuncheon, Korea from August to November 1999. The effects of a general fertilizer along with compost and slow releasing woodchip fertilizer without compost on the cabbage production were observed. Cabbage production parameters,such as top height, head weight,head height,head width,number of outer and inner leaves,leaf width and head length,increased in the field where Larix kaempferi woodchip fertilizer was added as a basal dose. The result showed that the woodchip fertilizer made from Pinus koraiensis had faster releasing properties compared to other woodchip fertilizers. Without adding any compost in the woodchip fertilized field, woodchip fertilizer showed a superior outcome over a general chemical fertilizer. Although the amount of woodchip fertilizer Was larger compared to that of a chemical fertilizer, it increased cabbage production.

  10. Molar absorptivity (ε) and spectral characteristics of cyanidin-based anthocyanins from red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2016-04-15

    Red cabbage extract contains mono and di-acylated cyanidin (Cy) anthocyanins and is often used as food colorants. Our objectives were to determine the molar absorptivity (ε) of different red cabbage Cy-derivatives and to evaluate their spectral behaviors in acidified methanol (MeOH) and buffers pH 1-9. Major red cabbage anthocyanins were isolated using a semi-preparatory HPLC, dried and weighed. Pigments were dissolved in MeOH and diluted with either MeOH (0.1% HCl) or buffers to obtain final concentrations between 5×10(-5) and 1×10(-3) mol/L. Spectra were recorded and ε calculated using Lambert-Beer's law. The ε in acidified MeOH and buffer pH 1 ranged between ~16,000-30,000 and ~13,000-26,000 L/mol cm, respectively. Most pigments showed higher ε in pH 8 than pH 2, and lowest ε between pH 4 and 6. There were bathochromic shifts (81-105 nm) from pH 1 to 8 and hypsochromic shifts from pH 8 to 9 (2-19 nm). Anthocyanins molecular structures and the media were important variables which greatly influenced their ε and spectral behaviors. PMID:26617032

  11. Aliphatic glucosinolate synthesis and gene expression changes in gamma-irradiated cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Rai, Archana N; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2016-10-15

    Glucosinolates, found principally in the plant order Brassicales, are modulated by different post-harvest processing operations. Among these, ionizing radiation, a non-thermal process, has gained considerable interest for ensuring food security and safety. In gamma-irradiated cabbage, enhanced sinigrin, a major glucosinolate, has been reported. However, the molecular basis of such a radiation induced effect is not known. Herein, the effect of radiation processing on the expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes was investigated. RT-PCR based expression analysis of seven glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway genes (MYB28, CYP79F1, CYP83A1, SUR1, UGT74B1, SOT18 and TGG1) showed that CYP83A1, MYB28, UGT74B1, CYP79F1 and SUR1 were up-regulated in irradiated cabbage. The content of jasmonates, signalling molecules involved in glucosinolate induction was, however, unaffected in irradiated cabbage suggesting their non-involvement in glucosinolate induction during radiation processing. This is the first report on the effect of gamma irradiation on the expression of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes in vegetables. PMID:27173540

  12. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  13. A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera) of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    I.J. Singh; M. Chib

    2014-01-01

    The survey was conducted to prepare a preliminary checklist of butterflies of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Butterflies were sampled from February 2012 to February 2013 to assess the species richness in a degraded forest patch of a sub-tropical broadleaf forest. This short-term study recorded 125 species of butterflies in 78 genera from five families. Of these, Sordid Emperor Apatura sordida Moore, Black-veined Sergeant Athyma ranga ranga Moore, Sullied Sailor Neptis soma soma Linnaeus, Blue Duke Euth...

  14. Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project

    OpenAIRE

    Szu-Chia Lo; Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1999-01-01

    Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP), sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP) Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to ga...

  15. Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J.

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly app...

  16. A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

  17. An assessment of riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S. Mark; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The butterfly community at a revegetated riparian site on the lower Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, was compared to that found in a reference riparian site. Data indicated that the herbaceous plant community, which was lacking at the revegetated site, was important to several butterfly taxa. An index using butterfly sensitivity to habitat change (species classified into risk groups) and number of taxa was developed to monitor revegetation projects and to determine restoration effectiveness.

  18. Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na+ solution to K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measu...

  19. Using Butterflies to Measure Biodiversity Health in Wazo Hill Restored Quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ngongolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study butterflies were used in assessing re-vegetation as a way of biodiversity restoration at Wazo hill quarry. The Butterflies were used as indicator species because of their high sensitivity in ecosystems alteration. The study was done in two different areas each 4.8 acre, namely the re-vegetated and un-quarried areas. Butterfly sweep nets and Butterfly traps baited were used for Butterflies capturing. Thirty six (36 species of Butterflies were identified and voucher specimens were preserved in Kingupira Museum. Variation in species diversity was evaluated using diversity indices and tested using special t-test. Variation in Butterfly abundance in two study sites and in different habitats was determined using Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistic and Mann-Whitney U test statistic. The diversity of Butterflies was significant higher in re-vegetated site than in un-quarried site while the abundance difference in the two sites were insignificance The two sites varied in plants species diversity and level of succession, a condition attributed to variation in Butterfly diversity. The re-vegetated sites were recommended for aesthetic, education purposes and further studies on organisms.

  20. [History and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe and related development strategies for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Jun; Xu, Hai-Gen; Guan, Jian-Ling

    2013-09-01

    Butterfly is an important bio-indicator for biodiversity monitoring and ecological environment assessment. In Europe, the species composition, population dynamics, and distribution pattern of butterfly have been monitored for decades, and many long-term monitoring schemes with international effects have been implemented. These schemes are aimed to assess the regional and national variation trends of butterfly species abundance, and to analyze the relationships of this species abundance with habitat, climate change, and other environmental factors, providing basic data for researching, protecting, and utilizing butterfly resources and predicting environmental changes, and playing important roles in the division of butterfly' s threatened level, the formulation of related protection measures, and the protection and management of ecological environment. This paper reviewed the history and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe, with the focus on the well-known long-term monitoring programs, e. g. , the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and the Germany and European Union Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Some specific proposals for conducting butterflies monitoring in China were suggested. PMID:24417131

  1. Lantana Camara and Butterfly Abundance in an Urban Landscape: Benefits for Conservation or Species Invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Swarnali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes host a range of diverse plants that, in turn, facilitate maintenance of different species of pollinators, including butterflies. In this context, the importance of Lantana camara, an invasive plant species, was assessed highlighting its role in maintenance of butterfly diversity, using Kolkata, India as a study area. Initial study revealed consistent presence of L. camara in both urban and rural sites with at least 25 different butterfly species association. The proportional relative load and the preferences of butterfly species for the each plant species were inclined towards L. camara. Irrespective of the sites, the diurnal and seasonal variations in the butterfly species abundance varied with the flowering pattern of L. camara. A positive correlation of different butterfly species with the flowering time and number of L. camara was for all the sites. The segregation of the L. camara associated butterfly species was made following discriminant function analysis using the extent of flower density of L. camara as explanatory variable. Despite being an invasive species, it is apparent that L. camara can be a prospective host plant that facilitates sustenance of butterflies in both urban and rural sites. Thus, existence of L. camara in urban gardens and forests may prove beneficial in sustenance of the butterflies.

  2. Prediction of a required dynamic torque for motor-operated butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the methodology for predicting a required dynamic torque in motor-operated butterfly valves. The results of this methodology have been compared with test data for motor-operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plant. With the close review of test data and torque prediction, it is concluded that the prediction methodology is conservative to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves. In addition, the information of correct differential pressure is vital to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves

  3. White Nights

    OpenAIRE

    Shani, Michal

    2016-01-01

    “How can you sleep at night after you ruined my life?” Arthur, a veteran patient of mine, implored after receiving his test results. This essay recounts my experience as a physician in coping with an extremely anxious patient, its influence on me, and some of my reflections on the ensuing white nights.

  4. Radiation preservation of cut cabbage (Brassica oleracea): a case study in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is estimated to cause about 31% of ischaemic heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. It is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fresh fruits and vegetables such as cabbage consumption was sufficiently increased. However, fresh or ready-to-eat vegetables have been found to be a potential cause of foodborne diseases due to their association with human pathogens. More so, some of these pathogens are resident in the vegetables. The application of ionizing irradiation has been identified as a promising technology that may be used to control spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms in order to increase shelf life, improve the safety of ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables and as a substitute for the use of chemical sterilants. The main objective of this research was to assess impact of gamma radiation in reducing microbial load on cut cabbage and how it helps to extend shelf life. Standard plate count method was used in the determination of total viable and coliform counts (TVC and TCC). Redox titration with iodine method was used in determining the total ascorbic acid content while antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic content were determined by DPPH, Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminium chloride colorimetric method respectively. Nine-point Hedonic scale was also used for the sensory evaluation. The studies revealed that microbial numbers of E.coli, total viable and coliform counts on 'ready-to-eat' cut cabbage in most supermarkets in the Accra metropolitan area were beyond the acceptable national food legislations. Total viable and coliform counts record showed a combination treatment of irradiation doses (1 to 3kGy) and refrigeration temperature (8 ± 2degrees Celcius) reduced microbial growth by 3 to 5 log cycles. Fungal species like Mucor spp, Penicillium digitatum, and Rhizopus spp. Which are spoilage organisms were isolated from all unirradiated control samples but not irradiated (1-3k

  5. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  6. Cluster analysis for pattern recognition in solar butterfly diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarionov, E.; Sokoloff, D.; Arlt, R.; Khlystova, A.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. We apply two algorithms of cluster analysis for this purpose, namely DBSCAN and C-means, and demonstrate their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Then we apply the method to historical data concerning the solar activity in the 18th century (Staudacher data). The method separates the two wings for Cycle 2, but fails to separate them for Cycle 1. In our opinion, this finding supports the interpretation of the Staudacher data as an indication of the unusual nature of the solar cycle in the 18th century.

  7. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  8. Sun compass integration of skylight cues in migratory monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

    2011-01-27

    Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate from eastern North America to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Here we describe the neuronal layout of those aspects of the butterfly's central complex likely to establish part of the internal sun compass and find them highly homologous to those of the desert locust. Intracellular recordings from neurons in the monarch sun compass network reveal responses tuned to specific E-vector angles of polarized light, as well as azimuth-dependent responses to unpolarized light, independent of spectral composition. The neural responses to these two stimuli in individual neurons are mediated through different regions of the compound eye. Moreover, these dual responses are integrated to create a consistent representation of skylight cues in the sun compass throughout the day. The results advance our understanding of how ambiguous sensory signals are processed by the brain to elicit a robust behavioral response. PMID:21262471

  9. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei

    2013-06-21

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast butterfly algorithm for the hyperbolic Radon transform. The basic idea is to reformulate the transform as an oscillatory integral operator and to construct a blockwise lowrank approximation of the kernel function. The overall structure follows the Fourier integral operator butterfly algorithm. For 2D data, the algorithm runs in complexity O(N2 log N), where N depends on the maximum frequency and offset in the data set and the range of parameters (intercept time and slowness) in the model space. From a series of studies, we found that this algorithm can be significantly more efficient than the conventional time-domain integration. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  10. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Verovnik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research.

  11. Citizen Science: The First Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, John-James; Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Lim, Aik-Hean; Lim,Voon-Ching; Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing,Kong-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past 50 years, Southeast Asia has suffered the greatest losses of biodiversity of any tropical region in the world. Malaysia is a biodiversity hotspot in the heart of Southeast Asia with roughly the same number of mammal species, three times the number of butterfly species, but only 4% of the land area of Australia. Consequently, in Malaysia, there is an urgent need for biodiversity monitoring and also public engagement with wildlife to raise awareness of biodiver...

  12. Rapid diversification associated with ecological specialization in Neotropical Adelpha butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, ER; Dacosta, JM; Sorenson, MD; Hill, RI; Briscoe, AD; Willmott, KR; Mullen, SP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Rapid diversification is often associated with morphological or ecological adaptations that allow organisms to radiate into novel niches. Neotropical Adelpha butterflies, which comprise over 200 species and subspecies, are characterized by extraordinary breadth in host plant use and wing colour patterns compared to their closest relatives. To examine the relationship between phenotypic and species diversification, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Adel...

  13. MEDIA COVERAGE OF AGROBIOTECHNOLOGY: DID THE BUTTERFLY HAVE AN EFFECT?

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Leonie A.; Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G.; Allison, Kevin; Zakharova, Ludmila

    2003-01-01

    This study examines media coverage of genetically modified (GM) crops in a risk communication framework. Content analysis is employed to investigate how specific environmental, food safety, and landmark events, such as the monarch butterfly and Pusztai controversies, and the cloning of Dolly-the-sheep, were reported by the media. Media coverage is from United Kingdom and United States newspapers over the period 1990 through 2001. On balance, findings show that the UK press has been more negat...

  14. BUTTERFLIES OF UGANDA: MEMORIES OF A CHILD SOLDIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Van Zyl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available "I was conceived in rape."[i] At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he has read to date. Moreover, from there this powerful text continues to hold the reader captive, and refuses to allow him or her to fall back in a slumber of indifference. [i] Opening line of Butterflies of Uganda.

  15. Host plant defences and voltinism in European butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš; Fric, Zdeněk; Konvička, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2006), s. 337-344. ISSN 0307-6946 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6007306; GA ČR(CZ) GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly phylogeny * comparative method * herbivory Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.960, year: 2006

  16. Polymorphic butterfly reveals the missing link in ecological speciation

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Nicola L; Hill, Ryan I.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological speciation occurs when ecologically-based divergent selection causes the evolution of reproductive isolation. While there are many empirical examples of this process, there exists a poorly characterized stage during which the traits that distinguish species ecologically and reproductively segregate in a single population. Using a combination of genetic mapping, mate choice experiments, field observations, and population genetics, we studied a butterfly population with a mimetic win...

  17. The Phase Shifts of the Paired Wings of Butterfly Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kejun; Liang, Hongfei; Feng, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from May 1874 to November 2008 and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989 are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their...

  18. MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Shuai; Reppert, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly’s migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established Mona...

  19. Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

    2011-11-01

    A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark-release-recapture methods for 7 years. Dispersal parameters, derived using the virtual migration model, were assessed against butterfly densities, which fluctuated strongly over the study period. Emigration was positively correlated with density, and this effect was particularly strong at densities above carrying capacity, when emigration increased up to threefold in females and twofold in males compared with the normal levels. In turn, density had little impact on other dispersal parameters analysed. Our findings provide good evidence for positive density-dependence of emigration in butterflies. Emigrating at high densities is particularly beneficial for females, because it gives them a chance to lay part of their egg-load in less crowded patches, where offspring survival is higher due to lower intraspecific competition. Even though the rise in emigration becomes considerable at densities exceeding carrying capacity, i.e. relatively infrequently, it still has serious implications for many ecological phenomena, such as species range expansions, gene flow, and metapopulation persistence. Consequently, instead of treating emigration as a fixed trait, it is worth allowing for its density-dependence in applications such as population viability analyses, genetic models or metapopulation models. PMID:21625981

  20. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, W. S.; Tatar, M.

    2001-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive d...

  1. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Myron P Zalucki; Altizer, Sonia; Jacobus C de Roode; Reppert, Steven M.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning coloration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. By sequencing 101 monarch genomes from around the globe, we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behavior, ...

  2. Monarch butterfly migration in North America: Controversy and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, S B

    1987-05-01

    The monarch butterfly is the most spectacular example of insect migration known. Monarchs are threatened by the destruction of their over-wintering sites in Mexico, California and elsewhere, and many efforts are being made to conserve these sites. However, a controversial recent suggestion, that some monarch populations may not migrate at all, has jeopardized some of these efforts. This article assesses the evidence for and against the new suggestion. PMID:21227836

  3. Social benefits of ecotourism : the monarch butterfly reserve in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrubio Cordero, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez Muñoz, Gregoria; Mendoza Ontiveros, Martha Marivel

    2013-01-01

    Ecotourism can contribute to both positive and negative socioeconomic impacts at the local level. However, ecotourism’s socioeconomic impacts have received limited scholarly attention in the context of developing countries. Based on qualitative interviews and observations, this paper looks at the socioeconomic benefits of ecotourism in a local community in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. It was found that ecotourism replaced most of the economic activities in the lo...

  4. Evolutionary Novelty in a Butterfly Wing Pattern through Enhancer Shuffling.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Baxter, Simon W.; Pardo-D?az, Carolina; Hanly, Joseph J.; Martin, Simon H.; Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Salazar, Camilo; Joron, Mathieu; Nadeau, Nicola; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expres...

  5. Limited-view iridescence in the butterfly Ancyluris meliboeus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J R; Lawrence, C. R.; Wootton, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Few mechanisms exist in nature that effect colour reflectivity, simultaneously high in spectral purity and in intensity, over a strictly limited portion of solid angle above a surface. Fewer still bring about such colour reflectivity with an angle dependence that is distinct from the colour transition associated with conventional multilayer interference. We have discovered that the ventral wings of the butterfly Ancyluris meliboeus exhibit these optical effects, and that they result from rema...

  6. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales: biological photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Michielsen, K.; Stavenga, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, analytical modelling and computer-generated TEM micrographs, we find that the three-dimensional cuticular structures can be modelled by gyroid structures with various filling ...

  7. Low Reynolds Number Drag Alteration Inspired by Butterfly Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforte, Brent; Kronenberger, Courtney; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Biomimetics is the process of looking towards nature's adaptations for answers to today's engineering obstacles. An age-old engineering dilemma is trying to find new methods to reduce the amount of drag over a body. This research finds inspiration from butterfly scales which are hypothesized to alter surface friction over the wings. Drop testing was performed on axisymmetric, streamlined, teardrop models which were rapid-prototyped such that the surface was covered with either streamwise or transverse cavities modeled after the Monarch butterfly. The drop tank contained silicone oil with a viscosity two hundred times that of water insuring flow similarity between the model cavities (2.5 mm cavity depth) and the butterfly scale structures (about 30 microns cavity depth). A variation in Reynolds number was achieved by altering the model weight such that terminal speeds ranged from 5 to 70 cm/s. Results showed a reduction in surface friction for the transverse cavity configurations based on the roller-bearing effect. These findings suggest that the cavity shape and ratio is directly correlated to the amount of drag alteration. Funded by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  8. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  9. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manela, Ofer; Segev, Mordechai [Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Christodoulides, Demetrios N [College of Optics/CREOL, University of Central Florida, FL 32816-2700 (United States); Kip, Detlef, E-mail: msegev@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Helmut Schmidt University, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  10. MonarchBase: the monarch butterfly genome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuai; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-01-01

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) is emerging as a model organism to study the mechanisms of circadian clocks and animal navigation, and the genetic underpinnings of long-distance migration. The initial assembly of the monarch genome was released in 2011, and the biological interpretation of the genome focused on the butterfly's migration biology. To make the extensive data associated with the genome accessible to the general biological and lepidopteran communities, we established MonarchBase (available at http://monarchbase.umassmed.edu). The database is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates all available data associated with the monarch butterfly genome. Moreover, MonarchBase provides access to an updated version of genome assembly (v3) upon which all data integration is based. These include genes with systematic annotation, as well as other molecular resources, such as brain expressed sequence tags, migration expression profiles and microRNAs. MonarchBase utilizes a variety of retrieving methods to access data conveniently and for integrating biological interpretations. PMID:23143105

  11. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. PMID:25854889

  12. Solving Witten's string field theory using the butterfly state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We solve the equation of motion of Witten's cubic open string field theory in a series expansion using the regulated butterfly state. The expansion parameter is given by the regularization parameter of the butterfly state, which can be taken to be arbitrarily small. Unlike the case of level truncation, the equation of motion can be solved for an arbitrary component of the Fock space up to a positive power of the expansion parameter. The energy density of the solution is well defined and remains finite even in the singular butterfly limit, and it gives approximately 68% of the D25-brane tension for the solution at the leading order. Moreover, it simultaneously solves the equation of motion of vacuum string field theory, providing support for the conjecture at this order. We further improve our ansatz by taking into account next-to-leading terms, and find two numerical solutions which give approximately 88% and 109%, respectively, of the D25-brane tension for the energy density. These values are interestingly close to those by level truncation at level 2 without gauge fixing studied by Rastelli and Zwiebach and by Ellwood and Taylor

  13. Trichokonins from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2 induce resistance against Gram-negative Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Yun; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Sheng; Shi, Wei-Ling; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Peptaibols, mainly produced by Trichoderma, play a pivotal role in controlling plant disease caused by fungi, virus, and Gram-positive bacteria. In the current study, we evaluated the control effect of Trichokonins, antimicrobial peptaibols from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2, on soft rot disease of Chinese cabbage caused by a Gram-negative bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and analyzed the mechanism involved. Trichokonins treatment (0.3 mg L(-1) ) enhanced the resistance of Chinese cabbage against Pcc infection. However, Trichokonins could hardly inhibit the growth of Pcc in vitro, even at high concentration (500 mg L(-1) ). Therefore, the direct effect of Trichokonins on Pcc may not the main reason why Trichokonins could control soft rot of Chinese cabbage. Trichokonin treatment led to an obvious increase in the production of reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical, a significant enhance of the activities of pathogenesis-related enzymes catalase, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase, and upregulation of the expression of salicylic acid - responsive pathogenesis-related protein gene acidic PR-1a in Chinese cabbage. These results indicate that Trichokonins induce resistance in Chinese cabbage against Pcc infection through the activation of salicylic acid signaling pathway, which imply the potential of Trichoderma and peptaibols in controlling plant disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24655217

  14. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Wataru Taira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots us...

  15. Mate choice and body pattern variations in the Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Keren; Lerner, Amit; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    Mate choice is an important ecological behavior in fish, and is often based on visual cues of body patterns. The Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae) is a monogamist, territorial species; it swims in close proximity to its partner throughout most of its life. This species is characterized by a pattern of 6-8 vertical black stripes on a white background, on both sides of its body. Our aim was to define spatial features (variations) in body patterns by evaluating the level of dissimilarity between both sides of each individual fish, and the level of dissimilarity between patterns of different individuals. In addition, we tested whether the fish are attracted to or reject specific features of the body patterns. Features were defined and counted using photographs of body patterns. Attraction to or rejection of specific features were tested behaviorally using a dual-choice experiment of video animations of individuals swimming over a coral-reef background. We found that the patterns of each fish and sides of the body were no less dissimilar, compared intraspecificly to other fish, and that each side pattern was unique and distinguishable. Variations in the patterns occurred mostly in the last three posterior stripes. Individuals were mainly attracted to conspecifics with multiple crossing patterns (two or more consecutive crossings), and rejected patterns with holes. Our results suggest that in this species the unique body pattern of each fish is used for conspecific identification of mates and intruders. PMID:25432516

  16. Testing species distribution models across space and time: high latitude butterflies and recent warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Anne; LeRoux, Peter C.; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Høye, Toke Thomas; Kissling, W. Daniel; Pöyry, Juha; Wisz, Mary; Luoto, Miska

    2013-01-01

    changes at expanding range margins can be predicted accurately. Location. Finland. Methods. Using 10-km resolution butterfly atlas data from two periods, 1992–1999 (t1) and 2002–2009 (t2), with a significant between-period temperature increase, we modelled the effects of climatic warming on butterfly...

  17. Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

    Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

  18. The effect of atomic power plant accident on organisms as studied by using butterflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological radiation effect of the Fukushima powerplant accident on a butterfly, Yamotoshijimi has been examined. Consequently it was resulted that the radioactive materials released from the accident had a bad influence upon Yamatoshijimi, that is, the lowering of life rate, the shape diminishing and the malformation of this butterfly. (M.H.)

  19. El Niño and other determinants of butterfly migrations in a Neotropical wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    What factors regulate insect populations and their movement in the tropics? We censused butterflies flying across the Panama Canal at Barro Colorado Island (BCI) for 16 years to address two questions. What environmental factors determine the date on which the number of migrating butterflies peaked...

  20. Enhanced thrust and speed revealed in the forward flight of a butterfly with transient body translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-09-01

    A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J =0.89 ) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J =0.17 ) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.

  1. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  2. Fractal butterflies of chiral fermions in bilayer graphene: Phase transitions and emergent properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, Areg; Chakraborty, Tapash

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the influence of electron-electron interaction on the fractal butterfly spectrum of Dirac fermions in biased bilayer graphene in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) regime. We demonstrate that the butterfly spectrum exhibits remarkable phase transitions between the FQHE gap and the butterfly gap for chiral electrons in bilayer graphene, when the periodic potential strength or the bias voltage is varied. We also find that, in addition to those phase transitions, by varying the bias voltage one can effectively control the periodic potential strength experienced by the electrons. The electron-electron interaction causes the butterfly spectrum to exhibit new gaps inside the Bloch sub-bands not found in the single-particle case. We expect that both the observed phase transition and other new features in the butterfly spectrum of interacting Dirac fermions will be of great interest to researchers from diverse fields.

  3. Mechanism of iodine uptake by cabbage: effects of iodine species and where it is stored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Huan-Xin; Hong, Chun-Lai; Yan, Ai-Lan; Pan, Le-Hua; Qin, Ya-Chao; Bao, Lü-Ting; Xie, Ling-Li

    2008-10-01

    Iodine-enhanced vegetable has been proven to be an effective way to reduce iodine deficiency disorders in many regions. However, the knowledge about what mechanisms control plant uptake of iodine and where iodine is stored in plants is still very limited. A series of controlled experiments, including solution culture, pot planting, and field experiments were carried out to investigate the uptake mechanism of iodine in different forms. A new methodology for observing the iodine distribution within the plant tissues, based on AgI precipitation reaction and transmission electron microscope techniques, has been developed and successfully applied to Chinese cabbage. Results show that iodine uptake by Chinese cabbage was more effective when iodine was in the form of IO(3) (-) than in the form of I(-) if the concentration was low (<0.5 mg L(-1)), but the trend was opposite if iodine concentration was 0.5 mg L(-1) or higher. The uptake was more sensitive to metabolism inhibitor in lower concentration of iodine, which implies that the uptake mechanism transits from active to passive as the iodine concentration increases, especially when the iodine is in the form of IO(3) (-). The inorganic iodine fertilizer provided a quicker supply for plant uptake, but the higher level of iodine was toxic to plant growth. The organic iodine fertilizer (seaweed composite) provided a more sustainable iodine supply for plants. Most of the iodine uptake by the cabbage is intercepted and stored in the fibrins in the root while the iodine that is transported to the above-ground portion (shoots and leaves) is selectively stored in the chloroplasts. PMID:18521548

  4. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  5. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Chinese Cabbages (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicite Obono Mba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the effects of Salicylic Acid (SA on physiological changes of plants under cadmium stress one cultivar of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis cadmium resistance, Changkenxiaobaicai (tolerance were studied with pots cultures. Like other organisms Plants have adaptatives mechanisms whereby they are able to respond to both nutrient deficiency and toxicities. Plants materials were originated from the vegetable market in Wuhan, Hubei China. The seeds were tested on the pot cultures in the green house. The results of our experiments were quite different between the treatments. The combined treatment Cd 5 ppm + SA 500 mmol L-1 during our experiment showed that the activity of peroxidase and superoxidase dismutase in the cabbages were induced, the total chlorophyll content increased significally by 25.38%, chl a/b about 43.01% and total biomass about 41.67%, both in comparison with the control. The soluble sugar content increased significantly to about 25.47% in comparison with the control. The electrolyte leakages were less affected. Under SA treatment only, the chlorophyll content, chl a/b content increased to about 18.85%, in comparison with the control. Plant biomass increased about 18.90% with the addition of SA in the culture. SA treatment can increase or decrease the Chinese cabbages metabolism. Plants were exposed to 5 ppm CdCl2 for 5 days under natural light. Then they were cultivated with Hoagland nutrient solution, which served as control, nutrient solution supplemented with 5 ppm CdCl2. Five days after Cd treatment, seedlings were harvested. The experiment was performed in triplicate.

  6. Growing hot pepper for cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Rogers, Jami A; Hu, Yoon-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    With the public perception that synthetic pesticides leave harmful residues in crop produce for human consumption, there has been increased interest in using natural products for pest control. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper for controlling the cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is explored in this investigation. Crude extracts from fruits of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. annuum, were prepared and tested under laboratory conditions for their insecticidal and acaricidal performance. Mortality was greatest (94%) when fruit extract of accession PI-593566 (C. annuum) was sprayed on larvae of the cabbage looper, while crude extracts of accessions PI-241675 (C. frutescens) and PI-310488 (C. annuum) were repellent to the spider mite. We investigated differences in chemical composition of the crude fruit extracts that may explain the observed differences in mortality and repellency between accessions. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry spectrometric analysis revealed that capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that the two capsaicinoids are not likely related to the efficacy of pepper fruit extracts. Major compounds in hot pepper fruit extracts were detected and identified as pentadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. Spectrometric analysis and toxicity to cabbage looper larvae revealed that pentadecanoic acid methyl ester is likely related to cabbage looper mortality. However, the concentration of pentadecanoic acid methyl ester in some accessions was insufficient to explain the observed mortality of cabbage looper and repellency of spider mite. Fruit extracts of accessions PI-593566 (C. annuum) and PI-241675 (C. frutescens) could be useful for managing populations of cabbage loopers and spider mites, which could reduce reliance

  7. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  8. Quality of Cabbage Cultivars Intended for Fermentation in the Ogulin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadica Dobričević

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh cabbage intended for fermentation should have solid and robust heads with the soluble dry matter content above 3% and light coloured external leaves. Heads are prepared in a 5.5% sodium chloride concentration brine. Biological fermentation proceeds at a temperature of 18-22 °C, in the dark and under anaerobic conditions. The research objective is to find out whether the quality of fresh and fermented cabbage of hybrid cultivars can compete with and replace the cultivar ´Varaždinski´ in the production area of Ogulin. Cabbage ´Varaždinski´ was the predominant and also the referent cultivar, while the other studied cultivars were ´Junior´, ´Kilor´, ´Krautman´ and ´Satellite´ from the Ogulin production area. The quality of fresh raw material during the two trial years was defined by the content of dry matter of 6,63- 8,74%, soluble dry matter of 4,0-6,0%, lactic acid of 0,1-0,4%, pH-value of 5,65-6,40, L-ascorbic acid of 151,83-359,11 mg/100 g dry matter and NaCl of 0,09-0,18%. The quality of fermented products during the two trial years was defined by the content of dry matter of 6,00-6,98%, soluble dry matter of 4,97-5,70%, lactic acid of 0,88-1,26%, pH-value of 3,62-4,18, L-ascorbic acid of 63,81-213,23 mg/100 g dry matter and NaCl of 1,53-2,56%. No significant differences between fresh cabbage cultivars were determined by the analysis of variance in the contents of dry matter, soluble dry matter, % of lactic acid, pH value, % of NaCl and L-ascorbic acid. In the first research year, significant differences between cultivars were determined in the content of L- ascorbic acid and the pH value. In the second research year, significant differences were determined in the content of L- ascorbic acid between 60 and 90 days of fermentation.The results indicate that the cultivar ´Varaždinski´ can be replaced in the Ogulin region by the studied hybrid cultivars.

  9. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) increases susceptibility to a nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Rana M; Cervantes, Veronica; Myers, Judith H

    2010-10-01

    Cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni, are pests in many agricultural settings including vegetable greenhouses in British Columbia (Canada), where microbial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are commonly used. Frequent use of these insecticides has led to resistance in some populations. An alternative microbial control is the multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus of the alfalfa looper (Autographa californica), AcMNPV which occurs naturally, but at low frequencies in T. ni populations. Bioassays show that T. ni resistant to Bt were twice as susceptible to AcMNPV as were individuals from the Bt-susceptible strain and AcMNPV could be complementary in a resistance management program for T. ni. PMID:20600095

  10. Root growth and nitrogen uptake of carrot, early cabbage, onion and lettuce following a range of green manures

    OpenAIRE

    Thorup-Kristensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study the significance of rooting depth of four vegetable crops on their utilization of green manure nitrogen (N). Rates of rooting depth development were estimated as approximately 0.2, 0.7, 1.2 and 1.2 mm day C)1 for onion, carrot, lettuce and cabbage, respectively. At harvest, onion and lettuce were found to be shallow-rooted with final rooting depths of only 0.3 and 0.6 m, respectively, whereas carrot and cabbage reached rooting depths of at least 1.1 m. The...

  11. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062)...

  12. Ommatidial heterogeneity in the compound eye of the male small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, XD; Vanhoutte, KAJ; Stavenga, DG; Arikawa, K; Qiu, Xudong

    2002-01-01

    The ommatidia in the ventral two-thirds of the compound eye of male Pieris rapae crucivora are not uniform. Each ommatidium contains nine photoreceptor cells. Four cells (R1-4) form the distal two-thirds of the rhabdom, four cells (R5-8) approximately occupy the proximal one-third of the rhabdom, an

  13. Cardenolide fingerprint of monarch butterflies reared on common milkweed,Asclepias syriaca L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, S B; Cockrell, B J; Brower, L P

    1989-03-01

    Monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), larvae were collected during August 1983 from the common milkweed,Asclepias syriaca L., across its extensive North American range from North Dakota, east to Vermont, and south to Virginia. This confirms that the late summer distribution of breeding monarchs in eastern North America coincides with the range of this extremely abundant milkweed resource. Plant cardenolide concentrations, assayed by spectrophotometry in 158 samples from 27 collection sites, were biased towards plants with low cardenolide, and ranged from 4 to 229 μg/ 0.1 g dry weight, with a mean of 50 μg/0.1 g. Monarch larvae reared on these plants stored cardenolides logarithmically, and produced 158 adults with a normally distributed concentration range from 0 to 792 μg/0. l g dry butterfly, with a mean of 234 μg/0.1 g. Thus butterflies increased the mean plant cardenolide concentration by 4.7. The eastern plants and their resultant butterflies had higher cardenolide concentrations than those from the west, and in some areas monarchs sequestered more cardenolide from equivalent plants. Plants growing in small patches had higher cardenolide concentrations than those in larger patches, but this did not influence butterfly concentration. However, younger plants and those at habitat edges had higher cardenolide concentrations than either older, shaded, or open habitat plants, and this did influence butterfly storage. There were no apparent topographical differences reflected in the cardenolides of plants and butterflies. Twenty-eight cardenolides were recognized by thin-layer chromatography, with 27 in plants and 21 in butterflies. Butterflies stored cardenolides within the more polar 46% of the plantR d range, these being sequestered in higher relative concentrations than they occurred in the plants. By comparison with published TLC cardenolide mobilities, spots 3, 4, 9, 16, 24 or 25, 26, and 27, may be the cardenolides syrioside, uzarin, syriobioside

  14. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod

  15. 3D Flight Path Tracking of Butterflies by Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mitesser, Oliver; Kőrösi, Ádám; Hovestadt, Thomas; Möhringer, Peter; Bohn, Günther

    2015-01-01

    The first results of an interdisciplinary cooperation of the UoAS Würzburg-Schweinfurt, the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and the University of Würzburg, Biozentrum, are introduced in the paper. The principal goal is to identify the abilities, motivation, and decision rules underlying the movement of small butterflies (Polyommatus Icarus, Common Blue) and to develop a ‘cognitive’ movement model. The described part of the UoAS Würzburg-Schweinfurt is the record of movements by installing h...

  16. United Kingdom Butterfly Monitoring Scheme annual report 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Botham, Marc; Brereton, TM; Middlebrook, I.; Cruickshanks, KL; Zannese, A; Roy, David

    2010-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS • A major milestone was made as the number of sites monitored in 2009 exceeded a thousand, whilst trends were assessed for 53 of the 59 regularly occurring UK species. • Following two of the poorest years on record for butterflies in the UK, most species made some recovery in what turned out to be a mixed year, still ranking below average (23) in the 34- year series. • The year ranked as the second best on record for Painted Lady migration with a huge inf...

  17. Illuminating the circadian clock in monarch butterfly migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froy, Oren; Gotter, Anthony L; Casselman, Amy L; Reppert, Steven M

    2003-05-23

    Migratory monarch butterflies use a time-compensated Sun compass to navigate to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. Here, we report that constant light, which disrupts circadian clock function at both the behavioral and molecular levels in monarchs, also disrupts the time-compensated component of flight navigation. We further show that ultraviolet light is important for flight navigation but is not required for photic entrainment of circadian rhythms. Tracing these distinct light-input pathways into the brain should aid our understanding of the clock-compass mechanisms necessary for successful migration. PMID:12764200

  18. Change in a butterfly community on a gradually overgrowing site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočíková, Lenka; Čanády, A.; Panigaj, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2014), s. 391-398. ISSN 1067-4136 Grant ostatní: Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/0434/03; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/0477/10; Slovak Scientific Grant Agency VEGA(SK) 1/1025/12; Internal Research Grants(SK) I-10-001-00-F-VVGS; Internal Research Grants(SK) VVGS-PF-2012-19 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterflies * monitoring * water pan traps Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.390, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS1067413614050087

  19. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke Reisner;

    2015-01-01

    The response of body size to increasing temperature constitutes a universal response to climate change that could strongly affect terrestrial ectotherms, but the magnitude and direction of such responses remain unknown in most species. The metabolic cost of increased temperature could reduce body...... species could face severe challenges in response to ongoing rapid climate change....... size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500...

  20. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  1. Light-Induced Hofstadter's Butterfly Spectrum in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme to create an effective magnetic field, which can be perceived by cold neutral atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice, with a laser field with a space-dependent phase and a conventional laser field acting on Λ-type three-level atoms. When the dimensionless parameter α, being the ratio of flux through a lattice cell to one flux quantum, is rational, the energy spectrum shows a fractal band structure, which is so-called Hofstadter's butterfly. (general)

  2. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication

  3. Joint effects of cadmium and lead on seedlings of four Chinese cabbage cultivars in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiqiang; ZHOU Qixing; LIU Weitao

    2009-01-01

    In northeastern China,large area of vegetable land has been simultaneously polluted by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb).Joint effects of Cd and Pb on Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) were investigated using the seed germination and sand culture method.Four Chinese cabbage cultivars including Kangbingjinchun (KB),Dongyangchunxia (DY),Qinglvwang (QL) and Qiangshi (QS) from Shenyang in northeastern China were adopted in this study.The results showed that there were positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rate of biomass,root and shoot elongation and the concentrations of Cd and Pb.In particular,root elongation was more sensitive to joint stress of Cd and Pb.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA),soluble protein (SP) and proline (PRO) changed significantly with increasing exposure concentration of Cd and Pb.The decrement in the activity of antioxidative enzymes,the content of SP and accumulation of MDA were relatively low in KB and QS.PRO played an important role in resisting Cd and Pb stress.

  4. Chinese Cabbage-pak-choi Transcriptome Map Construction with cDNA-AFLP Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Shu-ying; LE Jian-gang; CHENG Guang-jie; WU Cai-jun

    2008-01-01

    Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) transcriptome map with cDNA-APLP techniques was constructed. The inbred line Aijiaohuang 97-3-2, the inbred line Baimanjing 001-24 of turnip [B. campestris ssp. rapifera (Matzg.) Sinsk] and 183 F6 (recombinant inbred population) plants were used as experimental materials. cDNAs were synthesized from total RNA extracted from young leaves at rosette stage. 256 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers were used to detect the polymorphisms between parents Aijiaohuang 97-3-2 and Baimanjing 001-24. 56 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers with high polymorphisms were screened from 256 pairs of primer by DNA-AFLP techniques. The genetic diversity of parents and 183 F6 progenies was detected by 56 pairs of cDNA-AFLP primers. The segregation and distribution of cDNA-AFLPs molecular marker were analyzed to construct transcriptome map amongst parents and F6 plants. A total of 164 cDNA-AFLPs marker loci were mapped into 13 linkage groups which covered 1 401.2 cM with an average distance of 9.7 cM. It was the first transcriptome map of Chinese cabbage using cDNA-AFLP technique.

  5. Influence of Alternative Organic Fertilizers on the Antioxidant Capacity in Head Cabbage and Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimova PAVLA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional mineral fertilizer was compared with alternative organic fertilizers for the crop of head cabbage and cucumber. There were seven different treatments: Agormin (an organo-mineral fertilizer, Agro (made from poultry bedding and molasses, conventional farmyard manure, compost, Dvorecky agroferm (dried, aerobically-fermented farmyard manure, mineral fertilizer, and an unfertilized control. All treatments were applied at rates providing approximately the same level of nutrients. The level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC was measured by FRAP assay immediately after harvest. Average value of TAC in fresh cabbage was 23660 mg GA.100 g-1 in the year 2005 and 29527 mg GA.100 g-1 in the year 2006. Average value of TAC in field cucumber was 12532 mg GA.100 g-1 in the year 2005 and 10460 mg GA.100 g-1 in the year 2006. This study shows that alternative, organic fertilizers have similar or even better positive effects than farmyard manure and that they can contribute to the improvement of the nutritional value of vegetable production.

  6. Characterization of a Cadmium-Binding Complex of Cabbage Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George J.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical nature of a principal, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves (Wagner and Trotter 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 804-809) was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16663927

  7. Effects of irradiation on the sensory characteristics of vegetables (celery, lettuces and cabbage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, irradiation has been applied to a growing number of food products in order to increase their conservation process. This technology has to be informed to consumers in order to get their acceptation. The object of this research was to irradiate three kinds of vegetables, Celery, Lettuce and Cabbage with 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 kGy doses and subject them to a sensorial analysis to measure their acceptability and quality. The parameters considered in the analysis of the products were color, smell, sweetness, sour taste, texture, bitterness, and flavor. As well in quality as in acceptability we used a structured value scale from 1 to 9 points, the results were processed statistically by the analyses of Varianza and Duncan test of multiple range in a level of 5% significance. The analyzed data proved that Cabbage was the most resistant to the irradiation treatment. On the other hand we just observed a significant differences in appearances in Lettuce and in color in Celery, which faded on the sixth day. In general terms we can sustain that products showed good acceptability in our control samples and also in the irradiated ones, until the sixth day after their harvest. (au)

  8. Ectopic Expression of the Chinese Cabbage Malate Dehydrogenase Gene Promotes Growth and Aluminum Resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Dai, Zi-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) are key metabolic enzymes that play important roles in plant growth and development. In the present study, we isolated the full-length and coding sequences of BraMDH from Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour) Olsson]. We conducted bioinformatics analysis and a subcellular localization assay, which revealed that the BraMDH gene sequence contained no introns and that BraMDH is localized to the chloroplast. In addition, the expression pattern of BraMDH in Chinese cabbage was investigated, which revealed that BraMDH was heavily expressed in inflorescence apical meristems, as well as the effect of BraMDH overexpression in two homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines, which resulted in early bolting and taller inflorescence stems. Furthermore, the fresh and dry weights of aerial tissue from the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly higher than those from the corresponding wild-type plants, as were plant height, the number of rosette leaves, and the number of siliques produced, and the transgenic plants also exhibited stronger aluminum resistance when treated with AlCl3. Therefore, our results suggest that BraMDH has a dramatic effect on plant growth and that the gene is involved in both plant growth and aluminum resistance. PMID:27536317

  9. Effect of application time of radionuclides on their root uptake by Chinese cabbage and radish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For investigating the effect of radionuclide deposition time on root uptake of 54Mn, 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs by Chinese cabbage and radish, a mixed solution of the radionuclides was applied to the soil surfaces in culture boxes placed in a greenhouse at 4 different times during plant growth. Soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) was determined on the basis of radioactivity in unit area of soil. In Chinese cabbage and, roughly speaking, in radish, TF of 85Sr decreased with increasing time between sowing and the radioactivity application. TFs of the other radionuclides were the highest at the third or last application. Concentrations of the radionuclides in soil were examined after harvests. They decreased exponentially with increasing soil depth and most radioactivity remained near the surface. TFs of the radionuclides applied 2 d before sowing were higher than those aged for 1 year by factors of 3-10 depending on radionuclide and plant species. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  11. Ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions created by parallel acceleration due to magnetosonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Li, Wen; Ma, Qianli; Baker, Daniel N.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Spence, Harlan E.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Kurth, William S.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Blake, J. Bernard.

    2016-04-01

    The Van Allen Probe observations during the recovery phase of a large storm that occurred on 17 March 2015 showed that the ultrarelativistic electrons at the inner boundary of the outer radiation belt (L* = 2.6-3.7) exhibited butterfly pitch angle distributions, while the inner belt and the slot region also showed evidence of sub-MeV electron butterfly distributions. Strong magnetosonic waves were observed in the same regions and at the same time periods as these butterfly distributions. Moreover, when these magnetosonic waves extended to higher altitudes (L* = 4.1), the butterfly distributions also extended to the same region. Combining test particle calculations and Fokker-Planck diffusion simulations, we successfully reproduced the formation of the ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions, which primarily result from parallel acceleration caused by Landau resonance with magnetosonic waves. The coexistence of ultrarelativistic electron butterfly distributions with magnetosonic waves was also observed in the 24 June 2015 storm, providing further support that the magnetosonic waves play a key role in forming butterfly distributions.

  12. Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Lo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available “Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP, sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to gather relevant information on butterfly and information cataloging in August 1998. The main purpose of this project is to establish a digital museum to support and promote science education. Task of ROSS is the following: with respect to information storage and retrieval demand, to develop butterfly metadata format and design system specification based on the project content. This article presents the metadata format created for butterfly project and discusses issues related with its implementation. In order to promote information exchange, mapping of butterfly metadata to Dublin Core will also be presented.[Article content in Chinese

  14. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns. PMID:26731532

  15. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Taira

    Full Text Available Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  16. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  17. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to

  18. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella...

  19. The Assessment of the Use of Eco-Friendly Nets to Ensure Sustainable Cabbage Seedling Production in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ngouajio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High seed cost accompanied by poor germination and seedling performance renders cabbage nursery and field production enterprises unsustainable to many small-scale growers in tropical and sub-tropical countries. In most nurseries, adverse ecological conditions and pest damage are among the major factors responsible for poor seedling performance. The objective of this study was to test the potential use of eco-friendly net (EFN covers as a low cost technology for sustainable cabbage seedling production. The study was a two-season experiment conducted using a randomized complete block design with five replications and two treatments. Treatments were: the standard open field transplant production (control and transplant production under 0.4 mm mesh polyethylene net covering. EFN covering increased both temperature and relative humidity, enhanced seedling growth and reduced insect pest damage. Seed germination and seedling emergence were under the net covering earlier. Higher seed germination and seedling survival were recorded under the EFN treatment, indicating a potential for reducing the seed requirement per unit area of cabbage production. Seedlings grown under the nets had higher stomatal conductance and leaf chlorophyll content; furthermore, they grew taller, with more leaves within a shorter period of time compared to the control seedlings. The use of EFN in cabbage nurseries offers a sustainable technology for enhancing seedling performance by reducing pest infestation, thereby lowering production cost and improving the grower’s income.

  20. Improving prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.) based on a soil-plant stepwise analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Song, Jing; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Lv, Ming-Chao; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Gan; Pan, Yun-Yu; Christie, Peter; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-11-01

    It is crucial to develop predictive soil-plant transfer (SPT) models to derive the threshold values of toxic metals in contaminated arable soils. The present study was designed to examine the heavy metal uptake pattern and to improve the prediction of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage grown in agricultural soils with multiple contamination by Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Pot experiments were performed with 25 historically contaminated soils to determine metal accumulation in different parts of Chinese cabbage. Different soil bioavailable metal fractions were determined using different extractants (0.43M HNO3, 0.01M CaCl2, 0.005M DTPA, and 0.01M LWMOAs), soil moisture samplers, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), and the fractions were compared with shoot metal uptake using both direct and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The stepwise approach significantly improved the prediction of metal uptake by cabbage over the direct approach. Strongly pH dependent or nonlinear relationships were found for the adsorption of root surfaces and in root-shoot uptake processes. Metals were linearly translocated from the root surface to the root. Therefore, the nonlinearity of uptake pattern is an important explanation for the inadequacy of the direct approach in some cases. The stepwise approach offers an alternative and robust method to study the pattern of metal uptake by Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis L.). PMID:27450258

  1. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found, that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded, that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth. PMID:27047496

  2. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  4. Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

  5. Variation in cardiac glycoside content of monarch butterflies from natural populations in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, L P; McEvoy, P B; Williamson, K L; Flannery, M A

    1972-08-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay has been used to determine the gross concentration of cardiac glycoside in individual monarch butterflies. Adults sampled during the fall migration in four areas of eastern North America exhibited a wide variation in cardiac glycoside concentration. The correlation between spectrophotometrically measured concentrations and emetic dose determinations supports the existence of a broad palatability spectrum in wild monarch butterflies. The cardiac gylcoside concentration is greater in females than in males and is independent of the dry weight of the butterflies; contrary to prediction, both the concentration mean and variance decrease southward. The defensive advantage of incorporating cardiac glycosides may be balanced by detrimental effects on individual viability. PMID:5043141

  6. Unsteady Flow and Force Control in Butterfly Take-off Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Yun, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this work, high-resolution, high-speed videos of a Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in take-off flight were obtained using a photogrammetry system. Using a 3D subdivision surface reconstruction methodology, the butterfly's body/wing deformation and kinematics were modeled and reconstructed from those videos. High fidelity simulations were then carried out in order to understand vortex formation in both near-field and far-field of butterfly wings and examine the associated aerodynamic performance. A Cartesian grid based sharp interface immersed boundary solver was used to handle such flows in all their complexity.

  7. Radix-2α/4β Building Blocks for Efficient VLSI’s Higher Radices Butterflies Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan A. Jaber

    2014-01-01

    has been formulated as the combination of radix-2α/4β butterflies implemented in parallel. By doing so, the VLSI butterfly implementation for higher radices would be feasible since it maintains approximately the same complexity of the radix-2/4 butterfly which is obtained by block building of the radix-2/4 modules. The block building process is achieved by duplicating the block circuit diagram of the radix-2/4 module that is materialized by means of a feed-back network which will reuse the block circuit diagram of the radix-2/4 module.

  8. Some notes on the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Tantirimale Archaeological Site, Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D.C. Asela

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.

  9. Hofstadter's butterfly in a two-dimensional lattice consisting of two sublattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper's equations for simple and complex two-dimensional lattices subject to a magnetic field have been derived in the tight-binding approximation. In our derivation we do not neglect the influence of the magnetic field on the electron eigenfunctions and eigenvalues in isolated atoms. Using a variational procedure for finding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, we have self-consistently obtained Hofstadter's butterflies. Even for a simple square lattice Hofstadter's butterfly differs from the butterfly obtained in the case in which the influence of the magnetic field on the electron eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in isolated atoms is not taken into account

  10. Rapid diversification associated with ecological specialization in Neotropical Adelpha butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Emily R; DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Sorenson, Michael D; Hill, Ryan I; Briscoe, Adriana D; Willmott, Keith R; Mullen, Sean P

    2015-05-01

    Rapid diversification is often associated with morphological or ecological adaptations that allow organisms to radiate into novel niches. Neotropical Adelpha butterflies, which comprise over 200 species and subspecies, are characterized by extraordinary breadth in host plant use and wing colour patterns compared to their closest relatives. To examine the relationship between phenotypic and species diversification, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Adelpha and its temperate sister genus Limenitis using genomewide restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Despite a declining fraction of shared markers with increasing evolutionary distance, the RAD-Seq data consistently generated well-supported trees using a variety of phylogenetic methods. These well-resolved phylogenies allow the identification of an ecologically important relationship with a toxic host plant family, as well as the confirmation of widespread, convergent wing pattern mimicry throughout the genus. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that evolutionary innovations in both larvae and adults have permitted the colonization of novel host plants and fuelled adaptive diversification within this large butterfly radiation. PMID:25809206

  11. Butterfly survival on an isolated island by improved grip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplouy, Anne; Hanski, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    On small isolated islands, natural selection is expected to reduce the dispersal capacity of organisms, as short distances do not require a high rate of dispersal, which might lead to accidental emigration from the population. In addition, individuals foregoing the high cost of maintaining flight capacity may instead allocate resources to other functions. However, in butterflies and many other insects, flight is necessary not only for dispersal but also for most other activities. A weakly flying individual would probably do worse and have an elevated rather than reduced probability of accidental emigration. Here, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that a butterfly population on an isolated island, instead of having lost its flight capacity, has evolved better grip to resist the force of wind and to avoid being blown off the island. Our study suggests that local adaptation has occurred in this population in spite of its very small size (Ne ∼ 100), complete isolation, low genetic variation and high genetic load. PMID:23445946

  12. Historical and contemporary factors generate unique butterfly communities on islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodă, Raluca; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Shreeve, Tim G.; Khaldi, Mourad; Barech, Ghania; Rebbas, Khellaf; Sammut, Paul; Scalercio, Stefano; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2016-06-01

    The mechanisms shaping island biotas are not yet well understood mostly because of a lack of studies comparing eco-evolutionary fingerprints over entire taxonomic groups. Here, we linked community structure (richness, frequency and nestedness) and genetic differentiation (based on mitochondrial DNA) in order to compare insular butterfly communities occurring over a key intercontinental area in the Mediterranean (Italy-Sicily-Maghreb). We found that community characteristics and genetic structure were influenced by a combination of contemporary and historical factors, and among the latter, connection during the Pleistocene had an important impact. We showed that species can be divided into two groups with radically different properties: widespread taxa had high dispersal capacity, a nested pattern of occurrence, and displayed little genetic structure, while rare species were mainly characterized by low dispersal, high turnover and genetically differentiated populations. These results offer an unprecedented view of the distinctive butterfly communities and of the main processes determining them on each studied island and highlight the importance of assessing the phylogeographic value of populations for conservation.

  13. BIF butterfly valve life extension at WNP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary containment purging, venting, inerting, and reactor building ventilation at the WNP-2 plant are accomplished with a series of large butterfly valves. A total of 31 valves which are similar in design, but of different sizes, employ an elastomer to achieve sealing integrity when closed. These valves, which were originally manufactured by BIF, a unit of General Signal, range in size from 18 to 84 inches in diameter. Service life in the plant was much less than desired for safety-related equipment, and several seal failures had been experienced shortly after valve overhaul. This program covers a design change made to enhance performance of the elastomer seal to achieve a very meaningful life extension. While numerous configurations of BIF valves exist, this work relates only to the model 657 unit assembled with an elastomer seal mounted onto the valve disc by a stainless steel clamping ring held with studs and nuts. The problems encountered, and the steps taken to resolve the deficiencies may, however, be applicable to other butterfly valve configurations

  14. Natural Selection and Genetic Diversity in the Butterfly Heliconius melpomene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon H; Möst, Markus; Palmer, William J; Salazar, Camilo; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Francis M; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-05-01

    A combination of selective and neutral evolutionary forces shape patterns of genetic diversity in nature. Among the insects, most previous analyses of the roles of drift and selection in shaping variation across the genome have focused on the genus Drosophila A more complete understanding of these forces will come from analyzing other taxa that differ in population demography and other aspects of biology. We have analyzed diversity and signatures of selection in the neotropical Heliconius butterflies using resequenced genomes from 58 wild-caught individuals of Heliconius melpomene and another 21 resequenced genomes representing 11 related species. By comparing intraspecific diversity and interspecific divergence, we estimate that 31% of amino acid substitutions between Heliconius species are adaptive. Diversity at putatively neutral sites is negatively correlated with the local density of coding sites as well as nonsynonymous substitutions and positively correlated with recombination rate, indicating widespread linked selection. This process also manifests in significantly reduced diversity on longer chromosomes, consistent with lower recombination rates. Although hitchhiking around beneficial nonsynonymous mutations has significantly shaped genetic variation in H. melpomene, evidence for strong selective sweeps is limited overall. We did however identify two regions where distinct haplotypes have swept in different populations, leading to increased population differentiation. On the whole, our study suggests that positive selection is less pervasive in these butterflies as compared to fruit flies, a fact that curiously results in very similar levels of neutral diversity in these very different insects. PMID:27017626

  15. Theoretical seismic analysis of butterfly valve for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valves are one of the most important components of a pipeline system in a nuclear power plant, and it is important to ensure their structural safety under seismic loads. A crucial aspect of structural safety verification is the seismic qualification, and therefore, an optimal shape design and experimental seismic qualification is necessary in case the configuration of the valve parts needs to be modified and their performance needs to be improved. Recently, intensive numerical analyses have been preformed before the experimental verification in order to determine the appropriate design variables that satisfy the performance requirements under seismic loads. In this study, static and dynamic numerical structural analyses of a 200A butterfly valve for a nuclear power plant were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. The result of static analysis considering an equivalent static load under SSE condition gave an applied stress of 135MPa. In addition, the result of dynamic analysis gave an applied stress of 183MPa, where the CQC method using response spectrums was taken into account. These values are under the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and therefore, its structural safety satisfies the requirements of KEPIC MFA

  16. Optical properties of the epidermis of leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) after enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of the epidermis of two crops grown in Nordic countries, leek (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), were investigated after exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation in a glasshouse. Enhanced UV-B radiation was given to cabbage and leek during the growth period. A significant increase in extractable UV-absorbing pigments was found in the epidermis of UV-irradiated leek compared to control plants, whereas no such difference was found in the epidermis of cabbage. The pigments produced had absorption maxima at approximately 340 nm and were most likely flavonoids

  17. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  18. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  19. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  20. Descend towards unimodality: butterfly loss in Czechia changes a major macroecological pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Fric, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jiří; Čížek, Oldřich; Zámečník, J.

    Sofia : Pensoft, 2005 - (Kühn, E.; Feldmann, R.; Thomas, J.; Settele, J.), s. 88-88 ISBN 954-642-247-9 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. Final Critical Habitat for the Quino Checkerspot Butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino) occurs.

  2. Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m3/hr ∼ 2500 m3/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

  3. Final Critical Habitat for the Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides fenderi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icarioides fenderi) occur.

  4. Lounge Butterfly märgiti ära rahvusvaheliselt kõrgelt hinnatud erialaajakirjas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Ülevaade erialaajakirjas "Drinks International" ilmunud artiklist, mis hindab Lounge Butterfly'd paremuselt Baltimaade teiseks joogikohaks ning joogikoha rahvusvahelistel võistlustel auhindu noppinud barmenidest-omanikest

  5. Final Critical Habitat for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Oregon Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta) occur.

  6. Monitoring Oregon Silverspot Butterfly Habitat Restoration Methods: Willapa Bay National Wildlife Refuge and Oregon Coast NWRs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Oregon Silverspot Butterfly is thought to be extirpated from the northern portion oftheir historic range. Currently the entire population is only known to...

  7. Butterfly Surveys at Harris Neck NWR (03 AUG 1993 - 25 JULY 1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data compiled from annual summer butterfly counts conducted at Harris Neck NWR by Mike Chapman and others. Data includes Lepidoptera species and abundance.

  8. Inorganic chiral 3-D photonic crystals with bicontinuous gyroid structure replicated from butterfly wing scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mille, Christian; Tyrode, Eric; Corkery, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensional silica photonic crystals with the gyroid minimal surface structure have been synthesized. The butterfly Callophrys rubi was used as a biotemplate. This material represents a significant addition to the small family of synthetic bicontinuous photonic crystals. QC 20110913

  9. Landscape heterogeneity and butterflies: effects on species richness and community composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin; Beneš, Jiří; Fric, Zdeněk

    Berlin : Societas Europaea Lepidopterologica, 2007. s. 23-23. [European Congress of Lepidopterology /15./. 08.09.2007-12.09.2007, Erkner near Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterflies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. (paper)

  11. Generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum in a class of driven SU(2) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme for generating a fractal butterfly Floquet spectrum, first proposed by Wang and Gong [Phys. Rev. A 77, 031405(R) (2008)], is extended to driven SU(2) systems such as a driven two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate. A class of driven systems without a link with the Harper-model context is shown to have an intriguing butterfly Floquet spectrum. The found butterfly spectrum shows remarkable deviations from the known Hofstadter's butterfly. In addition, the level crossings between Floquet states of the same parity and between Floquet states of different parities are studied and highlighted. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, and coherent destruction of tunneling, as well as the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  12. Optimization of Cultivation and Storage Conditions on Red Cabbage Seed Sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to find the optimal conditions for red cabbage seed sprouts in terms of their physicochemical and sensory qualities by electron-beam irradiation, cultivation and storage using the response surface methodology (RSM). Moisture content (R2 = 0.9638) was affected by irradiation dose and cultivation time. Total phenolics content (R2 = 0.9117) was mainly affected by irradiation dose, but carotenoid content (R2 = 0.8338) was affected in the order of irradiation dose, cultivation time and storage time. Sensory properties were also affected by irradiation dose, and thus scores decreased as irradiation dose increased. The optimum conditions estimated by superimposing total phenolics content and overall acceptance were 2.2-3.8 kGy of the irradiation dose, 3.0-4.0 days of cultivation and 2.0-3.0 days of storage

  13. Identification of expressed genes during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection of Chinese cabbage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to......Plasmodiophora brassicae is an obligate, biotrophic pathogen causing the club-root disease of crucifers. Despite its importance as a plant pathogen, little is known about P. brassicae at the molecular level as most of its life cycle takes place inside the plant host, and axenic culturing is...... impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...

  14. Genome sequence of a recombinant brassica yellows virus infecting Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Zhao, Fumei; Kim, Kil Hyun; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-02-01

    RNA from a Chinese cabbage plant (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) showing leaf malformation and mottling was labeled and hybridized to a DNA chip capable of detecting plant viruses and viroids. Probes specific for beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) and beet western yellows virus (BWYV) yielded positive results, suggesting that the plant was infected by a polerovirus. Primers designed from the sequences of the positive probes were used to amplify and sequence one portion of the viral genome. This sequence showed a 90 % or greater identity to several poleroviruses, including BMYV, BWYV, beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and turnip yellows virus (TuYV). The complete genome sequence of the Chinese cabbage-infecting polerovirus consisted of 5,666 nt and was most closely related to brassica yellows virus (BrYV; 94 % identity). The virus was named BrYV-Cheongsong (BrYV-CS). However, ORF3, ORF4 and the 5' half of ORF5 of BrYV-CS were more closely related to those of TuYV, BWYV, BChV and BMYV than to those of BrYV. Interestingly, a recombination event (positions 3531-4819 in BrYV-CS) was detected when this sequence was aligned with those of BrYV and TuYV. This region showed the highest sequence identity to that of TuYV (94 % identity) and had greater than 93 % identity to those of BWYV, BChV and BMYV, but it shared only 81 % identity with that of BrYV. Taken together, the genomes of BrYV-CS and BrYV are closely related. However, the structural genes in the 3' half of the genome of BrYV-CS are more closely related to those of other poleroviruses. PMID:25352211

  15. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  16. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  17. Green Roof Performance Towards Good Habitat for Butterflies in the Compact City

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Hsueh Lee; Jun-Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Urban ecology is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation due to increasing urbanization. Green roofs may act as habitats to compensate for loss of green space at the ground level. Here, we assessed greening variables of 11 green roofs for butterflies in Taipei City. Butterfly number, species, and richness on green roofs were lower than parks, but some less common species were observed on green roofs. The nectar plant area, number of nectar plant species and age of green roof were the mai...

  18. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Montenegro (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera):

    OpenAIRE

    Švara, Vid; Verovnik, Rudi; Zakšek, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    During the years 2009 to 2013, three visits to Montenegro were made to study the spring and early summer butterfly fauna. The focus of our study was on the south-western part of the country, especially the coastal region. A total of 31 localities were visited and some interesting observations were made. Altogether 112 species were recorded, confirming high diversity of the butterfly fauna of this country. Among the observed species, the following are rare or local in Montenegro: Papilio alexa...

  19. Butterflies of the high altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Emma eDespland

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 500 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, be...

  20. The taxonomy, biogeography and conservation of the myrmecophilous Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Terblanche

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance and integration of scientific knowledge to conservation management of the locally popular and highly endemic butterfly genus Chrysoritis are investigated within the research fields of taxonomy and biogeography. The butterfly genus Chrysoritis contains at least 41 species endemic to South Africa. The taxonomy of Chrysoritis has reached a state where revisions could easily result in a plethora of names between “lumping and splitting”. In practice, the state of the taxonomy of these butterflies on species level may alter their conservation priority. The two most species rich species groups in Chrysoritis have different centres of endemism, however, a butterfly atlas becomes a necessity to reveal more about their biogeography. There is an absence of butterfly species lists in many of our National Parks and Nature Reserves. Legislation should facilitate rather than limit the valuable role of the amateur lepidopterist to add distribution records. In turn, the amateur lepidopterists should adapt and make an effort to explore unknown localities, apart from monitoring butterflies at their well-known localities. The red listing of localised butterflies in South Africa, including a number of Chrysoritis species, is in need of an urgent review in the light of the most recent IUCN categories. A species such as Chrysoritis dicksoni should be protected by law - but at its known localities. The scenario that real conservation action is only needed if the last known locality of a butterfly is threatened, should be abolished. A paradigm shift to conserve the metapopulations of the highly endemic Chrysoritis genus and not merely a few of its species as items that appear on lists, seems necessary.

  1. Prey survival by predator intimidation: an experimental study of peacock butterfly defence against blue tits

    OpenAIRE

    Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Lind, Johan; Wiklund, Christer

    2005-01-01

    Long-lived butterflies that hibernate as adults are expected to have well-developed antipredation devices as a result of their long exposure to natural enemies. The peacock butterfly, Inachis io, for instance, is a cryptic leaf mimic when resting, but shifts to active defence when disturbed, performing a repeated sequence of movements exposing major eyespots on the wings accompanied by a hissing noise. We studied the effect of visual and auditory defence by staging experiments in which wild-c...

  2. Cryptochromes define a novel circadian clock mechanism in monarch butterflies that may underlie sun compass navigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Haisun Zhu; Ivo Sauman; Quan Yuan; Amy Casselman; Myai Emery-Le; Patrick Emery; Reppert, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry), designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly and by placing these genes in the context of other releva...

  3. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies#

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal ...

  4. Defining behavioral and molecular differences between summer and migratory monarch butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Kanginakudru Sriramana; Casselman Amy; Gegear Robert J; Zhu Haisun; Reppert Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In the fall, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) undergo a magnificent long-range migration. In contrast to spring and summer butterflies, fall migrants are juvenile hormone deficient, which leads to reproductive arrest and increased longevity. Migrants also use a time-compensated sun compass to help them navigate in the south/southwesterly direction en route for Mexico. Central issues in this area are defining the relationship between juvenile ho...

  5. Does the presence of ant nests matter for oviposition to a specialized myrmecophilous Maculinea butterfly?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dyck, H.; Oostermeijer, J G; Talloen, W.; Feenstra, V; van der Hidde, A; Wynhoff, I

    2000-01-01

    More than 50% of the lycaenid butterflies have an ant-associated lifestyle (myrmecophily) which may vary from coexistence to specific mutualistic or even parasitic interactions. Ant-related host-plant selection and oviposition has been observed in some myrmecophilous lycaenids. Therefore, it is remarkable that there is no evidence for this behaviour in the highly specialized, obligate myrmecophilous butterflies of the genus Maculinea. In contrast with previous findings, our results provide ev...

  6. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  7. Butterfly abundance is determined by food availability and is mediated by species traits

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Robin J.; Brereton, Tom M.; Roger L H Dennis; Carbone, Chris; Isaac, Nick J. B.

    2015-01-01

    1. Understanding the drivers of population abundance across species and sites is crucial for effective conservation management. At present, we lack a framework for predicting which sites are likely to support abundant butterfly communities. 2. We address this problem by exploring the determinants of abundance among 1111 populations of butterflies in the UK, spanning 27 species on 54 sites. Our general hypothesis is that the availability of food resources is a strong predictor of population...

  8. Habitat Preferences of Butterflies in the Bumbuna Forest, Northern Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Sundufu, Abu James; Dumbuya, Rashida

    2008-01-01

    The habitat preferences of the butterfly fauna were studied in the Bumbuna Forest Reserve in northern Sierra Leone. The intact forest reserve and a secondary forest regrowth, disturbed as a result of slash-and-burn agriculture, were compared to savanna habitats. Of the 290 specimens collected, 195 butterfly species were included, of which significant proportion were Nymphalidae. Of the 147 forest species, 111 (75.5%) showed preferences for the forest habitats, while 70 (47.6%) and 34 (23.1%) ...

  9. Population genetic differences along a latitudinal cline between original and recently colonized habitat in a butterfly.

    OpenAIRE

    Sofie Vandewoestijne; Hans Van Dyck

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Past and current range or spatial expansions have important consequences on population genetic structure. Habitat-use expansion, i.e. changing habitat associations, may also influence genetic population parameters, but has been less studied. Here we examined the genetic population structure of a Palaeartic woodland butterfly Pararge aegeria (Nymphalidae) which has recently colonized agricultural landscapes in NW-Europe. Butterflies from woodland and agricultural landscapes differ ...

  10. Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Despland, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, be...

  11. The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium: Butterfly mimicry for defense?

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    I propose that the enigmatic leaflet movements in elliptical circles every few minutes of the Indian telegraph (semaphore) plant Desmodium motorium ( = D. gyrans = Hedysarum gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius), which has intrigued scientists for centuries, is a new type of butterfly or general winged arthropod mimicry by this plant. Such leaflet movement may deceive a passing butterfly searching for an un-occupied site suitable to deposit its eggs, that the plant is already occupied. It may also ...

  12. Application of Butterfly Clos-Network in Network-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liu; Linquan Xie; Jiansheng Liu; Lei Ding

    2014-01-01

    This paper studied the topology of NoC (Network-on-Chip). By combining the characteristics of the Clos network and butterfly network, a new topology named BFC (Butterfly Clos-network) network was proposed. This topology integrates several modules, which belongs to the same layer but different dimensions, into a new module. In the BFC network, a bidirectional link is used to complete information exchange, instead of information exchange between different layers in the original network. During ...

  13. Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. ► The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. ► The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. ► The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO2 butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO2 butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO2 templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

  14. Hofstadter's butterfly energy spectrum of ultracold fermions on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the energy spectrum of ultracold fermionic atoms on the two-dimensional triangular optical lattice subjected to a perpendicular effective magnetic field, which can be realized with laser beams. We derive the generalized Harper's equations and numerically solve them, then we obtain the Hofstadter's butterfly-like energy spectrum, which has a novel fractal structure. The observability of the Hofstadter's butterfly spectrum is also discussed

  15. Crystal geometry and structural peculiarities of butterfly martensite formed under magnetic field action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Position of the habitus plane and orientation ratios of butterfly martensite formed under pulsed magnetic field action in the 24Kh2N22 low-carbon chronium-nickel steel is determined. Basic crystallographic characteristics of the butterfly martensite formed in the magnetic field and under cooling without field action coincide. A slight difference of the martensite prepared in both cases is observed only in the internal structure

  16. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazutaka; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Shimizu, Motoki; Okazaki, Keiichi; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Osabe, Kenji; Fujimoto, Ryo

    2016-03-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis) is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers. PMID:26862564

  17. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein;

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a....... rapae as a biocontrol agent of Brevicoryne brassicae at different temperatures.......Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  18. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  19. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in three times observation at 07.00, 11.00 a.m. and 3.30 p.m . Data were analyzed by statistical descriptive using Microsoft Excel 2007 and PAST. The result showed that butterflies composition in all sites dominated by Delias sp., Leptosia nina and Eurema venusta. The diversity index of all sites showed moderate rank that indicate communities equilibrium in environment was still good. In this case, Velodrom Green Open Space has the highest one of diversity index, it was about 2,199. Brawijaya University and Jakarta Green Open Space have a high similarity index based on Morisita Index. The highest abundance of butterflies was observed at 11.00-12.30 a.m. Delias sp. and Leptosia nina has temporal spread all day long, while Eurema venusta just in day light.

  20. Development of a butterfly check valve model under natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bases on Lim’s swing check valve model, a butterfly check valve model was developed. • The method to quantify the friction torque TF in Li’s model was corrected. • The developed model was implemented into the RELAP5 code and verified. - Abstract: A butterfly check valve is widely used to prevent a reverse flow in the pipe lines of a marine nuclear power plant. Under some conditions, the natural circulation conditions in particular, the fluid velocity through the butterfly check valve might become too low to hold the valve disk fully open, thereby the flow resistance of the butterfly check valve varies with the location of the valve disk and as a result the fluid flow is significantly affected by the dynamic motion of the valve disk. Simulation of a pipe line that includes some butterfly check valves, especially under natural circulation conditions, is thus complicated. This paper focuses on the development of a butterfly check valve model to enhance the capability of the thermal–hydraulic system code and the developed model is implemented into the RELAP5 code. Both steady-state calculations and transient calculations were carried out for the primary loop system of a marine nuclear power plant and the calculation results are compared with the experimental data for verification purpose. The simulation results show an agreement with the experimental data

  1. Hot summers, long life: egg laying strategies of Maniola butterflies are affected by geographic provenance rather than adult diet

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, A.; Cerny, A; Fiedler, K.

    2013-01-01

    Maniola butterflies undergo summer dormancy in dry and hot habitats and deposit their eggs only in early autumn when conditions become more favourable for their offspring. Female individuals of this genus are therefore relatively long-lived. For long-lived butterflies adult diet is of particular importance. We tested if added amino acids in nectar substitute fed to the butterflies affected timing of oviposition, fecundity and longevity. A hundred Maniola females were sampled from Mediterranea...

  2. The evolution of movements and behaviour at boundaries in different landscapes: a common arena experiment with butterflies.

    OpenAIRE

    Merckx, Thomas; Van Dyck, Hans; Karlsson, Bengt; Leimar, Olof

    2003-01-01

    As landscapes change, mobility patterns of species may alter. Different mechanistic scenarios may, however, lead to particular patterns. Here, we tested conflicting predictions from two hypotheses on butterfly movements in relation to habitat fragmentation. According to the resource distribution hypothesis, butterflies in more fragmented landscapes would have higher levels of mobility as resources are more scattered. However, these butterflies could have lower levels of mobility as they exper...

  3. The genetics of monarch butterfly migration and warning colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuai; Zhang, Wei; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hsu, Jeremy; Haeger, Juan Fernández; Zalucki, Myron P; Altizer, Sonia; de Roode, Jacobus C; Reppert, Steven M; Kronforst, Marcus R

    2014-10-16

    The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, is famous for its spectacular annual migration across North America, recent worldwide dispersal, and orange warning colouration. Despite decades of study and broad public interest, we know little about the genetic basis of these hallmark traits. Here we uncover the history of the monarch's evolutionary origin and global dispersal, characterize the genes and pathways associated with migratory behaviour, and identify the discrete genetic basis of warning colouration by sequencing 101 Danaus genomes from around the globe. The results rewrite our understanding of this classic system, showing that D. plexippus was ancestrally migratory and dispersed out of North America to occupy its broad distribution. We find the strongest signatures of selection associated with migration centre on flight muscle function, resulting in greater flight efficiency among migratory monarchs, and that variation in monarch warning colouration is controlled by a single myosin gene not previously implicated in insect pigmentation. PMID:25274300

  4. Is the Butterfly diagram due to meridional motions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, G.; Elstner, D.

    2002-07-01

    The dynamo equation is solved for the solar convection zone with the given (``observed'') rotation law and positive \\alf-effect. If the latter exists in the entire convection zone the resulting dynamo shows strong toroidal field belts in the polar region migrating equatorwards. The same happens for alpha concentrated at the bottom of the convection zone but then we get too many belts with higher amplitude. The cycle period is always too short. Including meridional circulation which is directed equatorwards at the bottom of the convection zone (where the eddy diffusivity is reduced), the amplitude of the toroidal field grows and the butterfly diagram reaches low-latitudes. The cycle time approaches the solar value. The dynamo regime is highly sensitive to the interplay between flow and diffusivity at the bottom of the convection zone. Stationary solutions are not very seldom.

  5. The Effects of Scales on Autorotation of Monarch Butterfly Forewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechello, Nicole; Lang, Amy

    2014-11-01

    The wings of Monarch butterflies (Danus plexippus) have scales of approximately 100 micrometers that cover their wings in a roof-shingle pattern, and these scales are hypothesized to help improve flight efficiency for their long migration. The aerodynamic effects of the scales, particularly involving the leading edge vortex formation and resulting lift, were investigated by observing the natural autorotation of forewing specimen when dropped in quiescent air. A high-speed camera recorded drop tests of 32 forewings both with scales and after removal of the scales. It was found that the scales, on average, comprised 17% of the forewing mass. Tracking software was used to analyze the videos for several parameters, including descent speed and radius of rotation. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an research experience for undergraduate (REU) student.

  6. Sensory basis of lepidopteran migration: focus on the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    In response to seasonal habitats, migratory lepidopterans, exemplified by the monarch butterfly, have evolved migration to deal with dynamic conditions. During migration, monarchs use orientation mechanisms, exploiting a time-compensated sun compass and a light-sensitive inclination magnetic compass to facilitate fall migration south. The sun compass is bidirectional with overwintering coldness triggering the change in orientation direction for remigration northward in the spring. The timing of the remigration and milkweed emergence in the southern US have co-evolved for propagation of the migration. Current research is uncovering the anatomical and molecular substrates that underlie migratory-relevant sensory mechanisms with the antennae being critical components. Orientation mechanisms may be detrimentally affected by environmental factors such as climate change and sensory interference from human-generated sources. PMID:25625216

  7. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Joseph J; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke R; Olsen, Kent; Kurle, Carolyn M; Høye, Toke T

    2015-10-01

    The response of body size to increasing temperature constitutes a universal response to climate change that could strongly affect terrestrial ectotherms, but the magnitude and direction of such responses remain unknown in most species. The metabolic cost of increased temperature could reduce body size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500 individuals collected annually between 1996 and 2013 from Zackenberg, Greenland and found that wing length significantly decreased at a similar rate in both species in response to warmer summers. Body size is strongly related to dispersal capacity and fecundity and our results suggest that these Arctic species could face severe challenges in response to ongoing rapid climate change. PMID:26445981

  8. Non-target effects of clothianidin on monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecenka, Jacob R.; Lundgren, Jonathan G.

    2015-04-01

    Monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus) frequently consume milkweed in and near agroecosystems and consequently may be exposed to pesticides like neonicotinoids. We conducted a dose response study to determine lethal and sublethal doses of clothianidin using a 36-h exposure scenario. We then quantified clothianidin levels found in milkweed leaves adjacent to maize fields. Toxicity assays revealed LC10, LC50, and LC90 values of 7.72, 15.63, and 30.70 ppb, respectively. Sublethal effects (larval size) were observed at 1 ppb. Contaminated milkweed plants had an average of 1.14 ± 0.10 ppb clothianidin, with a maximum of 4 ppb in a single plant. This research suggests that clothianidin could function as a stressor to monarch populations.

  9. Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2009-01-01

    A male Morpho peleides butterfly wing is decorated by two types of scales, cover and ground scales. We have studied the optical properties of each type of scales in conjunction with the structural information provided by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and computer simulation. The shining blue color is mainly from the Bragg reflection of the one-dimensional photonic structure, e.g., the shelf structure packed regularly in each ridges on cover scales. A thin-film-like interference effect from the base plate of the cover scale enhances such blue color and further gives extra reflection peaks in the infrared and ultraviolet regions. The analogy in the spectra acquired from the original wing and that from the cover scales suggests that the cover scales take a dominant role in its structural color. This study provides insight of using the biotemplates for fabricating smart photonic structures. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Characterizing the Hofstadter butterfly's outline with Chern numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report original properties inherent to independent particles subjected to a magnetic field by emphasizing the existence of regular structures in the energy spectrum's outline. We show that this fractal curve, the well-known Hofstadter butterfly's outline, is associated with a specific sequence of Chern numbers that correspond to the quantized transverse conductivity. Indeed the topological invariant that characterizes the fundamental energy band depicts successive stairways as the magnetic flux varies. Moreover each stairway is shown to be labelled by another Chern number which measures the charge transported under displacement of the periodic potential. We put forward the universal character of these properties by comparing the results obtained for the square and the honeycomb geometries.

  11. Manifestation of the Hofstadter butterfly in far-infrared absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The far-infrared absorption of a two-dimensional electron gas with a square-lattice modulation in a perpendicular constant magnetic field is calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. For strong modulation and short period we obtain intrasubband and intersubband magnetoplasmon modes reflecting the subbands of the Hofstadter butterfly in two or more Landau bands. The character of the absorption and the correlation of the peaks to the number of flux quanta through each unit cell of the periodic potential depends strongly on the location of the chemical potential with respect to the subbands, or equivalently, on the density of electrons in the system. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Reading the complex skipper butterfly fauna of one tropical place.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Janzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An intense, 30-year, ongoing biodiversity inventory of Lepidoptera, together with their food plants and parasitoids, is centered on the rearing of wild-caught caterpillars in the 120,000 terrestrial hectares of dry, rain, and cloud forest of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG in northwestern Costa Rica. Since 2003, DNA barcoding of all species has aided their identification and discovery. We summarize the process and results for a large set of the species of two speciose subfamilies of ACG skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae and emphasize the effectiveness of barcoding these species (which are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adults are DNA barcoded by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada; and they are identified by correlating the resulting COI barcode information with more traditional information such as food plant, facies, genitalia, microlocation within ACG, caterpillar traits, etc. This process has found about 303 morphologically defined species of eudamine and pyrgine Hesperiidae breeding in ACG (about 25% of the ACG butterfly fauna and another 44 units indicated by distinct barcodes (n = 9,094, which may be additional species and therefore may represent as much as a 13% increase. All but the members of one complex can be identified by their DNA barcodes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Addition of DNA barcoding to the methodology greatly improved the inventory, both through faster (hence cheaper accurate identification of the species that are distinguishable without barcoding, as well as those that require it, and through the revelation of species "hidden" within what have long been viewed as single species. Barcoding increased the recognition of species-level specialization. It would be no more appropriate to ignore barcode data in a species inventory than it would be to ignore adult genitalia variation or caterpillar ecology.

  13. The butterfly and the tornado: chaos theory and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book, the author addresses two topics: the theory of chaos, and climate change. The first chapters propose a prehistory and history of chaos, from Newton, Laplace and Lorenz and their controversies as far as prehistory of chaos is concerned, and with different works performed during the twentieth century (Hadamard, Birkhoff, van der Pol, and so on, until Lorenz, the MIT meteorologist and the discovery of the Butterfly Effect, and more recent works by Yorke and Feigenbaum about the logistic equation and the transition to chaos) as far as recent history is concerned. The next chapter describes the deterministic chaos by introducing non linear dynamic systems and distinguishing three regimes: steady, periodic or chaotic. The second part addresses climate change, outlines that global warming is a reality, that the main origin is the increase of greenhouse effect, and that CO2 emissions related to human activity are the main origin of this additional greenhouse effect. The author notably recalls the controversy about the analysis of the global average temperature curve, discusses the assessment of average temperatures from a statistical point of view and in relationship with the uneven distribution of survey stations. The last chapter discusses the numerical modelling of time and climate, and the validity of the Butterfly Effect. The author also proposes a brief overview of the IPCC, discusses the emergence of an international climate policy (UN convention, Kyoto protocol), evokes the use of game theory to ensure a convergence of treaties, and analyses the economic situation of several countries (including Spain) since the Kyoto protocol

  14. Compared Analysis of CBL1 Genes from Chinese Cabbage, Cabbage and Brassica nigra%大白菜、甘蓝和黑芥 CBL1基因的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李化银; 姜常松; 张一卉; 高建伟; 李利斌; 曹齐卫

    2014-01-01

    CBL1基因在植物非生物逆境应答及发育过程中具有重要功能。本试验在解析大白菜、甘蓝和黑芥CBL1的基础上,对它们进行了系统地比较分析,为进一步研究CBL1基因在芸薹属植物中的分子进化和功能奠定基础。%CBL1 gene plays pivotal roles in abiotic stress response, growth and development of plant.In this study, systematic comparison was conducted based on the analysis of CBL1 genes from Chinse cabbage, cabbage and Brassica nigra.It would establish foundations for further research on molecular evolution and function of Brassica CBL1 genes.

  15. AFLP Marker Linked to Turnip Mosaic Virus Susceptible Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN He-ping; SUN Ri-fei; ZHANG Shu-jiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Shi-fan; NIU Xin-ke

    2004-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) which has several strains causes the most important virusdisease in Chinese cabbage in terms of crop damage. In China, Chinese cabbage is infectedby a mixture of strains, breeding of cultivar for the TuMV resistance has become themajor aim. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV-resistance gene formolecular assisted selection is the major method to improve the breeding efficiency. Inthis study, we used AFLP technique and the method of bulked segregant analysis(BSA) tostudy the progeny of Brp0058 x Brp0108, and identified two DNA molecular marker linked toTurnip mosaic virus-resistance gene with a recombination frequency 7.5 cM and 8.4 cM.

  16. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels. PMID:27172980

  17. Remediation and Safe Production of cd Contaminated Soil Via Multiple Cropping Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and Low Accumulation Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingfen; Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Wang, Siqi; Ji, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple crop experiment of hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. with low accumulation Chinese cabbage Fenyuanxin 3 were conducted in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated vegetable field. In the first round, the average removal rate of S. nigrum to Cd was about 10% without assisted phytoextraction reagent addition for the top soil (0-20 cm) with Cd concentration at 0.53-0.97 mg kg(-1) after its grew 90 days. As for assisted phytoextraction reagent added plots, efficiency of Cd remediation might reach at 20%. However, in the second round, Cd concentration in Chinese cabbage was edible, even in the plots with assisted phytoextraction reagent added. Thus, multiple cropping hyperaccumulator with low accumulation crop could normally remediate contaminated soil and produce crop (obtain economic benefit) in one year, which may be one practical pathway of phytoremediating heavy metal contaminated soil in the future. PMID:25976879

  18. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  19. An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occurring at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex Stutsman County, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in...

  20. An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occuring at Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Benson County, North Dakota 1995-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making management decisions for the area.

  1. An updated comprehensive annotated list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) occurring at Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex Stutsman County, North Dakota 1995-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ron

    1996-01-01

    A project to produce a comprehensive, site-specific butterfly list that could serve as a basis for future monitoring of butterfly populations and as an aid in making management decisions for the area.

  2. Melatonin Improved Anthocyanin Accumulation by Regulating Gene Expressions and Resulted in High Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Capacity in Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Qianqian; Li, Hongfei; Li, Xingsheng; Cao, Yunyun; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Shuangtao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Yan; Ren, Shuxin; Zhao, Bing; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we found, that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold) in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase), was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved, that exogenous melatoni...

  3. The control of club-root (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.) on cabbage seedlings with trifluralin and napropamid herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    J. Robak; A. Dobrzański

    2015-01-01

    The herbicides Treflan EC 2 (24% trifluralin) and Devrinol 50 (50% napropamid) applied separately decreased efficiently the incidence of club-root on cabbage seedlings in pot experiments. If these herbicides were applied together with the fungicide Bavistin {50% carbendazim) the control of the disease was in some cases more efficient, as compared with Bavistin used alone. The higher the organic matter content in the soil, the lower the phytotoxicity and dub-root controlling activity of herbic...

  4. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae) Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Kos; Maja Čačija; Darija Lemić; Jasminka Igrc Barčić; Josip Borošić; Antonela Kozina; Mirna Ceranić-Sertić; Renata Bažok

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L.) adults in relation to Julian days (JD), degree-day accumulations (DDA) and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST). Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was ...

  5. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  6. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin; Wiboonluk Pungrasmi; Sorawit Powtongsook

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage) and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only) and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads), were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter) were fi...

  7. Improved solar efficiency by introducing graphene oxide in purple cabbage dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Gupta, R. K.; Kahol, P. K.; Wageh, S.; Al-Turki, Y. A.; El Shirbeeny, W.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2014-04-01

    Natural dye extracted from purple cabbage was used for fabrication of TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The effect of light intensity on the solar efficiency of the device was investigated. It was observed that the efficiency of the DSSC increases with increasing the light intensity e.g. the efficiency of the solar cell increases from 0.013±0.002% to 0.150±0.020% by increase in light intensity from 30 to 100 mW/cm2, respectively. The solar efficiency of the natural dye used in this research was compared with commercial dye (N 719) under similar experimental conditions and observed that the natural (purple cabbage) dye has higher efficiency (0.150±0.020%) than N 719 (0.078±0.002%). It was further evaluated that the efficiency of the fabricated solar cell could improve by incorporating graphene oxide. The efficiency of the TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cell was found to increase from 0.150±0.020% to 0.361±0.009% by incorporating graphene oxide into purple cabbage dye.

  8. Field Test Of Capability To Prevent Cabbage Clubroot Disease Caused By Plasmodiophora brassicae Of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of four dose rates 0.27; 0.90; 1.80 and 3.60 kGy/h on the solution of silver (Ag+ 10-2 M, PVP 2%, ethylenglycol 6%) irradiated at 25 kGy were investigated. The results showed that as the dose rates increased, the absorption peak shifted to blue wavelengths and also the particles decreased in size. For field test, nano particles were prepared by irradiation of silver solution at 25 kGy with the dose rate of 3.60 kGy/h. The absorption peaks of the synthesized nanoparticles were obtained at wavelengths of 412 nm and the average diameter of particles were 14 nm. Using two concentrations of 15 and 20 ppm, silver nanoparticles had not affected the growth and development of cabbage but showed antifungal activity against Plasmodiophora brassicae cause club root in cabbage. Using nano particles, the clubroot disease index were 9-10% compared to 5% of nebijin (fungicide), and 12% of control. The yield of cabbage were 55 tons/ha, 63 tons/ha and 70 tons/ha for the control, nanosilver group, and nebijin group, respectively. (author)

  9. Report on the intercomparison runs for the determination of trace and minor elements in cabbage material. IAEA-359

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, the IAEA decided to produce a cabbage plant reference material that could be characterised for certain agrochemical residues. The cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea var. Sabauda) were grown from seed in Seibersdorf, Austria. The plants were treated with ten different agrochemical products during their growing period. Subsequently, it was decided that the material would also be valuable as a reference material for trace element analysis and quality control purposes. The property values for the trace metal content of the cabbage material, designated IAEA 359, were to be ascribed on the basis of information received from international intercomparison exercises. In parallel, it was decided to despatch the material as part of a joint IAEA-NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA) project to certify the trace and minor element contents of a spinach reference material (NIST 1570a), in which it was to serve as a quality control material. A similar rationale was used to justify inclusion of IAEA 359 in a small scale exercise for a preliminary characterisation of another IAEA reference material, IAEA 336 Lichen. Between 1992 and 1993, the material was used in 4 projects (2 large scale and 2 smaller scale) where its trace element contents were determined. This report deals with the statistical evaluation of the pooled analytical data from these exercises

  10. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  11. Land-use changes, farm management and the decline of butterflies associated with semi-natural grasslands in southern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sven G.; Markus Franzén; Lars Pettersson

    2013-01-01

    Currently, we are experiencing biodiversity loss on different spatial scales. One of the best studied taxonomic groups in decline is the butterflies. Here, we review evidence for such declines using five systematic studies from southern Sweden that compare old butterfly surveys with the current situation. Additionally, we provide data on butterfly and burnet moth extinctions in the region’s counties. In some local areas, half of the butterfly fauna has been lost during the last 60-100 y...

  12. Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekin, Burak K

    2013-12-01

    Although agricultural intensification is thought to pose a significant threat to species, little is known about its role in driving biodiversity loss at regional scales. I assessed the effects of a major component of agricultural intensification, agricultural chemical use, and land-cover and climatic variables on butterfly diversity across 81 provinces in Turkey, where agriculture is practiced extensively but with varying degrees of intensity. I determined butterfly species presence in each province from data on known butterfly distributions and calculated agricultural chemical use as the proportion of agricultural households that use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. I used constrained correspondence analyses and regression-based multimodel inference to determine the effect of environmental variables on species composition and richness, respectively. The variation in butterfly species composition across the provinces was largely explained (78%) by the combination of agricultural chemical use, particularly pesticides, and climatic and land-cover variables. Although overall butterfly richness was primarily explained by climatic and land-cover variables, such as the area of natural vegetation cover, threatened butterfly richness and the relative number of threatened butterfly species decreased substantially as the proportion of agricultural households using pesticides increased. These findings suggest that widespread use of agricultural chemicals, or other components of agricultural intensification that may be collinear with pesticide use, pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Turkey. Accordingly, policies that mitigate agricultural intensification and promote low-input farming practices are crucial for protecting threatened species from extinction in rapidly industrializing nations such as Turkey. Efectos del Uso Extensivo de Agroquímicos sobre la Diversidad de Mariposas en Provincias Turcas. PMID:23869856

  13. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  14. Does tropical forest fragmentation increase long-term variability of butterfly communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, the overall effects of fragmentation on biodiversity may be obscured by differences in responses among species. These opposing responses to fragmentation may be manifest in higher variability in species richness and abundance (termed hyperdynamism), and in predictable changes in community composition. We tested whether forest fragmentation causes long-term hyperdynamism in butterfly communities, a taxon that naturally displays large variations in species richness and community composition. Using a dataset from an experimentally fragmented landscape in the central Amazon that spanned 11 years, we evaluated the effect of fragmentation on changes in species richness and community composition through time. Overall, adjusted species richness (adjusted for survey duration) did not differ between fragmented forest and intact forest. However, spatial and temporal variation of adjusted species richness was significantly higher in fragmented forests relative to intact forest. This variation was associated with changes in butterfly community composition, specifically lower proportions of understory shade species and higher proportions of edge species in fragmented forest. Analysis of rarefied species richness, estimated using indices of butterfly abundance, showed no differences between fragmented and intact forest plots in spatial or temporal variation. These results do not contradict the results from adjusted species richness, but rather suggest that higher variability in butterfly adjusted species richness may be explained by changes in butterfly abundance. Combined, these results indicate that butterfly communities in fragmented tropical forests are more variable than in intact forest, and that the natural variability of butterflies was not a buffer against the effects of fragmentation on community dynamics. PMID:20224772

  15. Broiler litter and inorganic nitrogen fertilizers influence on earliness and yield on strawberry and cabbage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author.Comparison of broiler litter (BL) rates to inorganic nitrogen fertilizers was studied during 1994-1995 as to its effect on earliness and yield of strawberry and cabbage grown on a calcareous soil. Strawberry (Frag aria x ananassa Duch.cv.Oso Grande) was grown using BL at rates which supplied 100 (BL1) or 200 (BL2) Kg N/ha, ammonium nitrate or nitrogen+trace elements applied at 150 Kg N/ha in six equally split applications throughout the growing season. Crop yield was higher (P0.05) under the litter treated plots especially the BL2 rate. Leaf Fe was comparable among treatments (P>0.05) and no Fe chlorosis symptoms were observed, even though the soil is calcareous. Residual soil nitrate-nitrogen was comparable (P>0.05) among all the treatments with the ammonium nitrate and the BL2 having the highest values, indicating that BL at 200 Kg N/ha apparently released an amount of N equivalent to that from the 150 Kg N/ha of ammonium nitrate. Available soil P (water soluble), although comparable among treatments (P>0.05), was higher under the BL treated plots especially at the 200 Kg N/ha rate reflecting the P content of the manure. It is recommended to apply BL at a rate of 200 Kg N/ha to fertilize strawberry over the use of inorganic N fertilizers at similar rates. O-S-Cross cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) was tested using the same rates of BL described previously, ammonium nitrate or nitrogen+trace elements at 125 Kg N/ha split as 25 Kg N/ha early in the season, 50 Kg N/ha just before heading, and 50 Kg N/ha at heading. Total yield and marketable yield were higher under the inorganic treated plots than under BL (P2. The higher yields under the inorganic N fertilizer treated plots were also reflected in leaf nitrate-nitrogen. Leaf blade P was comparable (P>0.05) among all treatments indicating a high soil P level at the beginning of all treatments before heading (P>0.05) and at heading, where as at first harvest it was higher (P<0.05) under the nitrogen

  16. Chemical espionage on species-specific butterfly anti-aphrodisiacs by hitchhiking Trichogramma wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Woelke, J.B.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic wasps employ a wide range of chemical cues to find their hosts. Very recently, we discovered how 2 closely related egg parasitoids, Trichogramma brassicae and Trichogramma evanescens, exploit the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide of one of their hosts, the gregarious large cabbage

  17. Foraging behavior of the Blue Morpho and other tropical butterflies: The chemical and electrophysiological basis of olfactory preferences and the role of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inside a live butterfly exhibit housing a variety of tropical butterfly species under north-central Florida ambient conditions, we conducted bioassays to determine whether the presence of color would facilitate the location of attractants by the butterflies. In two separate bioassays, the baits (hon...

  18. Whiteness and wideness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thau, Carsten

    Katalogartikel til Robert Wilsons og Kaleidoskops forestilling på Bellevue Teatret 'The white town'......Katalogartikel til Robert Wilsons og Kaleidoskops forestilling på Bellevue Teatret 'The white town'...

  19. It's All in the Mix: Blend-Specific Behavioral Response to a Sexual Pheromone in a Butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsdotter-Mellström, Helena; Eriksson, Kerstin; Liblikas I, Ilme; Wiklund, Christer; Borg-Karlson, Anna K; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas; Carlsson, Mikael A

    2016-01-01

    Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioral response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer) and neral (Z-isomer) in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behavior, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca(2+) imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to, for example, plant-related compounds, i.e., no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time. PMID:26973536

  20. Intra- and inter-individual variation in flight direction in a migratory butterfly co-vary with individual mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Nicolas; Baguette, Michel; Calvez, Olivier; Trochet, Audrey; Ducatez, Simon; Legrand, Delphine

    2013-08-15

    Flight direction is a major component of an animal's migratory success. However, few studies have focused on variation in flight direction both between and within individuals, which is likely to be correlated with other traits implied in migration processes. We report patterns of intra- and inter-individual variation in flight direction in the large white butterfly Pieris brassicae. The presence of inter-individual variation in flight direction for individuals tested in the same conditions suggests that this trait is inherited in P. brassicae and we propose that a rapid loss of migratory skills may exist in the absence of selection for migration. The magnitude of intra-individual variation was negatively correlated to two surrogates of the potential for migration: mobility and wing length. Highly mobile and longed-winged individuals within the same family were found to fly in similar directions, whereas less mobile and short-winged individuals displayed divergent flight direction compared with the average direction of their kin. There was also a negative correlation between the variance to the mean flight direction of a family and its average mobility, but no correlation with wing length. We discuss these issues in terms of the evolution of traits potentially implied in both migration and dispersal in P. brassicae. PMID:23661774