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Sample records for cabbage white butterfly

  1. Preference of cabbage white butterflies and honey bees for nectar that contains amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Janis; Ohnmeiss, Thomas E; Lanza, Janet; Vriesenga, Lauren

    1990-08-01

    Amino acids occur in most floral nectars but their role in pollinator attraction is relatively unstudied. Nectars of butterfly-pollinated flower tend to have higher concentrations of amino acids than do flowers pollinated by bees and many other animals, suggesting that amino acids are important attractants of butterflies to flowers. In order to determine whether amino acids are important in attracting butterflies and bees, we tested the preference of cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae) and honey bees (Apis mellifera) by allowing them to feed from artificial flowers containing sugar-only or sugar-amino acid mimics ofLantana camara nectar. Honey bees and female cabbage white butterflies consumed more sugar-amino acid nectar than sugar-only nectar. In addition, female cabbage white butterflies visited artificial flowers containing sugar-amino acid nectars more frequently than flowers containing sugar-only nectars; honey bees spent more time consuming the sugar-amino acid nectar. Male cabbage white butterflies did not discriminate between the two nectars. These results support the hypothesis that the amino acids of nectar contribute to pollinator attraction and/or feeding.

  2. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an

  3. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  4. Risk of Egg Parasitoid Attraction Depends on Anti-aphrodisiac Titre in the Large Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Swart, de E.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus

  5. Egg laying of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae on Arabidopsis thaliana affects subsequent performance of the larvae.

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    Sven Geiselhardt

    Full Text Available Plant resistance to the feeding by herbivorous insects has recently been found to be positively or negatively influenced by prior egg deposition. Here we show how crucial it is to conduct experiments on plant responses to herbivory under conditions that simulate natural insect behaviour. We used a well-studied plant--herbivore system, Arabidopsis thaliana and the cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae, testing the effects of naturally laid eggs (rather than egg extracts and allowing larvae to feed gregariously as they do naturally (rather than placing single larvae on plants. Under natural conditions, newly hatched larvae start feeding on their egg shells before they consume leaf tissue, but access to egg shells had no effect on subsequent larval performance in our experiments. However, young larvae feeding gregariously on leaves previously laden with eggs caused less feeding damage, gained less weight during the first 2 days, and suffered twice as high a mortality until pupation compared to larvae feeding on plants that had never had eggs. The concentration of the major anti-herbivore defences of A. thaliana, the glucosinolates, was not significantly increased by oviposition, but the amount of the most abundant member of this class, 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate was 1.8-fold lower in larval-damaged leaves with prior egg deposition compared to damaged leaves that had never had eggs. There were also few significant changes in the transcript levels of glucosinolate metabolic genes, except that egg deposition suppressed the feeding-induced up-regulation of FMOGS-OX2 , a gene encoding a flavin monooxygenase involved in the last step of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl glucosinolate biosynthesis. Hence, our study demonstrates that oviposition does increase A. thaliana resistance to feeding by subsequently hatching larvae, but this cannot be attributed simply to changes in glucosinolate content.

  6. Weaker resource diffusion effect at coarser spatial scales observed for egg distribution of cabbage white butterflies.

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    Hasenbank, Marc; Hartley, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Mobile organisms frequently forage for patchy resources; e.g. herbivorous insects searching for host plants. The resource diffusion hypothesis predicts that insect herbivores, such as Pieris rapae butterflies, are disproportionally attracted to more isolated, or 'diffused', host plants. Surprisingly little is known about how this response to variation in resource density manifests itself at different spatial scales. We measured the outcome of oviposition by P. rapae butterflies foraging among groups of host plants, with plant density experimentally varied to achieve comparability between three nested scales: fine (1 × 1 m), medium (6 × 6 m), and coarse (36 × 36 m). Hierarchical linear models were used to measure density-dependent responses in the number of eggs laid per plant, with plant density measured at nested spatial scales. At a fine scale, isolated plants received significantly more eggs, while at medium and coarse scales the differences were less pronounced, and tended towards a neutral distribution of eggs across plants. Larger plants also tended to receive more eggs. Since multiple processes, acting at multiple scales, are likely to be the rule rather than the exception in ecology, methods for detecting and characterising multi-scale responses are important to ensure a robust transfer of ecological models from one situation to another.

  7. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

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    Nina E. Fatouros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated with eggs of Cabbage White butterflies (Pieris spp. induce chemical changes in Brussels sprouts plants recruiting egg-killing parasitoids. Only secretions of mated female butterflies contain minute amounts of male-derived anti-aphrodisiac compounds that elicit this indirect plant defense. Here, we used the black mustard (Brassica nigra to investigate how eggs of the Large Cabbage White butterfly (P. brassicae induce, either an egg-killing direct (i.e. hypersensitive response (HR-like necrosis or indirect defense (i.e. oviposition-induced plant volatiles attracting Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Plants induced by P. brassicae egg-associated secretions expressed both traits and previous mating enhanced elicitation. Treatment with the anti-aphrodisiac compound of P. brassicae, benzyl cyanide, induced stronger HR when compared to controls. Expression of the salicylic (SA pathway- and HR-marker PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 (PR1 was induced only in plants showing an HR-like necrosis. Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles induced by secretion of mated P. brassicae females but application of benzyl cyanide did not elicit the parasitoid-attracting volatiles. We conclude that egg-associated secretions of Pieris butterflies contain specific elicitors of the different plant defense traits against eggs in Brassica plants. While in Brussels sprouts plants anti-aphrodisiac compounds in Pieris egg-associated secretions were clearly shown to elicit indirect defense, the wild relative B. nigra, recognizes different herbivore cues that mediate the defensive responses. These results add another level of specificity to the mechanisms by which plants recognize their

  8. Patterns of phenotypic plasticity in common and rare environments: a study of host use and color learning in the cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Papaj, Daniel R

    2009-05-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is adaptive in variable environments but, given its costs, may be disfavored if only one environment is commonly encountered. Yet species in relatively constant environments often adjust phenotypes successfully in rare or novel environments. Developmental biases may reduce the costs of plasticity in common environments, favoring the maintenance of plasticity. We explored this proposition by studying the flexibility of visually guided host-selection behavior in cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae), wherein common and rare environments consisted of green and red host types, respectively. We demonstrated in greenhouse assays that adult females display an innate bias toward green color during host search but alter that bias through learning in red-host assemblages such that, after several hours of experience, red hosts are located as efficiently as green hosts. Full-sib analyses suggested there was genetic variation in host and color choice that was more pronounced in the red-host environment. We found no evidence of genetic correlations in behavior across host environments or of fitness costs of plasticity in color choice. Our results support the idea that learning may persist in less variable environments through the evolution of innate biases that reduce operating costs in common environments.

  9. Ejaculation Timing of Eupyrene and Apyrene Sperm in the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera : Pieridae) during Copulation

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Wiklund, Christer; BONNO, Minetaka

    1998-01-01

    During copulation, the male small white, Pieris rapae, fills a single spermatophore in the bursa copulatrix of the female. Artificial interruption of copulation showed that the male filled first white gel after which the spermatophore was structured. No sperm were found in the gel. Both eupyrene sperm bundles and free apyrene sperm were ejaculated into the structured spermatophore immediately before the completion of copulation. A male transferred about 11, 000 eupyrene sperm, whereas about 4...

  10. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallick, Tapas K

    2015-07-31

    Man's harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies' wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies' thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  11. The effect of host acceptability on oviposition and egg accumulation by the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, R.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of host-plant acceptability on oviposition rate, egg load, internal fat storage and longevity was studied in the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Newly emerged females and males were presented with either cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. gemmifera),

  12. Efficacy of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa GAERTN. and black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. in reducing the occurrence of Phyllotreta spp., some lepidopteran pests and diamondback moth parasitoids on white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and black elderberry Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., as well as lepidopteran pests like the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, small white butterfly Pieris rapae, large white butterfly Pieris brassicae, cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae and the Plutella xylostella parasitoid complex were investigated on white cabbage in 2008-2009. Aqueous extracts of black elderberry Sambucus nigra significantly reduced numbers of flea beetles Phyllotreta spp., eggs of Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, and larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella on the cabbage. The aqueous extract of Alnus glutinosa was less effective. Parasitoids had the greatest impact on reducing numbers of diamondback moth: the dominant species was Diadegma fenestralis. The smallest number of parasitoids was reared from pupae collected from plots where the cabbages had been sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract.

  13. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  14. Tronchuda cabbage flavonoids uptake by Pieris brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F.; Sousa, C.; Valentão, P.; PEREIRA, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    The flavonoid pattern of larvae of cabbage white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L.; Lepidoptera: Pieridae) reared on the leaves of tronchuda cabbage was analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI. Twenty flavonoids were identified or characterised, namely 16 kaempferol and four quercetin derivatives. Kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside, a minor component of tronchuda cabbage, was found to be the main component in P. brassicae (15.8%). Apart from this, only two other flavonoids present in significant amounts...

  15. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

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    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  16. Butterfly wing colours : scale beads make white pierid wings brighter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Stowe, S; Siebke, K; Zeil, J; Arikawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the

  17. Screening of some white cabbage lines for resistance to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor.

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    İlyas DELİGÖZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is serious soil-borne disease of cruciferous crops in the world. Yield reductions due to disease may be up to 100% if soil is heavily infested with clubroot. Clubroot is extremely difficult to control as there is no chemical treatment against clubroot in practice. Preventing the introduction of clubroot to clean fields, combining cultural practices with using resistant cultivars is the best method to control clubroot. A total of 114 white cabbage breeding lines were evaluated reaction to clubroot disease in this study. Ten plants of each cabbage breeding lines were inoculated with ECD 16/31/31 race of P. brassicae and all plants evaluated according to 0-3 scale. Results showed that all cabbage breeding lines and resistant control cultivars (Tekila F1, Kilaton F1 and Clapton F1 were susceptible to ECD 16/31/31 race of P. brassicae.

  18. Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides on important parasitoids of cabbage butterflies in cruciferous ecosystem.

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    Firake, D M; Thubru, D P; Behere, G T

    2017-02-01

    Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides was estimated on three important parasitoids of butterflies viz., Hyposoter ebeninus, Cotesia glomerata and Pteromalus puparum. Four commonly used pesticides were evaluated using standard protocol (of IOBC/WPRS-group). In laboratory tests, the survival of the female wasps decreased significantly on fresh contact and ingestion of deltamethrin, spinosad and azadirachtin; whereas Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk) was found harmless pesticide. Under semi-field conditions, parasitoid mortality decreased significantly on fresh contact with the pesticides. Although, at 72 h after treatment, spinosad and deltamethrin were found harmful (Class-IV) and azadirachtin was moderately harmful (Class-III), whereas Btk was harmless (Class-I). Furthermore, 15-day-old residues of pesticides (except deltamethrin) were harmless to all parasitoid species under semi-field conditions. Notably, adult emergence and pupal duration in pesticide-treated cocoons were not significantly affected; however, their survival decreased after emergence except in Btk. The contact and oral toxicity trends of the pesticides were almost similar for three species of parasitoid females and pupae; however little variability was observed in toxicity to the host caterpillars parasitized by H. ebeninus (HCPHE) and C. glomerata (HCPCG). In semi-field tests, fresh residues of all the pesticides were harmful to HCPHE and HCPCG. However, action of Btk was slightly delayed and toxicity was rather low for HCPCG. In 15-day-old residues, deltamethrin and azadirachtin were slightly harmful to the parasitized caterpillars, whereas those of Btk and spinosad were harmless. Since, Btk appeared to be safe for parasitoids; it could be used for managing cabbage butterflies in brassicaceous crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

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    Öztekin, Aykut, E-mail: aoztekin@agri.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Agri Ibrahim Cecen University Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 04100-Agri (Turkey); Almaz, Züleyha, E-mail: zturkoglu-2344@hotmail.com [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey); Mus Alparslan University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Moleculer Biology, 49250-Mus (Turkey); Özdemir, Hasan, E-mail: hozdemir@atauni.edu.tr [Ataturk University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 25240-Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC{sub 50} values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  20. USE OF CELL ENGINEERING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTANT INITIAL BREEDING MATERIAL OF WHITE HEAD CABBAGE CV. NADZEJA AND CMS SAMPLES

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    A. V. Yakimovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anther derived androgenic plants of white head cabbage cv. Nadzeja and CMS samples were obtained. The cytological analysis of ploidy level of regenerated plants and doubled haploids obtained by treatment of meristems with colchicine was performed. On the basis of androgenic doubled hap loids of white head cabbage genotypes the seed plants were developed.

  1. Release and characterization of single side chains of white cabbage pectin and their complement-fixing activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westereng, B.; Coenen, G.J.; Michaelsen, T.E.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Samuelsen, A.B.; Schols, H.A.; Knutsen, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    A mixture of single side chains from white cabbage pectin were obtained by anion exchange chromatography after applying mild chemical conditions promoting -elimination. These pectin fragments were characterized by their molecular weight distribution, sugar composition, 13C-NMR, and MALDI-TOF-MS

  2. Factors affecting uptake of {sup 131}I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn)

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    Yu, K.N. E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk; Cheung, T.; Luo, D.L.; Li, M.F

    2000-06-01

    The factors affecting the uptake of {sup 131}I in Chinese white cabbage (Brassica Chinensis Linn) were studied. The time required for the ratio between the activity in the vegetable (Bq kg{sup -1} dry mass) and the activity in the soil (Bq kg{sup -1} dry mass) to reach equilibrium was around 72 h derived from an investigation period of 145 h. The ratio was also dependent on the mass of the vegetable (increased by more than twice when the vegetable mass was decreased to around 60%), the growth period of the vegetable (almost linearly decreased from 3.0x10{sup -2} to 1.1x10{sup -2} when the growth period changed from 66 to 81 d) and the season of culture, while it was independent of the concentration of {sup 131}I applied to the soil. The mean concentration ratio obtained for 51 samples was (6.3{+-}4.4)x10{sup -2}.

  3. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

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    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption.

  4. Developmental lead exposure has mixed effects on butterfly cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Kinsey H; Kobiela, Megan E; Snell-Rood, Emilie C

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of lead pollution have been well studied in vertebrates, it is unclear to what extent lead may negatively affect insect cognition. Lead pollution in soils can elevate lead in plant tissues, suggesting it could negatively affect neural development of insect herbivores. We used the cabbage white butterfly (Pieris rapae) as a model system to study the effect of lead pollution on insect cognitive processes, which play an important role in how insects locate and handle resources. Cabbage white butterfly larvae were reared on a 4-ppm lead diet, a concentration representative of vegetation in polluted sites; we measured eye size and performance on a foraging assay in adults. Relative to controls, lead-reared butterflies did not differ in time or ability to search for a food reward associated with a less preferred color. Indeed, lead-treated butterflies were more likely to participate in the behavioral assay itself. Lead exposure did not negatively affect survival or body size, and it actually sped up development time. The effects of lead on relative eye size varied with sex: lead tended to reduce eye size in males, but increase eye size in females. These results suggest that low levels of lead pollution may have mixed effects on butterfly vision, but only minimal impacts on performance in foraging tasks, although follow-up work is needed to test whether this result is specific to cabbage whites, which are often associated with disturbed areas.

  5. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivities of the Small White butterfly Pieris rapae crucivora interpreted with optical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    The compound eye of the Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, has four classes of visual pigments, with peak absorption in the ultraviolet, violet, blue and green, but electrophysiological recordings yielded eight photoreceptors classes: an ultraviolet, violet, blue, double-peaked blue,

  6. Sexual dimorphism of short-wavelength photoreceptors in the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikawa, K; Wakakuwa, M; Qiu, XD; Kurasawa, M; Stavenga, DG; Qiu, Xudong

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of the female small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, are furnished with three classes of short-wavelength photoreceptors, with sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (UV) (lambda(max) = 360 nm), violet (V) (lambda max = 425 nm), and blue (B) (lambda(max) = 453 nm) wavelength range.

  7. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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    Farzana Perveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  8. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

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    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  9. Phoresy in the field: natural occurrence of Trichogramma egg parasitoids on butterflies and moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Phoretic insects utilize other animals to disperse to new environments. We recently discovered how egg parasitoids use an exciting phoretic strategy to reach egg-laying sites of their butterfly hosts. In the laboratory, female Trichogramma wasps detect and mount mated female cabbage white

  10. Male-derived butterfly anti-aphrodisiac mediates induced indirect plant defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Broekgaarden, C.; Bukovinszkine-Kiss, G.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Mumm, R.; Huigens, M.E.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can recruit parasitic wasps in response to egg deposition by herbivorous insects¿a sophisticated indirect plant defense mechanism. Oviposition by the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae on Brussels sprout plants induces phytochemical changes that arrest the egg parasitoid

  11. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  12. Preliminary investigation on the effects of biological and synthetic insecticides on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of cabbage pests is oriented towards the use of efficient but high-risk insecticides, some of them being endocrine disruptors. Biopesticides are more environment-friendly, operator-and consumers-safe, but they have low initial toxicity, low efficacy to advanced larval stages, and they require certain knowledge of pest and host biology. In our laboratory experiments we have investigated the effects of formulated synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin (0.3 l/ha and biological products - formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (2 and 3/ha and Spinosad (0.1 l/ha - on large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae L. larvae-instars 2, 3, 4 and 5. The effect of insecticides was inversely proportional to larval instars. Btk effect could be improved if tank-mixed with cypermethrin. The mixing of ready-made products allows a reduction 3 and 6 times compared with the recommended dose, still obtaining satisfactory results. Rate of leaf damage was reduced when tank mixtures were used. Use of two products in mixture would be of significance especially for control of advanced late instars late in season, when Btk action alone is insufficient. Spinosad was effective in inducing mortality and reducing leaf damage by all larval instars, therefore we assume that the dose could be reduced. Feeding rate and mortality are equally important parameters when assessing biopesticide efficacy. This strategy should also reduce the possibility of inducing resistance in pest population. It also tends to reduce the residues in commodities and is good solution in production of hygienic and health safe food.

  13. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    , measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant...... (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  14. Anti-aphrodisiac compounds of male butterflies increase the risk of egg parasitoid attack by inducing plant synomone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Aponte Cordero, W.V.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Mumm, R.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.; Huigens, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    During mating in many butterfly species, males transfer spermatophores that contain anti-aphrodisiacs to females that repel conspecific males. For example, males of the large cabbage white, Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), transfer the anti-aphrodisiac, benzyl cyanide (BC) to females.

  15. Colored and white sectors from star-patterned petunia flowers display differential resistance to corn earworm and cabbage looper larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric T; Berhow, Mark A; Dowd, Patrick F

    2008-06-01

    Anthocyanins are likely a visual aid that attract pollinators. However, there is also the possibility that anthocyanins are present in some flowers as defensive molecules that protect them from excess light, pathogens, or herbivores. In this study, resistance due to anthocyanins from commercial petunia flowers (Petunia hybrida) was examined for insecticide/antifeedant activity against corn earworm (CEW, Helicoverpa zea) and cabbage looper (CL, Trichoplusia ni). The petunia flowers studied contained a star pattern, with colored and white sectors. CEW larvae ate significantly less colored sectors than white sectors in no-choice bioassays in most cases. All CEW larvae feeding on blue sectors weighed significantly less after 2 days than larvae feeding on white sectors, which was negatively correlated with total anthocyanin levels. CL larvae ate less of blue sectors than white sectors, and blue sectors from one petunia cultivar caused significantly higher CL mortality than white sectors. Partially purified anthocyanin mixtures isolated from petunia flowers, when added to insect diet discs at approximately natural concentrations, reduced both CEW and CL larva weights compared to the controls. These studies demonstrate that the colored sectors of these petunia cultivars slow the development of these lepidopteran larvae and indicate that anthocyanins play some part in flower defense in petunia.

  16. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

  17. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K Magnus; Forshed, Jenny; Lindahl, Anna; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Olsson, Marie; Knuthsen, Pia; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Husted, Søren

    2014-05-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83 % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM LEVELS IN WHITE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L., SOIL, AND IRRIGATION WATER OF URBAN AGRICULTURAL SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiyanto Hardiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture comprises a variety of farming systems, ranging from subsistence to fully commercialized agriculture. Pollution from automobile exhaust, industrial and commercialactivities may affect humans, crops, soil, and water in and around urban agriculture areas. The research aimed to investigate the level and distribution of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in white cabbage (Brassica rapa L., soil, and irrigation water taken from urban sites. The research was conducted in Las Piñas and Parañaque, Metro Manila, Philippines. The field area was divided into three sections based on its distance from the main road (0, 25, and 50 m. Irrigation water was taken from canal (Las Piñas and river (Parañaque. Pb and Cd contents of the extract were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Combined analysis over locations was used. The relationship between distance from the main road and metal contents was measured by Pearson’s correlation. Based on combined analyses, highly significant difference over locations was only showed on Cd content in white cabbage. Cd content in white cabbage grown in Parañaque was higher than that cultivated in Las Piñas, while Cd content in the soil between both sites was comparable.The average Pb content (1.09 µg g-1 dry weight was highest in the white cabbage grown right beside the main road. A similar trend was also observed in the soil, with the highest concentration being recorded at 26 µg g-1 dry weight. There was a negative relationship between distance from the main road and Pb and Cd contents in white cabbage and the soil. Level of Pb in water taken from the canal and river was similar (0.12 mg l-1, whereaslevels of Cd were 0.0084 and 0.0095 mg l-1, respectively. In general, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in white cabbage and soil as well as irrigation water were still in the acceptable limits. In terms of environmental hazards and polluted city environment, it seems that

  19. The morphological signs of plants of white cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. convar. capitata (L. Alef. var. alba DC and their variability depending on type of sort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Жук

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Indicators of the morphological signs of type of sort on white cabbage plants Dutch flat, Belarus, Amager, Langendijker winter and their variability are the presented. It is established low and average factor of a variation at the majority of the morphological signs. Strong high-quality and ecological variability of signs “height external rake” and “its size leafy parts” at type of sort Dutch flat is defined.

  20. Fitness costs of thermal reaction norms for wing melanisation in the large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput-Bardy, Audrey; Ducatez, Simon; Legrand, Delphine; Baguette, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, shows a seasonal polyphenism of wing melanisation, spring individuals being darker than summer individuals. This phenotypic plasticity is supposed to be an adaptive response for thermoregulation in natural populations. However, the variation in individuals' response, the cause of this variation (genetic, non genetic but inheritable or environmental) and its relationship with fitness remain poorly known. We tested the relationships between thermal reaction norm of wing melanisation and adult lifespan as well as female fecundity. Butterflies were reared in cold (18°C), moderate (22°C), and hot (26°C) temperatures over three generations to investigate variation in adult pigmentation and the effects of maternal thermal environment on offspring reaction norms. We found a low heritability in wing melanisation (h(2) =0.18). Rearing families had contrasted thermal reaction norms. Adult lifespan of males and females from highly plastic families was shorter in individuals exposed to hot developmental temperature. Also, females from plastic families exhibited lower fecundity. We did not find any effect of maternal or grand-maternal developmental temperature on fitness. This study provides new evidence on the influence of phenotypic plasticity on life history-traits' evolution, a crucial issue in the context of global change.

  1. Fitness costs of thermal reaction norms for wing melanisation in the large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Chaput-Bardy

    Full Text Available The large white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, shows a seasonal polyphenism of wing melanisation, spring individuals being darker than summer individuals. This phenotypic plasticity is supposed to be an adaptive response for thermoregulation in natural populations. However, the variation in individuals' response, the cause of this variation (genetic, non genetic but inheritable or environmental and its relationship with fitness remain poorly known. We tested the relationships between thermal reaction norm of wing melanisation and adult lifespan as well as female fecundity. Butterflies were reared in cold (18°C, moderate (22°C, and hot (26°C temperatures over three generations to investigate variation in adult pigmentation and the effects of maternal thermal environment on offspring reaction norms. We found a low heritability in wing melanisation (h(2 =0.18. Rearing families had contrasted thermal reaction norms. Adult lifespan of males and females from highly plastic families was shorter in individuals exposed to hot developmental temperature. Also, females from plastic families exhibited lower fecundity. We did not find any effect of maternal or grand-maternal developmental temperature on fitness. This study provides new evidence on the influence of phenotypic plasticity on life history-traits' evolution, a crucial issue in the context of global change.

  2. Kinetics of changes in glucosinolate concentrations during long-term cooking of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Jon; Wicklund, Trude; Verkerk, Ruud; Dekker, Matthijs

    2008-03-26

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba cv. 'Bartolo') was experimentally determined and mathematically modeled. Cabbage was boiled, resulting in a dramatic decrease of 56% in the total GLS levels within the plant matrix during the first 2 min. After 8-12 min of boiling, the decrease progressed to over 70%. Progoitrin had an exceptionally higher decline rate in comparison to all other GLS. As boiling progressed the concentration of all GLS continued to decrease at a lower rate for the remaining cooking period. A mathematical model was used to describe the concentration profile of the GLS in the plant matrix, based on leaching of GLS to the water phase due to cell lysis and thermal degradation of the GLS both in the plant matrix and in the water phase. The model described the concentration profiles very well. Estimated lysis and degradation rate constants for white cabbage differed from those reported in the literature for red cabbage. The degradation rate constants found were significantly higher in the plant matrix when compared to those in the water phase for all GLS. Identification of the kinetics of decline of GLS during cooking can aid in designing processing and preparation methods and determining the conditions for the optimal effects of ingestion of Brassicaceae toward cancer prevention.

  3. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  4. Dynamic karyotype evolution and unique sex determination systems in Leptidea wood white butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šíchová, Jindra; Voleníková, Anna; Dincă, Vlad; Nguyen, Petr; Vila, Roger; Sahara, Ken; Marec, František

    2015-05-19

    Chromosomal rearrangements have the potential to limit the rate and pattern of gene flow within and between species and thus play a direct role in promoting and maintaining speciation. Wood white butterflies of the genus Leptidea are excellent models to study the role of chromosome rearrangements in speciation because they show karyotype variability not only among but also within species. In this work, we investigated genome architecture of three cryptic Leptidea species (L. juvernica, L. sinapis and L. reali) by standard and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reveal causes of the karyotype variability. Chromosome numbers ranged from 2n = 85 to 91 in L. juvernica and 2n = 69 to 73 in L. sinapis (both from Czech populations) to 2n = 51 to 55 in L. reali (Spanish population). We observed significant differences in chromosome numbers and localization of cytogenetic markers (rDNA and H3 histone genes) within the offspring of individual females. Using FISH with the (TTAGG) n telomeric probe we also documented the presence of multiple chromosome fusions and/or fissions and other complex rearrangements. Thus, the intraspecific karyotype variability is likely due to irregular chromosome segregation of multivalent meiotic configurations. The analysis of female meiotic chromosomes by GISH and CGH revealed multiple sex chromosomes: W1W2W3Z1Z2Z3Z4 in L. juvernica, W1W2W3Z1Z2Z3 in L. sinapis and W1W2W3W4Z1Z2Z3Z4 in L. reali. Our results suggest a dynamic karyotype evolution and point to the role of chromosomal rearrangements in the speciation of Leptidea butterflies. Moreover, our study revealed a curious sex determination system with 3-4 W and 3-4 Z chromosomes, which is unique in the Lepidoptera and which could also have played a role in the speciation process of the three Leptidea species.

  5. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  6. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.-H., E-mail: martin.evans@soton.ac.uk [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Walker, J.C.; Ma, C.; Wang, L.; Wood, R.J.K. [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M{sub 3}C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M{sub 3}C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism.

  7. A unique visual pigment expressed in green, red and deep-red receptors in the eye of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakakuwa, M; Stavenga, DG; Kurasawa, M; Arikawa, K

    The full primary structure of a long-wavelength absorbing visual pigment of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, was determined by molecular cloning. In situ hybridization of the opsin mRNA of the novel visual pigment (PrL) demonstrated that it is expressed in the two distal

  8. Environmental factors affecting black/white coloration of the silken girdle in the swallowtail butterfly, Atrophaneura alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masami; Yamanaka, Akira; Masaki, Hisashi; Nishijima, Ayako; Harada, Yumiko; Kitazawa, Chisato; Abe, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masao; Endo, Katsuhiko

    2005-11-01

    The silken girdles of pupae of the swallowtail butterfly Atrophaneura alcinous show black and white color diphenism. Field observations revealed that all pupae observed on non-food plants and the leaves and stems of the larval food plant Aristolochia debilis were classified as a silken girdle of a black type, while a large portion of pupae pupating on the twigs and trunks of cherry trees in close proximity to A. debilis were classified as a silken girdle of a black type. Additionally, all pupae observed on the surfaces of artificial objects in areas where there are no surrounding plants or trees were classified as a silken girdle of a white type. We demonstrated the effect of day length and the texture, light, plant odor and humidity of pupation sites on the coloration of the silken girdle in A. alcinous. Regardless of long-day or short-day day length conditions, light conditions of constant light or dark, or the presence of a plant odor of A. debilis as environmental cues, all larvae placed at over 80% relative humidity (R.H.) developed into pupae with a silken girdle of a black type. However, all larvae developed into pupae with a silken girdle of a white type when R.H. was below 75%. Furthermore, when pupae with a silken girdle of a white type were transferred to conditions of 90% R.H. within 24 hr of pupation, the white color of the silken girdle changed into a black type within 24 hr of the transfer. The present data suggest that the induction of a black coloration of the silken girdle in A. alcinous requires a R.H. of approximately 80% or more as an environmental factor.

  9. Effect of chlormequat (cycocel) on the growth of ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea) cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Abdollah; Hashemabadi, Davood; Sedaghathoor, Shahram; Kaviani, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concentration and application method of chlormequat (cycocel), a plant growth retardant, on plant height and some other traits in Brassica oleracea cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' was assessed. Plant growth retardants are commonly applied to limit stem elongation and produce a more compact plant. The experiment was done as a factorial in randomized completely blocks design (RCBD) with four replications. Plants (40 days after transplanting) were sprayed and drenched with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel. In each experiment, control untreated plants. Data were recorded the 60 and 90 days after transplanting. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), the effect of different treatments and their interaction on all traits was significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level of probability. Treatment of 1500 mg I(-1) cycocel resulted in about 50 and 20% shorter plants than control plants, 60 and 90 days after transplant. The growth of Brassica oleracea cultivar 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' decreased with increased cycocel concentration. Foliar sprays of cycocel controlled plant height of both cultivars. Results indicated that the shortest plants (9.94 and 11.59 cm) were those sprayed with 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel in cultivar 'Kamome White' after 60 and 90 days, respectively. The largest number of leaves (33.94) and highest leaf diameter (9.39 cm) occurred in cv. 'Nagoya Red', when drench was used. Maximum dry matter (14.31%) accumulated in cv. 'Nagoya Red', treated with spray.

  10. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The populations were collected in Vojvodina, North Province of Serbia, country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. Fresh cabbages are late-maturing white cabbages suitable for fresh consumption and biological fermentation. The third is a newly developed cultivar, bred by family selection.

  11. How Does Garlic Mustard Lure and Kill the West Virginia White Butterfly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Samantha L; Frisch, Tina; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Cipollini, Don

    2015-10-01

    As it pertains to insect herbivores, the preference-performance hypothesis posits that females will choose oviposition sites that maximize their offspring's fitness. However, both genetic and environmental cues contribute to oviposition preference, and occasionally "oviposition mistakes" occur, where insects oviposit on hosts unsuitable for larval development. Pieris virginiensis is a pierine butterfly native to North America that regularly oviposits on an invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, but the caterpillars are unable to survive. Alliaria petiolata has high concentrations of the glucosinolate sinigrin in its tissues, as well as a hydroxynitrile glucoside, alliarinoside. We investigated sinigrin as a possible cause of mistake oviposition, and sinigrin and alliarinoside as possible causes of larval mortality. We found that sinigrin applied to leaves of Cardamine diphylla, a major host of P. virginiensis that does not produce sinigrin, had no effect on oviposition rates. We tested the effect of sinigrin on larval performance using two host plants, one lacking sinigrin (C. diphylla) and one with sinigrin naturally present (Brassica juncea). We found no effect of sinigrin application on survival of caterpillars fed C. diphylla, but sinigrin delayed pupation and decreased pupal weight. On B. juncea, sinigrin decreased survival, consumption, and caterpillar growth. We also tested the response of P. virginiensis caterpillars to alliarinoside, a compound unique to A. petiolata, which was applied to B. oleracea. We found a significant reduction in survival, leaf consumption, and caterpillar size when alliarinoside was consumed. The 'novel weapon' alliarinoside likely is largely responsible for larval failure on the novel host A. petiolata. Sinigrin most likely contributes to the larval mortality observed, however, we did not observe any effect of sinigrin on oviposition by P. virginiensis females. Further research needs to be done on non-glucosinolate contact cues, and

  12. Description of a new summer cabbage cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage breeding at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops is aimed at the development of cultivars and hybrids whose properties meet the demands of the food processing industry and green market, intensive food production and human population, and which are adapted to the local agroclimatic conditions. This paper presents the main characteristics of a cabbage cultivar released by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia in 2007. The cabbage cultivar Orion is primarily intended for fresh consumption in summer and pickling. The head is slightly flattened to oval-shaped, reddish white at cross section, with tender inner leaves, good taste and quality. The length of the growing season is 85-95 days (from transplanting to technological maturity. .

  13. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Voirol, L.R.P.; Drizou, Fryni; Doan, Quyen T.; Pineda, Ana; Frago, Enric; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated

  14. Chemosensory basis of behavioural plasticity in response to deterrent plant chemicals in the larva of the Small Cabbage White butterfly Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, D.S.; Wang, C.Z.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responsiveness to three chemically different secondary plant substances was studied in larvae of Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Three groups of caterpillars were studied that during their larval development were exposed to different rearing diets: an

  15. Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

    This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

  16. Quality of white cabbage yield and potential risk of ground water nitrogen pollution, as affected by nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maršić, Nina Kacjan; Sturm, Martina; Zupanc, Vesna; Lojen, Sonja; Pintar, Marina

    2012-01-15

    The effect of different fertilisation (broadcast solid NPK application and fertigation with water-soluble fertiliser) and irrigation practices (sprinkler and drip irrigation) on yield, the nitrate content in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and the cabbage N uptake was detected, in order to assess the potential risk for N losses, by cultivation on sandy-loam soil. The N rate applied on the plots was 200 kg N ha(-1). The highest yield (93 t ha(-1)) and nitrate content (1256 mg kg(-1) DW) were found with treatments using broadcast fertilisation and sprinkler irrigation. On those plots the negative N balance (-30 kg N ha(-1)) was recorded, which comes mainly from the highest crop N uptake (234 kg N ha(-1)) indicating the lowest potential for N losses. In terms of yield quality and the potential risk for N losses, broadcast fertilisation combined with sprinkler irrigation proved to be the most effective combination among the tested practices under the given experimental conditions. The importance of adequate irrigation is also evident, namely in plots on which 50% drip irrigation was applied, the lowest yield was detected and according to the positive N balance, a higher potential for N losses is expected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (LINNAEUS, 1753 GAERTNER, 1791 and elder (Sambucus nigra LINNAEUS, 1753 on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae LINNAEUS, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’INTOSH, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and elder Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage were investigated in 2008-2009. Both extracts reduced the number of cabbage aphids, although the Sambucus nigra extract proved to have a better effect. Differences were seen both in the numbers of winged aphids settling on plants and in the overall numbers of aphids on plants during the entire season. There were no significant differences in the degree of parasitization by Diaeretiella rapae in the three experimental combinations. Eight species of Syrphidae were found in the Brevicoryne brassicae colonies: Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria scripta, S. rueppelli, S. menthastri, Eupeodes corollae, Scaeva pyrastri, Scaeva selenitica and Syrphus vitripennis. The dominant species was Episyrphus balteatus. The largest numbers of syrphid larvae and pupae were collected from cabbage aphid colonies on the control plants. Smaller numbers were recorded on the plot where the cabbages were sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract. The results of this study indicate that botanical insecticides based on S. nigra have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for the cabbage aphid.

  18. Anthropogenic changes in sodium affect neural and muscle development in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Espeset, Anne; Boser, Christopher J; White, William A; Smykalski, Rhea

    2014-07-15

    The development of organisms is changing drastically because of anthropogenic changes in once-limited nutrients. Although the importance of changing macronutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is well-established, it is less clear how anthropogenic changes in micronutrients will affect organismal development, potentially changing dynamics of selection. We use butterflies as a study system to test whether changes in sodium availability due to road salt runoff have significant effects on the development of sodium-limited traits, such as neural and muscle tissue. We first document how road salt runoff can elevate sodium concentrations in the tissue of some plant groups by 1.5-30 times. Using monarch butterflies reared on roadside- and prairie-collected milkweed, we then show that road salt runoff can result in increased muscle mass (in males) and neural investment (in females). Finally, we use an artificial diet manipulation in cabbage white butterflies to show that variation in sodium chloride per se positively affects male flight muscle and female brain size. Variation in sodium not only has different effects depending on sex, but also can have opposing effects on the same tissue: across both species, males increase investment in flight muscle with increasing sodium, whereas females show the opposite pattern. Taken together, our results show that anthropogenic changes in sodium availability can affect the development of traits in roadside-feeding herbivores. This research suggests that changing micronutrient availability could alter selection on foraging behavior for some roadside-developing invertebrates.

  19. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by

  20. Effect of milk thistle, Silybium marianum, extract on toxicity, development, nutrition, and enzyme activities of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminia, Seyedeh M; Sendi, Jalal J; Jahromi, Khalil T; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    The methanolic extract of milk thistle, Silybium marianum L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), was investigated for its effects on the mortality, growth, feeding indices, enzymatic activity, and levels of non-enzymatic molecules of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), a pest of cruciferous plants. Feeding indices including approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), relative growth rate (RGR), and relative consumption rate (RCR) were measured. These indices were variously affected: the RGR, RCR, and AD decreased, but the ECD and ECI increased. The LC50 and LC25 values were estimated as 2.94% and 1.20%, respectively. At the lowest concentration of S. marianum extract (0.625%), the feeding deterrence index was 40.48%. The duration of the pupal stage and the rate of larval growth decreased. These changes may be due to alterations in metabolic activity, such as the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, which is likely involved in detoxification. Additionally, the activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, which are key components of amino acid catabolism, decreased. The amount of glucose (an energy source) and uric acid (the excreted end product) increased, while total protein (another energy source) and cholesterol decreased. These results indicate that this plant possesses potential secondary metabolites that may be useful for the future study of the control of insect pests.

  1. Black and Garlic Mustard Plants Are Highly Suitable for the Development of Two Native Pierid Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Robin; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-22

    In multivoltine insects that oviposit and develop on short-lived plants, different herbivore generations across a growing season often exploit different plant species. Here, we compare the development time, pupal mass, and survival of two closely related oligophagous herbivore species on two species of brassicaceous plants that grow in different habitats and which exhibit little overlap in temporal growth phenology. In central Europe, the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi L., is bivoltine, whereas the small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae L., has two to three generations a year. Moreover, P. napi is primarily found in moist, open (e.g., meadow), and forest habitats, whereas P. rapae prefers drier, open habitats. Both butterflies were reared on Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), which is shade-tolerant and grows early in spring in forest undergrowth, and Black mustard (Brassica nigra), which prefers open disturbed habitats and is most common in summer. Both host plant species differ in other traits such as secondary chemistry. We hypothesized that, owing to habitat preference, P. napi would develop equally well on both plants but that P. rapae would perform better on B. nigra The results provide partial support for this hypothesis, as both herbivores performed equally well on A. petiolata and B. nigra However, there were differences in these parameters that were species-specific: on both plants P. rapae developed faster and had larger pupae than P. napi Our results show that specialized herbivores can exploit different species of related plants that grow at different times of the season, enabling them to have multiple generations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödder Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (recolonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i Morocco, (ii Tunisia, (iii Sicily, (iv Italy and southern France, (v eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source

  3. From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan C; Lens, Luc; Rödder, Dennis; Schmitt, Thomas

    2011-07-21

    The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (re)colonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i) Morocco, (ii) Tunisia, (iii) Sicily, (iv) Italy and southern France, (v) eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi) western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii) south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source or speciation centre of this taxon, while the

  4. Teaching and Learning with Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Saul

    1996-01-01

    Presents butterflies as an introduction to natural history. Describes observation tips and metamorphosis of butterflies in the classroom. Includes butterfly resources for naturalists and educators. (AIM)

  5. Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of our data with historical documents confirmed that traditional cabbage landraces cultivated in North of China were first introduced from Russia. Key words: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genetic diversity, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), landraces, population structure.

  6. Formas de parcelamento e fontes de adubação nitrogenada para produção de couve-da-Malásia Split forms and sources of nitrogen fertilization for the flowering white cabbage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Zanão Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A couve-da-Malásia, Brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (Bailey é muito cultivada na China, Austrália e outros países do sudeste asiático e foi introduzida no Brasil em 1992. Existem poucas informações referentes à nutrição mineral desta Brássica nas condições brasileiras. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de fontes e parcelamento do nitrogênio na produtividade e teores de macro e micronutrientes na parte aérea desta hortaliça. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos de 5 dm³ de volume com 4,8 kg de solo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em fatorial 2 x 6, com três repetições. As fontes nitrogenadas, uréia e nitrato de cálcio, foram avaliadas em diferentes parcelamentos da dose de 105 mg dm-3 de N em três aplicações (na semeadura, 15 e 30 dias após a semeadura, nas seguintes proporções: 50%-50%-0%, 0%-50%-50%, 75%-25%-0%, 25%-75%-0%, 25%-50%-25% e 33%-33%-33%. As plantas foram colhidas aos 40 dias após a semeadura. A melhor fonte de nitrogênio foi a nítrica (nitrato de cálcio, proporcionando maiores produções de massa fresca e seca da parte aérea, massa seca de raízes, produção de folhas por planta e maiores teores de N, Ca e Mn na parte aérea. Quanto ao parcelamento, os melhores resultados foram obtidos quando se realizou adubação na semeadura seguida de duas coberturas, uma aos 15 e outra aos 30 dias após a semeadura, nas proporções 33%-33%-33% e 25%-50%-25%, para as duas fontes avaliadas.The flowering white cabbage plant, Brassica chinensis L. var. parachinensis (Bailey Sinskaja is often cultivated in China, Australia and other southeastern Asian countries and introduced in Brazil in 1992. There is little information regarding the mineral nutrition of this Brassica in the Brazilian conditions. The effect of sources and splitting of nitrogen in the productivity and ratio of macro and micronutrients in the shoot of this vegetable were

  7. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  8. Glucosinolates in Self-crossed Progenies of Monosomic Cabbage Alien Addition Lines in Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Aixia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species have been reported to possess cancer preventive activity due to glucosinolates (GLS and their derived properties. Many studies on GLS have focused on Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. However, information on GLS in progeny between Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata remains limited. In this study, eight GLS were detected in the self-crossed progenies of monosomic cabbage alien addition lines in Chinese cabbage (Chinese cabbagecabbage MAALs and parental Chinese cabbage, and nine GLS were detected in the parental cabbage. The variation of GLS content ranges was greater in the progeny than in the parental Chinese cabbage. The nine GLS identified were subjected to PCA to evaluate the differences among progeny and parents. Eight progeny samples had a comprehensive principal component score closer to or greater than that of cabbage, and four of them exhibited glucoraphanin (GRA and total GLS contents greater than that of Chinese cabbage with the relative content of total indolic GLS was greater than 50%. These results offered new opportunity to improve GLS-containing of Chinese cabbage using genes from cabbage.

  9. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Bálint

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm and visible (401-650 nm light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  10. Colour constancy in the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, M; Arikawa, K

    2000-12-01

    We have recently shown that the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus uses colour vision when searching for food. In the field, these butterflies feed on nectar provided by flowers of various colours not only in direct sunlight but also in shaded places and on cloudy days, suggesting that they have colour constancy. Here, we tested this hypothesis. We trained newly emerged Papilio xuthus to feed on sucrose solution on a paper patch of a certain colour under white illumination. The butterflies were then tested under both white and coloured illumination. Under white illumination, yellow- and red-trained butterflies selected the correctly coloured patch from a four-colour pattern and from a colour Mondrian collage. Under four different colours of illumination, we obtained results that were fundamentally similar to those under white illumination. Moreover, we performed critical tests using sets of two similar colours, which were also correctly discriminated by trained butterflies under coloured illumination. Taken together, we conclude that the butterfly Papilio xuthus exhibits some degree of colour constancy when searching for food.

  11. On the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shnirelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.

  12. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A butterfly is the final stage of a life cycle consisting of an egg, larva, pupa and adult. In this adult stage, a butterfly has four main tasks: locating a mate and mating, laying eggs on suitable substrate, feeding and, of course, surviving long enough to achieve the first three. Since we are presently not in a position to attribute ...

  13. Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    Depending on the species, the individual scales of butterfly wings have a longitudinal gradient in structure and reflectance properties, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. White scales of the male Small White, Pieris rapae crucivora, show a strong gradient in both

  14. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  15. Evolution and Mechanism of Spectral Tuning of Blue-Absorbing Visual Pigments in Butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Terakita, Akihisa; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Shichida, Yoshinori; Arikawa, Kentaro; Warrant, Eric James

    2010-01-01

    The eyes of flower-visiting butterflies are often spectrally highly complex with multiple opsin genes generated by gene duplication, providing an interesting system for a comparative study of color vision. The Small White butterfly, Pieris rapae, has duplicated blue opsins, PrB and PrV, which are

  16. Infection of Plasmodiophora brassicae in Chinese cabbage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, R; Zhao, L; Xing, M; Shen, X; Bi, Q; Peng, S; Feng, H

    2014-01-01

    .... To understand the series of changes that occur in the host root during root gall production, the resistance character of 21 Chinese cabbage lines were identified and then resistant and susceptible...

  17. Plant traits affecting thrips resistance in cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    The development of thrips populations and thrips damage in 15 cabbage varieties was monitored in two years of field experiments in the Netherlands.. A number of morphological and physiological plant traits were also measured. The most important factors leading to a low level of thrips damage were late development of a compact head, a low Brix value and a high amount of leaf wax. Two open-pollinated cabbage varieties with low and high susceptibility to thrips damage were crossed in both recip...

  18. In the eyes of the beholders: Female choice and avian predation risk associated with an exaggerated male butterfly color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Nathan I; Rutowski, Ronald L

    2010-12-01

    Color ornaments are often viewed as products of countervailing sexual and natural selection, because more colorful, more attractive individuals may also be more conspicuous to predators. However, while evidence for such countervailing selection exists for vertebrate color ornaments (e.g., Trinidadian guppies), similar studies have yet to be reported in invertebrates. Indeed, evidence for female mate choice based on extant variation in male coloration is limited in invertebrates, and researchers have not explicitly asked whether more attractive males are also more conspicuous to predators. Here we provide evidence that more chromatic male cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae) are more attractive to females but should also be more conspicuous to predators. Female P. rapae preferentially mate with more chromatic males when choosing from populations of males with naturally occurring or commensurate, experimentally induced color variation. Mathematical models of female color vision confirm that females should be able to discriminate color differences between prospective mates. Further, chromatic and luminance contrast scores from female visual system models better predicted male mating success than did measures of male color derived more directly from color spectra. Last, models of avian color vision suggest that preferred males should be more conspicuous to known avian predators.

  19. Unscrambling butterfly oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jean-Michel; Baker, Simon C; Pink, Ryan; Carter, David R F; Collins, Aiden; Tomlin, Jeremie; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J

    2013-04-26

    Butterflies are popular model organisms to study physiological mechanisms underlying variability in oogenesis and egg provisioning in response to environmental conditions. Nothing is known, however, about; the developmental mechanisms governing butterfly oogenesis, how polarity in the oocyte is established, or which particular maternal effect genes regulate early embryogenesis. To gain insights into these developmental mechanisms and to identify the conserved and divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis, we analysed a de novo ovarian transcriptome of the Speckled Wood butterfly Pararge aegeria (L.), and compared the results with known model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. A total of 17306 contigs were annotated, with 30% possibly novel or highly divergent sequences observed. Pararge aegeria females expressed 74.5% of the genes that are known to be essential for D. melanogaster oogenesis. We discuss the genes involved in all aspects of oogenesis, including vitellogenesis and choriogenesis, plus those implicated in hormonal control of oogenesis and transgenerational hormonal effects in great detail. Compared to other insects, a number of significant differences were observed in; the genes involved in stem cell maintenance and differentiation in the germarium, establishment of oocyte polarity, and in several aspects of maternal regulation of zygotic development. This study provides valuable resources to investigate a number of divergent aspects of butterfly oogenesis requiring further research. In order to fully unscramble butterfly oogenesis, we also now also have the resources to investigate expression patterns of oogenesis genes under a range of environmental conditions, and to establish their function.

  20. Determination of Dispersion of Zucchini and Cabbage Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Pogozhyh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Particle size of cabbage and zucchini powders was determined by microscopy. It is shown that under the identical conditions of drying, grinding and other stages of the process, the cabbage powder has a higher content of fine fraction. Promising application of cabbage and zucchini powders in restaurant industry is indicated. Case diagram of the received production use is developed.

  1. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  2. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1 butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2 butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3 butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  3. Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.

    The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood

  4. Experience drives the development of movement-cognition correlations in a butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eSnell-Rood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between behavioral traits are widespread, but the developmental genetic architecture of such correlations is poorly characterized. Understanding the developmental mechanisms that lead to correlations between behaviors has implications for predicting how changing environments might alter the strength, direction and persistence of these associations. Here we test the idea that genetic variation in one behavioral trait can drive the development of traits related to a second behavior, resulting in correlations between them.. We focus on correlations between movement and aspects of cognition, in particular accuracy of decision making and neural investment. Such syndromes have been seen across a variety of systems, from insects to birds, but the direction of the correlation often varies. We use cabbage white butterflies as a system because they are easy to rear in large numbers and show ample genetic variation in both movement and learning, facilitating a split-sibling design. We test the prediction that variation in established proxies for movement at emergence will be correlated with the development of cognitive traits later in life (in siblings. Our results suggest that genotypes (full-sibling groups that emerge with more elongate wings explore their environment more rapidly. In addition, genotypes that emerge with relatively smaller thoraxes are more likely to learn to search for atypical host plants and subsequently develop larger brains and brain regions. Taken together, genotypes that invest less in flight are slower, better learners and develop larger brains. These data are consistent with the idea that movement can drive the development of other behavioral traits, resulting in the emergence of correlated behaviors.

  5. Evaluation of pesticide residue dynamics in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourek, František; Stará, Jitka; Holý, Kamil; Horská, Tereza; Kocourek, Vladimír; Kováčová, Jana; Kohoutková, Jana; Suchanová, Marie; Hajšlová, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Pesticide residues from the time of application until harvest were analysed for 20, 17 and 18 active insecticidal and fungicidal substances in Chinese cabbage, head cabbage and cauliflower, respectively. In total, 40 mathematical models of residue degradation were developed using a first-order kinetic equation, and from these models it was possible to forecast the action pre-harvest interval for a given action threshold for low-residue production in Brassica vegetables as a percentage of the maximum residue level. Additionally, it was possible to establish an action pre-harvest interval based on an action threshold of 0.01 mg kg‒1 for the production of Brassica vegetables for baby food. Among the evaluated commodities, the speed of residue degradation was highest in head cabbage, medium in Chinese cabbage and lowest in cauliflower. The half-lives of pesticide in various vegetables were also determined: they ranged from 1.55 to 5.25 days in Chinese cabbage, from 0.47 to 6.54 days in head cabbage and from 1.88 to 7.22 days in cauliflower.

  6. Gastrodiscoides hominis Infestation on Vegetables (Cabbages) Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an experiment to determine the human parasites present in fruits and vegetables sold in markets within Ekpoma, in Esan west Local Government Area of Edo state, an ova of Gastrodiscoides hominis was observed. The study involved a total of two hundred and fifty (250) samples of seven different vegetables -cabbage, ...

  7. Thermal degradation of glucosinolates in red cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, K.; Barrett, D.M.; Bosch Suades, C.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal degradation of individual glucosinolates within the plant matrix was studied. Red cabbage samples were heated at different temperatures for various times. To rule out the influence of enzymatic breakdown and to focus entirely on the thermal degradation of glucosinolates, myrosinase was

  8. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the aborted tip of the forewing. There is very little variation between individu- als in this form. Eyespots are found on the wings of certain butterflies sometimes only at certain seasons. The position, number, size and colour of these are determined in four stages during the late larval and early pupal stages. The eyes pots ...

  9. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the adult stage, butterflies depend largely on the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats for energy, especially during flight. The fats are obtained during the larval stage and stored in the body. Carbohydrates in the form of sugars are obtained from nectar, the sap of certain trees, over-ripe fruit and other natural sources.

  10. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Study of Butterflies - Intra-specific Variation. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0008-0015 ...

  11. Project Lifescape: Butterfly Accounts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Project Lifescape: Butterfly Accounts. Krushnamegh J Kunte. Classroom Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 86-97. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/03/0086-0097 ...

  12. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Other experts feel the word is a corruption of 'flutter-bys', referring to their flight. Whatever the origin, it is a pretty name that has stuck to these insects. In India, butterflies were more or less overlooked in the period prior to the advent of Europeans. They are not figured in the rich carvings, wall paintings or other works of art ...

  13. Growth and thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage and cabbage juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E; Hao, D Y; Conner, D E

    1986-10-01

    Studies were done to determine the interacting effects of pH, NaCl, temperature, and time on growth, survival, and death of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Viable population of the organism steadily declined in heat-sterilized cabbage stored at 5 degrees C for 42 days. In contrast, the organism grew on raw cabbage during the first 25 days of a 64-day storage period at 5 degrees C. Growth was observed in heat-sterilized unclarified cabbage juice containing less than or equal to 5% NaCl and tryptic phosphate broth containing less than or equal to 10% NaCl. Rates of thermal inactivation increased as pH of clarified cabbage juice heating medium was decreased from 5.6 to 4.0. At 58 degrees C (pH 5.6), 4 X 10(6) cells/mL were reduced to undetectable levels within 10 min. Thermal inactivation rates in clarified cabbage juice (pH 5.6) were not significantly influenced by the presence of up to 2% NaCl; however, heat-stressed cells had increased sensitivity to NaCl in tryptic soy agar recovery medium. Cold enrichment of heat-stressed cells at 5 degrees C for 21 days enhanced resuscitation. Results indicate that L. monocytogenes can proliferate on refrigerated (5 degrees C) raw cabbage which, in turn, may represent a hazard to health of the consumer. Heat pasteurization treatments normally given to cabbage juice or sauerkraut would be expected to kill any L. monocytogenes cells which may be present.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis and Molecular Marker Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjuan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the visual appearance and high carotenoid content, orange inner leaves are a desirable trait for the Chinese cabbage. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of orange inner leaves, the BrCRTISO (Bra031539 gene, as the Br-or candidate gene, was analyzed among the white and orange varieties, and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified. However, only one SNP (C952 to T952 altered the amino acid sequence, resulting in a mutation from Leu318 to Phe318 in the orange varieties. Additionally, we analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the orange and white F2 individuals (14-401 × 14-490 and found four downregulated genes were involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, which may lead to the accumulation of prolycopene and other carotenoid pigments in the orange inner leaves. In addition, we developed a novel InDel marker in the first intron, which cosegregates with the phenotypes of orange color inner leaves. In conclusion, these findings enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanism of pigment accumulation in the inner leaves of the Chinese cabbage. Additionally, the SNP (C952 to T952 and the InDel marker will facilitate the marker-assisted selection during Chinese cabbage breeding.

  15. A contribution key for identification of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the useful bio-indicators of an ecosystem, sensitive to any change in environment, such as temperature, microclimate and solar radiation etc, however, they utilize host plants for their oviposition and larval development. Therefore, the present study was conducted to prepare the contribution key for identification of butterflies of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014-May, 2015. The specimens (ni = 506 were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. However, the collected butterflies were comprised of families Nymphalidae 50%> Pieridae 43%> Papilionidae 7%. The family Nymphalidae were primarily, blue, pale brown or orange and antennae-tips with large conspicuous knobs, while, family Pieridae were mostly creamy, white, yellow or light orange, although, the family Papilionidae were multi-colours, i.e., yellow, blackish-brown, white or orange and antennae-tips with or without knobs. The largest butterfly was great black mormon, Papilio polytes Linnaeus (Family: Papilionidae with body length 26.0±0.0 (nP. polytes = 1; M±SD mm, while the smallest butterflies Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval (Family: Pieridae with body length 11.5±0.6 (nC. etrida = 4; M±SD mm. The key of butterflies (Lepidoptera of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan has been established in this paper. It is recommended to evaluate the butterfly fauna of District Charsadda to educate and create awareness in the local community for conservation and protestation of their habitats.

  16. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2014-02-04

    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  17. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  18. Biofilm formation of Salmonella species isolated from fresh cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to isolate Salmonella from fresh cabbage and spinach vegetables, determine antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation of the isolates. Spinach and cabbage farm vegetables were found to harbour Salmonella. A total of eighty-two Salmonella isolates were recovered from both vegetables and ...

  19. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free

  20. Butterfly valve. Spjeldventil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupedo, D.J.

    1984-02-06

    Butterfly valve comprising a body and a valve seat arranged therein, on which a valve member is supported. The valve member comprises an operating rod and the assembly of valve member and operating rod has a fixed pivot point at the bottom of the body. The operating rod can be moved by means of pins movable in grooves and slots in such a manner that when the valve is opened the valve member first pivots about the pivot point to lift the valve member from the seat and subsequently rotates about the pivot point to fully open the valve. 12 drawings.

  1. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  2. Cryogenic Cam Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic cam butterfly valve has a body that includes an axially extending fluid conduit formed there through. A disc lug is connected to a back side of a valve disc and has a circular bore that receives and is larger than a cam of a cam shaft. The valve disc is rotatable for a quarter turn within the body about a lug axis that is offset from the shaft axis. Actuating the cam shaft in the closing rotational direction first causes the camming side of the cam of the cam shaft to rotate the disc lug and the valve disc a quarter turn from the open position to the closed position. Further actuating causes the camming side of the cam shaft to translate the valve disc into sealed contact with the valve seat. Opening rotational direction of the cam shaft reverses these motions.

  3. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion

    OpenAIRE

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choic...

  4. Comprehensive analysis of photosynthetic characteristics and quality improvement of purple cabbage under different combinations of monochromatic light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyun Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R, monochromic blue (B, monochromic yellow (Y, monochromic green (G and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB, red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY, red /blue/green (3/1/1,RBG and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1 treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1 significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 29.99% and 14.29% compared with the control respectively, RBY (3/1/1 appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.63% and 4.07% respectively compared with the control. Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1 light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables

  5. Comprehensive Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Quality Improvement of Purple Cabbage under Different Combinations of Monochromatic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biyun; Zhou, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ru; Wang, Jin; Lin, Yizhang; Pang, Jie; Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod, and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition) of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R), monochromic blue (B), monochromic yellow (Y), monochromic green (G), and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB), red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY), red/blue/green (3/1/1,RBG), and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1) treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1) significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 30.0 and 14.3% compared with the control, respectively), RBY (3/1/1) appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.6 and 4.1%, respectively compared with the control). Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1) light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables grown in

  6. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  7. Evolution of color and vision of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Butterfly eyes consist of three types of ommatidia, which are more or less randomly arranged in a spatially regular lattice. The corneal nipple array and the tapetum, Optical Structures that many but not all butterflies share with moths, Suggest that moths are ancestral to butterflies, in agreement

  8. Effects of dietary inclusion of discarded cabbage (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Douglas Nkosi

    2016-02-16

    Boucque & Fiems, 1988). Incorporation of these by-products in the diets of ruminants has been reported to reduce the risk of acidosis, which is associated with high grain diets (Ferreira et al., 2011). Discarded cabbage (Brassica ...

  9. Jasmonic acid-induced changes in Brassica oleracea affect oviposition preference of two specialist herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Dam, van N.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a key hormone involved in plant defense responses. The effect of JA treatment of cabbage plants on their acceptability for oviposition by two species of cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, was investigated. Both butterfly species laid fewer eggs on leaves

  10. Jasmonic acid-induced changes in Brassica oleracea affect oviposition preference of two specialist herbivores.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Van Dam, N.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a key hormone involved in plant defense responses. The effect of JA treatment of cabbage plants on their acceptability for oviposition by two species of cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, was investigated. Both butterfly species laid fewer eggs on leaves

  11. Butterfly diversity in relation to nectar food plants from Bhor Tahsil, Pune District, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Nimbalkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Floral attributes are well known to influence nectar feeding butterflies. However, there is paucity of information on food resources of adult butterflies as compared to that of larvae. The present study was carried out from Bhor Tahsil of Pune District, Maharashtra, India, during August 2007 to August 2009. A total of 64 butterfly species were recorded. Family Nymphalidae dominates in the study area, followed by Lycaenidae, Pieridae, Hesperiidae and Papilionidae. Nineteen nectar food plants were identified belonging to 10 plant families. Plants of the Asteraceae family are more used by butterflies as nectar food plants. Visits of butterflies were more frequent to flowers with tubular corollas than to non-tubular ones, to flowers coloured red, yellow, blue and purple than those coloured white and pink and to flower sources available for longer periods in the year. Species abundance reached the peak in the months during August to November. A decline in species abundance was observed from the months December to January and continued up to the end of May. Our findings are important with respect to monitoring butterfly and plant diversity and defining conservation strategies in the Bhor Tahsil.

  12. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan P; Foster, Rosie; Wilkins, Lucas; Osorio, Daniel; Hartley, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea) populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates) and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae) and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae) herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  13. Glass scales on the wing of the swordtail butterfly Graphium sarpedon act as thin film polarizing reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Matsushita, Atsuko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    The wings of the swordtail butterfly Graphium sarpedon (the Common Bluebottle) have blue/green-colored patches that are covered on the underside by two types of scales: white and glass scales. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the white scales are classically structured:

  14. Extended season for northern butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  15. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  16. Contamination of Chinese Cabbage Soil with Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Soh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to establish basic technology for Chinese cabbage clubroot chemical control by investigating the soil contamination of Plasmodiophora brassicae in major producing regions of fall Chinese cabbage. PCR primers were developed to detect P. brassicae, a causal agent of Chinese cabbage club-root that generally occurs in Cruciferae family. A primer set, PbbtgF761 and PbbtgR961, specifically amplified a 245 bp fragment from P. brassicae only. At places well known for fall Chinese cabbage, 10 out of 33 in Haenam-gun, 5 out of 13 in Yeongam-gun and Yeonggwang-gun, 1 out of 6 in Gochang-gun, 2 out of 12 in Hongseong-gun, and 5 out of 17 in Dangjin-si resulted positive for P. brassicae contamination. The results show that the soil contamination rate of P. brassicae was 30.3% in Haenam-gun, 38.5% in Yeongam-gun and Yeonggwang-gun, 16.7% in Gochang-gun, 16.7% in Hongseong-gun, and 29.4% in Dangjin-si. The six places where Chinese cabbage clubroot was visible by naked eye were 100% confirmed by the PCR test of the P. brassicae contaminated soil. Thus, simple PCR test may be utilized as an index to decide on chemical control of P. brassicae.

  17. Quality and functional characteristics of kimchi made with organically cultivated young Chinese cabbage (olgari-baechu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Jung

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The storage periods of the organic young Chinese cabbage kimchi were extended compared to the general young Chinese cabbage kimchi processed by the conventional farming. Kimchi made of organic young Chinese cabbage is a possible functional food because it increases the sensory characteristics and tastes. In addition, it enables the intake of highly functional bioactive substances.

  18. Survey of cabbage experimental hybrids (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage takes up significant area in vegetable sowing structure, and one of the factors of improving this production is adequate varieties selection. During the breeding process, experimental hybrids are tested in relation to currently grown varieties and hybrids in production. In this paper the characteristics of 18 cabbage genotypes are presented, out of which there are 9 experimental hybrids, 4 varieties and 5 hybrids from broader production. Cabbage genotypes in the trial are of differing length of growing season, as well as differing head weight. Properties variability analysis was performed using PCA method, where two main components were chosen based on screen test, and these were used to define 57.7%. Head weight and head diameter are properties based on which the tested hybrids were graded into quantitatively different groups.

  19. Domestic cooking methods affect the nutritional quality of red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zheng, Yonghua; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cao, Shifeng; Shao, Xingfeng; Wang, Hongfei

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of domestic cooking methods, including steaming, microwave heating, boiling and stir-frying on the nutritional quality of red cabbage. Compared with fresh-cut red cabbage, all cooking methods were found to cause significant reduction in anthocyanin and total glucosinolates contents. Moreover, steaming resulted in significantly greater retention of vitamin C and DPPH radical-scavenging activity, while stir-frying and boiling, two popular Chinese cooking methods, led to significant losses of total phenolic, vitamin C, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, and total soluble sugar as well as reducing sugars. Normally, red cabbage consumed fresh in salads could maintain the highest nutrition. However, considering the habits of Asian cuisine, it is recommended to use less water and less cooking time, such as steaming based on our present results, so as to retain the optimum benefits of the health-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation dynamics of chlorfenapyr residue in chili, cabbage and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditya, Papia; Das, S P; Sarkar, P K; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole group of insecticide, [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-ethoxymethyl-5-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carbonitrile]used as broad spectrum insecticide/acaricide to control whitefly, thrips, caterpillars, mites, leafminers, aphids, etc., chlorfenapyr 10% SC formulation was applied on chili and cabbage twice @ 75 and 100 g a.i./ha along with untreated control. Chlorfenapyr was dissipated in chili, cabbage and soil following the first-order kinetics (logC/C(0) = -kt). The half lives of chlorfenapyr in chili, cabbage and soil were varying from 2.93 to 2.96 days, 2.98 to 3.62 days and 4.06 to 4.36 days respectively, according to the application rate.

  1. Enantioselective degradation of tebuconazole in cabbage, cucumber, and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Xuesong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiaofu; Li, Zhen

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective degradation of tebuconazole has been investigated to elucidate the behaviors in agricultural soils, cabbage, and cucumber fruit. Rac-tebuconazole was fortified into three types of agricultural soils and sprayed foliage of cabbage and cucumber, respectively. The degradation kinetics, enantiomer fraction and enantiomeric selectivity were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on a Lux amylose-2 chiral column. The process of the degradation of tebuconazole enantiomers followed first-order kinetic in the test soils and vegetables. It has been shown that the degradation of tebuconazole was enantioselective. The results indicated that the (+)-S-tebuconazole showed a faster degradation in cabbage, while the (-)-R-tebuconazole dissipated faster than (+)-S-form in cucumber fruit and the test soils. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Controlling public speaking jitters: making the butterflies fly in formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Hannah; Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Nearly every person who has been asked to give a speech or who has volunteered to make a presentation to a group of strangers develops fear and anxiety prior to the presentation. Most of us, the authors included, start hyperventilating, our pulse quickens, and we feel a little weak in the knees. We grab the lectern and our knuckles turn white as we hold on for dear life. This is a normal response that everyone experiences. However, this stress can be controlled and made manageable by understanding the stress response cycle and practicing a few techniques that calm those butterflies flying around in the pit of your stomach.

  3. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2016-11-01

    We study butterfly effect in D-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.

  4. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    OpenAIRE

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed

    2016-01-01

    We study butterfly effect in $D$-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. A...

  5. On butterfly effect in higher derivative gravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davody, Ali; Naseh, Ali; Taghavi, Seyed Farid [School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-07

    We study butterfly effect in D-dimensional gravitational theories containing terms quadratic in Ricci scalar and Ricci tensor. One observes that due to higher order derivatives in the corresponding equations of motion there are two butterfly velocities. The velocities are determined by the dimension of operators whose sources are provided by the metric. The three dimensional TMG model is also studied where we get two butterfly velocities at generic point of the moduli space of parameters. At critical point two velocities coincide.

  6. Navigational Strategies of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-10

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0339 NAVIGATIONAL STRATEGIES OF MIGRATING MONARCH BUTTERFLIES Steven Reppert UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Final Report 11/10/2014...Final Progress Statement to (Dr. Patrick Bradshaw) Contract/Grant Title: Navigational Strategies of Migrating Monarch Butterflies Contract...Grant #: FA9550-10-1-0480 Reporting Period: 01-Sept-10 to 31-Aug-14 Overview of accomplishments: Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus

  7. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi

    2017-09-01

    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  8. Metal toxicity and sulfur metabolism in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, L.J.; Stuiver, C.E.E.; Shahbaz, M.; Parmar, S.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.

    Copper and zinc are essential nutrients for the plants; however, they become rapidly phytotoxic at elevated concentrations in the root environment. Exposure of Chinese cabbage to elevated Cu2+ (≥ 2 μM) or Zn2 + concentrations (≥ 5 μM) resulted in leaf chlorosis and subsequently in a loss of

  9. Nutritive effect of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) on growth, obesity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cabbage supplementation suppressed broiler eosinophil levels, indicating effects on mediators of innate immune surveillance, but did not influence any other blood haematological parameter, though Broilers exhibited higher (p<0.05) total WBC count and proportion (%) of WBC represented by neutrophils, basophils and ...

  10. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  11. Transfer of heavy metals from soil to cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work the accumulation of heavy metal and its transfer from the growing medium which is soil to the vegetable mainly cabbage was investigated. Twenty sampling sites were selected from irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis were there is intense agricultural practice, and one control site were there is ...

  12. Production of Sauerkraut (Picked) from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cabbage (Brassiza oleracea) samples obtained from Bayreuth supermarkets stored at 4ºC were processed for sauerkraut (pickled) production. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of the sauerkraut during the 28 day fermentation period were investigated. The total bacterial count influenced from 2.3333 x 104 of ...

  13. Potential of replacing pawpaw fruit and leaves with cabbage peels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... stitutes an important component of the food of numerous rural dwellers, especially in the rainforest belt as well ... got from FRIN Herboratum while cabbage leaves were got from the foreign fruit and vegetable market, along .... Nigeria. p. 27. Omole AJ (1998). Utilisation of different energy supplements on the ...

  14. Ecology and evolution of mountain butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with speciation processes, thermal ecology and habitat use in Holarctic mountain and arctic butterflies. It demonstrates a crucial role of environmental heterogeneity for speciation, survival of butterfly lineages, coexistence of closely related species and, finally, for resource use of sexes with different habitats demands at the level of individual species.

  15. The Butterfly Effect for Physics Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab…

  16. Numerical Analysis of Large Diameter Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngchul, Park; Xueguan, Song

    In this paper, a butterfly valve with the diameter of 1,800 mm was studied. Three-dimensional numerical technique by using commercial code CFX were conducted to observe the flow patterns and to measure flow coefficient, hydrodynamic torque coefficient and so on, when the large butterfly valve operated with various angles and uniform incoming velocity.

  17. Retinal regionalization and heterogeneity of butterfly eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Kinoshita, M; Yang, EC; Arikawa, K

    2001-01-01

    The regional characteristics of the eyes of butterflies from different families have been surveyed using epi-illumination microscopy, utilizing the eyeshine visible due to the tapetum situated proximally to the rhabdom. All butterflies studied have a high spatial acuity in the frontal region. The

  18. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  19. Butterfly Diversity from Farmlands of Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Théodore Munyuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect information about the diversity of butterfly communities in the mixed coffee-banana mosaic (seminatural, agricultural landscapes of rural central Uganda. Data were collected for one year (2006 using fruit-bait traps, line transect walk-and-counts, and hand nets. A total of 56,315 individuals belonging to 331 species, 95 genera, and 6 families were sampled. The most abundant species was Bicyclus safitza (14.5% followed by Acraea acerata (6.3%, Catopsilia florella (6.5% and Junonia sophia (6.1%. Significant differences in abundance, species richness, and diversity of butterflies occurred between the 26 study sites. Farmland butterflies visited a variety of habitats within and around sites, but important habitats included woodlands, fallows, hedgerows, swampy habitats, abandoned gardens, and home gardens. The highest diversity and abundance of butterflies occurred in sites that contained forest remnants. Thus, forest reserves in the surrounding of fields increased the conservation values of coffee-banana agroforestry systems for butterflies. Their protection from degradation should be a priority for policy makers since they support a species-rich community of butterflies pollinating cultivated plants. Farmers are encouraged to protect and increase on-farm areas covered by complex traditional agroforests, linear, and nonlinear seminatural habitats to provide sufficient breeding sites and nectar resources for butterflies.

  20. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Distribution of cytotoxic and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in crude extracts from butterflies among the family Pieridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasuko; Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Odagiri, Ken-Ichi; Yata, Osamu; Koyama, Kotaro; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    Cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae, contain strong cytotoxic proteins, designated as pierisin-1 and -2, against cancer cell lines. These proteins exhibit DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. To determine the distribution of substances with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity among other species, crude extracts from 20 species of the family Pieridae were examined for cytotoxicity in HeLa cells and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity. Both activities were detected in extracts from 13 species: subtribes Pierina (Pieris rapae, Pieris canidia, Pieris napi, Pieris melete, Pieris brassicae, Pontia daplidice, and Talbotia naganum), Aporiina (Aporia gigantea, Aporia crataegi, Aporia hippia, and Delias pasithoe), and Appiadina (Appias nero and Appias paulina). All of these extracts contained substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies, with a molecular mass of ≈100 kDa established earlier for pierisin-1. Moreover, sequences containing NAD-binding sites, conserved in ADP-ribosyltransferases, were amplified from genomic DNA from 13 species of butterflies with cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity by PCR. Extracts from seven species, Appias lyncida, Leptosia nina, Anthocharis scolymus, Eurema hecabe, Catopsilia pomona, Catopsilia scylla, and Colias erate, showed neither cytotoxicity nor DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, and did not contain substances recognized by anti-pierisin-1 antibodies. Sequences containing NAD-binding sites were not amplified from genomic DNA from these seven species. Thus, pierisin-like proteins, showing cytotoxicity and DNA ADP-ribosylating activity, are suggested to be present in the extracts from butterflies not only among the subtribe Pierina, but also among the subtribes Aporiina and Appiadina. These findings offer insight to understanding the nature of DNA ADP-ribosylating activity in the butterfly. PMID:18256183

  2. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  3. A Novel Auto-Sorting System for Chinese Cabbage Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yi Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel machine vision-based auto-sorting system for Chinese cabbage seeds. The system comprises an inlet-outlet mechanism, machine vision hardware and software, and control system for sorting seed quality. The proposed method can estimate the shape, color, and textural features of seeds that are provided as input neurons of neural networks in order to classify seeds as “good” and “not good” (NG. The results show the accuracies of classification to be 91.53% and 88.95% for good and NG seeds, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Chinese cabbage seeds can be sorted efficiently using the developed system.

  4. The coming and going of Batesian mimicry in a Holarctic butterfly clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Konrad

    2010-09-15

    A study using phylogenetic hypothesis testing, published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, suggests that non-mimetic forms of the North American white admiral butterfly evolved from a mimetic ancestor. This case might provide one of the first examples in which mimicry was gained and then lost again, emphasizing the evolutionary lability of Batesian mimicry. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/239.

  5. The coming and going of Batesian mimicry in a Holarctic butterfly clade

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler Konrad

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A study using phylogenetic hypothesis testing, published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, suggests that non-mimetic forms of the North American white admiral butterfly evolved from a mimetic ancestor. This case might provide one of the first examples in which mimicry was gained and then lost again, emphasizing the evolutionary lability of Batesian mimicry. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/239

  6. Effects of dietary inclusion of discarded cabbage (Brassica oleracea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Douglas Nkosi

    2016-02-16

    Feb 16, 2016 ... DC/kg (DC150) and 200 g DC/kg (DC200) were fed ad libitum to 36 South African Dorper lambs (22.0 ± 1.3 ... resource-poor livestock production systems in South Africa (Nkosi & Meeske, 2010). ... have confirmed that cabbage contains 86 - 140 g dry matter (DM)/kg, 137 - 280 g crude protein (CP)/kg DM,.

  7. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  8. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  9. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  10. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  11. Biology: Birds and butterflies in climatic debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    A European-wide analysis of changing species distributions shows that butterflies outrun birds in the race to move northwards in response to climate change, but that neither group keeps up with increasing temperatures.

  12. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly (adult Lepidoptera) survey conducted monthly (May-Nov 2001) at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond, Woodstork...

  13. Germline transformation of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Jeffrey M; Ramos, Diane M; Monteiro, Antónia

    2004-01-01

    Ecological and evolutionary theory has frequently been inspired by the diversity of colour patterns on the wings of butterflies. More recently, these varied patterns have also become model systems for studying the evolution of developmental mechanisms. A technique that will facilitate our understanding of butterfly colour-pattern development is germline transformation. Germline transformation permits functional tests of candidate gene products and of cis-regulatory regions, and provides a mea...

  14. A Dual-Butterfly Structure Gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangming; Xiao, Dingbang; Li, Wenyin; Xu, Qiang; Hou, Zhanqiang; Wu, Xuezhong

    2017-12-11

    This paper reports a dual-butterfly structure gyroscope based on the traditional butterfly structure. This novel structure is composed of two butterfly structures, each of which contains a main vibrational beam, four proof masses, and a coupling mechanism. The coupling mechanism in this proposed structure couples the two single butterfly structures and keeps the driving mode phases of the two single butterfly gyroscopes exactly opposite, increasing the double difference of traditional butterfly gyroscopes to a quad difference, which has the potential advantage of improving bias instability and g-sensitivity. The gyroscope was fabricated using a standard microfabrication method and tested in laboratory conditions. The experimental results show a Q-factor of 10,967 in driving mode and there were two peaks in the frequency responses curve of sensing direction due to unavoidable fabrication errors. Scale factor and bias instability were also measured, reaching a scale factor of 10.9 mV/°/s and a bias instability of 10.7°/h, according to the Allan Variance curve.

  15. Can butterflies cope with city life? Butterfly diversity in a young megacity in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Dong, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wilson, John-James

    2016-09-01

    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity.

  16. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  17. Use of human urine fertilizer in cultivation of cabbage (Brassica oleracea)--impacts on chemical, microbial, and flavor quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Sjöblom, Annalena; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2007-10-17

    Human urine was used as a fertilizer in cabbage cultivation and compared with industrial fertilizer and nonfertilizer treatments. Urine achieved equal fertilizer value to industrial fertilizer when both were used at a dose of 180 kg N/ha. Growth, biomass, and levels of chloride were slightly higher in urine-fertilized cabbage than with industrial-fertilized cabbage but clearly differed from nonfertilized. Insect damage was lower in urine-fertilized than in industrial-fertilized plots but more extensive than in nonfertilized plots. Microbiological quality of urine-fertilized cabbage and sauerkraut made from the cabbage was similar to that in the other fertilized cabbages. Furthermore, the level of glucosinolates and the taste of sauerkrauts were similar in cabbages from all three fertilization treatments. Our results show that human urine could be used as a fertilizer for cabbage and does not pose any significant hygienic threats or leave any distinctive flavor in food products.

  18. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lydia

    The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

  19. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge Butterflies and Dragonflies List

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following butterfly and dragonfly list contains 72 butterfly species and 31 dragonfly and damselfly species that have been recorded by Dr. Brian G Scholtens, Dr....

  20. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  1. Earliness, leaf surface wax and sugar content predict varietal differences for thrips damage in cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    When cabbage is cultivated for storage in the Netherlands, it is usually harvested around mid-October. This type of cabbage crop may be severely damaged by thrips (Thrips tabaci). The thrips population on the plants and the more severe symptoms develop mostly during September and October. Also

  2. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  3. Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Biogeography and ecology of southern Portuguese butterflies and burnets (Lepidoptera) During several visits to the western part of the Algarve (southern Portugal), the author mapped the butterflies and burnets of this region. In total, I observed 58 butterfly species (51 Papilionoidea, 7

  4. Phenol removal by peroxidases extracted from Chinese cabbage root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, H.I.; Jeong, Y.H. [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Applied Biology and Technology

    1995-12-31

    More than four million tons of Chinese cabbages are produced in Korea. Most of them are used as raw materials for Kimchi, but root parts of them are discarded as agricultural wastes. A trial for the application of agricultural waste to industrial waste water treatment was made as an effort to the efficient use of natural resources and to reduce water pollution problem simultaneously. Peroxidases of both solid and liquid phases were obtained from Chinese cabbage roots by using commercial juicer. The differences in peroxidase activity among the various cultivars of Chinese cabbages in Korea were little and electrophoretic patterns of various peroxidases will be discussed. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity will be discussed also. Since peroxidases are distributed into 66% in liquid (juice) and 34% in solid phase (pulp), enzymes from both phases were applied to investigate the enzymatic removal of phenol from waste water. After phenol solution at 150 ppm being reacted with liquid phase enzyme (1,800 unit/1) for 3 hours in a batch stirred reactor, 96% of phenol could be removed through polymerization and precipitation. Also, phenol could be removed from initial 120 ppm to final 5 ppm by applying solid phase enzyme in an air lift reactor (600 unit/1). Almost equivalent efficiencies of phenol removal were observed between two systems, even though only one third of the enzymes in batch stirred reactor was applied in air lift reactor. The possible reason for this phenomenon is because peroxidases exist as immobilized forms in solid phase.

  5. Degradation dynamics of quinalphos on cabbage under subtropical conditions of Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurminder Singh Chahil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the disappearance trends of quinalphos residues on cabbage under subtropical conditions at Ludhiana. Single application of quinalphos was made @ 500 and 1000 g a.i. ha-1 on cabbage and samples were collected at intervals of 0 (1 h, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after application. Average initial deposits of quinalphos on cabbage were found to be 0.41 and 0.75 mg kg-1 at single dose and double dosages, respectively. Residues of quinalphos dissipated below determination limit of 0.01 mg kg-1 in 7 and 10 days, respectively at single and double dose. The half-life of quinalphos on cabbage was observed to be 3.02 and 2.70 days for single and double dose, respectively. The study suggested a waiting period of 7 days for safe consumption of cabbage.

  6. Simultaneous brightness contrast of foraging Papilio butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Takahashi, Yuki; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the sense of brightness in the foraging Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus. We presented two red discs of different intensity on a grey background to butterflies, and trained them to select one of the discs. They were successfully trained to select either a high intensity or a low intensity disc. The trained butterflies were tested on their ability to perceive brightness in two different protocols: (i) two orange discs of different intensity presented on the same intensity grey background and (ii) two orange discs of the same intensity separately presented on a grey background that was either higher or lower in intensity than the training background. The butterflies trained to high intensity red selected the orange disc of high intensity in protocol 1, and the disc on the background of low intensity grey in protocol 2. We obtained similar results in another set of experiments with purple discs instead of orange discs. The choices of the butterflies trained to low intensity red were opposite to those just described. Taken together, we conclude that Papilio has the ability to learn brightness and darkness of targets independent of colour, and that they have the so-called simultaneous brightness contrast. PMID:22179808

  7. Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb. DC. (Rubiaceae, a key nectar source for butterflies during the summer season in the southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.S. Raju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wendlandia tinctoria is a semi-evergreen tree species. It shows massive flowering for about a month during March-April. The floral characteristics such as the white colour of the flower, lack of odour, short-tubed corolla with deep seated nectar having 15-18% sugar concentration are well tailored for visitation by butterflies. The nectar is hexose-rich and contains the essential amino acids such as arginine and histidine and the non-essential amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glysine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine, glutamic acid and serine. The inflorescences with clusters of flowers provide an excellent platform for foraging by butterflies. The flowers are long-lived and attractive to butterflies. A variety of butterflies visit the flowers for nectar and in doing so, they pollinate them. Nymphalids are very diverse and utilize the flowers until exhausted. The flowers being small in size with a small amount of nectar compel the butterflies to do a more laborious search for nectar from a greater number of flowers. But, the clustered state of the flowers is energetically profitable for butterflies to reduce search time and also flight time to collect a good amount of nectar; such a probing behaviour is advantageous for the plant to achieve self- and cross-pollination. Therefore, the study shows that the association between W. tinctoria and butterflies is mutual and such an association is referred to as psychophilous. This plant serves as a key nectar source for butterflies at the study site where floral nectar sources are scarce during the summer season.

  8. Characterization of a cadmium-binding complex of cabbage leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.J.

    1984-11-01

    The chemical nature of a principle, inducible cadmium-binding complex which accumulates in cabbage leaves was studied and compared with that of animal metallothionein and copper-binding proteins isolated from various organisms. The apparent molecular weight of native cabbage complex and carboxymethylated ligand of the complex under native conditions as determined by gel filtration was about 10,000 daltons. Under denaturing conditions their apparent molecular weights were about 2000 daltons. Ligand of native complex contained 37, 28, and 9 residue per cent of glutamic acid-glutamine, cysteine, and glycine, respectively, and low aromatic residue, serine and lysine content. The high acidic and low hydrophobic residue content explain the behavior of complex on electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Its isoelectric point was below 4.0 and it bound 4 to 6 moles cadmium per mole ligand in what appear to be cadmium-mercaptide chromophores. The complex was found to be heat stable, relatively protease insensitive, and lacking in disulfide bonds. Attempts to determine the primary sequence of reduced native complex and carboxymethylated, cleaved ligand using the Edman degradation procedure were unsuccessful. An electrophoretic procedure is described for preparative isolation of purified complex and a method is described for monitoring ligand of complex as its fluorescent dibromobimane adduct. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Holographic butterfly effect at quantum critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-10-01

    When the Lyapunov exponent λL in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound λL ≤ 2π k B T , it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this paper we propose that the butterfly velocity can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with an anisotropic holographic model exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the derivatives of the butterfly velocity with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes in zero temperature limit. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).

  10. Butterfly velocity bound and reverse isoperimetric inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.

    2017-03-01

    We study the butterfly effect of the AdS planar black holes in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We find that the butterfly velocities can be expressed by a universal formula vB2=T S /(2 VthP ). In doing so, we come upon a near-horizon geometrical formula for the thermodynamical volume Vth . We verify the volume formula by examining a variety of AdS black holes. We also show that the volume formula implies that the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality follows straightforwardly from the null-energy condition, for static AdS black holes. The inequality is thus related to an upper bound of the butterfly velocities.

  11. Butterfly rash with periodontitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashes can occur in any part of the body. But rash which appears on face has got both psychological and cosmetic effect on the patient. Rashes on face can sometimes be very challenging to physicians and dermatologists and those associated with oral manifestations pose a challenge to dentists. Butterfly rash is a red flat facial rash involving the malar region bilaterally and the bridge of the nose. The presence of a butterfly rash is generally a sign of lupus erythematosus (LE, but it can also include a plethora of conditions. The case presented here is of a female with butterfly rash along with typical bright red discoloration of gingiva. The clinical, histopathological and biochemical investigations suggested the presence of rosacea.

  12. Jasmonic acid-induced changes in Brassica oleracea affect oviposition preference of two specialist herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Bruinsma, M; Dam, van, J.T.P.; Loon, van, C.D.; Dicke, M

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a key hormone involved in plant defense responses. The effect of JA treatment of cabbage plants on their acceptability for oviposition by two species of cabbage white butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, was investigated. Both butterfly species laid fewer eggs on leaves of JA-treated plants compared to control plants. We show that this is due to processes in the plant after JA treatment rather than an effect of JA itself. The oviposition preference for control pla...

  13. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  14. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

  15. Enlightening Butterfly Conservation Efforts: The Importance of Natural Lighting for Butterfly Behavioral Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M Seymoure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Light is arguably the most important abiotic factor for living organisms. Organisms evolved under specific lighting conditions and their behavior, physiology, and ecology are inexorably linked to light. Understanding light effects on biology could not be more important as present anthropogenic effects are greatly changing the light environments in which animals exist. The two biggest anthropogenic contributors changing light environments are: (1 anthropogenic lighting at night (i.e., light pollution; and (2 deforestation and the built environment. I highlight light importance for butterfly behavior, physiology, and ecology and stress the importance of including light as a conservation factor for conserving butterfly biodiversity. This review focuses on four parts: (1 Introducing the nature and extent of light. (2 Visual and non-visual light reception in butterflies. (3 Implications of unnatural lighting for butterflies across several different behavioral and ecological contexts. (4. Future directions for quantifying the threat of unnatural lighting on butterflies and simple approaches to mitigate unnatural light impacts on butterflies. I urge future research to include light as a factor and end with the hopeful thought that controlling many unnatural light conditions is simply done by flipping a switch.

  16. A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report explores a unique and treatable "butterfly"- glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a "butterfly" lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast-enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic "broken-ring" pattern of enhancement, mass-effect and low perfusion; features favoring an alternative inflammatory pathology. This was peculiar as calloso-forniceal involvement of this nature has not been previously reported in inflammatory demyelinating mass lesions. This was confirmed as a tumefactive demyelination on histopathology. Following treatment, on clinical and imaging follow-up, significant resolution was evident suggesting a monophasic illness. This case highlights the stringent clinico-radiological-pathological approach required in the evaluation and management of butterfly lesions despite the striking imaging appearances. Tumefactive demyelination in this patient represents a clinically isolated syndromic presentation of an inflammatory pathology that can resemble gliomatosis cerebri. These "butterfly"-glioma mimics are scarcely reported in the literature, are eminently treatable with variable prognosis and prone for relapse.

  17. Ed Lorenz: Father of the 'Butterfly Effect'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ed Lorenz, rightfully acclaimed as the father of the 'Butterfly Effect', was an American math- ematician and meteorologist whose early work on weather prediction convinced the world at large about the unpredictability of weather. His seminal work on a simplified model for convec- tions in the atmosphere led to the modern ...

  18. From medicine to butterflies and back again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmesan, Camille

    2014-01-01

    My research focuses on the current impacts of climate change on wildlife, from field-based work on butterflies to synthetic analyses of global impacts on a broad range of species across terrestrial and marine biomes. I work actively with governmental agencies and NGOs to help develop conservation assessment and planning tools aimed at preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change.

  19. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  20. South African Red data book - Butterflies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henning, SF

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently 632 species of butterfly are known to occur within the borders of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 102 of these are considered to be exposed to some level of threat, two species as endangered, seven species...

  1. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  2. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  3. Reflections on colourful ommatidia of butterfly eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG

    The eye shine of butterflies from a large number of ommatidia was observed with a modified epi-illumination apparatus equipped with an objective lens of large numerical aperture. A few representative cases are presented: the satyrine Bicyclus anynana, the heliconian Heliconius melpomene, the small

  4. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  5. [Effects of spent mushroom compost on greenhouse cabbage growth under soil salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-Ling; Wu, Liang-Huan; Dong, Lan-Xue; Chen, Zai-Ming; Wang, Zhong-Qiang

    2011-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of spent mushroom compost (SMC) in alleviating greenhouse soil secondary salinization and cabbage salt stress. With the amendment of SMC, the salinized soil after 60 day cabbage cultivation had a pH value close to 7.0, its organic matter and available phosphorous contents increased significantly, and the increment of total water-soluble salt content reduced, compared with the control. When the amendment amount of SMC was 10 g x kg(-1), the increment of soil water soluble salt content was the least, suggesting that appropriate amendment with SMC could reduce the salt accumulation in greenhouse soil. Amendment with SMC increased the cabbage seed germination rate, plant height, plant fresh mass, chlorophyll SPAD value, and vitamin C content, and decreased the proline content significantly. All the results indicated that SMC could improve the growth environment of greenhouse cabbage, and effectively alleviate the detrimental effect of salt stress.

  6. Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage using Taguchi design method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravanfar, Raheleh; Tamadon, Ali Mohammad; Niakousari, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    ... (output power, time, temperature and pulse mode) for ultrasound assisted extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage and the concluding yield of anthocyanin was measured by pH differential method...

  7. Effects of Potash Fertilizer on Cabbage' s Quality in CadmiumPolluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiao-jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explain how potassium affect the quality of cabbage growing in cadmium contaminated soils, a pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of different dosages of potash fertilizer on the cabbage yield, physiological characteristics(the concentration of chlorophyll and the activity of antioxidative enzymeand heavy metal concentration in two cadmium contaminated soils. The result showed that cabbage' s fresh weight above ground and underground decreased 2.6% and 19.8% respectively in low cadmium stress, while decreased 7.1%and 45.5%in high cadmiumstress. After increasing the dosage of potash fertilizer in low concentration cadmium polluted soil, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground increased by 0.3%~34.0%and the underground part decreased by 1.2%~7.4%. At the same time, after application of potash fertilizer in high concentration stress, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground had no significant change while the underground part significantly increased by 41.8%~87.3%. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves increased slightly in low cadmium stress, after application of potash fertilizer, the concentration of chlorophyll a increased greatly but chlorophyll b had no obvious change. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves decreased greatly in high cadmiumstress and it had no tremen-dous change after application of potash fertilizer. The activity of antioxidative enzymes(CAT, SOD and PODin cabbage leaves were strength-ened in low cadmium stress while the activity of kinds of antioxidative enzymes in cabbage leaves were weakened in high cadmium stress. Af-ter application of potash fertilizer in two cadmium polluted soils, all kinds of enzyme activity had a trend to increase. Applying potash fertiliz-er into the cadmium contaminated soils could effectively increase the concentration of vitamin C, reducing sugar and promote the free amino acids transforming into crude

  8. Evaluation of struvite obtained from semiconductor wastewater as a fertilizer in cultivating Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hong-Duck, E-mail: nanumenv@hanmail.net [Ministry of Environment, Geum River Basin Environmental Office, 409 Daehak-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Chae-Sung, E-mail: shyknight@nate.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Koo, E-mail: minkookang@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Ill, E-mail: gatorlee@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Heungduck-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recovered struvite from semiconductor wastewater was evaluated as fertilizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The struvite showed more outstanding fertilizing effects than commercial fertilizers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Ni were observed at very low level in the vegetable tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. - Abstract: The present work evaluated the fertilizing value of struvite deposit recovered from semiconductor wastewater in cultivating Chinese cabbage. The fertilizing effect of struvite deposit was compared with that of commercial fertilizers: complex, organic and compost. Laboratory pot test results clearly showed that the growth of Chinese cabbage was better promoted when the struvite deposit was used than with organic and compost fertilizers even though complex fertilizer was the most effective in growing Chinese cabbage. It was revealed that potassium (K) was a key element in the determination of growth rate of Chinese cabbage. Also, the abundant nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), K, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were observed in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Specifically, P was the most-founded component in the vegetable tissue of struvite pot. Meanwhile, the utilization of struvite as a fertilizer led to the lowest accumulation of copper (Cu) and no detection of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in the Chinese cabbage. It was found that the optimum struvite dosage for the cultivation of Chinese cabbage was 1.6 g struvite/kg soil. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the struvite deposits recovered from semiconductor wastewater were effective as a multi-nutrient fertilizer for Chinese cabbage cultivation.

  9. In-Season Yield Prediction of Cabbage with a Hand-Held Active Canopy Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rongting; Min, Ju; Wang, Yuan; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2017-10-08

    Efficient and precise yield prediction is critical to optimize cabbage yields and guide fertilizer application. A two-year field experiment was conducted to establish a yield prediction model for cabbage by using the Greenseeker hand-held optical sensor. Two cabbage cultivars (Jianbao and Pingbao) were used and Jianbao cultivar was grown for 2 consecutive seasons but Pingbao was only grown in the second season. Four chemical nitrogen application rates were implemented: 0, 80, 140, and 200 kg·N·ha(-1). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected 20, 50, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 days after transplanting (DAT). Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between the NDVI measurements and harvested yields of cabbage. NDVI measurements obtained at 110 DAT were significantly correlated to yield and explained 87-89% and 75-82% of the cabbage yield variation of Jianbao cultivar over the two-year experiment and 77-81% of the yield variability of Pingbao cultivar. Adjusting the yield prediction models with CGDD (cumulative growing degree days) could make remarkable improvement to the accuracy of the prediction model and increase the determination coefficient to 0.82, while the modification with DFP (days from transplanting when GDD > 0) values did not. The integrated exponential yield prediction equation was better than linear or quadratic functions and could accurately make in-season estimation of cabbage yields with different cultivars between years.

  10. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Andrew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Steinberg, Julia [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-10-26

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength “hydrodynamic' disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  11. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  12. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Steinberg, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity — a speed at which quantum information propagates — may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  13. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  14. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Yi, E-mail: lingy@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China); School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Peng, E-mail: liup51@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jian-Pin, E-mail: jianpinwu@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of High Temperature Superconductors, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2017-05-10

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  15. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea of Mount Sago, West Sumatra: Diversity and Flower Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rusman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of butterfly depends on the availability of food plant and habitat quality. The aims of this study were to assess diversity and flower preference of butterflies in Mount Sago, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Observations were performed by scan sampling method in four types of habitats, i.e. secondary forests, pine forests, rubber forests, and agricultural areas. Our results showed that at least 184 species of butterflies and 56 species of nectar plants have been identified in Mount Sago. Nymphalid butterfly, Neptis hylas, was the most dominant species of butterflies. Two species, i.e. Trogonoptera brookiana and Troides amphrysus, were found as the protected butterflies. Diversity of butterfly in secondary forests was highest, whereas the lowest diversity was found in pine forest. Papilionid butterflies were found frequently feeding on tube blossoms, nymphalid butterflies on head blossoms, and lycaenid butterflies on flag blossom. Our results also showed that habitat change impacts composition and diversity of butterfly.

  16. Comments on compressible flow through butterfly valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakenship, John G.

    In the flow analysis of process piping systems, it is desirable to treat control valves in the same way as elbow, reducers, expansions, and other pressure loss elements. In a recently reported research program, the compressible flow characteristics of butterfly valves were investigated. Fisher Controls International, Inc., manufacturer of a wide range of control valves, publishes coefficients that can be used to calculate flow characteristics for the full range of valve movement. The use is described of the manufacturer's data to calculate flow parameters as reported by the researchers who investigated compressible flow through butterfly valves. The manufacturer's data produced consistent results and can be used to predict choked flow and the pressure loss for unchoked flow.

  17. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on soil organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Van Dam, N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  18. The Influence of pH on Microspore Embryogenesis of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Oana CRISTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro microspore culture is one of the top techniques utilised now-a-days for the obtaining of double haploid plants in many plant species, including Brassica. The pH of the medium is a critical factor for the success of In vitro microspore culture as it influences the invertase enzyme activity, translated at cellular level through an acceleration or reduction of sucrose cleavage. The results published until now shows rather contradictory findings, as the response of microspores have been proved to be highly depending on genotypes, most of them being focused on Brassica napus. Thus, in the present study, the effect of different NLN liquid medium pH, ranging between 5.0 to 7.0 were tested in order to establish the most suitable pH for the expression of embryogenic competences of microspores cultivated on medium In vitro and ultimately for the obtaining of microspore-derived embryos. Among the 11 values of pH tested, the best results were obtained on variants with pH 5.8 and 6.0, both in what concern the maintaining of microspores viability and the number of microspore-derived embryos. The findings of the present study provide a strong base for the establishment of an efficient protocol for the In vitro culture of microspore at Brassica oleracea L. genotypes with Romanian origin.

  19. Effects of intraspecific variation in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata) on soil ogranisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.; Biere, A.

    2010-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in plants can affect soil organisms. However, little is known about whether the magnitude of the effect depends on the degree of interaction with the roots. We analyzed effects of plant intraspecific variation on root herbivores and other soil organisms that interact directly

  20. Butterflies of Garhwal, Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirty percent of butterfly species that occur in India are found in the Garhwal region of the western Himalaya, which comprise six districts of Uttarakhand State with five major vegetation types lying between the catchments of the Ganga and Yamuna rivers.  The annotated checklist compiled here for this region comprises 407 species and takes into account all the species recorded since 1899, when the first list of 323 species was prepared by Mackinnon & de Nicéville on the ‘butterflies of Mussoorie and its adjacent areas’.  Over a 20 year period (1986–1990; 2000–June 2015 the present authors maintained detailed notes and were able personally to record 349 species.  This information is presented in a checklist, together with details of the month, year and site of each record, relative abundance, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 (IWPA status, as well as references of earlier records made by other authors in Garhwal for those species that the authors were not able to record themselves.  Forty-nine species recorded in the region have been placed under various schedules of IWPA; only one species, the Golden Emperor Dilipa morgiana Westwood, is listed in Schedule I Part IV, the others being mainly included under Schedule II Part II.  The paper also discusses new range extensions and significant records (past and present, identifies major biotic factors that threaten butterfly diversity in Garhwal, and suggests the scope for butterfly ecotourism in the state as an option for long term conservation.  

  1. Butterfly valve in a virtual environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, Aniruddha; Patil, Saurabh; Thakre, Prashant; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    Assembly of components is one of the processes involved in product design and development. The present paper deals with the assembly of a simple butterfly valve components in a virtual environment. The assembly has been carried out using virtual reality software by trial and error methods. The parts are modelled using parametric software (SolidWorks), meshed accordingly, and then called into virtual environment for assembly.

  2. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Shosaku; Nakatsuma, Sumiya (Kubota Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Sasaki, Iwao; Aoki, Naoshi

    1982-08-01

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported.

  3. Demography and Consumption of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Cabbage and Taro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) causes considerable economic damage to multiple agro-crops annually in many countries. In this study, the demography of S. litura reared on cabbage and taro was investigated using the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25±1°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L:D) h. Our results showed that the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate, and finite rate of population increase on cabbage (1893.1 offspring, 0.2374 d(−1), and 1.2679 d(−1)) were all not significantly different from those on taro (1361.0 offspring, 0.2298 d(−1), and 1.2584 d(−1)). The net consumption rate on cabbage (439.1 cm2) was, however, three times higher than that on taro (141.7 cm2). According to the population parameters, both cabbage and taro are suitable host plants for S. litura. When both the population growth rate and the consumption rate were taken into consideration, the finite consumption rate on cabbage (ω=3.8054) was significantly higher than that on taro (ω=1.3184). In Taiwan, taro and cabbage are commonly planted in adjacent farm plots, with taro being grown from March to November and cabbage from October to April. Because of the overlapping growth periods of the two crops, S. litura can easily propagate throughout the year by switching between the adjacent crops during the overlap periods. Pest management strategies for controlling S. litura must be thoroughly reevaluated based on ecological characteristics, including its life table and consumption rate on its major host plants.

  4. Antixenotic resistance of cabbage to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). I. Light reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark E; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-12-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) has become a significant pest of cabbage (Brasssica oleracea L.) in regions with a dry continental climate. Thrips-resistant cabbage varieties have been developed in breeding programs, but the mechanisms ofresistance remain largely unknown. Antixenosis, one of the three resistance mechanisms, may play a role but no plant trait has been identified as a source of antixenosis. A series of studies were conducted to identify resistance mechanisms in this insect- crop interaction and to seek plant traits that were correlated to resistance. In this first article of the series, the result of studying antixenosis and overall resistance of cabbage and the correlation between antixenosis and light reflectance characteristics are reported. There were distinct differences in the overall resistance to thrips between the six cabbage varieties studied. There were more pronounced differences between varieties based on the number of damaged head leaves compared with the use of damage ratings as a measure of overall resistance. Varieties also differed in their level of antixenosis; proportional abundance of thrips adults on head-forming leaves was more closely correlated to overall resistance of cabbage than actual thrips numbers. Some of the variables computed from the recorded reflectance spectra of cabbage were correlated to thrips abundance on head-forming leaves only in the first but not in the second year of this study, suggesting that either spectral characteristics do not affect antixenosis or other variables may affect thrips' responses to spectral cues. Furthermore, multiple spray applications of a kaolin particle-based product significantly changed the light reflectance characteristics of cabbage, but it did not reduce the actual thrips abundance on head-forming leaves.

  5. Regulation of Metabolic Changes in Shredded Cabbage by Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Plestenjak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different storage conditions on the storability of packaged shredded cabbage has been studied. The cabbage cultivar Fieldrocket was cut and packaged in glass jars and in polyethylene (PE or polypropylene (PP film. Several initial atmospheres were established within the packaged cut cabbage: 100 % N2, 5 % O2/95 % N2, 10 % O2/90 % N2, normal atmosphere (NA, 70 % O2/30 % N2 and 100 % O2. Samples were stored at two different temperatures of 0 and 10 °C for 7 days. Variation in CO2 and O2 concentrations was higher at 10 °C compared to 0 °C and the highest at the atmosphere consisting of 70 % O2/30 % N2. A decrease of O2 below 3–5 % and an increase of CO2 above 2–5 % in the packed product resulted in the appearance of anaerobic metabolism. An initial atmosphere consisting of 100 % O2, and a storage temperature of 0 °C resulted in delayed anaerobic metabolism compared to other atmospheric conditions and storage temperature of 10 °C. Rinsing of fresh cut cabbage also resulted in lower accumulation of acetaldehyde and ethanol. A higher variation in CO2 and O2 concentrations, and consequent accumulation of anaerobic metabolites had a negative influence on the sensorial properties of the cut cabbage. The higher permeability of PE film compared to PP and glass enabled faster exchange of CO2 and O2, which resulted in lower accumulation of anaerobic metabolites. However, a higher O2 concentration had a negative influence on the colour of fresh-cut cabbage. The best results were achieved by packing the fresh-cut cabbage in PE film with an initial atmosphere of 100 % O2 and stored at 0 °C.

  6. Speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) and soils in response to different levels of vanadium in soils and cabbage growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liyan; Yang, Jinyan; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2014-09-01

    This study highlights the accumulation and speciation of vanadium in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) in relation to the speciation of soil vanadium with pot experiments at 122-622mgVkg(-1) by spiking NH4VO3. Cabbage planting decreased the bioavailable and residual vanadium based on sequential extraction, leading to enrichment of oxalate-extractable vanadium in soils. The biomass production increased with increasing concentrations of soil vanadium from 122 to 372mgVkg(-1), probably due to the increasing nitrogen availability and low vanadium availability in our soils with a consequent low vanadium toxicity. Although the concentrations of root vanadium (14.4-24.9mgVkg(-1)) related positively with soil vanadium, the bio-dilution alleviated the increase of leaf vanadium (2.1-2.7mgVkg(-1)). The predominance of vanadium(IV) in leaves (∼60-80% of total vanadium) indicates bio-reduction of vanadium in Chinese cabbage, since the mobile vanadium in oxic soils was usually pentavalent. Approximately 15-20% of the leaf vanadium was associated with recalcitrant leaf tissues. The majority of leaf vanadium was water and ethanol extractable, which is considered mobile and may cause more toxic effects on Chinese cabbage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Longwing (Heliconius) butterflies combine a restricted set of pigmentary and structural coloration mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Vey, Aidan J M; Briscoe, Adriana D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-11-21

    Longwing butterflies, Heliconius sp., also called heliconians, are striking examples of diversity and mimicry in butterflies. Heliconians feature strongly colored patterns on their wings, arising from wing scales colored by pigments and/or nanostructures, which serve as an aposematic signal. Here, we investigate the coloration mechanisms among several species of Heliconius by applying scanning electron microscopy, (micro)spectrophotometry, and imaging scatterometry. We identify seven kinds of colored scales within Heliconius whose coloration is derived from pigments, nanostructures or both. In yellow-, orange- and red-colored wing patches, both cover and ground scales contain wavelength-selective absorbing pigments, 3-OH-kynurenine, xanthommatin and/or dihydroxanthommatin. In blue wing patches, the cover scales are blue either due to interference of light in the thin-film lower lamina (e.g., H. doris) or in the multilayered lamellae in the scale ridges (so-called ridge reflectors, e.g., H. sara and H. erato); the underlying ground scales are black. In the white wing patches, both cover and ground scales are blue due to their thin-film lower lamina, but because they are stacked upon each other and at the wing substrate, a faint bluish to white color results. Lastly, green wing patches (H. doris) have cover scales with blue-reflecting thin films and short-wavelength absorbing 3-OH-kynurenine, together causing a green color. The pigmentary and structural traits are discussed in relation to their phylogenetic distribution and the evolution of vision in this highly interesting clade of butterflies.

  8. Microbial population dynamics of kimchi, a fermented cabbage product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jinhee; Lee, Dongyun; Yang, Changnam; Jeon, Jongin; Kim, Jeongho; Han, Hongui

    2006-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are known to perform significant roles in the fermentation of kimchi, a fermented cabbage product. However, the microbial population dynamics inherent to kimchi fermentation remain to be clearly elucidated. In this study, we have characterized the microbial dynamics via the identification of a total of 970 bacterial isolates, representing 15 species of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella, all of which were primarily identified by PCR-based restriction enzyme analysis. These population dynamics appear to be influenced markedly by fermentation temperature. Distinct biphasic microbial growth was observed with preliminary 2-day incubation at 15 degrees C, conducted before main fermentation at -1 degrees C. Leuconostoc citreum, as well as Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, predominated during the first growth phase, whereas Weissella koreensis predominated during the second phase. By way of contrast, with preliminary 4-day incubation at 10 degrees C, only W. koreensis grew rapidly from the beginning of the process. Therefore, our findings suggest that a short incubation at 15 degrees C enhances the growth of the less psychrophilic Leuconostoc species, including Lc. citreum, thus delaying the growth of the predominant W. koreensis, which is a more adaptive species at -1 degrees C.

  9. Plant growth regulator-mediated anti-herbivore responses of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) against cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ian M; Samara, R; Renaud, J B; Sumarah, M W

    2017-09-01

    Plant elicitors can be biological or chemical-derived stimulators of jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA) pathways shown to prime the defenses in many crops. Examples of chemical elicitors of the JA and SA pathways include methyl-jasmonate and 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate (BTH or the commercial plant activator Actigard 50WG, respectively). The use of specific elicitors has been observed to affect the normal interaction between JA and SA pathways causing one to be upregulated and the other to be suppressed, often, but not always, at the expense of the plant's herbivore or pathogen defenses. The objective of this study was to determine whether insects feeding on Brassica crops might be negatively affected by SA inducible defenses combined with an inhibitor of detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes that regulate the insect response to the plant's defenses. The relative growth rate of cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed induced cabbage Brassica oleraceae leaves with the inhibitor, quercetin, was significantly less than those fed control cabbage with and without the inhibitor. The reduced growth was related to the reduction of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) by the combination of quercetin and increased levels of indole glucosinolates in the cabbage treated with BTH at 2.6× the recommended application rate. These findings may offer a novel combination of elicitor and synergist that can provide protection from plant disease and herbivores in cabbage and other Brassica crops. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Short Communication A Iycaeoid butterfly (Anthene amarah Guerin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-06-29

    Jun 29, 1989 ... 84. Short Communication. A Iycaeoid butterfly (Anthene amarah. Guerin) selects unseasonal young ... torti/is in the northern Transvaal revealed that Anthene smarah butterflies oviposit on unseasonal new coppice .... MILTON, S.J. 1988. The effects of pruning on shoot production. S. Afr. J. Bot. 54: 109-117.

  11. Flow Characteristics of Butterfly Valve by PIV and CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, Y. H.

    Butterfly valves are widely used as on-off and control valves for industrial process. The importance of butterfly valves as control valves has been increasing because the pressure loss is smaller than other types of valves and compactness is very desirable for installation. These features are desirable for saving energy and high efficiency of instruments.

  12. Gas absorption studies in a butterfly valve scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, S.A.; Taheri, M.

    1974-09-01

    Gas absorption and pressure drop in a wetted butterfly valve constituting a novel scrubber system are investigated. The exceptional suitability of the butterfly device is demonstrated by its flexibility to adjust to large variations in both gas and liquid flow rates. (1 diagram, 5 graphs, 19 references)

  13. Unique wing scale photonics of male Rajah Brooke's birdwing butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ultrastructures in butterfly wing scales can take many shapes, resulting in the often striking coloration of many butterflies due to interference of light. The plethora of coloration mechanisms is dazzling, but often only single mechanisms are described for specific animals. Results: We

  14. Competition: Butterflies eliminate milkweed bugs from a Caribbean Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Nigel R; Dingle, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    By eliminating the food plant, Asclepias curassavica, monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, have virtually eliminated milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus spp., from the island of Barbados. The relatively open terrain of Barbados means the plants have no refuge; the butterflies survive on an alternate milkweed food plant, Calotropis procera, whose thick-walled pods make seeds unavailable to the bugs.

  15. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre S. Gilburn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture.

  16. Evidence for mate guarding behavior in the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria J. Bennett; Winston P. Smith; Matthew G. Betts

    2011-01-01

    Discerning the intricacies of mating systems in butterflies can be difficult, particularly when multiple mating strategies are employed and are cryptic and not exclusive. We observed the behavior and habitat use of 113 male Taylor's checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha taylori). We confirmed that two distinct mating strategies were...

  17. Butterfly response and successional change following ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy E. M. Waltz; W. Wallace Covington

    2001-01-01

    The Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) can be useful indicators of ecosystem change as a result of a disturbance event. We monitored changes in butterfly abundance in two restoration treatment units paired with adjacent untreated forest at the Mt. Trumbull Resource Conservation Area in northern Arizona. Restoration treatments included thinning trees to density levels...

  18. Monitoring of the endemic Sinai Baton Blue butterfly Pseudophilotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the monitoring of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly in its stronghold of Farsh Shoeib on Gebel Safsafa in the St Katherine Protectorate between 2004-9 is analysed to compare them with the detailed study of Mike James in 2002-3. The butterfly appears to have a three-year population cycle, with its population crashing ...

  19. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known to infect various lepidopteran insects. However, so far only a few butterfly species harbouring this bacterium have been thoroughly studied. The current study aims to identify the infection status of these bacteria in some of the commonly found butterfly species in ...

  20. Developing "Butterfly Warriors": A Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen…

  1. Propagating native milkweeds for restoring monarch butterfly habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten. Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    The number of monarch butterflies, charismatic nomads of North America, is rapidly declining. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), which are the sole food source for monarch caterpillars, have also experienced a decline throughout the breeding range of this butterfly. Milkweeds can be grown from seeds or vegetatively from root cuttings or rhizomes. Seed germination is often...

  2. Application of cabbage leaves compared to gel packs for mothers with breast engorgement: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Boh Boi; Chan, Yiong Huak; Leow, Mabel Qi He; Lu, Yi; Chong, Yap Seng; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; He, Hong-Gu

    2017-11-01

    The effects of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs on breast engorgement management have been inconclusive. No studies have compared the effects of these methods on breast engorgement using a rigorous design. To examine the effectiveness of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs application on pain, hardness, and temperature due to breast engorgement, the duration of breastfeeding and satisfaction. A randomised controlled three-group pre-test and repeated post-test study. A private maternal and children's hospital in Singapore. Mothers (n=227) with breast engorgement within 14days after delivery. The mothers were randomly assigned into either cold cabbage leaves, cold gel packs, or the control group. Pain, hardness of breasts, and body temperature were measured before treatment. Two sets of post-test assessments were conducted at 30min, 1h, and 2h after the first and second application. The duration of breastfeeding was measured up to 6 months. IBM SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the data. Mothers in the cabbage leaves and gel packs groups had significant reductions in pain at all post-intervention time points compared to the control group, starting from 30min after the first application of cabbage leaves (mean difference=-0.38, p=0.016) or gel packs (mean difference=-0.39, p=0.013). When compared to the control group, mothers in the cabbage leaves group had significant reductions in the hardness of breasts at all post-intervention time points, and mothers in the gel packs group had significant reductions in the hardness of breasts at two time points (1h and 2h after the first and second application, respectively). Mothers in the cabbage leaves group had significant reductions in pain (mean difference=-0.53, p=0.005) and hardness of breasts (mean difference=-0.35, p=0.003) at 2h after the second application compared to those in the gel packs group. Both interventions had no impact on body temperature. There was no significant difference in the durations of

  3. Nectar amino acids enhance reproduction in male butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Erhardt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    After over 30 years of research, it was recently shown that nectar amino acids increase female butterfly fecundity. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of nectar amino acids on male butterfly reproduction. Here, we show that larval food conditions (nitrogen-rich vs. nitrogen-poor host plants) and adult diet quality (nectar with or without amino acids) affected the amount of consumed nectar in Coenonympha pamphilus males. Furthermore, amino acids in the nectar diet of males increased progeny's larval hatching mass, irrespective of paternal larval reserves. Our study takes the whole reproductive cycle of male butterflies into account, and also considers the role of females in passing male nutrients to offspring, as males' realized reproduction was examined indirectly via nuptial gifts, by female performance. With this comprehensive approach, we demonstrate for the first time that nectar amino acids can improve male butterfly reproduction, supporting the old postulate that nectar amino acids generally enhance butterfly fitness.

  4. Butterfly diversity in Kolkata, India: An appraisal for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnali Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An appraisal of butterfly species diversity was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Random sampling of rural, suburban, and urban sites in and around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 96 butterfly species, dominated by Lycaenidae (31.25% over Nymphalidae (28.13%, Hesperiidae (18.75%, Pieridae (12.50%, and Papilionidae (9.38%. Suburban sites accounted for 96 species, followed by rural (81 species and urban (53 species over the study period. The relative abundance of the butterflies varied with the site, month, and family significantly. It is apparent that the urban areas of Kolkata can sustain diverse butterfly species which includes species of requiring conservation effort. Considering the landscape of Kolkata, steps to enhance urban greening should be adopted to maintain butterfly diversity and sustain the ecosystem services derived from them.

  5. The evolution of chemical defenses in passion vine butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    The bright and colorful Neotropical butterflies of the Heliconius genus are avoided by most insectivorous predators. Inexperienced birds and lizards may bite Heliconius butterflies, but immediately release them due to their toxic taste. The distastefulness of these butterflies is associated...... with the presence of defense compounds called cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs), which deter predators because of their bitterness and the release of hydrogen cyanide upon degradation. Heliconius butterflies and basal heliconiines biosynthesize the aliphatic CNglcs linamarin and lotaustralin. Additionally, Heliconius...... heliconiine subfamily. Despite sequestration of these compounds being an older adaptation than expected, biosynthesis of aliphatic CNglcs is hypothesized to be even more ancient, arising in lepidopterans before butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor. In addition, this study shows...

  6. Dissipation and residue behavior of emamectin benzoate on apple and cabbage field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Li, Yanjie; Du, Fengpei; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    A LC-ESI-MS/MS method with QuEChERS for analysis of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil was established. At fortification levels of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg in cabbage, apple and soil, it was shown that recoveries ranged from 75.9 to 97.0 percent with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.4-19.0 percent. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.001 mg/kg for cabbage, apple and soil. The dissipation half-lives of emamectin benzoate in cabbage, apple and soil were 1.34-1.72 day, 2.75-3.09 day and 1.89-4.89 day, respectively. The final residues of emamectin benzoate ranged from 0.001 to 0.052 mg/kg in cabbages, 0.003 to 0.090 mg/kg in apples and 0.001 to 0.089 mg/kg in soils, respectively. Therefore, it would be unlikely to cause health problems if emamectin benzoate was applied according to the use pattern suggested by the manufactures on the label. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The utilization of ozone to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluxtipun, Y.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the utilization of ozone to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage. The experimental design used in the study was Randomized Block Design (RCB. 35% w/v EC of Endosulfanorganoclorine pesticide was used, with the recommended dose, to spray on Chinese cabbage every 7th day for three weeks. Five days after the last spay, the Chinese cabbage was harvested and ozone-dissolved water was used to reduce endosulfan residues in the cabbage at 5ºC at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes, respectively. The result showed that ozone-dissolved water at 25 minutes could effectively reduce 71.93% of endosulfan residues. This percentage was lower than the Maximum Residues Limit (MRL of 2.0 mg/kg of vegetables proscribed by CODEX. Furthermore, the study found that the more time used, the less the purity of ozone-dissolved water. This resulted in the decrease of ozone efficiency to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage.

  8. Enhanced anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using pulsed electric field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachovska, Tanya; Cassada, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Hanna, Milford; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Snow, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on anthocyanin extraction from red cabbage using water as a solvent. Mashed cabbage was placed in a batch treatment chamber and subjected to PEF (2.5 kV/cm electric field strength; 15 micros pulse width and 50 pulses, specific energy 15.63 J/g). Extracted anthocyanin concentrations (16 to 889 microg/mL) were determined using HPLC. Heat and light stabilities of the control and PEF-treated samples, having approximately the same initial concentrations, were studied. PEF treatments enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times with a higher proportion of nonacylated forms than the control (P light stabilities of the PEF-treated samples and control samples were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Practical Application: An innovative pretreatment technology, pulsed electric field processing, enhanced total anthocyanin extraction in water from red cabbage by 2.15 times. Manufacturers of natural colors can use this technology to extract anthocyanins from red cabbage efficiently.

  9. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF DRYING MODES ON QUALITY OF DEHYDRATED CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhale, B.K.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out for justify the suitability of various dehydration techniques for desired quality of finished products. The cabbage (brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata, one of the commonly consumed green leafy vegetables was assessed fot its commercial processing potential through dehydration technology. The fresh cabbage procured from commercial growing farms near aurangabad city were washed, chopped into strips of uniform size and subjected to hot water blanching containing 2.0 percent common salt. The pretreated cabbage were dehydrated under different during conditions i.e. sun, shade and tray drying to safe moisture level. The dried sample were evaluated for their dehydration process features, nutritional and sensorial characteristics. The data on the dehydration technology revealed that tray dried cabbage found comparatively more wholesome, palatable and reported maximum retention of nutrients like vitamin C (42.9%, calcium (87.2%, iron (83.3% coupled with superior dehydration and rehydration ratios and processing characteristics. The tray dried cabbage method was found comparatively superior in retention of sensorial quality features (appearance, color and overall acceptability over sun drying and at par with shade drying.

  10. Not only the butterflies: managing ants on road verges to benefit Phengaris (Maculinea) butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynhoff, I.; Gestel, van R.; Swaay, van C.; Langevelde, van F.

    2011-01-01

    Obligate myrmecophilic butterfly species, such as Phengaris (Maculinea) teleius and P. nausithous, have narrow habitat requirements. Living as a caterpillar in the nests of the ant species Myrmica scabrinodis and M. rubra, respectively, they can only survive on sites with both host ants and the host

  11. Impact of sulfate nutrition on the utilization of atmospheric SO2 as sulfur source for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, I.; De Kok, L.J.

    The ability of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to utilize atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) as sulfur (S) source for growth was investigated in relation to root sulfate (SO42-) nutrition. If seedlings of Chinese cabbage were transferred to a sulfate-deprived nutrient solution directly after

  12. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Ji; Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Jun Ho; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, HyeRan; Kim, ChulWook; Ahn, Jun Cheul; Cho, Hye Sun

    2013-01-01

    Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress. PMID:23736694

  13. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited a...

  14. Differing Behavioural Responses of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED to Cabbage Damaged by Conspecifics and Heterospecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hailong; Zeng, Yang; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-10-12

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest with an extensive host range. Previous research has shown that B. tabaci is a species complex with many cryptic species or biotypes and that the two most important species are MEAM1 (Middle East-Minor Asia 1) and MED (Mediterranean genetic group). MEAM1 and MED are known to differ in their preference for cabbage, Brassica oleracea, as a host plant, however, the mechanism underlying this preference is unknown. In the current study, a host choice experiment showed that MED prefers to settle and oviposit on undamaged cabbage plants rather than MED-damaged cabbage plants. However, MEAM1 prefers MED-damaged cabbage plants to undamaged plants and does not exhibit a significant preference for undamaged or MEAM1-damaged cabbage plants. On the basis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the following volatiles were released in larger quantities from Q-damaged cabbage plants than from undamaged plants: 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, benzenemethanol, (E)-2-decenol, benzaldehyde, nonanal, acetic acid geraniol ester, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, decane, and α-longipinene. Only one volatile, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, was released in greater quantities from MEAM1-damaged cabbage plants than from undamaged plants. Our results suggest that differences in herbivore-induced host volatile release may help explain the differences between the preference of B. tabaci MEAM1 and MED for cabbage as a host.

  15. Glucosinolates and Myrosinase Activity in Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Capitata f. rubra DC.) after Various Microwave Treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Total and individual levels of glucosinolates (GSs) were measured in red cabbage after various microwave treatments varying in time and intensity of the treatments. Furthermore, the myrosinase enzyme activity of the microwave-heated vegetables was determined. The retention of GSs in the cabbage and

  16. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  17. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses provide new insights into the regulation mechanism of low-temperature-induced leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chang Wei; Wei, Yan Ping; Xiao, Dong; Gao, Li Wei; Lyu, Shan Wu; Hou, Xi Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese cabbage, leafy head-related traits are directly related to the cabbage yield and marketability, which are often primarily concerned target for breeders. Although intensive studies has been on head formation in Chinese cabbage in the past decade, very scanty information is available on

  18. Phenotype microarray profiling of the antibacterial activity of red cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh RR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional food can be a potent source of wide array of biocomonents with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the antibacterial activity of red cabbage (RC extract on Gram negative and positive ATCC strains. Most intersting, we, for the first time, explored and analysed the complete phenotypic profile of RC-treated bacteria using Omnilog Phenotype Microarray. Results: This study revealed that the phenotype microarray (PM screen was a valuable tool in the search for compounds and their antibacterial mechanisms that can inhibit bacterial growth by affecting certain metabolic pathways. It was shown that RC exerted remarkable antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, and PM showed a wide range phenotypic profile of the exerted RC antibacterial activity. RC targeted the peptide, carbon, nutriontional assembly, and sulfur metbolic pathways altogether. The peptidoglycan synthesis pathway was inferred to be targeted by RC extract at a metabolic point different from other available cell wall-targeting drugs; these could be hot targets for the discovery of new therapy for many problematic microbes.Conclusions: Taken together, the phenotype microarray for functional food and medicinal plants can be a very useful tool for profiling their antimicrobial activity. Moreover, extracts of functional food can exert antibacterial activity by hitting a wide range of metabolic pathways, at the same time leading to very difficult condition for bacteria to rapidly develop resistance. Therefore, using functional foods or medicinal plants as such, or as extracts, can be superior on mono-targeting antibiotics if the optimal concentrations and conditions of these functional foods were sought.

  19. White Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. White Toenails White toenails can develop for several reasons. Trauma, such ... trauma does not cause broken blood vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot ...

  20. Evaluation of red cabbage dye as a potential natural color for pharmaceutical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigurupati, Neela; Saiki, Lani; Gayser, Charles; Dash, Alekha K

    2002-07-25

    Red cabbage dye is a natural pigment used mainly as a food color. A class of compounds called anthocyanins attributes to this color. The pH of the red cabbage solution can also affect both its color and intensity. The objective of this study was to determine the ionization constant (pK(a)) of red cabbage color, the effect of pH and temperature on its stability in solution and evaluation of this natural color as a pH indicator in pharmaceutical system. Spectrophotometric method was used to determine its pK(a). The lambda(max) and absorbencies of the red cabbage color at different concentrations and pH were determined. The analytical wavelength (AW) is the wavelength at which the greatest difference in absorbencies between ionized and molecular species occurs was determined. The absorbencies of red cabbage solution (0.12% w/v) at different pH values ranging from 5.0 to 8.0 (with increments of 0.2), was measured at the AW of 612 nm. The resulted absorbencies ranged from 0.31 to 1.91 and were used to determine its pK(a). The pK(a) determined by this method was within a range of 6.8-7.2. Results from this study demonstrated that red cabbage dye could be used as a pH indicator in pharmaceutical formulations. In acidic condition, it has its original red color but at a basic pH its color changes to deep blue. This color is more stable at a low temperature and pH. Its ability to act as a pH indicator was further tested using chlorbutol solution as a model system.

  1. Tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC): scavenger of reactive nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2008-06-11

    The ability of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) to act as a scavenger of the reactive nitrogen species nitric oxide and peroxynitrite was investigated. The aqueous extracts obtained from tronchuda cabbage seeds and from its external and internal leaves exhibited a concentration dependent scavenging capacity. The antioxidant potential observed against the two reactive species was as follows: seeds > external leaves > internal leaves. In order to establish a possible correlation with the chemical composition of the extracts, the activity of ascorbic and sinapic acids and kaempferol 3- O-rutinoside was also studied. Among the compounds tested, sinapic acid showed the strongest antioxidant activity against both species.

  2. The Butterfly Effect on Peace Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Cerdas-Agüero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper on peace education is to generate a reflection, through the metaphor of the butterfly effect, on the importance of educating for peace during the change process of human beings and society.  It proposes education for peace as a human right, an experience and learning process that is put into practice by human beings.  It aims at changing attitudes and actions to create harmonious relationships based on the respect and recognition of human rights, and the freedom and dignity of every person.

  3. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroto [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  4. Illustrate the Butterfly Effect on the Chaos Rikitake System

    OpenAIRE

    Gholipour, Yousof; Ramezani, Amin; Mola, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents butterfly effect on a Chaos system. In this letter we want to briefly introduce Chaos Rikitake system and monitor the butterfly effect on this system. In chaos theory, the butterfly effect is the sensitive dependency on initial conditions. For this goal at the first we suppose initiation point and plot it, for base of work, later will apply small change on one item of initiation point and monitor behavior of Rikitake system. At the end we want to reclaim the famous lectur...

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of partially open butterfly valve flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.; Kim, R.H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science

    1996-09-01

    A numerical simulation of butterfly valve flows is a useful technique to investigate the physical phenomena of the flow field. A three-dimensional numerical analysis was carried out on incompressible fluid flows in a butterfly valve by using FLUENT, which solves difference equations. Characteristics of the butterfly valve flows at different valve disk angles with a uniform incoming velocity were investigated. Comparisons of FLUENT results with other results, i.e., experimental results, were made to determine the accuracy of the employed method. Results of the three-dimensional analysis may be useful in the valve design.

  6. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  7. Neuroethology of ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies (Hedyloidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yack, Jayne E.; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2007-01-01

    Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid....... Extracellular recordings from IIN1c reveal sensory responses to ultrasonic (>20 kHz), but not low frequency(butterflies exposed to ultrasound exhibit a variety of evasive maneuvers...... of evolutionary divergence, since we demonstrate that the ears are homologous to low frequency ears in some diurnal Nymphalidae butterflies....

  8. Fractional statistics and the butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2016-08-01

    Fractional statistics and quantum chaos are both phenomena associated with the non-local storage of quantum information. In this article, we point out a connection between the butterfly effect in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characterization of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix and conformal spins. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  9. Wolbachia Sequence Typing in Butterflies Using Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmi; Shin, Su-Kyoung; Jeong, Gilsang; Yi, Hana

    2015-09-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate symbiotic bacteria that is ubiquitous in arthropods, with 25-70% of insect species estimated to be infected. Wolbachia species can interact with their insect hosts in a mutualistic or parasitic manner. Sequence types (ST) of Wolbachia are determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of housekeeping genes. However, there are some limitations to MLST with respect to the generation of clone libraries and the Sanger sequencing method when a host is infected with multiple STs of Wolbachia. To assess the feasibility of massive parallel sequencing, also known as next-generation sequencing, we used pyrosequencing for sequence typing of Wolbachia in butterflies. We collected three species of butterflies (Eurema hecabe, Eurema laeta, and Tongeia fischeri) common to Korea and screened them for Wolbachia STs. We found that T. fischeri was infected with a single ST of Wolbachia, ST41. In contrast, E. hecabe and E. laeta were each infected with two STs of Wolbachia, ST41 and ST40. Our results clearly demonstrate that pyrosequencing-based MLST has a higher sensitivity than cloning and Sanger sequencing methods for the detection of minor alleles. Considering the high prevalence of infection with multiple Wolbachia STs, next-generation sequencing with improved analysis would assist with scaling up approaches to Wolbachia MLST.

  10. Fractional statistics and the butterfly effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-08-23

    Fractional statistics and quantum chaos are both phenomena associated with the non-local storage of quantum information. In this article, we point out a connection between the butterfly effect in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characterization of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix and conformal spins. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  11. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Zinc exposure has differential effects on uptake and metabolism of sulfur and nitrogen in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Posthumus, Freek S.; Parmar, Saroj; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a plant nutrient; however, at elevated levels it rapidly becomes phytotoxic. In order to obtain insight into the physiological background of its toxicity, the impact of elevated Zn2+ concentrations (1 to 10 mM) in the root environment on physiological functioning of Chinese cabbage was

  13. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  14. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Chae Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA, has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM. BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.

  15. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  16. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed...

  17. Pathotype Classification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Isolates Using Clubroot-Resistant Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams’ hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races. However, when these isolates were inoculated onto clubroot-resistant (CR cultivars of Chinese cabbage, several isolates led to different disease responses even though the isolates have been assigned to the same race by the Williams’ host responses. Based on the pathogenicity results, the 12 field isolates were reclassified into four different groups: pathotype 1 (GN1, GN2, GS, JS, and HS, 2 (DJ and KS, 3 (HN1, PC, and YC, and 4 (HN2 and SS. In addition, the CR cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan exhibited distinguishable disease responses to the P. brassicae isolates, suggesting that the 22 cultivars used in this study, including the non-CR cultivars, are classified into four different host groups based on their disease resistance. Combining these findings, the four differential hosts of Chinese cabbage and four pathotype groups of P. brassicae might provide an efficient screening system for resistant cultivars and a new foundation of breeding strategies for CR Chinese cabbage.

  18. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  19. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  20. Study of heavy metal in sewage sludge and in Chinese cabbage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was performed to investigate the heavy metal content and availability for crops in sewage sludge and its accumulation in Chinese cabbage grown in sewage sludge amended soil. We determined the total and chemical fraction of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Mn in sewage sludge and the total content of ...

  1. Silver nanoparticles: an alternative method for sanitization of minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliane Andrade Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of vegetables basically aims to extend food shelf life, which depends on a number of factors, such as sanitization, that is considered a critical step for food microbiological quality. However, the usual antimicrobial agents reduce the microbial population in a maximum of two logarithmic cycles. Therefore, it is necessary to develop alternative sanitizers. This study aimed to increase the innocuity of minimally processed cabbage through sanitization with silver nanoparticles. It was observed that the nanoparticles promoted three logarithmic reductions, i.e. a 99.9 % reduction rate, in the Escherichia coli population inoculated on the cabbage surface. When compared to other antimicrobial agents (sodium dichloroisocyanurate and sodium hypochlorite, the nanoparticles were more efficient in sanitizing minimally processed cabbage, showing a lower count of aerobic mesophils. It was also observed that the cabbage surface presents hydrophobic characteristics, resulting in a higher propension for bacterial adhesion, which was confirmed in the thermodynamic evaluation of favorable adhesion for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

  2. Competitive adsorption of metals on cabbage waste from multi-metal solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Vigneswaran, S; Nguyen, T V

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the adsorption capacity of the agro-waste 'cabbage' as a biosorbent in single, binary, ternary and quaternary sorption systems with Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions. Dried and ground powder of cabbage waste (CW) was used for the sorption of metals ions. Carboxylic, hydroxyl, and amine groups in cabbage waste were found to be the key functional groups for metal sorption. The adsorption isotherms obtained could be well fitted to both the mono- and multi-metal models. In the competitive adsorption systems, cabbage waste adsorbed larger amount of Pb(II) than the other three metals. However, the presence of the competing ions suppressed the sorption of the target metal ions. Except the case of binary system of Cd(II)-Zn(II) and Cd(II)-Cu(II), there was a linear inverse dependency between the sorption capacities and number of different types of competitive metal ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  4. Holographic butterfly effect and diffusion in quantum critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Xian, Zhuo-Yu

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the butterfly effect and charge diffusion near the quantum phase transition in holographic approach. We argue that their criticality is controlled by the holographic scaling geometry with deformations induced by a relevant operator at finite temperature. Specifically, in the quantum critical region controlled by a single fixed point, the butterfly velocity decreases when deviating from the critical point. While, in the non-critical region, the behavior of the butterfly velocity depends on the specific phase at low temperature. Moreover, in the holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, the universal behavior of the butterfly velocity is absent. Finally, the tendency of our holographic results matches with the numerical results of Bose-Hubbard model. A comparison between our result and that in the O( N ) nonlinear sigma model is also given.

  5. Numerical study of solid particle erosion in butterfly valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhao, Jiangang; Qian, Jianhua

    2017-07-01

    In the actual operation of butterfly valve, the butterfly valve is found severe erosion wear. A solid particle erosion analysis of butterfly valve based on the erosion theory is researched in this study. A CFD model has been built to simulate the flow erosion. Different parameters of butterfly valve including inlet velocity, particle mass fraction and solid particle diameter are separately analysed. The results show that erosion rate increase with the increase of inlet velocity, particle mass fraction and solid particle diameter. The peak erosion rate is up to 4.63E-5 (kg/m2/s) and erosion of valve disc mainly occurs around the upstream edge and the cylinder face.

  6. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  7. Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Schäpers, Alexander; Nässel, Dick R; Janz, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary time since butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor.

  8. Study of structural colour of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Pryakhina, V. I.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Zubarev, I. V.; Boymuradova, S. K.; Volchetskaya, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural colours of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales have been studied experimentally using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Visualization of scales structures and computer simulation allowed distinguishing correlation between nanostructures on the scales and their colour.

  9. Karner blue butterfly: Annual summary for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses research being conducted on the Karner blue butterfly and historic landscape changes in Necedah National Wildlife Refuge.

  10. Growth promotion of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis by Piriformospora indica is not stimulated by mycelium-synthesized auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yin-Chen; Johnson, Joy Michal; Chien, Ching-Te; Sun, Chao; Cai, Daguang; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2011-04-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of the order Sebacinales, interacts with the roots of a large variety of plant species. We compared the interaction of this fungus with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis) and Arabidopsis seedlings. The development of shoots and roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings was strongly promoted by P. indica and the fresh weight of the seedlings increased approximately twofold. The strong stimulation of root hair development resulted in a bushy root phenotype. The auxin level in the infected Chinese cabbage roots was twofold higher compared with the uncolonized controls. Three classes of auxin-related genes, which were upregulated by P. indica in Chinese cabbage roots, were isolated from a double-subtractive expressed sequence tag library: genes for proteins related to cell wall acidification, intercellular auxin transport carrier proteins such as AUX1, and auxin signal proteins. Overexpression of B. campestris BcAUX1 in Arabidopsis strongly promoted growth and biomass production of Arabidopsis seedlings and plants; the roots were highly branched but not bushy when compared with colonized Chinese cabbage roots. This suggests that BcAUX1 is a target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. P. indica also promoted growth of Arabidopsis seedlings but the auxin levels were not higher and auxin genes were not upregulated, implying that auxin signaling is a more important target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage than in Arabidopsis. The fungus also stimulated growth of Arabidopsis aux1 and aux1/axr4 and rhd6 seedlings. Furthermore, a component in an exudate fraction from P. indica but not auxin stimulated growth of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis seedlings. We propose that activation of auxin biosynthesis and signaling in the roots might be the cause for the P. indica-mediated growth phenotype in Chinese cabbage.

  11. Butterfly morphology in a molecular age -- does it still matter in butterfly systematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Thomas J; de Jong, Rienk; Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri

    2012-07-01

    We review morphological characters considered important for understanding butterfly phylogeny and evolution in the light of recent large-scale molecular phylogenies of the group. A number of the most important morphological works from the past half century are reviewed and morphological character evolution is reassessed based on the most recent phylogenetic results. In particular, higher level butterfly morphology is evaluated based on a very recent study combining an elaborate morphological dataset with a similar molecular one. Special attention is also given to the families Papilionidae, Nymphalidae and Hesperiidae which have all seen morphological and molecular efforts come together in large, combined works in recent years. In all of the examined cases the synergistic effect of combining elaborate morphological datasets with ditto molecular clearly outweigh the merits of either data type analysed on its own (even for 'genome size' molecular datasets). It is evident that morphology, far from being obsolete or arcane, still has an immensely important role to play in butterfly (and insect) phylogenetics. Not least because understanding morphology is essential for understanding and evaluating the evolutionary scenarios phylogenetic trees are supposed to illustrate. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Food Plants of 19 butterflies species (Lepidoptera from Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vásquez Bardales

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the food plants utilized by 19 species of butterflies from Allpahuayo-Mishana Research Center and the Community of San Rafael, Loreto, Peru. We report 23 plant species and one hybrid of angiosperms used by the butterflies. Larval host plants were 21 species and five were adult nectar sources. Two species were both host plant and nectar source: Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora edulis Sims. The most frequently used plant families were Solanaceae, Passifloraceae, Fabaceae and Aristolochiaceae.

  13. Modal-Based Design Improvement of a Butterfly Valve Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Draghiciu; Zoltan-Iosif Korka; Gilbert-Rainer Gillich

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour control of a butterfly valve is important because, when one of the valve disc natural frequency is close to the frequency of vortex shedding, which appears when the valve is fully open or partially closed, resonance may appear and vibration with significant amplitudes is generated. This paper presents an example by how the design of a butterfly valve disc can be improved by using a modal analysis performed by means of the finite element method. For this purpose, the rese...

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Butterfly Valve Performance Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Del Toro, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Butterfly valves are commonly used in industrial applications to control the internal flow of both compressible and incompressible fluids. A butterfly valve typically consists of a metal disc formed around a central shaft, which acts as its axis of rotation. As the valve's opening angle is increased from 0 degrees (fully closed) to 90 degrees (fully open), fluid is able to more readily flow past the valve. Characterizing a valve's performance factors, such as pressure drop, hydrodynamic torqu...

  15. Infrared detection based on localized modification of Morpho butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangyu; Shen, Qingchen; Shi, Xindong; Li, Shipu; Wang, Wanlin; Luo, Zhen; He, Gufeng; Zhang, Peng; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-02-01

    Inspired by butterflies an advanced detection and sensing system is developed. The hierarchical nanoarchitecture of Morpho butterfly wings is shown to facilitate the selective modification of such a structure, which results in a sensitive infrared response. These findings offer a new path both for detecting infrared photons and for generating nanostructured bimaterial systems for high-performance sensing platforms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp., Pieridae (17 spp, Lycaenidae (47 spp., Nymphalidae (40 spp. and Hesperiidae (28 spp.. The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  17. AFM study of structure influence on butterfly wings coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva; Pavel Tomanek

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body,...

  18. Comparison of cauliflower-insect-fungus interactions and pesticides for cabbage root fly control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Žerjav, Metka; Zemljič-Urbančič, Meta; Modic, Špela; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Grunder, Jürg; Fellous, Simon; Urek, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    Cabbage root fly (Delia radicum L.) control represents a major challenge in brassica production, therefore different management strategies for its control were tested in conventionally managed open field cauliflower production. Strategies included treatments with low-risk methods such as nitrogen lime, the insecticide spinosad and the Beauveria bassiana ATCC 74040-based biopesticide Naturalis. Their effects were compared with treatments based on nonformulated fungal species Metarhizium brunneum, B. bassiana, Clonostachys solani, Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, and T. gamsii and commercial insecticides λ-cyhalothrin and thiamethoxam. Spinosad and thiamethoxam were pipetted to individual plants before transplanting; λ-cyhalothrin was sprayed after transplanting; nitrogen lime was applied at first hoeing. Nonformulated fungi were delivered onto cauliflower plantlets' roots as a single pretransplantation inoculation. The cabbage root fly population dynamics exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variation. The lowest number of cabbage root fly pupae recovered from cauliflower roots in the field experiments was recorded in plants treated with spinosad (significant reduction), followed by Naturalis and one of the tested M. brunneum strains (nonsignificant reduction). Significantly more pupae were counted in the nitrogen lime treatment. The field experiments showed that a single drench of cauliflower plantlets with spinosad offered consistent and enduring cabbage root fly control. Naturalis and nonformulated fungal isolates did not decrease cabbage root fly pressure significantly, apparently due to lack of statistical power. The implications of the substantial intra- and inter-annual pest pressure variation and the benefits of using single plant treatments are discussed, and recommendations for improvement of rhizosphere-competence utilizing biological control strategies provided. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; P Niksic, Miomir

    2016-09-01

    The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films.

  20. Glucosinolate Profiles in Cabbage Genotypes Influence the Preferential Feeding of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella L., is a devastating pest of cabbage worldwide whose feeding attributes are influenced by glucosinolate profiles of the plant. Identifying the specific glucosinolates associated with plants’ resistance mechanism can provide cues to novel points of intervention in developing resistant cultivars. We studied the DBM larval feeding preference and extent of damage on cabbage leaves via controlled glass-house and in vitro multiple- and two-choice feeding tests. These feeding attributes were associated with the individual glucosinolate profiles, analyzed by HPLC, of each of the eight cabbage genotypes using multivariate analytical approach to identify the glucosinolates that may have roles in resistance. Both the glass-house and in vitro multiple-choice feeding tests identified the genotype BN4303, BN4059, and BN4072 as the least preferred (resistant and Rubra, YR Gold and BN3383 as most preferred (susceptible genotypes by DBM larvae. The principal component analysis separated the genotypes based on lower feeding scores in association with higher contents of glucobrassicin, glucoiberin, glucoiberverin in one direction and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucoerucin, glucoraphanin, and progoitrin in opposite direction in a way to explain the major variation in resistant versus susceptible genotypes based on their extent of preference and leaf area damage. The simultaneous presence (or higher contents of glucobrassicin, glucoiberin, and glucoiberverin and the absence (or lower contents of 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucoerucin, glucoraphanin, and progoitrin in the least preferred genotypes and vice-versa in most preferred genotypes indicated their apparent role as putative repellents and attractants of DBM larvae in cabbage genotypes, respectively. These novel findings add to the current knowledgebase on the roles of glucosinolates in plant–herbivore interactions and will be helpful in setting breeding priorities for

  1. Evaluation of Cabbage- and Broccoli-genetic Resources for Resistance to Clubroot and Fusarium Wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot and Fusarium wilt of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L. are destructive diseases which for many years has brought a decline in quality and large losses in yields all over the world. The breeding of resistant cultivars is an effective approach to reduce the use of chemical fungicides and minimize crop losses. This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 60 cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata and 6 broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica lines provided by The RDA-Genebank Information Center to clubroot and Fusarium wilt. To investigate resistance to clubroot, seedlings of the genetic resources were inoculated with Plasmodiophora brassicae by drenching the roots with a mixed spore suspension (1 : 1 of two isolates. Of the tested genetic resources, four cabbage lines were moderately resistant and ‘K166220’ represented the highest resistance to P. brassicae. The others were susceptible to clubroot. On the other hand, to select resistant plants to Fusarium wilt, the genetic resources were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans by dipping the roots in spore suspension of the fungus. Among them, 17 cabbage and 5 broccoli lines were resistant, 16 cabbage lines were moderately resistant, and the others were susceptible to Fusarium wilt. Especially, three cabbage (‘IT227115’, ‘K161791’, ‘K173350’ and two broccoli (‘IT227100’, ‘IT227099’ lines were highly resistant to the fungus. We suggest that the resistant genetic resources can be used as a basic material for resistant B. oleracea breeding system against clubroot and Fusarium wilt.

  2. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Chen, Peng Jen; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin Hui; Cai, Daguang; Oelmüllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-11-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Gordana D.; Klaus, Anita S.; P. Niksic, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. Objectives The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Methods Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Results Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. Conclusions All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films. PMID:27800143

  4. Yellow and the Novel Aposematic Signal, Red, Protect Delias Butterflies from Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jocelyn Liang Qi; Monteiro, Antónia

    2017-01-01

    Butterflies of the South Asian and Australian genus Delias possess striking colours on the ventral wings that are presumed to serve as warning signals to predators. However, this has not been shown empirically. Here we experimentally tested whether the colours of one member of this diverse genus, Delias hyparete, function as aposematic signals. We constructed artificial paper models with either a faithful colour representation of D. hyparete, or with all of its colours converted to grey scale. We also produced models where single colours were left intact, while others were converted to grey-scale or removed entirely. We placed all model types simultaneously in the field, attached to a live mealworm, and measured relative attack rates at three separate field sites. Faithful models of D. hyparete, suffered the least amount of attacks, followed by grey-scale models with unaltered red patches, and by grey-scale models with unaltered yellow patches. We conclude that red and yellow colours function as warning signals. By mapping dorsal and ventral colouration onto a phylogeny of Delias, we observed that yellow and red colours appear almost exclusively on the ventral wing surfaces, and that basal lineages have mostly yellow, white, and black wings, whereas derived lineages contain red colour in addition to the other colours. Red appears to be, thus, a novel adaptive trait in this lineage of butterflies.

  5. Hearing in a diurnal, mute butterfly, Morpho peleides (Papilionoidea, Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Karla A; Lucas, Kathleen M; Yack, Jayne E

    2008-06-10

    Butterflies use visual and chemical cues when interacting with their environment, but the role of hearing is poorly understood in these insects. Nymphalidae (brush-footed) butterflies occur worldwide in almost all habitats and continents, and comprise more than 6,000 species. In many species a unique forewing structure--Vogel's organ--is thought to function as an ear. At present, however, there is little experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. We studied the functional organization of Vogel's organ in the common blue morpho butterfly, Morpho peleides, which represents the majority of Nymphalidae in that it is diurnal and does not produce sounds. Our results confirm that Vogel's organ possesses the morphological and physiological characteristics of a typical insect tympanal ear. The tympanum has an oval-shaped outer membrane and a convex inner membrane. Associated with the inner surface of the tympanum are three chordotonal organs, each containing 10-20 scolopidia. Extracellular recordings from the auditory nerve show that Vogel's organ is most sensitive to sounds between 2-4 kHz at median thresholds of 58 dB SPL. Most butterfly species that possess Vogel's organ are diurnal, and mute, so bat detection and conspecific communication can be ruled out as roles for hearing. We hypothesize that Vogel's organs in butterflies such as M. peleides have evolved to detect flight sounds of predatory birds. The evolution and taxonomic distribution of butterfly hearing organs are discussed.

  6. The effects of seasonally variable dragonfly predation on butterfly assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiitsaar, Anu; Kaasik, Ants; Teder, Tiit

    2013-01-01

    Where predation is seasonally variable, the potential impact of a predator on individual prey species will critically depend on phenological synchrony of the predator with the prey. Here we explored the effects of seasonally variable predation in multispecies assemblages of short-lived prey. The study was conducted in a landscape in which we had previously demonstrated generally high, but spatially and seasonally variable dragonfly-induced mortality in adult butterflies. In this system, we show that patterns of patch occupancy in butterfly species flying during periods of peak dragonfly abundance are more strongly associated with spatial variation in dragonfly abundance than patch occupancy of species flying when dragonfly density was low. We provide evidence indicating that this differential sensitivity of different butterfly species to between-habitat differences in dragonfly abundance is causally tied to seasonal variation in the intensity of dragonfly predation. The effect of dragonfly predation could also be measured at the level of whole local butterfly assemblages. With dragonfly density increasing, butterfly species richness decreased, and butterfly species composition tended to show a shift toward a greater proportion of species flying during periods of off-peak dragonfly abundance.

  7. Criticality in third order lovelock gravity and butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2018-01-01

    We study third order Lovelock Gravity in D=7 at the critical point which three (A)dS vacua degenerate into one. We see there is not propagating graviton at the critical point. And also we compute the butterfly velocity for this theory at the critical point by considering the shock wave solutions near horizon, this is important to note that although there is no propagating graviton at the critical point, due to boundary gravitons the butterfly velocity is non-zero. Finally we observe that the butterfly velocity for third order Lovelock Gravity at the critical point in D=7 is less than the butterfly velocity for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity at the critical point in D=7 which is less than the butterfly velocity in D = 7 for Einstein Gravity, vB^{E.H}>vB^{E.G.B}>vB^{3rd Lovelock} . Maybe we can conclude that by adding higher order curvature corrections to Einstein Gravity the butterfly velocity decreases.

  8. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Basis of Melanin Pigmentation in Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Martin, Arnaud; Perry, Michael W; van der Burg, Karin R L; Matsuoka, Yuji; Monteiro, Antónia; Reed, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Despite the variety, prominence, and adaptive significance of butterfly wing patterns, surprisingly little is known about the genetic basis of wing color diversity. Even though there is intense interest in wing pattern evolution and development, the technical challenge of genetically manipulating butterflies has slowed efforts to functionally characterize color pattern development genes. To identify candidate wing pigmentation genes, we used RNA sequencing to characterize transcription across multiple stages of butterfly wing development, and between different color pattern elements, in the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui This allowed us to pinpoint genes specifically associated with red and black pigment patterns. To test the functions of a subset of genes associated with presumptive melanin pigmentation, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in four different butterfly genera. pale, Ddc, and yellow knockouts displayed reduction of melanin pigmentation, consistent with previous findings in other insects. Interestingly, however, yellow-d, ebony, and black knockouts revealed that these genes have localized effects on tuning the color of red, brown, and ochre pattern elements. These results point to previously undescribed mechanisms for modulating the color of specific wing pattern elements in butterflies, and provide an expanded portrait of the insect melanin pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Developing `Butterfly Warriors': a Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-12-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen scientists. The butterfly unit included five lessons. The researchers observed the lessons and interviewed students and the classroom teacher. The students completed a unit evaluation survey after the unit. Findings indicate that the students enjoyed and were interested in activities such as reading about butterflies, learning and using new vocabulary, drawing butterfly life cycles, as well as hunting, tagging and releasing butterflies and publishing the data they had collected on a dedicated website. Through their participation in the unit, students had opportunities to act locally and globally, and to `see themselves' in science through `being there' experience. Units like this have the potential to develop students' interest for longer-term engagement in science, even those students who may never envision themselves as professional scientists.

  11. Interspecific and intersexual learning rate differences in four butterfly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Ikuo; Yamaki, Takafumi; Okuyama, Sei-Ichi; Sakamoto, Noboru; Yokoi, Tomoyuki

    2009-12-01

    Learning plays an important role in food acquisition for a wide range of insects and has been demonstrated to be essential during flower foraging in taxa such as bees, parasitoid wasps, butterflies and moths. However, little attention has been focused on differences in floral cue learning abilities among species and sexes. We examined the associative learning of flower colour with nectar in four butterfly species: Idea leuconoe, Argyreus hyperbius, Pieris rapae and Lycaena phlaeas. All butterflies that were trained learned the flower colours associated with food. The flower colour learning rates were significantly higher in I. leuconoe and A. hyperbius than in P. rapae and L. phlaeas. Among the four species examined, the larger and longer-lived species exhibited higher learning rates. Furthermore, female butterflies showed a significantly higher learning rate than males. This study provides the first evidence that learning abilities related to floral cues differ among butterfly species. The adaptive significance of superior learning abilities in the larger and longer-lived butterfly species and in females is discussed.

  12. Multidisciplinary optimization of a butterfly valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xue Guan; Wang, Lin; Baek, Seok Heum; Park, Young Chul

    2009-07-01

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow control device, typically used to regulate fluid flow. This paper proposes a new process to meet desired needs in valve design that is characterized by the complex configuration. First, the need is identified according to the valve user/company, and then the problem is defined with a characteristic function. Second, the initial model of valve is made, and then the initial analysis including fluid and/or structural analysis is carried out to predict the fluid and/or structural performance of the valve. Third, the optimization in the form of mathematical functions, which considers single or multiple objective and/or discipline, is handled. This part includes the design of computer experiment, approximation technique, topology optimization and sizing optimization. Finally, the validation experiment is conducted based on the optimum result to verify the accuracy of the optimization. An example is provided to confirm the availability of the process proposed here.

  13. Coloration mechanisms and phylogeny of Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Yoshioka, S; Liu, C; Stavenga, D G

    2016-12-15

    Morpho butterflies are universally admired for their iridescent blue coloration, which is due to nanostructured wing scales. We performed a comparative study on the coloration of 16 Morpho species, investigating the morphological, spectral and spatial scattering properties of the differently organized wing scales. In numerous previous studies, the bright blue Morpho coloration has been fully attributed to the multi-layered ridges of the cover scales' upper laminae, but we found that the lower laminae of the cover and ground scales play an important additional role, by acting as optical thin film reflectors. We conclude that Morpho coloration is a subtle combination of overlapping pigmented and/or unpigmented scales, multilayer systems, optical thin films and sometimes undulated scale surfaces. Based on the scales' architecture and their organization, five main groups can be distinguished within the genus Morpho, largely agreeing with the accepted phylogeny. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Symmetry Breaking in Hofstadter's Butterfly in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Carlos; Dean, Cory; Wang, Lei; Maher, Patrick; Ghahari, Fereshte; Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Shepard, Ken; Hone, Jim; Kim, Philip

    2013-03-01

    We will present magnetotransport measurements in hBN encapsulated bilayer graphene devices where one of hBN substrates provides a weak modulation of lattice potential. Under a strong magnetic field, interplay between periodic electric potential and quantizing magnetic field lead to a fractal energy spectrum known as Hofstadter's butterfly. In graphene, while spin and layer symmetry breakings are expected in dual gated devices under large magnetic fields, valley symmetry breaking in the Hofstadter regime is not so easily understood. We will present the observance of these measured gaps along with a discussion of symmetry breaking in our BLG-hBN devices. Further quantitative analysis of these breakings will be presented through the temperature dependence of quantized conductance at these gaps. Through careful modulation of temperature and electron density, we have extracted a range of activation energies associated with symmetry breakings. the speaker acknowledges support from the Columbia Optics and Quantum Electronics IGERT under NSF grant DGE-1069420

  15. Determining optimal population monitoring for rare butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nick M; Hudgens, Brian; Damiani, Chris; Gross, Kevin; Kuefler, Daniel; Pollock, Ken

    2008-08-01

    Determining population viability of rare insects depends on precise, unbiased estimates of population size and other demographic parameters. We used data on the endangered St. Francis' satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii francisci) to evaluate 2 approaches (mark-recapture and transect counts) for population analysis of rare butterflies. Mark-recapture analysis provided by far the greatest amount of demographic information, including estimates (and standard errors) of population size, detection, survival, and recruitment probabilities. Mark-recapture analysis can also be used to estimate dispersal and temporal variation in rates, although we did not do this here. Models of seasonal flight phenologies derived from transect counts (Insect Count Analyzer) provided an index of population size and estimates of survival and statistical uncertainty. Pollard-Yates population indices derived from transect counts did not provide estimates of demographic parameters. This index may be highly biased if detection and survival probabilities vary spatially and temporally. In terms of statistical performance, mark-recapture and Pollard-Yates indices were least variable. Mark-recapture estimates were less likely to fail than Insect Count Analyzer, but mark-recapture estimates became less precise as sampling intensity decreased. In general, count-based approaches are less costly and less likely to cause harm to rare insects than mark-recapture. The optimal monitoring approach must reconcile these trade-offs. Thus, mark-recapture should be favored when demographic estimates are needed, when financial resources enable frequent sampling, and when marking does not harm the insect populations. The optimal sampling strategy may use 2 sampling methods together in 1 overall sampling plan: limited mark-recapture sampling to estimate survival and detection probabilities and frequent but less expensive transect counts.

  16. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of butterfly population in DAE Campus, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal population trends of butterflies inhabiting the campus of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE at Kalpakkam were recorded by setting a permanent line transect of 300m and recording all species of butterflies observed within a 5m distance. The survey yielded 2177 individuals of 56 butterfly species, belonging to the families Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the dominant family during all seasons. Species richness and abundance were highest during the northeast monsoon and winter periods, indicating that in the southern plains of India butterflies prefer cool seasons for breeding and emergence. The taxonomic structure of the butterflies sampled resembles that of the Western Ghats and other regions of India in two ways: (a dominance of nymphalids and (b peak abundance during wet seasons. A detailed study of ecologically important local butterfly fauna and their host plants is in progress, to construct a butterfly garden in Kalpakkam to attract and support butterflies.

  18. Using a phenological network to assess weather influences on first appearance of butterflies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, Van Der Henk Jan; Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Vliet, Van Arnold J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Phenological responses of butterflies to temperature have been demonstrated in several European countries by using data from standardized butterfly monitoring schemes. Recently, phenological networks have enabled volunteers to record phenological observations at project websites. In this study,

  19. White lies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erat, S.; Gneezy, U.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish between two types of white lies: those that help others at the expense of the person telling the lie, which we term altruistic white lies, and those that help both others and the liar, which we term Pareto white lies. We find that a large fraction of participants are

  20. Use of different organic fertilizers on soil fertility improvement, growth and head yield parameters of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibukunoluwa Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out in Akure in the rainforest zone of Nigeria to determine the effect of poultry manure, wood ash and rice bran on the soil fertility improvement, growth and head yield of cabbage...

  1. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

      The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied...

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Xiaoming; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection...

  3. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice

    OpenAIRE

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September ...

  4. The butterfly effect: an investigation of sectioned roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Assil A; Chandler, Nicholas P; Hauman, Catharina; Siddiqui, Amna Y; Tompkins, Geoffrey R

    2013-02-01

    The butterfly effect is an optical phenomenon seen in some sections of tooth roots. The aim of this work was to investigate the density of dentinal tubules in mesiodistal and buccolingual cross-sections of roots exhibiting the butterfly effect and to determine if the effect is featured throughout the length of roots and is age related. Thirty extracted single-rooted teeth were allocated to the following groups according to patient age: group 1: 15-24 years, group 2: 25-44 years, and group 3: 45 years and over. The teeth were decoronated, and their roots were embedded in acrylic and cut into ten 1 mm-thick cross-sections. Sections were viewed under a light microscope and coded (1 or 2) according to presence or absence of the butterfly effect. A root scored 20 when all levels exhibited the butterfly appearance. The 2 teeth with the highest score from each group and 2 control teeth with the minimum score (of 10) were selected. Two adjacent, consecutive cross-sections were chosen with the most coronal cut mesiodistally and the other buccolingually. Scanning electron micrographs (×850) were taken of the central portion of their canal lumina and the density of the dentinal tubules determined. The butterfly effect was found at all levels in the roots of the affected teeth. The tubule density was highest in the buccolingual root sections (45,348 mm(-2)) and lowest mesiodistally (12,605 mm(-2)), a significant difference (P = .02). This trend was found across all age groups. Root sections with the butterfly effect have a lower density of dentinal tubules mesiodistally corresponding to the wings of the butterfly. The pattern was observed in teeth from all age groups and was absent in controls. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The butterflies and land snails of Ndere Island National Park, Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After a survey of Ndere Island National Park between October and November 2004, we recorded 18 species of butterflies and 3 species of land snails. Eurema brigitta brigitta was the most abundant butterfly whereas Thapsia karamwegasensis was the most abundant land snail. Majority of the butterfly species are found in ...

  6. Citizen Science: The First Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John-James; Jisming-See, Shi-Wei; Brandon-Mong, Guo-Jie; Lim, Aik-Hean; Lim, Voon-Ching; Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing, Kong-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, Southeast Asia has suffered the greatest losses of biodiversity of any tropical region in the world. Malaysia is a biodiversity hotspot in the heart of Southeast Asia with roughly the same number of mammal species, three times the number of butterfly species, but only 4% of the land area of Australia. Consequently, in Malaysia, there is an urgent need for biodiversity monitoring and also public engagement with wildlife to raise awareness of biodiversity loss. Citizen science is "on the rise" globally and can make valuable contributions to long-term biodiversity monitoring, but perhaps more importantly, involving the general public in science projects can raise public awareness and promote engagement. Butterflies are often the focus of citizen science projects due to their charisma and familiarity and are particularly valuable "ambassadors" of biodiversity conservation for public outreach. Here we present the data from our citizen science project, the first "Peninsular Malaysia Butterfly Count". Participants were asked to go outdoors on June 6, 2015, and (non-lethally) sample butterfly legs for species identification through DNA barcoding. Fifty-seven citizens responded to our adverts and registered to take part in the butterfly count with many registering on behalf of groups. Collectively the participants sampled 220 butterfly legs from 26 mostly urban and suburban sampling localities. These included our university campus, a highschool, several public parks and private residences. On the basis of 192 usable DNA barcodes, 43 species were sampled by the participants. The most sampled species was Appias olferna, followed by Junonia orithya and Zizina otis. Twenty-two species were only sampled once, five were only sampled twice, and four were only sampled three times. Three DNA barcodes could not be assigned species names. The sampled butterflies revealed that widely distributed, cosmopolitan species, often those recently arrived to the

  7. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  8. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; pkale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation between tipburn appearance of Chinese cabbage and calcium content and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-2001 investigations were carried out on the dependence between the tipburn appearance on Chinese cabbage and the content of calcium and its distribution in leaves. It was found that the highest concentration of calcium (to 4,4% occurred in outside leaves and the lowest was found in leaves inside the head (to 1,0 %. The marginal part in every outside leaf contained more calcium than midrib of leaf. This dependence weakly appeared in leaves wrapping the head and was absent inside the head, where often the calcium concentration was higher in the midrib part of leaf than in the margin part. Distinct differences in the calcium content in leaves of four culti vars of F1, Chinese cabbage: ´Bilko', ´Parkin', 'Kasumi' and 'Yamiko' were not found. These cultivars differed clearly in the susceptibility to the tipburn incidence which appearance depended also on the temperature stress.

  10. Butterfly Learning and the Diversification of Plant Leaf Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dalbosco Dell'aglio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues are important for insects to find flowers and host plants. It has been proposed that the diversity of leaf shape in Passiflora vines could be a result of negative frequency dependent selection driven by visual searching behavior among their butterfly herbivores. Here we tested the hypothesis that Heliconius butterflies use leaf shape as a cue to initiate approach towards a host plant. We first tested for the ability to recognize shapes using a food reward conditioning experiment. Butterflies showed an innate preference for flowers with three and five petals. However, they could be trained to increase the frequency of visits to a non-preferred flower with two petals, indicating an ability to learn to associate shape with a reward. Next we investigated shape learning specifically in the context of oviposition by conditioning females to lay eggs on two shoots associated with different artificial leaf shapes: their own host plant, Passiflora biflora, and a lanceolate non-biflora leaf shape. The conditioning treatment had a significant effect on the approach of butterflies to the two leaf shapes, consistent with a role for shape learning in oviposition behavior. This study is the first to show that Heliconius butterflies use shape as a cue for feeding and oviposition, and can learn shape preference for both flowers and leaves. This demonstrates the potential for Heliconius to drive negative frequency dependent selection on the leaf shape of their Passiflora host plants.

  11. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  12. Butterfly fauna in Mount Gariwang-san, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Min Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, Korea. A field survey was conducted from 2010 to 2015 using the line transect method. A literature survey was also conducted. A total of 2,037 butterflies belonging to 105 species were recorded. In the estimation of species richness of butterfly, 116 species were estimated to live in Mt. Gariwang-san. In butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, the percentage of northern species was very high and the percentage of grassland species was relatively higher than that of forest edge species and forest interior species. Sixteen red list species were found. In particular, Mimathyma nycteis was only recorded in Mt. Gariwang-san. When comparing the percentage of northern species and southern species including those recorded in previous studies, the percentage of northern species was found to have decreased significantly whereas that of southern species increased. We suggest that the butterfly community, which is distributed at relatively high altitudes on Mt. Gariwang-san, will gradually change in response to climate change.

  13. Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Manan

    2010-04-30

    This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm formation and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Populations of loosely and strongly attached Salmonella were obtained to calculate the attachment strength (S(R)). Biofilm formation, as determined by microtiter plate assay, varied with strain and growth medium used. Salmonella Tennessee and S. Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to S. Newport, S. Negev, and S. Braenderup. Biofilm formation was also stronger when Salmonella spp. were grown in diluted TSB (1:10). S. Tennessee, which produced strong biofilms, attached to produce surfaces at significantly higher numbers than the populations of S. Negev. Overall, S. Tennessee displayed more biofilm formation in vitro and attached more strongly to lettuce than other serovars. All Salmonella serovars attached rapidly on intact and cut produce surfaces. Salmonella spp. attached to Romaine lettuce at significantly higher numbers than those attached to Iceberg lettuce or cabbage. Salmonella attached preferentially to cut surface of all produce; however, the difference between Salmonella populations attached to intact and cut surfaces was similar (P>0.05). Salmonella attachment to both intact and cut produce surfaces increased with time. The overall attachment strength of Salmonella was significantly lower on cabbage (0.12) followed by Iceberg (0.23) and Romaine lettuce (0.34). Cabbage, intact or cut, did not support attachment of Salmonella as well as Romaine lettuce. Understanding the attachment mechanisms of Salmonella to produce may be useful in developing new intervention strategies to prevent produce outbreaks. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Host plant driven transcriptome plasticity in the salivary glands of the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Galbraith, David A; Grozinger, Christina M; Felton, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Generalist herbivores feed on a wide array of plants and need to adapt to varying host qualities and defenses. One of the first insect derived secretions to come in contact with the plant is the saliva. Insect saliva is potentially involved in both the pre-digestion of the host plant as well as induction/suppression of plant defenses, yet how the salivary glands respond to changes in host plant at the transcriptional level is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to determine how the labial salivary gland transcriptome varies according to the host plant on which the insect is feeding. In order to determine this, cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) larvae were reared on cabbage, tomato, and pinto bean artificial diet. Labial glands were dissected from fifth instar larvae and used to extract RNA for RNASeq analysis. Assembly of the resulting sequencing reads resulted in a transcriptome library for T. ni salivary glands consisting of 14,037 expressed genes. Feeding on different host plant diets resulted in substantial remodeling of the gland transcriptomes, with 4,501 transcripts significantly differentially expressed across the three treatment groups. Gene expression profiles were most similar between cabbage and artificial diet, which corresponded to the two diets on which larvae perform best. Expression of several transcripts involved in detoxification processes were differentially expressed, and transcripts involved in the spliceosome pathway were significantly downregulated in tomato-reared larvae. Overall, this study demonstrates that the transcriptomes of the salivary glands of the cabbage looper are strongly responsive to diet. It also provides a foundation for future functional studies that can help us understand the role of saliva of chewing insects in plant-herbivore interactions.

  15. Analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations in types of cabbage marketed in Hamedan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, due to the accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables irrigated with wastewater and treated with sewage sludge has become increasing concern in the field of food safety and health of consumers. Therefore this study was conducted for analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni concentrations of 3 types of cabbage marketed in Hamedan City during 2013. For this purpose after buying 30 samples of each species of cabbage and then acid digestion of the samples according to standard methods, elements (Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were determined using ICP-OES (Varian, 710-ES, Australia. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. The results showed that mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in Cabbage samples were 15.53±3.43, 59.33±5.35, 2.22±1.61 and 14.97±2.83 mg/kg, respectively; mean concentrations of these elements in red cabbage samples were 23.03±5.89, 37.53±4.21, 13.33±3.24 and 15.03±3.04 mg/kg, respectively; and mean concentrations of elements in broccoli samples were 8.00±3.63, 45.90±5.86, 8.20±3.39 and 16.93±3.08 mg/kg, respectively. Also comparison of the mean concentrations of evaluated metals in specimens with FAO/WHO permissible limits showed that significant difference (p

  16. Identification of Chinese cabbage genotypes with low cadmium accumulation for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Weitao [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: zhouqx@nankai.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu Rui [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2009-06-15

    The pot-culture experiment and field studies were conducted to screen out and identify cadmium (Cd) excluders from 40 Chinese cabbage genotypes for food safety. The results of the pot-culture experiment indicated that the shoot Cd concentrations under three treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg Cd kg{sup -1} Soil) varied significantly (p < 0.05), with average values of 0.70, 3.07 and 5.83 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. The Cd concentrations in 12 cabbage genotypes were lower than 0.50 mg kg{sup -1}. The enrichment factors (EFs) and translocation factors (TFs) in 8 cabbage genotypes were lower than 1.0. The field studies further identified Lvxing 70 as a Cd-excluder genotype (CEG), which is suitable to be planted in low Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration should be lower than 1.25 mg kg{sup -1}) for food safety. - Lvxing 70 was identified as a Cd-excluder genotype (CEG) and suitable to be cultivated in low Cd-contaminated soils for food safety.

  17. Parasitoid Quality of Gronotoma micromorpha Parasitizing Liriomyza huidobrensis on Chinese Cabbage and Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA DAHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with the aim to investigate the quality of Gronotoma micromorpha which attack the immature developmental stages of Liriomyza huidobrensis has been carried out. Such variables as body length measured from caput to the tip of abdomen, wing span and the length of tibia of hind leg were measured to represent parasitoid quality. The immature developmental stage period of the parasitoid was also recorded. The result indicated that a better quality Gronotoma was obtained when it was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on chinese cabbage with the average of 123.85 m for body length, 253.45 m for wing span, and 42.85 m for the length of hind tibia, respectively. When Gronotoma was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on soy bean, its size became smaller with the average of 97.7 um for body length, 214.3 um for wing span, and 37.2 um for the hind tibia. When it is developed in the Liriomyza on chinese cabbage host plant the immature developmental period of Gronotoma is sligthly shorter with the average of 18.4 and 17.3 days for which developed in the larvae and pupa respectively and on soy bean it become longer with the average of 19.2 days for in eggs, 19.9 days for that in the larvae. On chinese cabbage, Liriomyza tend to have bigger size for both flies and pupae.

  18. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Weitao [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: Zhouqx@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); An Jing; Sun Yuebing [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu Rui [Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  19. Phosphorus fertilization of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbages in phosphorus-rich Eutrustox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop fertilization with P is a practice that constantly needs to be improved because of its high cost, natural reserve constraints, and environmental impact caused by the excessive use of nutrients. Phosphorus rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the cultivation of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata in a P-rich Eutrustox soil (93 mg P dm-3 in Jaboticabal (21°15'22'' S, 48°15'58" W; 575 m a.s.l., São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Phosphorus rates influenced plant characteristics and soil P content. Maximum leaf and soil P content was obtained with 720 kg P2O5 ha-1, but maximum values of leaf area, leaf dry mass, cabbage head mass, and productivity were obtained with 420, 310, 430, and 437.5 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Results indicate that even crops grown in a P-rich soil benefit from applying P fertilizer, which has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of the 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage.

  20. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the...

  1. SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NORMAL HYDROCARBON, NONADECANE IN THE CABBAGE VEGETABLES SAMPLES (Brassica oleracea VAR. CAPITATA F. ALBA BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic normal hydrocarbon (NH, nonadecane in the methanolic extract of the whole of cabbage samples collected from different districts of Bangladesh was analyzed by GC-MS. It was observed that NH deposition on the samples takes place in different morphological parts of the biological materials. The NH, nonadecane, was found in the cabbage samples collected from the highway road side by the extraction of methanol. The identification and quantification of the title compounds have not been reported previously in the cabbage sample.   Keywords: Cabbage; brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba; quantification; normal hydrocarbon, nonadecane, GC-MS

  2. Host generated cues alter the foraging behavior of Cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae and its larval parasitoids, Cotesia glomerata and Hyposoter ebeninus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Debarma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of host-generated cues on foraging speed of herbivore as well as its natural enemies was studied under net house conditions in Meghalaya, India. Foraging speed of P. brassicae was significantly higher towards the healthy plants, whereas it was lowest towards the damaged plants along with herbivore cues. In contrast foraging speed of parasitoids H. ebeninus and C. glomerata was highest towards damaged plants along with herbivore cues and lowest towards healthy plants. It indicates that herbivore and its parasitoids respond to the volatiles generated by their host. In addition to host plants natural enemies also utilize herbivore-generated cues for their detection.

  3. Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srygley, R B; Thomas, A L R

    2002-12-12

    Flying insects generate forces that are too large to be accounted for by conventional steady-state aerodynamics. To investigate these mechanisms of force generation, we trained red admiral butterflies, Vanessa atalanta, to fly freely to and from artificial flowers in a wind tunnel, and used high-resolution, smoke-wire flow visualizations to obtain qualitative, high-speed digital images of the air flow around their wings. The images show that free-flying butterflies use a variety of unconventional aerodynamic mechanisms to generate force: wake capture, two different types of leading-edge vortex, active and inactive upstrokes, in addition to the use of rotational mechanisms and the Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism. Free-flying butterflies often used different aerodynamic mechanisms in successive strokes. There seems to be no one 'key' to insect flight, instead insects rely on a wide array of aerodynamic mechanisms to take off, manoeuvre, maintain steady flight, and for landing.

  4. Light trapping structures in wing scales of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Niu, Shichao; Shang, Chunhui; Liu, Zhenning; Ren, Luquan

    2012-04-28

    The fine optical structures in wing scales of Trogonoptera brookiana, a tropical butterfly exhibiting efficient light trapping effect, were carefully examined and the reflectivity was measured using reflectance spectrometry. The optimized 3D configuration of the coupling structure was determined using SEM and TEM data, and the light trapping mechanism of butterfly scales was studied. It is found that the front and back sides of butterfly wings possess different light trapping structures, but both can significantly increase the optical path and thus result in almost total absorption of all incident light. An optical model was created to check the properties of this light trapping structure. The simulated reflectance spectra are in concordance with the experimental ones. The results reliably confirm that these structures induce efficient light trapping effect. This functional "biomimetic structure" would have a potential value in wide engineering and optical applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  5. Numerical Analysis for Structural Safety Evaluation of Butterfly Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myung-Seob; Yoon, Joon-Yong; Park, Han-Yung

    2010-06-01

    Butterfly valves are widely used in current industry to control the fluid flow. They are used for both on-off and throttling applications involving large flows at relatively low operating pressure especially in large size pipelines. For the industrial application of butterfly valves, it must be ensured that the valve could be used safety under the fatigue life and the deformations produced by the pressure of the fluid. In this study, we carried out the structure analysis of the body and the valve disc of the butterfly valve and the numerical simulation was performed by using ANSYS v11.0. The reliability of valve is evaluated under the investigation of the deformation, the leak test and the durability of the valve.

  6. Evasive response to ultrasound by the crepuscular butterfly Manataria maculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Jens; Kaerma, Sirje; Hedelin, Henrik; Skals, Niels

    2003-02-01

    The crepuscular nymphalid butterfly Manataria maculata was studied in Monteverde cloud forest, Costa Rica, during the dry season reproductive diapause. M. maculata has ears in the form of Vogel's organs located near the base of the forewings. Its behaviour in response to bursts of ultrasonic pulses (26 kHz, 110 dB SPL at 1 m) was condition-dependent. At dusk and dawn the sound consistently elicited evasive responses, similar to those of moths, in flying individuals. In contrast day-roosting individuals always remained motionless although they were alert to other stimuli. The daily movements between day- and night-roosts coincided in time and light intensity with the activity of insectivorous bats. This is the first reported case of ultrasonic hearing connected to evasive flights in a true butterfly (Papilionoidea). It strongly supports the idea that echolocating bats were involved in the evolution of hearing in butterflies.

  7. A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David R; Als, Thomas Damm; Maile, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry...... of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations......, but not between the butterflies and a second, sympatric host, Myrmica ruginodis, which has panmictic populations. Alternative hosts may therefore provide an evolutionary refuge for a parasite during periods of counteradaptation by their preferred hosts. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Jan-4...

  8. A Monarch Butterfly Optimization for the Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP is a variant of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP in which customers appear dynamically. The objective is to determine a set of routes that minimizes the total travel distance. In this paper, we propose a monarch butterfly optimization (MBO algorithm to solve DVRPs, utilizing a greedy strategy. Both migration operation and the butterfly adjusting operator only accept the offspring of butterfly individuals that have better fitness than their parents. To improve performance, a later perturbation procedure is implemented, to maintain a balance between global diversification and local intensification. The computational results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the existing approaches in the literature for average performance by at least 9.38%. In addition, 12 new best solutions were found. This shows that this proposed technique consistently produces high-quality solutions and outperforms other published heuristics for the DVRP.

  9. A checklist of butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Naik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary study on the butterflies of Dakshina Kannada District, located in the southwestern part of the Karnataka along the Western Ghats in Karnataka State in India, a total of 172 species of butterflies belonging to 117 genera, from six families was prepared by visiting various landscapes during the period September 2012 to December 2015.  Of the various species recorded, Papilio clytia (Linnaeus, Papilio lio medon (Moore, Pachlio ptahector (Linnaeus, Castalius rosimon (Fabricius, Acytolepis puspa (Horsefield, Lethe europa (Fabricius, Neptis jumbah (Moore, Dophlae velina (Stoll, Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus and Doleschallia bisaltide (Cramer comes under the Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.  The present study provides the baseline data of butterfly species of Dakshina Kannada. 

  10. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  11. Both Palatable and Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors to Signal Difficulty of Capture to Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L; Campos, V C; DeVries, P J; Penz, C M

    2016-04-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies. The possibility that both palatable and unpalatable species signal difficulty of capture has not been fully explored, but helps explain the existence of aposematic coloration and escape mimicry in butterflies lacking defensive chemicals. This possibility may also change the role that putative Müllerian and Batesian mimics play in a variety of classical mimicry rings, thus opening new perspectives in the evolution of mimicry in butterflies.

  12. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and medium zeolite doses (≤ 10 g · kg⁻¹), while inhibited by high zeolite doses (20 g · kg⁻¹). Compared to ordinary zeolite, the biomass of Chinese cabbage was significantly increased

  13. Color generation in butterfly wings and fabrication of such structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Teh-Hwa; Gupta, Mool C; Robins, Bruce; Levendusky, Thomas L

    2003-12-01

    The wings of the morpho butterfly demonstrate an iridescent blue color over wide viewing angles. The mechanism that generates this blue color is studied. Optical and transmission electron microscopy of the butterfly wings reveal a complex wing structure with as many as 24 layers with periodic structures. The color generation is caused by interference of the multilayer structure as well as diffraction. It is possible to specially design grating structures so that a specific blue color can be generated and observed over wider angles. To demonstrate the grating concept, complex multigratings are designed and fabricated with electron-beam lithography. The light-diffraction properties of these gratings are presented.

  14. AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

  15. Genistein: a novel anthocyanin synthesis promoter that directly regulates biosynthetic genes in red cabbage in a light-dependent way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genistein (GNT, an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage.

  16. Negative density-distribution relationship in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotiaho Janne S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship between density and distribution within a given taxonomic assemblage; that is, locally abundant species are more widespread than locally sparse species. Several mechanisms have been proposed to create this positive relationship, and the testing of these mechanisms is attracting increasing attention. Results We report a strong, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between density and distribution in the butterfly fauna of Finland. With an exceptionally comprehensive data set (data includes all 95 resident species in Finland and over 1.5 million individuals, we have been able to submit several of the mechanisms to powerful direct empirical testing. Without exception, we failed to find evidence for the proposed mechanisms creating a positive density-distribution relationship. On the contrary, we found that many of the mechanisms are equally able to generate a negative relationship. Conclusion We suggest that one important determinant of density-distribution relationships is the geographical location of the study: on the edge of a distribution range, suitable habitat patches are likely to be more isolated than in the core of the range. In such a situation, only the largest and best quality patches are likely to be occupied, and these by definition can support a relatively dense population leading to a negative density-distribution relationship. Finally, we conclude that generalizations about the positive density-distribution relationship should be made more cautiously.

  17. Ectopic expression of a phytochrome B gene from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) in Arabidopsis thaliana promotes seedling de-etiolation, dwarfing in mature plants, and delayed flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Pei; Shang, Hong-Zhong; Gu, Hai-Ke; Li, Jing-Juan; Xiao, Yang; Guo, Lin; Su, Liang; Gao, Jian-Wei; Yang, Jian-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Phytochrome B (phyB) is an essential red light receptor that predominantly mediates seedling de-etiolation, shade-avoidance response, and flowering time. In this study, we isolate a full-length cDNA of PHYB, designated BrPHYB, from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), and we find that BrphyB protein has high amino acid sequence similarity and the closest evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana phyB (i.e., AtphyB). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results indicate that the BrPHYB gene is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues under all light conditions. Constitutive expression of the BrPHYB gene in A. thaliana significantly enhances seedling de-etiolation under red- and white-light conditions, and causes dwarf stature in mature plants. Unexpectedly, overexpression of BrPHYB in transgenic A. thaliana resulted in reduced expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes and delayed flowering under short-day conditions, whereas AtPHYB overexpression caused enhanced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and earlier flowering. Our results suggest that BrphyB might play an important role in regulating the development of Chinese cabbage. BrphyB and AtphyB have conserved functions during de-etiolation and vegetative plant growth and divergent functions in the regulation of flowering time.

  18. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanne Carla Novais Pereira

    Full Text Available We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  19. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  20. Diversity of fruit-feeding butterflies in a mountaintop archipelago of rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Geanne Carla Novais; Coelho, Marcel Serra; Beirão, Marina do Vale; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2017-01-01

    We provide the first description of the effects of local vegetation and landscape structure on the fruit-feeding butterfly community of a natural archipelago of montane rainforest islands in the Serra do Espinhaço, southeastern Brazil. Butterflies were collected with bait traps in eleven forest islands through both dry and rainy seasons for two consecutive years. The influence of local and landscape parameters and seasonality on butterfly species richness, abundance and composition were analyzed. We also examined the partitioning and decomposition of temporal and spatial beta diversity. Five hundred and twelve fruit-feeding butterflies belonging to thirty-four species were recorded. Butterfly species richness and abundance were higher on islands with greater canopy openness in the dry season. On the other hand, islands with greater understory coverage hosted higher species richness in the rainy season. Instead, the butterfly species richness was higher with lower understory coverage in the dry season. Butterfly abundance was not influenced by understory cover. The landscape metrics of area and isolation had no effect on species richness and abundance. The composition of butterfly communities in the forest islands was not randomly structured. The butterfly communities were dependent on local and landscape effects, and the mechanism of turnover was the main source of variation in β diversity. The preservation of this mountain rainforest island complex is vital for the maintenance of fruit-feeding butterfly community; one island does not reflect the diversity found in the whole archipelago.

  1. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  2. Editorial: Butterfly anti-aphrodisiac lures parasitic wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Huigens, M.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Hilker, M.

    2005-01-01

    To locate their hosts, parasitic wasps can 'eavesdrop' on the intraspecific chemical communications of their insect hosts1, 2, 3. Here we describe an example in which the information exploited by the parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae is a butterfly anti-aphrodisiac that is passed from male to

  3. Colors and pterin pigmentation of pierid butterfly wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, B.; Leertouwer, H. L.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The reflectance of pierid butterfly wings is principally determined by the incoherent scattering of incident light and the absorption by pterin pigments in the scale structures. Coherent scattering causing iridescence is frequently encountered in the dorsal wings or wing tips of male pierids. We

  4. Effects of altitude on the climbing performance of Monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Kwon; Sridhar, Madhu; Landrum, David; Aono, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Millions of Monarchs annually travel up to 4,000km, the longest migration distance among insects. They fly and overwinter at high altitudes. However, the aerodynamic mechanism enabling the long-range flight of Monarch butterflies is unknown. To study the effects of altitude on the aerodynamic performance of Monarch butterflies, a unique combination of a motion tracking system and a variable pressure chamber that allows controlling the density is used. The condition inside the chamber is systematically varied to simulate high altitude conditions up to 3,000 m. An optical tracking technique is used to characterize the climbing trajectories of freely flying Monarch butterflies. Customized reflective markers are designed to minimize the effects of marker addition. Flapping amplitude and frequency as well as climbing trajectories are measured. Lift acting on the butterfly is also determined by considering the force balance. Results show that the average flight speed and the Reynolds number, in general, decreased with the altitude, whereas, interestingly, the lift coefficient increased with the altitude. More detailed measurements and analyses will be performed in the future to explain the lift enhancement by flying at higher altitudes. This work is partly supported by NSF Grant CBET-1335572 and in part by CK's startup fund provided by UAH.

  5. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  6. seasonal dynamics of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BioMAP

    larval hostplant, the near-endemic Sinai Thyme (Labiatae: Thymus decussatus Benth.) is patchily distributed among the mountains. Pseudophilotes sinaicus is one of only two endemic animals in the Protectorate (both butterflies), its endemicity making it a world conservation issue. It is therefore a flagship species for the ...

  7. Immigration and emigration in the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... patch was composed of immigrants, most of which were females. Individuals assumed to be immigrants arrived in the patch throughout the adult flight period, but older individuals generally arrived later in the season. Timing of migration was almost certainly linked to phenology of the butterfly's only hostplant, Sinai Thyme.

  8. Investigation of dentin hardness in roots exhibiting the butterfly effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Assil A; Chris He, Li Hong; Chandler, Nicholas P

    2014-06-01

    Most vertical root fractures occur in root canal treated teeth, and they usually run in a buccolingual direction. The butterfly effect is an optical phenomenon seen in some sections of tooth roots. The aim was to investigate the microhardness of dentin in mesiodistal and buccolingual cross sections of roots exhibiting the effect. Thirty extracted single-rooted teeth were allocated according to patient age: group 1, 15-24 years; group 2, 25-44 years; and group 3, 45 years and older. Roots were embedded in acrylic and cut into ten 1-mm-thick cross sections. Sections were viewed under a light microscope and coded (1 or 2) according to presence or absence of the butterfly effect. A root scored 20 when all levels featured the butterfly appearance. The 2 teeth with the highest score from each group and 2 control teeth with the minimum score (10) were selected. Two adjacent, consecutive cross sections were chosen from the middle of the roots. Vickers microhardness testing was carried out on the dentin walls. Mean hardness scores were highest mesiodistally (83.7 kgf/mm(2)) and lowest buccolingually (56.4 kgf/mm(2)), a significant difference (P = .028). This trend was found across all age groups. Root sections with the butterfly effect are harder mesiodistally. This might explain the high prevalence of vertical root fractures that run buccolingually. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, G.; Catana, I.; Magheti, I.; Safta, C. A.; Savu, M.

    2010-08-01

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  10. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, G; Safta, C A [Department of Hydraulic and Hydraulic Machineries, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest, 060042 (Romania); Catana, I [Department of Control and Computer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania); Magheti, I; Savu, M, E-mail: baran_gheorghe@yahoo.co.u [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Politehnica of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  11. Noise Caused by Cavitating Butterfly and Monovar Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASSIS, H.

    1999-08-01

    An experimental study of the effects of cavitation was carried out through an analysis of cavitating Butterfly and Monovar values. Focus is particularly placed on both unsteady pressure and acoustic pressure fluctuations. In this paper, the effects of cavitation on local fluctuation pressure (turbulence), acoustic propagation (damping and sound velocity), resonance frequencies and level of noise are presented.

  12. Evolutionary genetics of dorsal wing colour in Colias butterflies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Boggs, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of butterfly wing colouration is strongly affected by its multiple functions and by the correlated evolution of wing colour elements. Both factors may prevent local adaptation to ecological conditions. We investigated one aspect of wing colouration, the degree of dorsal wing

  13. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous–Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. PMID:21920981

  14. Wolbachia endosymbiont infection in two Indian butterflies and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The presence of the Wolbachia super group 'B' in the butterflies Red Pierrot, Talicada nyseus (Guerin) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and Blue Mormon, Papilio polymnestor Cramer (Papilionidae), is documented for the first time in India. The study also gives an account on the lifetime fecundity and female-biased sex ratio in T.

  15. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  17. A role of abdomen in butterfly's flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jeeva; Senda, Kei; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2017-11-01

    Butterfly's forward flight with periodic flapping motion is longitudinally unstable, and control of the thoracic pitching angle is essential to stabilize the flight. This study aims to comprehend roles which the abdominal motion play in the pitching stability of butterfly's flapping flight by using a two-dimensional model. The control of the thoracic pitching angle by the abdominal motion is an underactuated problem because of the limit on the abdominal angle. The control input of the thorax-abdomen joint torque is obtained by the hierarchical sliding mode control in this study. Numerical simulations reveal that the control by the abdominal motion provides short-term pitching stabilization in the butterfly's flight. Moreover, the control input due to a large thorax-abdomen joint torque can counteract a quite large perturbation, and can return the pitching attitude to the periodic trajectory with a short recovery time. These observations are consistent with biologists' view that living butterflies use their abdomens as rudders. On the other hand, the abdominal control mostly fails in long-term pitching stabilization, because it cannot directly alter the aerodynamic forces. The control for the long-term pitching stabilization will also be discussed.

  18. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke Reisner

    2015-01-01

    size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500...

  19. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Maria; Kaila, Lauri; Mutanen, Marko; Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-03-22

    Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae.

  20. Butterfly hematoma after traumatic intercourse | Hajji | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterfly hematoma after traumatic intercourse. F Hajji, A Ameur. Abstract. No Abstract. http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.20.317.6660 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  1. The Nation and the Subaltern in Yvonne Vera's Butterfly Burning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yvonne Vera's death in 2005 brought to a tragic close the career of one of Zimbabwe's, indeed Africa's, more engaging contemporary writers. But her powerful novel, Butterfly Burning continues to mirror an aspect of Vera's enduring concern: the place of African women in the context of power both within the colonial and the ...

  2. The Study of Butterflies-Flight, Fuels and Senses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. The Study of Butterflies - Flight, Fuels and Senses. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 4-12. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/08/0004-0012 ...

  3. Diversity and abundance of butterfly species (Lepidoptera) fauna in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterflies belong to one of the most important taxa of insects. Understanding their significance in an ecosystem as an environmental health indicator and pollination of flowering plants is crucial to achieving sustainability and conservation of floral diversity. Owing to habitat destruction due to some anthropogenic activities, ...

  4. Preliminary assessment of fruit-feeding butterfly communities in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness, diversity and composition of fruit-feeding Nymphalid butterflies in the three different flora communities (Celtis-Triplochiton forest, Cassia siamea plantation and Riverine forest) in Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary (OWS) were studied and subsequently compared. OWS has three distinct flora communities.

  5. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories of a child soldier | Dahms | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 40, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Butterflies of Uganda: Memories ...

  6. Becoming Butterflies: Making Metamorphosis Meaningful for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Baggett, Paige V.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although butterflies are a common topic of study in many early childhood classrooms, integrating art production broadens the scope of the study and allows children to deepen their knowledge and understanding through creative self-expression. This article presents a set of integrated activities that focus on helping children fully grasp the process…

  7. Design and Analysis of Butterfly Valve Disc Using Aluminium (1100 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study butterfly valve which is commonly used for water line application was designed by using Pro-E software and analyzed its deflection using Ansys software. For the analysis, two materials such as aluminium (1100) and aluminium carbon nanotube 4% was used and compared these two materials ...

  8. Contrasting supercooling ability in lowland and mountain European Colias butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, P.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Konvička, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 63-69 ISSN 0749-8004 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterfly ecology * diapause * frost survival Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2014

  9. Butterfly effects in reading? The relationship between decoding and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the metaphor of butterfly effects, this paper considers how literacy inequalities in comprehension performance amongst Grade 6 learners in high poverty schools can be linked to skills that should have been developed in earlier stages of reading development. The reading comprehension skills of Grade 6 learners in ...

  10. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  11. Real-time in vivo imaging of butterfly wing development: revealing the cellular dynamics of the pupal wing tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Iwata

    Full Text Available Butterfly wings are covered with regularly arranged single-colored scales that are formed at the pupal stage. Understanding pupal wing development is therefore crucial to understand wing color pattern formation. Here, we successfully employed real-time in vivo imaging techniques to observe pupal hindwing development over time in the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya. A transparent sheet of epithelial cells that were not yet regularly arranged was observed immediately after pupation. Bright-field imaging and autofluorescent imaging revealed free-moving hemocytes and tracheal branches of a crinoid-like structure underneath the epithelium. The wing tissue gradually became gray-white, epithelial cells were arranged regularly, and hemocytes disappeared, except in the bordering lacuna, after which scales grew. The dynamics of the epithelial cells and scale growth were also confirmed by fluorescent imaging. Fluorescent in vivo staining further revealed that these cells harbored many mitochondria at the surface of the epithelium. Organizing centers for the border symmetry system were apparent immediately after pupation, exhibiting a relatively dark optical character following treatment with fluorescent dyes, as well as in autofluorescent images. The wing tissue exhibited slow and low-frequency contraction pulses with a cycle of approximately 10 to 20 minutes, mainly occurring at 2 to 3 days postpupation. The pulses gradually became slower and weaker and eventually stopped. The wing tissue area became larger after contraction, which also coincided with an increase in the autofluorescence intensity that might have been caused by scale growth. Examination of the pattern of color development revealed that the black pigment was first deposited in patches in the central areas of an eyespot black ring and a parafocal element. These results of live in vivo imaging that covered wide wing area for a long time can serve as a foundation for studying the

  12. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  13. Effect of Boiling on the Content of Ascorbigen, Indole-3-carbinol, Indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3 '-Diindolylmethane in Fermented Cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciska, E.; Verkerk, R.; Honke, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the boiling process on the content of ascorbigen, indole-3-carbinol, indole-3-acetonitrile, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane in fermented cabbage. The cabbage was boiled for 5 to 60 min. Boiling resulted in a decrease of the total content of the

  14. Mapping QTLs for mineral accumulation and shoot dry biomass under different Zn nutritional conditions in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, J.; Yuan, Y.X.; Zhang, X.W.; Zhao, J.; Song, X.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Sun, R.; Koornneef, M.; Aarts, M.G.M.; Wang, X.W.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in China. Genetic dissection of leaf mineral accumulation and tolerance to Zn stress is important for the improvement of the nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage by breeding. A mapping population

  15. Microspore induced doubled haploids production from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) soaked flower buds is an efficient strategy for mutagenesis in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yin; Dai, Shuangyan; Gu, Aixia; Liu, Mengyang; Wang, Yanhua; Luo, Shuangxia; Zhao, Yujing; Wang, Shan; Xuan, Shuxin; Chen, Xueping; Li, Xiaofeng; Bonnema, Guusje; Zhao, Jianjun; Shen, Shuxing

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cabbage buds were soaked with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) to induce mutagenesis. The influence of different EMS concentrations and treatment durations on microspore development, embryo production rate and seedling rate were evaluated in five Chinese cabbage genotypes. Mutations in four

  16. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2, respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1, seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2, two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  17. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  18. Using citizen science butterfly counts to predict species population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily B; Morgan, Byron J T; Brereton, Tom M; Roy, David B; Fox, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Citizen scientists are increasingly engaged in gathering biodiversity information, but trade-offs are often required between public engagement goals and reliable data collection. We compared population estimates for 18 widespread butterfly species derived from the first 4 years (2011-2014) of a short-duration citizen science project (Big Butterfly Count [BBC]) with those from long-running, standardized monitoring data collected by experienced observers (U.K. Butterfly Monitoring Scheme [UKBMS]). BBC data are gathered during an annual 3-week period, whereas UKBMS sampling takes place over 6 months each year. An initial comparison with UKBMS data restricted to the 3-week BBC period revealed that species population changes were significantly correlated between the 2 sources. The short-duration sampling season rendered BBC counts susceptible to bias caused by interannual phenological variation in the timing of species' flight periods. The BBC counts were positively related to butterfly phenology and sampling effort. Annual estimates of species abundance and population trends predicted from models including BBC data and weather covariates as a proxy for phenology correlated significantly with those derived from UKBMS data. Overall, citizen science data obtained using a simple sampling protocol produced comparable estimates of butterfly species abundance to data collected through standardized monitoring methods. Although caution is urged in extrapolating from this U.K. study of a small number of common, conspicuous insects, we found that mass-participation citizen science can simultaneously contribute to public engagement and biodiversity monitoring. Mass-participation citizen science is not an adequate replacement for standardized biodiversity monitoring but may extend and complement it (e.g., through sampling different land-use types), as well as serving to reconnect an increasingly urban human population with nature. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  19. Pure and Poetic: Butterfly in the Quantum World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indubala

    Story of the Hofstadter butterfly is a magical occurrence in a quantum flatland of two-dimensional crystals in a magnetic field. In this drama, the magnetic flux plays the role of Planck constant, linking the variables x and p in the butterfly Hamiltonian H = cosx + cosp as [ x , p ] = iℏ . It is a story of reunion of Descartes and Pythagoras and tale of this quantum fractal is related to Integral Apollonian gaskets. Integers rule the butterfly landscape as quantum numbers of Hall conductivity while irrational numbers emerge as the asymptotic magnification of these topological integers in the kaleidoscopic images of the butterfly. Simple variations of the above Hamiltonian generates a wide spectrum of physical phenomenon. For example, the Hamiltonian H = cosx + λcosp with the parameter λ ≠ 1 in its zero energy solution hides the critical point of a topological transition in a superconducting chain and thus barely misses the Majorana fermions. Another example is the Hamiltonian obtained by including terms like cos (x +/- p) which for flux half exhibits Dirac semi-metallic states in addition to all integer quantum Hall states corresponding to all possible solutions of the Diophantine equation for this value of the magnetic flux. In this analytically tractable model where the parameter λ varies periodically with time, the topological states are described by edge modes whose dispersion is given by a pure cosine function. Finally, nature has composed beautiful variations of the Hofstadter butterfly not only in systems such as Penrose and Kagame lattices and also in the relativistic colorful world of quarks and antiquarks.

  20. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the rare butterflies species have disappeared, probably due the loss of habitat to developmental activities, use of pesticides in farming, urbanization and other anthropogenic activities.

  1. Microbiota contaminante em repolho minimamente processado Microbial population in minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Fantuzzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota contaminante de repolho minimamente processado foi avaliada durante as etapas de sanitização e estocagem sob atmosfera modificada passiva em embalagens com diferentes taxas de permeabilidade a O2 e CO2 e a 1ºC, 5ºC e 12ºC. A sanitização do repolho por 10min., à temperatura ambiente, em soluções sanitizantes de hipoclorito de sódio a 200mgL-1, de composto orgânico clorado a 200mgL-1 ou ácido acético a 1% reduziu em, no máximo, 1,8log10 UFCg-1 a população de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos. A concentração de CO2 no interior das embalagens variou significativamente (PThe microbial populations associated with minimally processed cabbage after sanitation and storage at 1ºC, 5ºC and 12ºC under modified atmosphere was analyzed. Sanitation of cabbage for ten minutes at room temperature in 200mgL-1 sodium hypochlorite and chlorinated organic compound or 1% acetic acid resulted in the reduction of up to 1.8log10CFUg-1 in the aerobic mesophilic bacteria population (P0.05 differences in concentrations of CO2 were found in the interior of the packages during fifteen days of storage. No variation was found in the mesophilic aerobic or anaerobic counts, and psycrotrophic microorganisms during storage at 1ºC and 5ºC for the three packaging materials used. The minimally processed cabbage was in good sensorial conditions for up to 20 days of storage at 1ºC and 5ºC in the packaging materials of high O2 permeability. The samples packed in transparent plastic trays sealed with thermal-shrinking PVC presented undesirable sensorial characteristics on the twentieth day of storage at 5ºC. After five days of storage at 12ºC the fresh-cut cabbage presented evident signs of deterioration, as dark spots, slime and off odor. There was a 3log10 CFUg-1 increase in the aerobic and anaerobic mesophiles and psycrotrophic populations in these samples.

  2. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoming; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2013-08-23

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is a member of one of the most important leaf vegetables grown worldwide, which has experienced thousands of years in cultivation and artificial selection. The entire Chinese cabbage genome sequence, and more than forty thousand proteins have been obtained to date. The genome has undergone triplication events since its divergence from Arabidopsis thaliana (13 to 17 Mya), however a high degree of sequence similarity and conserved genome structure remain between the two species. Arabidopsis is therefore a viable reference species for comparative genomics studies. Variation in the number of members in gene families due to genome triplication may contribute to the broad range of phenotypic plasticity, and increased tolerance to environmental extremes observed in Brassica species. Transcription factors are important regulators involved in plant developmental and physiological processes. The AP2/ERF proteins, one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators, play a crucial role in plant growth, and in response to biotic and abiotic stressors. Our analysis will provide resources for understanding the tolerance mechanisms in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. In the present study, 291 putative AP2/ERF transcription factor proteins were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database, and compared with proteins from 15 additional species. The Chinese cabbage AP2/ERF superfamily was classified into four families, including AP2, ERF, RAV, and Soloist. The ERF family was further divided into DREB and ERF subfamilies. The AP2/ERF superfamily was subsequently divided into 15 groups. The identification, classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, conserved motifs, chromosome distribution, functional annotation, expression patterns, and interaction networks of the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily were predicted and analyzed. Distribution mapping results showed AP2/ERF superfamily genes were localized on the

  4. HPLC/UV analysis of chlorfenapyr residues in cabbage and soil to study the dynamics of different formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongsong; Chen, Jiuxin; Wang, Yuelong; Liang, Ji; Chen, Lihua; Lu, Yitong

    2005-11-01

    The chlorfenapyr analysis method of residue, its degradation and final residue in soil and cabbage were studied. Residues of chlorfenapyr were extracted from soil and cabbage with acetone/water, purified by liquid/liquid partition and chromatographic column, concentrated to a small volume, and then determined by HPLC equipped with UV detector. The mean accuracy of analytical method were 93.3% and 90.6% in soil and cabbage, respectively; the precision (repeatability) in cabbage ranging from 1.7% to 11.8%, in soil ranging from 2.8% to 11.2%; the precision (reproducibility) in cabbage ranged from 2.2% to 12.1%, in soil it ranged from 2.4% to 11.5%. The minimum detectable amount of chlorfenapyr was 0.65 ng, the minimum detectable concentration was 0.0162 mg kg-1. The degradation of chlorfenapyr formulations in soil and cabbage was determined. The results showed that chlorfenapyr nanoformulation and suspension concentration degradation in soil coincided with C=0.2538 e-0.1612t, C=0.537 e-0.1754t, respectively; the half-lives were about 4.3 d and 3.9 d, respectively. Two kinds of chlorfenapyr formulation degradation in cabbage coincided with C=4.0431 e-0.3103t, C=6.9611 e-0.2686t respectively; the half-lives were about 2.2 d and 2.6, d, respectively. When chlorfenapyr formulations were applied according to the double recommended dose, the final residues in cabbage were much lower than the USA EPA's maximum residue limit of 1 mg kg-1 in vegetables. The degradation rate of chlorfenapyr nanoformulation was faster than that of suspension concentration, and the former residue was also less in soil. Therefore, a harvest interval should be more than 5 d, and a dosage of 900 mL/hm2 was suggested for chlorfenapyr suspension concentration, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. Chlorfenapyr nanoformulation was safer than suspension concentration, its harvest interval and dosage can attain a high level.

  5. Effect of gamma ray and {sup 12}C ion beam on the germination, growth and pollen fertility of Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J. K.; Kang, K. H.; An, C. H.; Lee, K. S. [New Seoul Seeds and Saplings Technology Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, I. S.; Lee, Y. Y. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The effect of the irradiation of C-12 was not observed on seed germination and plant growth of Chinese cabbage. The germination rate and plant growth of Chinese cabbage was decreased by the ion beam irradiation, but a high difference was not observed. The pollen fertility was also decreased in the irradiation of C-12. The germination, plant growth and pollen fertility were highly affected by gamma irradiation. The optimum doses of gamma ray seemed to be 500-750Gy. The doses of C-12 and proton irradiation seemed to reconsidered.

  6. Impact of botanical pesticides derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica plants on the emission of volatiles that attract Parasitoids of the diamondback moth to cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, Deidre S; Gols, Rieta; Hordijk, Kees A; Kfir, Rami; Vet, Louise E M; Dicke, Marcel

    2006-02-01

    Herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods use chemical information from plants during foraging. Aqueous leaf extracts from the syringa tree Melia azedarach and commercial formulations from the neem tree Azadirachta indica, Neemix 4.5, were investigated for their impact on the flight response of two parasitoids, Cotesia plutellae and Diadromus collaris. Cotesia plutellae was attracted only to Plutella xylostella-infested cabbage plants in a wind tunnel after an oviposition experience. Female C. plutellae did not distinguish between P. xylostella-infested cabbage plants treated with neem and control P. xylostella-infested plants. However, females preferred infested cabbage plants that had been treated with syringa extract to control infested plants. Syringa extract on filter paper did not attract C. plutellae. This suggests that an interaction between the plant and the syringa extract enhances parasitoid attraction. Diadromus collaris was not attracted to cabbage plants in a wind tunnel and did not distinguish between caterpillar-damaged and undamaged cabbage plants. Headspace analysis revealed 49 compounds in both control cabbage plants and cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract. Among these are alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, terpenoids, sulfides, and an isothiocyanate. Cabbage plants that had been treated with the syringa extract emitted larger quantities of volatiles, and these increased quantities were not derived from the syringa extract. Therefore, the syringa extract seemed to induce the emission of cabbage volatiles. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a plant extract inducing the emission of plant volatiles in another plant. This interesting phenomenon likely explains the preference of C. plutellae parasitoids for cabbage plants that have been treated with syringa extracts.

  7. Single master regulatory gene coordinates the evolution and development of butterfly color and iridescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Mazo-Vargas, Anyi; Reed, Robert D

    2017-10-03

    The optix gene has been implicated in butterfly wing pattern adaptation by genetic association, mapping, and expression studies. The actual developmental function of this gene has remained unclear, however. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to show that optix plays a fundamental role in nymphalid butterfly wing pattern development, where it is required for determination of all chromatic coloration. optix knockouts in four species show complete replacement of color pigments with melanins, with corresponding changes in pigment-related gene expression, resulting in black and gray butterflies. We also show that optix simultaneously acts as a switch gene for blue structural iridescence in some butterflies, demonstrating simple regulatory coordination of structural and pigmentary coloration. Remarkably, these optix knockouts phenocopy the recurring "black and blue" wing pattern archetype that has arisen on many independent occasions in butterflies. Here we demonstrate a simple genetic basis for structural coloration, and show that optix plays a deeply conserved role in butterfly wing pattern development.

  8. Tolerance of Brassica nigra to Pieris brassicae herbivory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatt, S.E.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hess, L.; Harvey, J.A.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Black mustard, Brassica nigra (L.) Koch, is a wild annual species found throughout Europe and fed on by larvae of the large cabbage-white butterfly, Pieris brassicae L. We examined the impact of herbivory from P. brassicae, a gregarious herbivore, on B. nigra grown from wild seed collected locally.

  9. Plant competition in pest-suppressive intercropping systems complicates evaluation of herbivore responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukovinszky, T.; Tréfás, H.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.; Fremont, J.

    2004-01-01

    In the light of current theories on the effects of intercropping on pest reduction, population responses of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and the life history traits of the large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) were studied in a Brussels

  10. Insect egg deposition induces indirect defense and epicuticular wax changes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blenn, B.; Bandoly, M.; Küffner, A.; Otte, T.; Geiselhardt, S.; Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.

    2012-01-01

    Egg deposition by the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae on Brussels sprouts plants induces indirect defense by changing the leaf surface, which arrests the egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae. Previous studies revealed that this indirect defense response is elicited by benzyl cyanide

  11. A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, I Cheol [Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Jae [Daegu University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

  12. K+ excretion: the other purpose for puddling behavior in Japanese Papilio butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi A; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+.

  13. An assessment of riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S. Mark; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The butterfly community at a revegetated riparian site on the lower Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, was compared to that found in a reference riparian site. Data indicated that the herbaceous plant community, which was lacking at the revegetated site, was important to several butterfly taxa. An index using butterfly sensitivity to habitat change (species classified into risk groups) and number of taxa was developed to monitor revegetation projects and to determine restoration effectiveness.

  14. Diversity of Butterflies (Lepidoptera) in Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneri, Roni; Maabuat, Pience V

    The degradation of a habitat will affect the population of butterflies living in it. This study aims to analyse the diversity of butterflies in the area of Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi. Employing purposive sampling, the study was conducted for five months. The collection of butterflies was done by using the sweeping technique, following the transect line applied randomly along 1000 m to three types of habitat (the primary forest, riverside in the forest and agricultural land). The species diversity was determined by using diversity index (Shannon-Wiener). The study identified 4 families, 44 species and 748 individual butterflies. Nymphalidae was a family predominantly found (71.12%), while the species mostly found was Ideopsis juventa tontoliensis (10.16%). Abundance (76.50), richness (20.25), diversity (2.66) and species evenness (0.88) were mostly found in riverside habitats in the forest, while the lowest was found in the primary forest. The similarities of butterfly communities in the different types of habitats indicate that the highest similarity index of butterfly communities is in the habitats of the primary forest and riverside in the forest wi a value of 80%. The highest diversity of butterflies in all types of habitats found in riverside. The high diversity of butterflies in the river is strongly influenced by the presence of vegetation as food and host plants of butterflies and this habitat should be conserved for the survival of the butterfly in a wildlife reserve Manembo-Nembo, North Sulawesi. It is expected that the results of this study could become important data of the diversity of butterflies and effects of changes of habitats on the diversity of butterflies in Manembo-Nembo Wildlife Reserve, North Sulawesi.

  15. Both Palatable And Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors To Signal Difficulty Of Capture To Predators

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, De, Cristiane Garboggini Melo; CEG; Freitas; AVL; Campos; VC; DeVries; PJ; Penz; CM

    2016-01-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of ...

  16. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  17. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF BUTTERFLIES (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera IN CAMPUS AREA INDRALAYA SRIWIJAYA UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrina Lamin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on Diversity and distribution of butterflies, was held at the Campus Indralaya Sriwijaya University of South Sumatra. The purpose of this study was to obtain information species diversity of butterflies at the Sriwijaya University of Inderalaya and distribution of species of butterflies in several different habitat types in the campus area Unsri Indralaya. The study used purposive and collection methods in November 2014-january 2015. Sampling sites were divided into five locations: Arboretum, Science Faculty, Faculty of Law, Faculty of Agriculture and Swamp Cape Disconnect. The parameters used are the index of species diversity, dominance index, and evenness index. The results showed that the diversity of butterflies in the region is classified as moderate. Overall found as many as 40 species of butterflies with a number of 609 individuals consisting of 5 the Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, and Hesperiidae. Regions Sriwijaya University has a diversity of butterflies that were moderate with criteria (H'1≤H'≤3, in each different habitat types, and not found butterfly species that dominate in every type of habitat in this Unsri region. Distribution of butterflies found in the campus area Unsri Indralaya categorized fairly evenly with a range of values from 0.58 to 0.68. Keywords: Butterflies,  Diversity,  Distribution , Sriwijaya University of Indralaya

  18. [Butterfly species diversity and its conservation in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Zhou, Hong-Chun; Tan, Ji-Cai; Wang, Peng; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2011-06-01

    By using line-transect method, an investigation was conducted on the species diversity of butterfly in Wuyunjie National Nature Reserve, Changde City of Hunan Province from June 2008 to September 2010. Aiming at the main factors including plant species richness (D) , mean elevation (E) , average distance from stream/river (F), and human interference level (K) that affecting the species richness of butterfly in 31 segment-level transects in 4 line-transects, multiple regression analysis was made, and the diversity and similarity of the butterfly communities in the experimental zone, buffer zone, and core zone of the Reserve were compared. A total of 147 butterfly species were collected, belonging to 94 genera and 10 families, among which, 4 species was nationally conserved species. Multiple regression analysis showed that D, E, and K were the three most major factors affecting the distribution of butterfly. The species richness of butterfly had significant positive correlation with D (P correlations with E and K (P species diversity and evenness index of butterfly were higher in core zone than in experimental zone and buffer zone, dominance index was the highest in experimental zone, and a higher similarity index (0.526) was observed between buffer zone and core zone. To conserve the species diversity of butterfly in the Reserve, efforts should be made to protect the plant species richness, keep the natural forest succession, decrease the human interference properly, and tighten up the management of butterfly habitat.

  19. Butterfly Species Diversity in Protected and Unprotected Habitat of Ise Forest Reserve, Ise Ekiti, Ekiti State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Olufemi Orimaye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated butterfly diversity in the protected area (PA and unprotected area (UPA of Ise Forest reserve, Ise Ekiti, Ekiti State, using sweep net along existing trails. Butterfly species seen in the study sites were captured and released after proper identification was made. The results indicated that a total of 837 butterflies were identified in the study sites with 661 species observed in PA and 176 species in UPA. Butterfly species diversity was significantly different (p≤0.05 between PA and UPA. Shannon diversity index was higher in PA (3.59 than UPA (3.27 as against Menhinick’s index, higher in UPA (2.11 than in PA (1.52. Likewise, 10 families of butterflies were recorded in PA and 8 families in UPA. The family with highest species occurrence was Satyridae (17.9% in PA and Lycaenidae in UPA with 20.1%. Butterfly families’ diversity was not significant (p≥0.05 between the two study sites. Ise Forest Reserve recorded approximately 6.6% of all butterflies recorded in West Africa. The findings indicated that mature secondary and regenerated forests supported high butterfly diversity and species richness, while cultivated land and grassland had a negative impact on butterfly community suggesting the negative effect of agricultural activities on the ecosystem.

  20. Energy and lipid metabolism during direct and diapause development in a pierid butterfly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Posledovich, Diana; Carlsson, Mikael; Käkelä, Reijo; Tang, Patrik; Nylin, Sören; Wheat, Christopher W; Wiklund, Christer; Gotthard, Karl

    2016-01-01

    .... Diapause intensity, metabolic rate trajectories and lipid profiles of directly developing and diapausing animals were studied using pupae and adults of Pieris napi butterflies from a population...

  1. Lantana Camara and Butterfly Abundance in an Urban Landscape: Benefits for Conservation or Species Invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Swarnali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes host a range of diverse plants that, in turn, facilitate maintenance of different species of pollinators, including butterflies. In this context, the importance of Lantana camara, an invasive plant species, was assessed highlighting its role in maintenance of butterfly diversity, using Kolkata, India as a study area. Initial study revealed consistent presence of L. camara in both urban and rural sites with at least 25 different butterfly species association. The proportional relative load and the preferences of butterfly species for the each plant species were inclined towards L. camara. Irrespective of the sites, the diurnal and seasonal variations in the butterfly species abundance varied with the flowering pattern of L. camara. A positive correlation of different butterfly species with the flowering time and number of L. camara was for all the sites. The segregation of the L. camara associated butterfly species was made following discriminant function analysis using the extent of flower density of L. camara as explanatory variable. Despite being an invasive species, it is apparent that L. camara can be a prospective host plant that facilitates sustenance of butterflies in both urban and rural sites. Thus, existence of L. camara in urban gardens and forests may prove beneficial in sustenance of the butterflies.

  2. Cold plasma treatment for the microbiological safety of cabbage, lettuce, and dried figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Min, Sea C

    2015-10-01

    Microwave-powered cold plasma treatment (CPT) was evaluated as a means to improve the microbiological safety of fresh vegetables and dried fruits. The CPT at 900 W, conducted for 10 min using nitrogen as a plasma-forming gas, inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated on cabbage and lettuce by approximately 1.5 log CFU/g. The CPT at 400-900 W and 667 Pa, conducted for 1-10 min using a helium-oxygen gas mixture, inactivated Listeria monocytogenes on cabbage by 0.3-2.1 log CFU/g in a time-dependent manner (P lettuce by 1.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/g. As the water activity of the dried figs increased from 0.70 to 0.93, the reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes on figs increased from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g and from 1.0 to 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The microbial inactivation by CPT increased synergistically when the pH of the figs was reduced from 6 to 4. CTPs have potential application to increase the microbiological safety of vegetables and dried fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang, E-mail: ceszf@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC–MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. - Highlights: • In vivo SPME was employed to sample organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. • Uptake and elimination of OPPs were traced in cabbage and aloe. • In vivo tracing of fenthion demonstrated its metabolites could be rather dangerous. • The risks of OPPs were assessed based on the in vivo tracing data.

  4. Selenium alleviates chromium toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xuejiao; Zhao, Xiaohu; Hu, Chengxiao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Pengcheng; Shi, Hanzhi; Jia, Fen; Qu, Chanjuan

    2015-04-01

    The beneficial role of selenium (Se) in alleviation of chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative stress is well established. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. The impacts of exogenous Se (0.1mg/L) on Cr(1mg/L)-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in leaves of cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) were investigated by using cellular and biochemical approaches. The results showed that supplementation of the medium with Se was effective in reducing Cr-induced increased levels of lipid peroxides and superoxide free radicals (O(-)2(·)), as well as increasing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD). Meanwhile, 1mg/L Cr induced loss of plasma membrane integrity, growth inhibition, as well as ultrastructural changes of leaves were significantly reversed due to Se supplementation in the medium. In addition, Se application significantly altered the subcellular distribution of Cr which transported from mitochondria, nucleus and the cell-wall material to the soluble fraction and chloroplasts. However, Se application did no significant alteration of Cr effects on osmotic adjustment accumulating products. The study suggested that Se is able to protect leaves of cabbage against Cr toxicity by alleviation of Cr induced oxidative stress, and re-distribution of Cr in the subcellular of the leaf. Furthermore, free radicals, lipid peroxides, activity of SOD and POD, and subcellular distribution of Cr can be considered the efficient biomarkers to indicate the efficiency of Se to detoxification Cr. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  6. Identification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. isolate suppressing clubroot resistance in ‘Kilaxy’ F1 white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesołowska Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Celem badań była ocena patogeniczności izolatów Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. pobranych z porażonych kiłą roślin kapusty głowiastej białej pochodzących z różnych rejonów Polski. Oceniano wirulencję siedmiu izolatów tego patogena. Do określenia wirulencji izolatów P. brassicae użyte zostały obiekty wzorcowe, były to materiały hodowlane kapusty głowiastej białej odporne i podatne na kiłę. Nasiona kapusty inokulowano poprzez moczenie ich w zawiesinie zarodników przetrwalnikowych patogena. Ocenę podatności roślin na kiłę prowadzono w oparciu o 9-cio stopniową skalę porażenia korzeni roślin w stadium ośmiotygodniowej rozsady i podczas jesiennego zbioru roślin na polu zainfekowanym P. brassicae. Izolaty pochodzące z Pobiednika i Goźlic były bardziej wirulentne. Izolat P z Pobiednika spowodował porażenie roślin odmiany ‘Kilaxy’ F1 co oznaczało przełamanie cechującej tę odmianę odporności na kiłę. Odmiana ta w stosunku do pozostałych izolatów potwierdziła swoją odporność. Wrażliwa linia HTM charakteryzowała się najwyższym stopniem porażenia. Odnotowano różny poziom wrażliwości na zastosowane izolaty pomiędzy liniami pochodzącymi z mających geny odporności odmian ‘Oregon123’ i ‘Badger Shipper’. Mniej podatna na zastosowane izolaty była linia ‘Oregon123’. Obserwowano wpływ zastosowanych do inokulacji nasion izolatów na reakcję na patogena dojrzałych roślin kapusty na polu kiłowym

  7. Identification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. isolate suppressing clubroot resistance in ‘Kilaxy’ F1 white cabbage

    OpenAIRE

    Wesołowska Maria

    2014-01-01

    Celem badań była ocena patogeniczności izolatów Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. pobranych z porażonych kiłą roślin kapusty głowiastej białej pochodzących z różnych rejonów Polski. Oceniano wirulencję siedmiu izolatów tego patogena. Do określenia wirulencji izolatów P. brassicae użyte zostały obiekty wzorcowe, były to materiały hodowlane kapusty głowiastej białej odporne i podatne na kiłę. Nasiona kapusty inokulowano poprzez moczenie ich w zawiesinie zarodników przetrwalnikowych patogena. Ocenę ...

  8. High-performance liquid-phase separation of glycosides. III. Determination of total glucosinolates in cabbage and rapeseed by capillary electrophoresis via the enzymatically released glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, A; Melouk, H A; El Rassi, Z

    1999-02-01

    A selective and sensitive method for the determination of total glucosinolates (GSs) in plant extracts by capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was developed. It was based on the enzymatically released glucose from glucosinolates in the presence of the hydrolyzing enzyme myrosinase. The released glucose was converted to gluconic acid (GA) by the action of glucose oxidase. The resulting GA was then labeled selectively with the fluorescent tag 7-aminonaphthalene-1, 3-disulfonic acid (ANDSA). The peak area resulting from the GA-ANDSA derived from free and bound glucose was subtracted from the peak area of the GA-ANDSA resulting from the free glucose in the sample. This gave the total glucosinolates in the sample. The peak areas were normalized to the internal standard, N-acetylneuraminic acid derivatized with ANDSA. The method was validated using four different plant extracts, white cabbage leaves, rapeseed leaves, rapeseed roots, and rapeseed seeds. Furthermore, a capillary electrophoresis-UV detection method for profiling GS in plant extracts was developed. In addition to providing a fingerprint of the glucosinolates in plant extracts, the method allowed the experimenter to rapidly check the various steps involved in the extraction and sample cleanup. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed with adult female Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) at 20°C ± 1°C, L16:D8, 60–70% RH to determine voracity and preference on cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), diamondback moth larvae (Plutella xylostella L...

  10. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub-...

  11. Studies on germination and vigour of cabbage seeds = [Aspecten van de kieming van zaden van witte kool en savoiekool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liou, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of commercial storage of cabbage seeds on the germination of seeds and the emergence and growth of seedlings have been studied. Progressive ageing of seeds caused loss of seed vigour which resulted in poor emergence and growth of seedlings and the formation of abnormal

  12. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) in cabbage on Prince Edward Island: observations on planting date and variety choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Suzanne; Ryan, Andrew; Adams, Shelley; Driscoll, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)) can be a pest in organic onion production on Prince Edward Island. This study was to examine the effect of planting time and variety on infestation levels and damage by onion thrips on cabbage (Brassicae oleracea capitala (L.)). A field site was planted with 2 main and 8 lesser varieties of cabbage over 4 planting dates. Some varieties were short season and harvested on July 31 with longer season varieties harvested on September 2. Blue sticky traps were used to capture thrips migrating into the field site from July 22-September 2. Traps were counted weekly and cabbage heads within the field site were visually surveyed for thrips. At harvest, heads were weighed and measured, thrips damage was assessed then the head was dissected and thrips counted on the first four layers of the head. Thrips exhibited a preference for Lennox over Bronco throughout the season although thrips populations were not high enough to effect economic damage in 2014. Planting date influenced cabbage head weight and size with later plantings yielding the largest heads. Use of planting date and variety to avoid thrips populations is discussed.

  13. Molecular Characterization of a Leaf Senescence-Related Transcription Factor BrWRKY75 of Chinese Flowering Cabbage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TAN Xiaoli FAN Zhongqi LI Lulu WU Ya KUANG Jianfei LU Wangjin CHEN Jianye

    2016-01-01

    ...; however, its role in leaf senescence of leafy vegetables remains unknown. In the present work, a WRKY TF, termed Br WRKY75 was isolated from Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis(L.) Mokino var. utilis Tsen et Lee...

  14. Growth and physiological responses of Chinese cabbage cv. 'Chungwang' to different irradiances during early-to-middle growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes of the growth and morphology of Chinese cabbage cv. ‘Chungwang’ in response to five different irradiance treatments were investigated during the early and middle stages of growth. Seedlings were transplanted to 15 liter pots at the fourth leaf stage and plants were grown in controlled enviro...

  15. Melatonin improved anthocyanin accumulation by regulating gene expressions and resulted in high reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we found that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase, was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth.

  16. Butterfly monitoring using systematically placed transects in contrasting climatic regions - exploring an established spatial design for sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Videvall, Elin; Öckinger, Erik; Pettersson, Lars B.

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly monitoring schemes are recording programs initiated to monitor nationwide butterfly abundance and distribution patterns, often with help from volunteers. The method generates high-resolution data, but may be associated with a degree of habitat sampling bias if volunteers prefer to survey areas perceived to be high-quality butterfly habitats. This can result in habitats becoming underrepresented in the data set, leading to less information about the butterfly populations there. In th...

  17. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host......-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close...... to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution...

  18. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei

    2013-06-21

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast butterfly algorithm for the hyperbolic Radon transform. The basic idea is to reformulate the transform as an oscillatory integral operator and to construct a blockwise lowrank approximation of the kernel function. The overall structure follows the Fourier integral operator butterfly algorithm. For 2D data, the algorithm runs in complexity O(N2 log N), where N depends on the maximum frequency and offset in the data set and the range of parameters (intercept time and slowness) in the model space. From a series of studies, we found that this algorithm can be significantly more efficient than the conventional time-domain integration. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  19. Pretreated Butterfly Wings for Tuning the Selective Vapor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Piszter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in the scales of Blue butterflies are responsible for their vivid blue wing coloration. These nanoarchitectures are quasi-ordered nanocomposites which are constituted from a chitin matrix with embedded air holes. Therefore, they can act as chemically selective sensors due to their color changes when mixing volatile vapors in the surrounding atmosphere which condensate into the nanoarchitecture through capillary condensation. Using a home-built vapor-mixing setup, the spectral changes caused by the different air + vapor mixtures were efficiently characterized. It was found that the spectral shift is vapor-specific and proportional with the vapor concentration. We showed that the conformal modification of the scale surface by atomic layer deposition and by ethanol pretreatment can significantly alter the optical response and chemical selectivity, which points the way to the efficient production of sensor arrays based on the knowledge obtained through the investigation of modified butterfly wings.

  20. Reliability Evaluation of Concentric Butterfly Valve Using Statistical Hypothesis Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Mu Seong; Choi, Jong Sik; Choi, Byung Oh; Kim, Do Sik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    A butterfly valve is a type of flow-control device typically used to regulate a fluid flow. This paper presents an estimation of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution, characteristic life, and B10 life for a concentric butterfly valve based on a statistical analysis of the reliability test data taken before and after the valve improvement. The difference in the shape and scale parameters between the existing and improved valves is reviewed using a statistical hypothesis test. The test results indicate that the shape parameter of the improved valve is similar to that of the existing valve, and that the scale parameter of the improved valve is found to have increased. These analysis results are particularly useful for a reliability qualification test and the determination of the service life cycles.

  1. Modal-Based Design Improvement of a Butterfly Valve Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Draghiciu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviour control of a butterfly valve is important because, when one of the valve disc natural frequency is close to the frequency of vortex shedding, which appears when the valve is fully open or partially closed, resonance may appear and vibration with significant amplitudes is generated. This paper presents an example by how the design of a butterfly valve disc can be improved by using a modal analysis performed by means of the finite element method. For this purpose, the research reveals the way in which the natural frequencies of the disc can be modified by applying stiffening ribs or changing the dimensions, respective the position of these ribs.

  2. Estimating the age of Heliconius butterflies from calibrated photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Dalbosco Dell’Aglio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mating behaviour and predation avoidance in Heliconius involve visual colour signals; however, there is considerable inter-individual phenotypic variation in the appearance of colours. In particular, the red pigment varies from bright crimson to faded red. It has been thought that this variation is primarily due to pigment fading with age, although this has not been explicitly tested. Previous studies have shown the importance of red patterns in mate choice and that birds and butterflies might perceive these small colour differences. Using digital photography and calibrated colour images, we investigated whether the hue variation in the forewing dorsal red band of Heliconius melpomene rosina corresponds with age. We found that the red hue and age were highly associated, suggesting that red colour can indeed be used as a proxy for age in the study of wild-caught butterflies.

  3. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Verovnik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research.

  4. Detailed electromagnetic simulation for the structural color of butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R Todd; Smith, Glenn S

    2009-07-20

    Many species of butterflies exhibit interesting optical phenomena due to structural color. The physical reason for this color is subwavelength features on the surface of a single scale. The exposed surface of a scale is covered with a ridge structure. The fully three-dimensional, periodic, finite-difference time-domain method is used to create a detailed electromagnetic model of a generic ridge. A novel method for presenting the three-dimensional observed color pattern is developed. Using these tools, the change in color that is a result of varying individual features of the scale is explored. Computational models are developed that are similar to three butterflies: Morpho rhetenor, Troides magellanus, and Ancyluris meliboeus.

  5. Adaptive introgression across species boundaries in Heliconius butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pardo-Diaz

    Full Text Available It is widely documented that hybridisation occurs between many closely related species, but the importance of introgression in adaptive evolution remains unclear, especially in animals. Here, we have examined the role of introgressive hybridisation in transferring adaptations between mimetic Heliconius butterflies, taking advantage of the recent identification of a gene regulating red wing patterns in this genus. By sequencing regions both linked and unlinked to the red colour locus, we found a region that displays an almost perfect genotype by phenotype association across four species, H. melpomene, H. cydno, H. timareta, and H. heurippa. This particular segment is located 70 kb downstream of the red colour specification gene optix, and coalescent analysis indicates repeated introgression of adaptive alleles from H. melpomene into the H. cydno species clade. Our analytical methods complement recent genome scale data for the same region and suggest adaptive introgression has a crucial role in generating adaptive wing colour diversity in this group of butterflies.

  6. Effect of Urine, Poultry Manure, and Dewatered Faecal Sludge on Agronomic Characteristics of Cabbage in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Amoah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was to assess the: (i effect of human urine and other organic inputs on cabbage growth, yield, nutrient uptake, N-use efficiency, and soil chemical characteristics; (ii economic returns of the use of urine and/or other organic inputs as a source of fertiliser for cabbage production. To meet these objectives, participatory field trials were conducted at Dzorwulu, Accra. Four different treatments (Urine alone, Urine + dewatered faecal sludge (DFS, Urine + poultry droppings (PD, NPK (15-15-15 + PD were applied in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD with soil alone as control. Each treatment was applied at a rate of 121 kg·N·ha−1 corresponding to the Nitrogen requirement of cabbage in Ghana. Growth and yield parameters, plant nutrient uptake, and soil chemical characteristics were determined using standard protocols. There were no significant differences between treatments for cabbage head weight, or total and marketable yields. However, unmarketable yield from NPK + PD was 1 to 2 times higher (p < 0.05 than those from Urine + PD, Urine + DFS, and Urine alone. Seasonal effect on yields was also pronounced with higher (p < 0.001 cabbage head weight (0.95 kg and marketable yields (12.7 kg·ha−1 in the dry season than the rainy season (0.42 kg and 6.27 kg·ha−1. There was higher (p < 0.005 phosphorous uptake in cabbage from Urine + PD treated soil than those from other treatments. Nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, and potassium (K uptake in the dry season was significantly higher than the rainy season. Soils treated with Urine + DFS and Urine + PD were high in total N content. Urine + PD and Urine + DFS treated soils gave fairly high yield than PD + NPK with a net gain of US$1452.0 and US$1663.5, respectively. The application of urine in combination with poultry droppings has the potential to improve cabbage yields, nutrient uptake, and soil nitrogen and phosphorous content.

  7. Social benefits of ecotourism : the monarch butterfly reserve in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monterrubio Cordero, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez Muñoz, Gregoria; Mendoza Ontiveros, Martha Marivel

    2013-01-01

    Ecotourism can contribute to both positive and negative socioeconomic impacts at the local level. However, ecotourism’s socioeconomic impacts have received limited scholarly attention in the context of developing countries. Based on qualitative interviews and observations, this paper looks at the socioeconomic benefits of ecotourism in a local community in the Monarch Butterfly Reserve in Mexico. It was found that ecotourism replaced most of the economic activities in the lo...

  8. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect in Holographic Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Mike

    2016-08-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by Dc=C vB2/(2 π T ), where vB is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality C depends only on the scaling exponents of the infrared theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  9. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  10. Metapopulation Structure and Dynamics of an Endangered Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    J. Slansky, & J. G. Rodriguez (Eds.), Nutritional ecology of insects, mites, spiders , and related invertebrates (pp. 369–391). New York: John Wiley...structure and dynamics of an endangered butterfly Margaret S. Guineya,∗, David A. Andowb, Timothy T. Wilderc aDepartment of Conservation Biology , 200...Recovery plans for endangered invertebrates will improve with a better understanding of population dynamics and structure. Some spatially distributed

  11. Density estimates of monarch butterflies overwintering in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Thogmartin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L. under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There is, however, considerable variation in published estimates of overwintering density, ranging from 6.9–60.9 million ha−1. We develop a probability distribution for overwinter density of monarch butterflies from six published density estimates. The mean density among the mixture of the six published estimates was ∼27.9 million butterflies ha−1 (95% CI [2.4–80.7] million ha−1; the mixture distribution is approximately log-normal, and as such is better represented by the median (21.1 million butterflies ha−1. Based upon assumptions regarding the number of milkweed needed to support monarchs, the amount of milkweed (Asclepias spp. lost (0.86 billion stems in the northern US plus the amount of milkweed remaining (1.34 billion stems, we estimate >1.8 billion stems is needed to return monarchs to an average population size of 6 ha. Considerable uncertainty exists in this required amount of milkweed because of the considerable uncertainty occurring in overwinter density estimates. Nevertheless, the estimate is on the same order as other published estimates. The studies included in our synthesis differ substantially by year, location, method, and measures of precision. A better understanding of the factors influencing overwintering density across space and time would be valuable for increasing the precision of conservation recommendations.

  12. Butterflies of Kerala Agricultural University (KAU campus, Thrissur, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Aneesh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to understand the species richness of butterflies in the Kerala Agricultural University main campus. The area lies between 10032 -10033 N and 76016-76017 E and is located very close to the Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary. A total of 139 species in six families were recorded from the campus. Family Nymphalidae dominated with 44 species followed by Lycaenidae (35, Hesperiidae (34, Pieridae (13, Papilionidae (12 and Riodinidae (1

  13. Density estimates of monarch butterflies overwintering in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Oberhauser, Karen; Pleasants, John M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Semmens, Darius J.; Taylor, Orley R.; Wiederholt, Ruscena

    2017-01-01

    Given the rapid population decline and recent petition for listing of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) under the Endangered Species Act, an accurate estimate of the Eastern, migratory population size is needed. Because of difficulty in counting individual monarchs, the number of hectares occupied by monarchs in the overwintering area is commonly used as a proxy for population size, which is then multiplied by the density of individuals per hectare to estimate population size. There is, however, considerable variation in published estimates of overwintering density, ranging from 6.9–60.9 million ha−1. We develop a probability distribution for overwinter density of monarch butterflies from six published density estimates. The mean density among the mixture of the six published estimates was ∼27.9 million butterflies ha−1 (95% CI [2.4–80.7] million ha−1); the mixture distribution is approximately log-normal, and as such is better represented by the median (21.1 million butterflies ha−1). Based upon assumptions regarding the number of milkweed needed to support monarchs, the amount of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) lost (0.86 billion stems) in the northern US plus the amount of milkweed remaining (1.34 billion stems), we estimate >1.8 billion stems is needed to return monarchs to an average population size of 6 ha. Considerable uncertainty exists in this required amount of milkweed because of the considerable uncertainty occurring in overwinter density estimates. Nevertheless, the estimate is on the same order as other published estimates. The studies included in our synthesis differ substantially by year, location, method, and measures of precision. A better understanding of the factors influencing overwintering density across space and time would be valuable for increasing the precision of conservation recommendations.

  14. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  15. Large reorganizations in butterfly communities during an extreme weather event

    OpenAIRE

    De Palma, Adriana; Dennis, Roger L. H.; Brereton, Tom; Leather, Simon R.; Oliver, Tom H.

    2016-01-01

    Drought events are projected to increase in frequency and magnitude, which may alter the composition of ecological communities. Using a functional community metric that describes abundance, life history traits and conservation status, based upon Grime's CSR (Competitive – Stress tolerant – Ruderal) scheme, we investigated how British butterfly communities changed during an extreme drought in 1995. Throughout Britain, the total abundance of these insects had a significant tendency to increase,...

  16. Impact of Canopy Cover on Butterfly Abundance and Diversity in Intermediate Zone Forest of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.B Weerakoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the influence of canopy cover on butterfly abundance in young secondary forest and regenerating forest at Maragamuwa area of Kumaragala forest reserve in Naula, Matale district of Sri Lanka. Line transect method was used to collect data. Hundred meter long five transects were established in each forest area. Butterfly abundance data were collected weekly for eight months from January to August 2014. Regenerating forest had low canopy cover (<50% than young secondary forest (20-90%. Total of 2,696 butterflies belonging to 87 species in six families were recorded. Some butterfly species were restricted to shady areas, but most butterflies were abundant in sunny areas. Butterflies in some families (Family Lycanidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae were abundant in sunny conditions and some families (Family Hesperiidae, Papilionidae abundant in shade. ANOVA was conducted to identify the variation of number of species (F=54.05, p<0.001 and among abundance (F=10.49, p<0.05 with the canopy cover. Species richness was high in moderate canopy cover (20±5%. Negative Pearson correlation coefficient stated butterfly abundance decreased with the canopy cover (r=-0.91 and species richness decreased with canopy cover (r=-0.85.Some butterflies were common in sunny areas and some species were confined to shady areas. However, most of the species were generally found throughout the area. Regenerating forest encountered more shrubs than in young secondary forest, which butterflies preferred to food on. Main findings of the study were that butterfly abundance was high in sunny areas and butterfly species richness was high in moderate shady areas.

  17. Changes in butterfly abundance in response to global warming and reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Sung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Byun, Bong-Kyu; Lim, Jong-Hwan; Shin, Joon Hwan

    2010-04-01

    In the Republic of Korea, most denuded forest lands have been restored since the 1960s. In addition, the annual mean temperature in the Republic of Korea has increased approximately 1.0 degrees C during the last century, which is higher than the global mean increase of 0.74 degrees C. Such rapid environmental changes may have resulted in changes in the local butterfly fauna. For example, the number of butterflies inhabiting forests may have increased because of reforestation, whereas the number of butterflies inhabiting grasslands may have declined. Furthermore, the number of northern butterflies may have declined, whereas the number of southern butterflies may have increased in response to global warming. Therefore, we compared current data (2002 approximately 2007) regarding the abundance of butterfly species at two sites in the central portion of the Korean Peninsula to data from the late 1950s and early 1970s for the same sites. Changes in the abundance rank of each species between the two periods were evaluated to determine whether any patterns corresponded to the predicted temporal changes. The predicted changes in butterfly abundance were confirmed in this study. In addition, the results showed a different response to habitat change between northern and southern species. In northern butterfly species, butterflies inhabiting forests increased, whereas those inhabiting grasslands declined. However, the opposite was true when southern butterfly species were evaluated. Changes in the abundance indicate that habitat change may be one of the key factors related to the survival of populations that remain around the southern boundary of butterfly species.

  18. Neuroethology of ultrasonic hearing in nocturnal butterflies (Hedyloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Jayne E; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2007-06-01

    Nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies possess ultrasound-sensitive ears that mediate evasive flight maneuvers. Tympanal ear morphology, auditory physiology and behavioural responses to ultrasound are described for Macrosoma heliconiaria, and evidence for hearing is described for eight other hedylid species. The ear is formed by modifications of the cubital and subcostal veins at the forewing base, where the thin (1-3 microm), ovoid (520 x 220 microm) tympanal membrane occurs in a cavity. The ear is innervated by nerve IIN1c, with three chordotonal organs attaching to separate regions of the tympanal membrane. Extracellular recordings from IIN1c reveal sensory responses to ultrasonic (>20 kHz), but not low frequency (Hearing is broadly tuned to frequencies between 40 and 80 kHz, with best thresholds around 60 dB SPL. Free flying butterflies exposed to ultrasound exhibit a variety of evasive maneuvers, characterized by sudden and unpredictable changes in direction, increased velocity, and durations of approximately 500 ms. Hedylid hearing is compared to that of several other insects that have independently evolved ears for the same purpose-bat detection. Hedylid hearing may also represent an interesting example of evolutionary divergence, since we demonstrate that the ears are homologous to low frequency ears in some diurnal Nymphalidae butterflies.

  19. Cavitation detection of butterfly valve using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Suk; Hwang, Won-Woo; Ko, Myung-Han; Lee, Soo-Jong

    2005-10-01

    Butterfly valves are popularly used in service in the industrial and water works pipeline systems with large diameter because of its lightweight, simple structure and the rapidity of its manipulation. Sometimes cavitation can occur, resulting in noise, vibration and rapid deterioration of the valve trim, and do not allow further operation. Thus, monitoring of cavitation is of economic interest and is very important in industry. This paper proposes a condition monitoring scheme using statistical feature evaluation and support vector machine (SVM) to detect the cavitation conditions of butterfly valve which used as a flow control valve at the pumping stations. The stationary features of vibration signals are extracted from statistical moments. The SVMs are trained, and then classify normal and cavitation conditions of control valves. The SVMs with the reorganized feature vectors can distinguish the class of the untrained and untested data. The classification validity of this method is examined by various signals acquired from butterfly valves in the pumping stations. And the classification success rate is compared with that of self-organizing feature map neural network (SOFM).

  20. Hofstadter butterflies in nonlinear Harper lattices, and their optical realizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manela, Ofer; Segev, Mordechai [Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Christodoulides, Demetrios N [College of Optics/CREOL, University of Central Florida, FL 32816-2700 (United States); Kip, Detlef, E-mail: msegev@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Helmut Schmidt University, 22043 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The ubiquitous Hofstadter butterfly describes a variety of systems characterized by incommensurable periodicities, ranging from Bloch electrons in magnetic fields and the quantum Hall effect to cold atoms in optical lattices and more. Here, we introduce nonlinearity into the underlying (Harper) model and study the nonlinear spectra and the corresponding extended eigenmodes of nonlinear quasiperiodic systems. We show that the spectra of the nonlinear eigenmodes form deformed versions of the Hofstadter butterfly and demonstrate that the modes can be classified into two families: nonlinear modes that are a 'continuation' of the linear modes of the system and new nonlinear modes that have no counterparts in the linear spectrum. Finally, we propose an optical realization of the linear and nonlinear Harper models in transversely modulated waveguide arrays, where these Hofstadter butterflies can be observed. This work is relevant to a variety of other branches of physics beyond optics, such as disorder-induced localization in ultracold bosonic gases, localization transition processes in disordered lattices, and more.

  1. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Butterfly Species Richness in Selected West Albertine Rift Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Kasangaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.

  3. Investigations and Mimicry of the Optical Properties of Butterfly Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Christopher J.; Gaillot, Davy P.; Crne, Matija; Blair, John; Park, Jung O.; Srinivasarao, Mohan; Deparis, Olivier; Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    Structural color in Nature has been observed in plants, insects and birds, and has led to a strong interest in these phenomena and a desire to understand the mechanisms responsible. Of particular interest are the optical properties of butterflies. In this paper, we review three investigations inspired by the unique optical properties exhibited in a variety of butterfly wings. In the first investigation, conformal atomic layer depositions (ALDs) were used to exploit biologically defined 2D photonic crystal (PC) templates of Papilio blumei with the purpose of increasing the understanding of the optical effects of naturally formed dielectric architectures, and of exploring any novel optical effects. In the second study, it was demonstrated that faithful mimicry of Papilio palinurus can be achieved by physical fabrication methods through using breath figures to provide templates and ALD routines to enable optical properties. Finally, knowledge of the optical structure properties of the Princeps nireus butterfly has resulted in bioinspired designs to enhanced scintillator designs for radiation detection.

  4. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  5. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyang Wu; Yong Chen; Shah Faisal; Aman Khan; Zhengjun Chen; Zhenmin Ling; Pu Liu; Xiangkai Li

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55?g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134?mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold hig...

  6. Rhabdom evolution in butterflies: insights from the uniquely tiered and heterogeneous ommatidia of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Atsuko; Awata, Hiroko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Takemura, Shin-ya; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The eye of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis, a ‘living fossil’ species of the family Papilionidae, contains three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia. Electron microscopy reveals that the Apollo rhabdom is tiered. The distal tier is composed exclusively of photoreceptors expressing opsins of ultraviolet or blue-absorbing visual pigments, and the proximal tier consists of photoreceptors expressing opsins of green or red-absorbing visual pigments. This organization is unique because the distal tier of other known butterflies contains two green-sensitive photoreceptors, which probably function in improving spatial and/or motion vision. Interspecific comparison suggests that the Apollo rhabdom retains an ancestral tiered pattern with some modification to enhance its colour vision towards the long-wavelength region of the spectrum. PMID:22628477

  7. Characterization of symptomatic hip impingement in butterfly ice hockey goalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James R; Bedi, Asheesh; Stone, Rebecca M; Sibilsky Enselman, Elizabeth; Kelly, Bryan T; Larson, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to characterize the radiographic deformity observed in a consecutive series of butterfly goalies with symptomatic mechanical hip pain and to use computer-based software analysis to identify the location of impingement and terminal range of motion. We also compared these analyses to a matched group of positional hockey players with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). A consecutive series of 68 hips in 44 butterfly-style hockey goalies and a matched group of 34 hips in 26 positional hockey players who underwent arthroscopic correction for symptomatic FAI were retrospectively analyzed. Each patient underwent preoperative anteroposterior (AP) and modified Dunn lateral radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the affected hips. Common FAI measurements were assessed on plain radiographs. Patient-specific, CT-based 3-dimensional (3D) models of the hip joint were developed, and the femoral version, alpha angles at each radial clock face position, and femoral head coverage were calculated. Maximum hip flexion, abduction, internal rotation in 90° flexion (IRF), flexion/adduction/internal rotation (FADIR), and butterfly position were determined, and the areas of bony collision were defined. Butterfly goalies had an elevated mean alpha angle on both AP (61.3°) and lateral radiographs (63.4°) and a diminished beta angle (26.0°). The mean lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) measured 27.3° and acetabular inclination was 6.1°. A crossover sign was present in 59% of the hips. The maximum alpha angle on the radial reformatted computed tomographic scan was significantly higher among the butterfly goalies (80.9° v 68.6°; P hockey goalies have a high prevalence of FAI, characterized by a unique femoral cam-type deformity and noted by an elevated alpha angle and loss of offset, which is greater in magnitude and more lateral when compared with that in positional hockey players. Associated acetabular dysplasia is also common among hockey goalies. Level

  8. Cavitation erosion of piping line behind a butterfly valve. Butterfly valve koryu ni hasseisuru cavitation ni yoru haikan no kaishoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.; Ogawa, K. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)); Uehara, I. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kuwata, C.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of cavitation erosion in piping line behind a butterfly valve and to propose a method of predicting the erosion resistance. One of the major obstructions in the experiment of cavitation erosion is to take a long time by using a metal specimen. Then, a substitutive material having the fragile property to anti-cavitation erosion was used in this study. The similarity of erosion characteristics was confirmed between the substitutive material and the real material. In the second stage of this study, the substitutive material was placed as pipe wall at a bend behind a butterfly valve. It was verified from observations and measurements of the erosion position that the erosion of the material was caused by cavitation occurred at the butterfly valve. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that the erosion resistance under the real condition can be predicted from the result of the similarities of erosion characteristics of the substitutive material. 7 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Looking for the ants: selection of oviposition sites by two myrmecophilous butterfly species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynhoff, I.; Grutters, M.; Langevelde, van F.

    2008-01-01

    Obligate myrmecophilous butterfly species, such as Maculinea teleius and M. nausithous that hibernate as caterpillar in nests of the ant species Myrmica scabrinodis and M. rubra respectively, have narrowly defined habitat requirements. One would expect that these butterflies are able to select for

  10. Enhanced thrust and speed revealed in the forward flight of a butterfly with transient body translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-09-01

    A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J=0.89) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J=0.17) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.

  11. Abies religiosa habitat prediction in climatic change scenarios and implications for monarch butterfly conservation in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Pierre Duval; Roberto A. Lindig-Cisneros

    2012-01-01

    Abies religiosa (HBK) Schl. & Cham. (oyamel fir) is distributed in conifer-dominated mountain forests at high altitudes along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fir is the preferred host for overwintering monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migratory populations which habitually congregate within a few stands now located inside a Monarch Butterfly Biosphere...

  12. Butterfly valve with metal seals controls flow of hydrogen from cryogenic through high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. D.

    1967-01-01

    Butterfly valve with metal seals operates over a temperature range of minus 423 degrees to plus 440 degrees F with hydrogen as a medium and in a radiation environment. Media flow is controlled by an internal butterfly disk which is rotated by an actuation shaft.

  13. Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

    Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

  14. Assessment of butterfly diversity in eagle owl gully of Amurum Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterfly diversity at the Eagle Owl Gully, Amurum Forest Reserve, Jos East, Plateau State was investigated by the use of sweep nets along transects in two types of habitats namely protected and unprotected. A total of three hundred and ninety-four butterflies belonging to thirty-three genera and seven families were ...

  15. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  16. Analyzing the reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye with Voronoi diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhoutte, KJA; Michielsen, KFL; Stavenga, DG

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a robust method for the automated segmentation and quantitative measurement of reflections from single ommatidia in the butterfly compound eye. Digital pictures of the butterfly eye shine recorded with a digital camera are processed to yield binary images from which single facet

  17. Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    Using Jamin-Lebedeff interference microscopy, we measured the wavelength dependence of the refractive index of butterfly wing scales and bird feathers. The refractive index values of the glass scales of the butterfly Graphium sarpedon are, at wavelengths 400, 500 and 600 nm, 1.572, 1.552 and 1.541,

  18. One-note samba: the biogeographical history of the relict Brazilian butterfly Elkalyce cogina

    OpenAIRE

    Talavera, Gerard; Kaminski, Lucas A.; Freitas, André V. L.; Vila, Roger

    2016-01-01

    [Aim] Biogeographically puzzling taxa represent an opportunity to understand the processes that have shaped current species distributions. The systematic placement and biogeographical history of Elkalyce cogina, a small lycaenid butterfly endemic to Brazil and neighbouring Argentina, are long-standing puzzles. We use molecular tools and novel biogeographical and life history data to clarify the taxonomy and distribution of this butterfly.

  19. The natural history of the Sinai Baton Blue: the smallest butterfly in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the ecology and life history of endangered species is necessary for their successful conservation. In this chapter, I provide a detailed account of the natural history of the Sinai Baton Blue butterfly. I review current knowledge of the genus Pseudophilotes, and explore the butterfly's phylogeny. This emphasises ...

  20. Development of Species-Specific Primers for Plasmodiophora brassicae, Clubroot Pathogen of Kimchi Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Choi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin is one of the most damaging diseases of Brassicaceae family. In this study, we developed species-specific primer sets for rapid and accurate detection of P. brassicae. The primer sets developed amplified a specific fragment only from P. brassicae DNA while they did not amplify a band from 10 other soilborne pathogens or from Kimchi cabbage. In sensitivity test, the species-specific primer set ITS1-1/ITS1-2 could work for approximately 10 spores/ml of genomic DNA showing more sensitivity and accuracy than previous methods. With quantitative real-time PCR test, the primer set detected less spores of P. brassicae than before, confirming that the species-specific primer set could be useful for rapid and accurate detection of P. brassicae.

  1. VIABILITY CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS IN CABBAGE SEEDS IN DEPENDS ON STAGE OF MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Panayotov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the present study were to establish the changes during different stage of maturity and development of cabbage seed as well as earliest behaviors of viability and harvesting data. The experiments were carried out with two typical Bulgarian cultivars Balkan and Ditmarsko ranno. Samples of seeds in different days after fl owering – 30, 40, 50 and 60 days were analyzed. The physiological parameters and viability and vigor were investigated. The weight of one seeds was highest between 40 and 50 days. The primary germination was observed in seed harvested in 30 days, but the stability one was registered on 60 day. The intensity of respiration and activity of enzyme peroxides changed during seed development and maturity.

  2. Impact of urbanization and gardening practices on common butterfly communities in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Benoît; Bergerot, Benjamin; Le Viol, Isabelle; Julliard, Romain

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the interacting impacts of urban landscape and gardening practices on the species richness and total abundance of communities of common butterfly communities across France, using data from a nationwide monitoring scheme. We show that urbanization has a strong negative impact on butterfly richness and abundance but that at a local scale, such impact could be mitigated by gardening practices favoring nectar offer. We found few interactions among these landscape and local scale effects, indicating that butterfly-friendly gardening practices are efficient whatever the level of surrounding urbanization. We further highlight that species being the most negatively affected by urbanization are the most sensitive to gardening practices: Garden management can thus partly counterbalance the deleterious effect of urbanization for butterfly communities. This holds a strong message for park managers and private gardeners, as gardens may act as potential refuge for butterflies when the overall landscape is largely unsuitable.

  3. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Qinghua; He, Zhaoguo; He, Yihua; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Funsten, H O; Blake, J B

    2015-10-05

    Van Allen radiation belts consist of relativistic electrons trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Trapped electrons often drift azimuthally around Earth and display a butterfly pitch angle distribution of a minimum at 90° further out than geostationary orbit. This is usually attributed to drift shell splitting resulting from day-night asymmetry in Earth's magnetic field. However, direct observation of a butterfly distribution well inside of geostationary orbit and the origin of this phenomenon have not been provided so far. Here we report high-resolution observation that a unusual butterfly pitch angle distribution of relativistic electrons occurred within 5 Earth radii during the 28 June 2013 geomagnetic storm. Simulation results show that combined acceleration by chorus and magnetosonic waves can successfully explain the electron flux evolution both in the energy and butterfly pitch angle distribution. The current provides a great support for the mechanism of wave-driven butterfly distribution of relativistic electrons.

  4. Mate choice and body pattern variations in the Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Levy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mate choice is an important ecological behavior in fish, and is often based on visual cues of body patterns. The Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae is a monogamist, territorial species; it swims in close proximity to its partner throughout most of its life. This species is characterized by a pattern of 6–8 vertical black stripes on a white background, on both sides of its body. Our aim was to define spatial features (variations in body patterns by evaluating the level of dissimilarity between both sides of each individual fish, and the level of dissimilarity between patterns of different individuals. In addition, we tested whether the fish are attracted to or reject specific features of the body patterns. Features were defined and counted using photographs of body patterns. Attraction to or rejection of specific features were tested behaviorally using a dual-choice experiment of video animations of individuals swimming over a coral-reef background. We found that the patterns of each fish and sides of the body were no less dissimilar, compared intraspecificly to other fish, and that each side pattern was unique and distinguishable. Variations in the patterns occurred mostly in the last three posterior stripes. Individuals were mainly attracted to conspecifics with multiple crossing patterns (two or more consecutive crossings, and rejected patterns with holes. Our results suggest that in this species the unique body pattern of each fish is used for conspecific identification of mates and intruders.

  5. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  7. Dynamic analyses, FPGA implementation and engineering applications of multi-butterfly chaotic attractors generated from generalised Sprott C system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qiang; Zhao, Xiao-Wen; Rajagopal, Karthikeyan; Xu, Guanghui; Akgul, Akif; Guleryuz, Emre

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers the generation of multi-butterfly chaotic attractors from a generalised Sprott C system with multiple non-hyperbolic equilibria. The system is constructed by introducing an additional variable whose derivative has a switching function to the Sprott C system. It is numerically found that the system creates two-, three-, four-, five-butterfly attractors and any other multi-butterfly attractors. First, the dynamic analyses of multi-butterfly chaotic attractors are presented. Secondly, the field programmable gate array implementation, electronic circuit realisation and random number generator are done with the multi-butterfly chaotic attractors.

  8. Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L.; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages. PMID:23717448

  9. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Ferrer-Paris

    Full Text Available We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1 is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2 has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3 what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea and 1,193 genera (66.3%. The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp. from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae, and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae. We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids, but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  10. Genetic characterization of inbred lines of Chinese cabbage by DNA markers; towards the application of DNA markers to breeding of F1 hybrid cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kawamura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis is an important vegetable in Asia, and most Japanese commercial cultivars of Chinese cabbage use an F1 hybrid seed production system. Self-incompatibility is successfully used for the production of F1 hybrid seeds in B. rapa vegetables to avoid contamination by non-hybrid seeds, and the strength of self-incompatibility is important for harvesting a highly pure F1 seeds. Prediction of agronomically important traits such as disease resistance based on DNA markers is useful. In this dataset, we identified the S haplotypes by DNA markers and evaluated the strength of self-incompatibility in Chinese cabbage inbred lines. The data described the predicted disease resistance to Fusarium yellows or clubroot in 22 Chinese cabbage inbred lines using gene associated or gene linked DNA markers.

  11. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the growth-regulating factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Fengde; Qiu, Nianwei; Ding, Qian; Li, Jingjuan; Zhang, Yihui; Li, Huayin; Gao, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    .... GRF genes represent a large multigene family in plants. Recently, genome-wide structural and evolutionary analyses of the GRF gene families in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize have been reported. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis...

  12. Viability of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on fresh-cut cabbage stored in high CO2atmospheres following rinsing with electrolyzed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hidemi; Inoue, Ayano

    2018-02-02

    The extent of sublethally injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, was evaluated during storage in air and high CO 2 controlled atmospheres (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 5°C and 10°C using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. Sublethally injured coliform bacteria on nonrinsed shredded cabbage were either absent or they were injured at a 64-65% level when present. Rinsing of shredded cabbage with electrolyzed water containing 25ppm available chlorine reduced the coliform counts by 0.4 to 1.1 log and caused sublethal injury ranging from 42 to 77%. Pantoea ananatis was one of the species injured by chlorine stress. When shredded cabbage, nonrinsed or rinsed with electrolyzed water, was stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C for 7days and 10°C for 5days, coliform counts on TAL plates increased from 3.3-4.5 to 6.5-9.0 log CFU/g during storage, with the increase being greater at 10°C than at 5°C. High CO 2 of 10% and 15% reduced the bacterial growth on shredded cabbage during storage at 5°C. Although injured coliform bacteria were not found on nonrinsed shredded cabbage on the initial day, injured coliforms at a range of 49-84% were detected on samples stored in air and high CO 2 atmospheres at 5°C and 10°C. Injured cells were detected more frequently during storage at both temperatures irrespective of the CO 2 atmosphere when shredded cabbage was rinsed with electrolyzed water. These results indicated that injured coliform bacteria on shredded cabbage, either rinsed or not rinsed with electrolyzed water, exhibited different degrees of injury during storage regardless of the CO 2 atmosphere and temperature tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical composition and herbicidal potent of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage turnip (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes). Saad, I., Rinez, I., Ghezal, N., and Haouala, R. (Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Inès Saad; Imen Rinez; Nadia Ghezal; Rabiaa Haouala

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical content and allelopathic potential of two cabbages botanical varieties leaves, ie. cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and cabbage turnip (B. oleracea var. gongylodes). Their aqueous and organic extracts were evaluated on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and one of the most dominant weeds in Tunisia, nettle-leaf goosefoot (Chenopodium murale). Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the smothering potential of the two v...

  14. Antioxidative properties of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) external leaves against DPPH, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid

    OpenAIRE

    Vrchovska, V.; Sousa, C.; Valentão, P.; Ferreres, F.; PEREIRA, J. A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of the aqueous extract of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) external leaves to act as a scavenger of DPPH- and reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid) was investigated. A phytochemical study was also undertaken, and thirteen phenolic compounds and five organic acids were identified and quantified. Tronchuda cabbage extracts exhibited antioxidant capacity in a concentration-dependent manner in all assays, ...

  15. Yield, quality, and concentration of seven heavy metals in cabbage and broccoli grown in sewage sludge and chicken manure amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Coolong, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of heavy metals from soil into the food chain and their subsequent bioaccumulation has increased the attention they receive as major environmental pollutants. The objectives of this investigation were to: i) study the impact of mixing native agricultural soil with municipal sewage sludge (SS) or chicken manure (CM) on yield and quality of cabbage and broccoli, ii) quantify the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mo, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) in soil amended with SS or CM, and iii) determine bioavailability of heavy metals to cabbage leaves and broccoli heads at harvest. Analysis of the two soil amendments used in this investigation indicated that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Pb, and organic matter content were significantly greater (P grown in soil amended with CM was low compared to plants grown in no-mulch soil. No significant differences were found in Cd and Pb accumulation between cabbage and broccoli. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo were greater in broccoli than cabbage. Total metals and plant available metals were also determined in the native and amended soils. Results indicated that the concentration of heavy metals in soils did not necessary reflect metals available to plants. Regardless of soil amendments, the overall bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of seven heavy metals in cabbage leaves and broccoli heads revealed that cabbage and broccoli were poor accumulators of Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb (BAF 1 for Zn and Mo. Elevated Ni and Mo bioaccumulation factor (BAF >1) of cabbage grown in chicken manure mixed soil is a characteristic that would be less favorable when cabbage is grown on sites having high concentrations of these two metals.

  16. Larvae of small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, express a novel serotonin receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter in vertebrates and invertebrates. It acts in regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioral processes through G protein-coupled receptors. Insects express five 5-HT receptor subtypes that share high simila...

  17. Ommatidial heterogeneity in the compound eye of the male small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, XD; Vanhoutte, KAJ; Stavenga, DG; Arikawa, K; Qiu, Xudong

    The ommatidia in the ventral two-thirds of the compound eye of male Pieris rapae crucivora are not uniform. Each ommatidium contains nine photoreceptor cells. Four cells (R1-4) form the distal two-thirds of the rhabdom, four cells (R5-8) approximately occupy the proximal one-third of the rhabdom,

  18. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  19. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod

  20. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  1. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  2. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  3. Metabolic Profiling in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) Cultivars Reveals that Glucosinolate Content Is Correlated with Carotenoid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-A; Jung, Young-Ho; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2016-06-01

    A total of 38 bioactive compounds, including glucosinolates, carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols, were characterized from nine varieties of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. subsp. pekinensis) to determine their phytochemical diversity and analyze their abundance relationships. The metabolite profiles were evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). PCA and HCA identified two distinct varieties of Chinese cabbage (Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha) with higher levels of glucosinolates and carotenoids. Pairwise comparisons of the 38 metabolites were calculated using Pearson correlation coefficients. The HCA, which used the correlation coefficients, clustered metabolites that are derived from closely related biochemical pathways. Significant correlations were discovered between chlorophyll and carotenoids. Additionally, aliphatic glucosinolate and carotenoid levels were positively correlated. The Cheonsangcheonha and Waldongcheonha varieties appear to be good candidates for breeding because they have high glucosinolate and carotenoid levels.

  4. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  5. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  6. Structural colour: Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2000-03-01

    Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual colour arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.

  7. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  8. Micro push-out bond strength of resin cement in roots exhibiting the butterfly effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hakan; Uygun, Ahmet Demirhan; Gündüz, Hicran Ateş; Karataş, Ertugrul; Cakici, Fatih; Alsancak, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the bond strength of resin cement in root sections with or without butterfly effect. Fifteen single-rooted human maxillary central incisors were decoronated and prepared up to size 40. After post space preparation, the resin cement was placed into the post space and the fiber posts were luted. 1 mm thickness slices were obtained and the presence of the butterfly effect was recorded. A push-out test was then used to measure the bond strength between the resin cement and root dentin. Data were analyzed using independent samples of t and χ(2) tests (p = 0.05). The sections exhibiting butterfly effect showed higher push-out bond strength values than those of without butterfly effect (p Butterfly effect can influence the push-out bond strength. Thus, this phenomena should be taken into account, when push-out bond strength test is performed. Root sections exhibiting butterfly effect resulted in higher push-out bond strength values to root sections without butterfly effect. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Direct and indirect responses of tallgrass prairie butterflies to prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Debinski, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important tool in the conservation and restoration of tallgrass prairie ecosystems. We investigated how both the vegetation composition and butterfly community of tallgrass prairie remnants changed in relation to the elapsed time (in months) since prescribed fire. Butterfly richness and butterfly abundance were positively correlated with the time since burn. Habitat-specialist butterfly richness recovery time was greater than 70 months post-fire and habitat-specialist butterfly abundance recovery time was approximately 50 months post-fire. Thus, recovery times for butterfly populations after prescribed fires in our study were potentially longer than those previously reported. We used Path Analysis to evaluate the relative contributions of the direct effect of time since fire and the indirect effects of time since fire through changes in vegetation composition on butterfly abundance. Path models highlighted the importance of the indirect effects of fire on habitat features, such as increases in the cover of bare ground. Because fire return intervals on managed prairie remnants are often less than 5 years, information on recovery times for habitat-specialist insect species are of great importance. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  11. Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Lo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available “Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP, sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to gather relevant information on butterfly and information cataloging in August 1998. The main purpose of this project is to establish a digital museum to support and promote science education. Task of ROSS is the following: with respect to information storage and retrieval demand, to develop butterfly metadata format and design system specification based on the project content. This article presents the metadata format created for butterfly project and discusses issues related with its implementation. In order to promote information exchange, mapping of butterfly metadata to Dublin Core will also be presented.[Article content in Chinese

  12. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  13. Temporal occurrence of two morpho butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): influence of weather and food resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Geraldo; Nascimento, André Rangel; Malinov, Ivan Konstantinov; Diniz, Ivone R

    2014-04-01

    The seasonality of fruit-feeding butterflies is very well known. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of climatic variables and resource availability on the temporal distributions of butterflies. Morpho helenor achillides (C. Felder and R. Felder 1867) and Morpho menelaus coeruleus (Perry 1810) (Nymphalidae) were used as models to investigate the influences of climatic factors and food resources on the temporal distribution of these Morphinae butterflies. These butterflies were collected weekly from January 2005 to December 2006 in the Parque Nacional de Brasília (PNB). In total, 408 individuals were collected, including 274 of M. helenor and 134 of M. menelaus. The relative abundance of the two species was similar in 2005 (n = 220) and 2006 (n = 188). Of the variables considered, only the relative humidity and resource availability measured in terms of phenology of zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants explained a large proportion of the variation in the abundance of these butterflies. Both of the explanatory variables were positively associated with the total abundance of individuals and with the abundances of M. helenor and M. menelaus considered separately. The phenology of anemochorous fruits was negatively associated with butterfly abundance. The temporal distribution of the butterflies was better predicted by the phenology of the zoochorous fruits of herbaceous plants than by the climatic predictors.

  14. A SIX1 Homolog in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans Is Required for Full Virulence on Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erfeng; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Jiling; Ling, Jian; Yang, Yuhong; Xie, Bingyan

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-born fungus that induces wilt and root rot on a variety of plants. F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) can cause wilt disease on cabbage. This study showed that a homolog of SIX1 protein in the Arabidopsis infecting isolate Fo5176 (Fo5176-SIX1) had four isoforms in the conidia of Foc by proteomic analysis. Thus, we analyzed the roles of protein Foc-SIX1. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared to the expression in mycelia, dramatically altered expression of Foc-SIX1 could be detected after infecting cabbages, and Foc-SIX1 was highly expressed in conidia under axenic culture condition. Furthermore, we knocked out the Foc-SIX1 gene and found that Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants had significantly reduced virulence compared with wild type isolate, and full virulence was restored by complementation of Foc-ΔSIX1 mutants with Foc-SIX1. Thus, we concluded that SIX1 in Foc was required for full virulence on cabbage. We also complemented Foc-ΔSIX1 with SIX1 gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and found Foc-ΔSIX1::Fol-SIX1 mutants did not affect the virulence of Foc-ΔSIX1. The results confirmed that Fol-SIX1 was not capable of replacing the role of Foc-SIX1 in Foc on the disease symptom development of cabbage. The roles of Fol-SIX1 on virulence might rely on host specificity.

  15. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  16. Evaluation of antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) on Wistar rat gastric ulceration

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Camilo Amaro de; Fernandes,Kenner Moraes; Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Silva, Marcelo Barreto da; De Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Fonseca, Cláudio César

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: The cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata) is an herbaceous and leafy plant which belongs to the Brassicaceae family, native to coastal southern and Western Europe. Used in cooking for its nutritional value also has known anti-inflammatory activity. OBJECTIVE We studied the antiulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (AEB) in order to validate ethnobotanical claims regarding the plant use in the gastric disorders. METHOD: Acute gastric ulcers we...

  17. Effects of spatial heterogeneity on butterfly species richness in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Simonson, S.E.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated butterfly responses to plot-level characteristics (plant species richness, vegetation height, and range in NDVI [normalized difference vegetation index]) and spatial heterogeneity in topography and landscape patterns (composition and configuration) at multiple spatial scales. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data on butterfly species richness from seventy-six 20 ?? 50 m plots. The plant species richness and average vegetation height data were collected from 76 modified-Whittaker plots overlaid on 76 butterfly plots. Spatial heterogeneity around sample plots was quantified by measuring topographic variables and landscape metrics at eight spatial extents (radii of 300, 600 to 2,400 m). The number of butterfly species recorded was strongly positively correlated with plant species richness, proportion of shrubland and mean patch size of shrubland. Patterns in butterfly species richness were negatively correlated with other variables including mean patch size, average vegetation height, elevation, and range in NDVI. The best predictive model selected using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc), explained 62% of the variation in butterfly species richness at the 2,100 m spatial extent. Average vegetation height and mean patch size were among the best predictors of butterfly species richness. The models that included plot-level information and topographic variables explained relatively less variation in butterfly species richness, and were improved significantly after including landscape metrics. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity greatly influences patterns in butterfly species richness, and that it should be explicitly considered in conservation and management actions. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. Numerical simulation on a throttle governing system with hydraulic butterfly valves in a marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hui-Xiong; Fang, Jun; Huang, Hui

    2010-12-01

    Hydraulic butterfly valves have been widely applied in marine engineering because of their large switching torque, low pressure loss and suitability for large and medium diameter pipelines. Due to control problems resulting from switching angular speeds of the hydraulic butterfly valve, a throttle-governing control mode has been widely adopted, and detailed analysis has been carried out worldwide on the structural principle concerning speed-regulation and the load torque on the shaft while opening or closing a hydraulic butterfly valve. However relevant reports have yet been published on the change law, the error and the influencing factors of the rotational angular velocity of the hydraulic butterfly valve while opening and closing. In this article, research was based on some common specifications of a hydraulic butterfly valve with a symmetrical valve flap existing in a marine environment. The throttle governing system supplied by the accumulator to achieve the switching of the hydraulic control valve was adopted, and the mathematical models of the system were established in the actual conditions while the numerical simulations took place. The simulation results and analysis show that the rotational angular velocity and the error of the hydraulic butterfly valve while switching is influenced greatly by the drainage amount of the accumulator, resulting in pressure loss in the pipeline, the temperature of hydraulic medium and the load of the hydraulic butterfly valve. The simulation results and analysis provide a theoretical basis for the choice of the total capacity of the accumulator and pipeline diameters in a throttle governing system with a hydraulic butterfly valve. It also determines the type and specification of the hydraulic butterfly valve and the design of motion parameters of the transported fluid.

  19. Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi A; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-12-01

    Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+). Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na(+) solution to K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measured the ion concentrations of solutions sampled from puddling sites in the field. Na(+) concentrations of the samples were up to 6 mM, slightly lower than that preferred by butterflies in the behavioral experiments. Butterflies that sipped the 10 mM Na(+) solution from the experimental trays did not continue to puddle on the ground. Additionally, butterflies puddled at sites where the concentrations of K(+), Ca(2+), and/or Mg(2+) were higher than that of Na(+). This suggests that K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) do not interfere with the detection of Na(+) by the Papilio butterfly. Using an electrophysiological method, tip recordings, receptor neurons in contact chemosensilla inside the proboscis evoked regularly firing impulses to 1, 10, and 100 mM NaCl solutions but not to CaCl(2) or MgCl(2). The dose-response patterns to the NaCl solutions were different among the neurons, which were classified into three types. These results showed that Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na(+) detected by the contact chemosensilla in the proboscis, which measure its concentration.

  20. Assessing the effect of the time since transition to organic farming on plants and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Dennis; Andersson, Georg K S; Ockinger, Erik; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bengtsson, Jan

    2011-06-01

    1.Environmental changes may not always result in rapid changes in species distributions, abundances or diversity. In order to estimate the effects of, for example, land-use changes caused by agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity and ecosystem services, information on the time-lag between the application of the scheme and the responses of organisms is essential.2.We examined the effects of time since transition (TST) to organic farming on plant species richness and butterfly species richness and abundance. Surveys were conducted in cereal fields and adjacent field margins on 60 farms, 20 conventional and 40 organic, in two regions in Sweden. The organic farms were transferred from conventional management between 1 and 25 years before the survey took place. The farms were selected along a gradient of landscape complexity, indicated by the proportion of arable land, so that farms with similar TST were represented in all landscape types. Organism responses were assessed using model averaging.3.Plant and butterfly species richness was c.20% higher on organic farms and butterfly abundance was about 60% higher, compared with conventional farms. Time since transition affected butterfly abundance gradually over the 25-year period, resulting in a 100% increase. In contrast, no TST effect on plant or butterfly species richness was found, indicating that the main effect took place immediately after the transition to organic farming.4.Increasing landscape complexity had a positive effect on butterfly species richness, but not on butterfly abundance or plant species richness. There was no indication that the speed of response to organic farming was affected by landscape complexity.5.Synthesis and applications. The effect of organic farming on diversity was rapid for plant and butterfly species richness, whereas butterfly abundance increased gradually with time since transition. If time-lags in responses to AESs turn out to be common, long-term effects would need to be