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Sample records for cabbage symplocarpus renifolius

  1. Cabbage Dish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams of cabbage, 40 grams of winter bamboo shoots, 40 grams of rehydrated winter mushrooms, 20 grams of green pepper, 20 grams of red pepper, 30 grams of scallions, 10 grams of ginger, 20-40 grams of chili pepper, 50 grams of salt, 50

  2. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  3. Study on the Optimum N Rates Under Spring Cabbage-Maize-Winter Cabbage Rotation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, field trials in two soils with different Nmin were conducted to study the effects of mineral N content (Nmin) in soil on the maximum yield N rate (MYNR), N recovery of cabbage under spring cabbage-maize-winter cabbage rotation system, and the correlation of N fertilization with cabbage yield and quality, and to provide the theoretical basis for N recommendation for high-yield, quality, and safety production of vegetables. The effects of six N rates of 0, 90, 180, 270,360, and 450 kg ha-1 on the yield, N recovery of spring cabbage, maize, and winter cabbage, water-soluble sugar, Vc, and nitrate content of vegetables were observed. The results showed that soil Nmin had a remarkable influence on the MYNR in the first spring cabbage season. The MYNR for spring cabbage lessened in the soil with high Nmin. Soil Nmin could be helpful to N recommendation only for the seasonal growing crop because its effects on the following crop yield was less with the active transformation of soil Nmin. The farmer's practice was 1.8-3.2 times higher than the MYNR of cabbage resulted in the nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Both N application rate and Nmin in the soil profile affected N recovery,whereas, the relay intercropping maize in the cabbage field increased the N recovery at a higher N application rate. Lower N rate (less than 90 kg ha-1) improved the yield and quality of cabbage at the same time; higher N rates increased cabbage yield, but decreased the quality; extremely high N rates of application deceased both yield and quality of cabbage. It was concluded that the soil Nmin had close correlations with MYNR and N recovery of the seasonal growing cabbage. Although the residual effects of the N fertilizer were obvious in Shajiang black meadow soil, cabbage-maize rotation increased the N recovery in treatments with higher N rates. Considering the effects of N rates on cabbage yield and quality, it is necessary to reduce the N rate and lower the yield target for

  4. Growth and thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage and cabbage juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E; Hao, D Y; Conner, D E

    1986-10-01

    Studies were done to determine the interacting effects of pH, NaCl, temperature, and time on growth, survival, and death of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Viable population of the organism steadily declined in heat-sterilized cabbage stored at 5 degrees C for 42 days. In contrast, the organism grew on raw cabbage during the first 25 days of a 64-day storage period at 5 degrees C. Growth was observed in heat-sterilized unclarified cabbage juice containing less than or equal to 5% NaCl and tryptic phosphate broth containing less than or equal to 10% NaCl. Rates of thermal inactivation increased as pH of clarified cabbage juice heating medium was decreased from 5.6 to 4.0. At 58 degrees C (pH 5.6), 4 X 10(6) cells/mL were reduced to undetectable levels within 10 min. Thermal inactivation rates in clarified cabbage juice (pH 5.6) were not significantly influenced by the presence of up to 2% NaCl; however, heat-stressed cells had increased sensitivity to NaCl in tryptic soy agar recovery medium. Cold enrichment of heat-stressed cells at 5 degrees C for 21 days enhanced resuscitation. Results indicate that L. monocytogenes can proliferate on refrigerated (5 degrees C) raw cabbage which, in turn, may represent a hazard to health of the consumer. Heat pasteurization treatments normally given to cabbage juice or sauerkraut would be expected to kill any L. monocytogenes cells which may be present.

  5. Response of broccoli and cabbage hybrid cultivars to clomazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide (Command 3ME) is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Cabbage cultivars vary in clomazone tolerance, and recommended use rates can cause severe foliar chlorosis and yield reduction to susceptible cultivars. The objectiv...

  6. Natural regulation of Delia radicum in organic cabbage production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyling, N.V.; Navntoft, S.; Philipsen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, we evaluated effects of three different organic white cabbage-cropping systems (O1, O2, O3) on the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, and its egg predators and pupal parasitoids over 3 years. The three systems all complied with regulations for organic production, but varied...

  7. One pot biosynthesis of gold NPs using red cabbage extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekeufack, Diane D; Brioude, Arnaud

    2012-02-07

    Red cabbage extract was used as reducing agent and capping agent for the synthesis of gold NPs. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows the control of NPs shape and size by changing the pH value and the concentration of aqueous red cabbage extract solution.

  8. SO2 : Nutrient or toxin for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping

    2005-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) is one of the most important high-yield vegetable crops in China, and is often cultivated around big cities. Atmospheric SO2 pollution may affect Chinese cabbage, which is usually produced under intensive farming practice with low-sulfur or even sulfur-free fert

  9. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  10. Determination of Thioglucoside inCabbage by Using the Ultraviolet-visible Light Spectrophotometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometer method was adopted to determine thioglucoside in cabbage with the seeds. Individual plant of cabbage was used as test materials,palladium chloride as complexing agent and sodium cellulose glycolate as dispersing agent. The results showed that palladiumd thioglucoside method could be taken as a quick,easy and precise quantitative analysis method to determine thioglucoside in cabbage.

  11. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  12. Production of yeast biomass using waste Chinese cabbage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ho Choi; Yun Hee Park [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea). Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology

    2003-08-01

    The possibility of using waste Chinese cabbage as a substrate for microbial biomass production was investigated. Cell mass and the protein content of four species of yeast, Candida utilis, Pichia stipitis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were determined when cultured in juice extracted from cabbage waste. Compared to YM broth containing the same level of sugar, all the strains except C. utilis showed higher total protein production in cabbage juice medium (CJM). Cell mass production was lower for all four strains in heat-treated CJM than in membrane-filtered medium, and this adverse effect was pronounced when the CJM was autoclaved at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. As a source of inorganic nitrogen, only ammonium sulfate added at a concentration of 0.5 g nitrogen per liter of CJM increased cell growth. Of the seven organic nitrogen sources tested, only corn steep powder was effective in increasing cell mass (by about 11%). As a micronutrient, the addition of 0.5 mM zinc increased cell mass. The results suggest that juice from waste Chinese cabbages can be used to produce microbial biomass protein without substantial modification, after preliminary heat treatment at temperatures below those required for sterilization. (Author)

  13. Identification of seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Target detectionis one of research focues for precision chemical application. This study developed a method to identify seedling cabbages and weeds using hyperspectral spectral imaging. In processing the image data, with ENVI software, after dimension reduction, noise reduction, de-correlation for h...

  14. Aphrodisiac pheromones from the wings of the Small Cabbage White and Large Cabbage White butterflies, Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildizhan, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M.; Arsene, C.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Schulz, S.

    2009-01-01

    The small and large cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae and P. brassicae, are found worldwide and are of considerable economic importance. The composition of the male scent-producing organs present on the wings was investigated. More than 120 components were identified, but only a small portion proved

  15. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  16. Enhancement of trace-element content of cabbages grown in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.; MacKenzie, E.J.

    1970-01-01

    Significantly higher contents of boron, molybdenum and zinc were observed in cabbages in urban than in rural areas. The levels of extractable boron, copper, lead, nickel and zinc were markedly enhanced in the urban soils but there was no corresponding enhancement of the levels of copper, lead and nickel in the cabbages. 10 references, 2 tables.

  17. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  18. 78 FR 48805 - Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 20, 2012 (77 FR 23608). Table 1 1. Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Sprucewold Cabbage Island Swim, Linekin Bay, Boothbay... from hazards associated with the swim event. During the enforcement period, no person or vessel...

  19. Differences in tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clomazone herbicide is registered for cabbage in the U.S., but not for other cultivar groups within Brassica oleracea. Greenhouse and field experiments were designed to compare the tolerance of broccoli and cabbage cultivars to clomazone and assess its potential for weed management in broccoli. Fo...

  20. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  1. Host plant resistance towards the cabbage whitefly in Brassica oleracea and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, K. T B; Broekgaarden, C.; Voorrips, R. E.; Bas, N.; Visser, R. G F; Vosman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) is a phloem-feeding insect that is a serious problem in Brassica oleracea crops like Brussels sprouts, kale and savoy cabbage. In order to develop whitefly-resistant varieties it is essential to identify effective sources of resistance. In this study, we s

  2. Earliness, leaf surface wax and sugar content predict varietal differences for thrips damage in cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    When cabbage is cultivated for storage in the Netherlands, it is usually harvested around mid-October. This type of cabbage crop may be severely damaged by thrips (Thrips tabaci). The thrips population on the plants and the more severe symptoms develop mostly during September and October. Also durin

  3. Plant traits associated with resistance to Thrips tabaci in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.; Steenhuis, M.M.; Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    Thrips tabaci is a major problem in the cultivation of cabbage for storage, as this pest causes symptoms that necessitate the removal of affected leaves from the product. Between cabbage varieties large differences in susceptibility occur. This study aimed to identify plant traits associated with th

  4. Impacts of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Endophytic Bacteria in Chinese Cabbage in Urumqi City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of agricultural irri- gation with reclaimed water in Urumqi City. [Method] Chinese cabbages were used as experimental materials and irrigated with control water, 50% reclaimed water and 100% reclaimed water, and then the number of endophytic bacteria in Chinese cab- bages was measured. [Result] Using 50% reclaimed water, the fresh weight of Chi- nese cabbage was improved by 68.94%; however, with the deepening internalization of exogenous microorganism internalization, the total number of endophytic bacteria and coliform flock in Chinese cabbages treated with 50% reclaimed water was sig- nificantly higher than the other two treatment groups (P〈0.05). [Conclusion] Re- claimed water enhances both the weight of Chinese cabbage and the number of endophytic bacteria, which is unsuitable for irrigation of edible crops such as Chi- nese cabbage. Strengthening disinfection during the process of sewerage treatment could solve this problem.

  5. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of cadmium-treated white cabbage plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borek M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technique is a valuable tool to study the impact of heavy metal stress in plants. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of Cd on photosynthetic apparatus of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata f. alba plants. Two cabbage cultivars ‘Ditmarska Najwcześniejsza’ (‘DN’; early and ‘Amager Polana’ (‘AP’; late were used. Cd was applied before planting seedlings (10 mg Cd kg−1 DM of soil.. Measurements were performed at the 3rd leaf after 2 weeks of planting. The level of Cd-induced stress to plants was estimated by chlorophyll (Chl content (photometrically and analyses of images and numeric values of the major fluorescence parameters of Chl (Chl fluorescence imaging system FluorCam. Cd negatively affected the chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm, Fv’/Fm’, Φ PSII and qP in leaves of early cultivar of white cabbage. However, in the case of late cv. we did not observe such distinct changes. It suggests that late cultivars. are more resistant to Cd than the early ones. Considering methodological aspect of the study, Chl fluorescence imaging can better reveal some alterations within the leaf, because numeric values of specific parameters, which are the averaged data collected from the whole leaf, cannot reflect the tissue specificity. Abbreviations: HM – heavy metal, Cd – cadmium, Chl – chlorophyll, Fv/Fm – photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark-adapted state, F‘v’/F‘m’ – PSII maximum efficiency, Φ PSII – quantum efficiency of PSII electron transport, NPQ – nonphotochemical quenching of maximal Chl fluorescence, qP – photochemical quenching coefficient.

  6. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BONG, Y.; Shin, W.; Gautam, M. K.; Jeong, Y.; Lee, A.; Jang, C.; Lim, Y.; Chung, G.; Lee, K.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) analyses. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage. Also, multivariate statistical analyses of multiple elements were found to be very effective in distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages.

  7. A new experimental hybrid of cabbage suitable for early production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes experimental hybrids of early cabbage developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in the previous period. The hybrids were tested together for two years and then one (H17 was chosen and submitted to the Variety Commission of the Republic of Serbia. In 2011, the experimental hybrid H17 was officially released as an early cabbage hybrid and registered under the name of NS Mendo F1. The hybrid had been developed by crossing two early lines, one of which was sterile. It is characterized by a short growing season - 65 days from transplanting to harvest. The head weight ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 kg depending on the cultural practice applied. The head is light green in color, sweet-tasting, and suitable for fresh consumption. The hybrid’s traits that contributed significantly to the formation of the first principal component were in fact those that the breeders attach most importance to in their breeding programs. These are the traits that directly influence the market value of a new hybrid and make a given hybrid recognizable on the market. Most notable among such traits are head weight and the weight of the useful part of the head.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31030

  8. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  9. Determination and dynamics of difenoconazole residues in Chinese cabbage and soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Hua Wang; Tong Yang; Dong Mei Qin; Yong Gong; Ying Ji

    2008-01-01

    An analytical method was developed using a solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography for detecting the residues of difenoconazole in Chinese cabbage and soil. The recovery and the relative standard deviation of this method in Chinese cabbage was 87.6-99.0%, 1.71-10.50%, respectively; in soil was 92.4-95.5%, 4.93-10.70%, respectively. Further degradation of difenoconazole residue in Chinese cabbage and soil was studied to evaluate residue behavior and environmental safety of difenoconazole. Degradation rate of difenoconazole in both Chinese cabbage and soil followed the first order kinetics with the half-lives of 6.6-7.8 and 54.2-55.0 days, respectively.

  10. Effects of Potash Fertilizer on Cabbage' s Quality in CadmiumPolluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiao-jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explain how potassium affect the quality of cabbage growing in cadmium contaminated soils, a pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of different dosages of potash fertilizer on the cabbage yield, physiological characteristics(the concentration of chlorophyll and the activity of antioxidative enzymeand heavy metal concentration in two cadmium contaminated soils. The result showed that cabbage' s fresh weight above ground and underground decreased 2.6% and 19.8% respectively in low cadmium stress, while decreased 7.1%and 45.5%in high cadmiumstress. After increasing the dosage of potash fertilizer in low concentration cadmium polluted soil, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground increased by 0.3%~34.0%and the underground part decreased by 1.2%~7.4%. At the same time, after application of potash fertilizer in high concentration stress, cabbage' s fresh weight above ground had no significant change while the underground part significantly increased by 41.8%~87.3%. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves increased slightly in low cadmium stress, after application of potash fertilizer, the concentration of chlorophyll a increased greatly but chlorophyll b had no obvious change. The concentration of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in cabbage leaves decreased greatly in high cadmiumstress and it had no tremen-dous change after application of potash fertilizer. The activity of antioxidative enzymes(CAT, SOD and PODin cabbage leaves were strength-ened in low cadmium stress while the activity of kinds of antioxidative enzymes in cabbage leaves were weakened in high cadmium stress. Af-ter application of potash fertilizer in two cadmium polluted soils, all kinds of enzyme activity had a trend to increase. Applying potash fertiliz-er into the cadmium contaminated soils could effectively increase the concentration of vitamin C, reducing sugar and promote the free amino acids transforming into crude

  11. Insect-resistant transgenic cabbage plants and their progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛慧珠; 唐惕; 曹湘玲; 白永延; 郭培福; 符文俊

    1996-01-01

    An insecticidal crystal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis was transferred into cabbage genome with the method of Agrobacterium infection. Cotyledons with petioles as explants were cocultivated with Agrobacterial suspension. Calli generated at the basis of petiole were subjected to selection on the MS medium containing 15-30 mg/L kanamycin (Km). About 5% explants produced calli growing continuously on the selective medium. Green shoots appeared on these calli when they were transplanted onto medium with Km and 6-BA for plant differentiation. The shoots were separated and cultivated on medium with kanamycin. About 80% shoots were rooted. Non-transformed control calli could not give normal shoots and roots and brownized and died gradually. Larvae of Pieris rapae showed poisonous symptoms: growth inhibition and mortality when fed with the leaf of the transgenic plants. About 80% of regenerated plants showed positive hybridization bands when their DNA were probed with crystal protein sequence of Bacillu

  12. Weed Management of The Abundance of Insect natural Enemies in a Cabbage Field

    OpenAIRE

    Ngatimin, Sri Nur Aminah; Syatrawati; Widarawati, Rosi

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine of effect of weed management level on the abundance of insect natural enemies in cabbage fields. Two levels of weed management were applied in the field, namely with and without herbicide application in two growers cabbage fields in Malino, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Results demonstrated that insect natural enemies were more abundant in the field without herbicide application than those in the field with herbicide application. Five species of predatory ins...

  13. Determining the geographical origin of Chinese cabbages using multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Yeon-Sik; Shin, Woo-Jin; Gautam, Mukesh Kumar; Jeong, Youn-Joong; Lee, A-Reum; Jang, Chang-Soon; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Chung, Gong-Soo; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2012-12-15

    Recently, the Korean market has seen many cases of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) that have been imported from China, yet are sold as a Korean product to illegally benefit from the price difference between the two products. This study aims to establish a method of distinguishing the geographical origin of Chinese cabbage. One hundred Chinese cabbage heads from Korea and 60 cabbage heads from China were subjected to multielement composition and strontium isotope ratio ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) analyses. The (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio differed, based on the geological characteristics of their district of production. In addition, the content of many elements differed between cabbages from Korea and China. In particular, the difference in the content of Sr and Ti alone and the combination of Sr, Ca, and Mg allowed us to distinguish relatively well between Korea and China as the country of origin. The present study demonstrates that the chemical and Sr isotopic analyses exactly reflect the geology of the production areas of Chinese cabbage.

  14. The utilization of ozone to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluxtipun, Y.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the utilization of ozone to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage. The experimental design used in the study was Randomized Block Design (RCB. 35% w/v EC of Endosulfanorganoclorine pesticide was used, with the recommended dose, to spray on Chinese cabbage every 7th day for three weeks. Five days after the last spay, the Chinese cabbage was harvested and ozone-dissolved water was used to reduce endosulfan residues in the cabbage at 5ºC at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes, respectively. The result showed that ozone-dissolved water at 25 minutes could effectively reduce 71.93% of endosulfan residues. This percentage was lower than the Maximum Residues Limit (MRL of 2.0 mg/kg of vegetables proscribed by CODEX. Furthermore, the study found that the more time used, the less the purity of ozone-dissolved water. This resulted in the decrease of ozone efficiency to reduce endosulfan residues in Chinese cabbage.

  15. Mechanical Stress Results in Immediate Accumulation of Glucosinolates in Fresh-Cut Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Požrl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of mechanical stress and the temperature significantly affect the levels of individual and total glucosinolates in shredded white cabbage (cv. Galaxy. Mild processing (shredding to 2 mm thickness at 8°C resulted in the accumulation of glucosinolates (40% increase in comparison with unshredded cabbage, which was already seen 5 min after the mechanical stress. Severe processing (shredding to 0.5 mm thickness at 20°C, however, resulted in an initial 50% decrease in glucosinolates. The glucosinolates accumulated in all of the cabbage samples 30 min from processing, resulting in higher levels than in unshredded cabbage, except for the severe processing at 20°C where the increase was not sufficient to compensate for the initial loss. Glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the major glucosinolates identified in the cabbage samples. Mechanical stress resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of glucobrassicin and in a decrease in neoglucobrassicin.

  16. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by filmco

  17. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  18. Impact of sulfate nutrition on the utilization of atmospheric SO2 as sulfur source for Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liping; Stulen, I.; De Kok, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to utilize atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) as sulfur (S) source for growth was investigated in relation to root sulfate (SO42-) nutrition. If seedlings of Chinese cabbage were transferred to a sulfate-deprived nutrient solution directly after ger

  19. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  20. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%-14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%-9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg(-1)) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg(-1) Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk.

  1. In Vitro Assessment of Cadmium Bioavailability in Chinese Cabbage Grown on Different Soils and Its Toxic Effects on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Rukhsanda; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; He, Zhenli; Liu, Di; Sun, Kewang; Xiaoe, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The minimum concentration of cadmium (Cd), by Chinese cabbage grown on Cd contaminated soils that can initiate toxicity in human liver cells using in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2/HL-7702 cell models was studied. Cadmium bioaccessibility in the gastric phase for yellow soil (YS) cabbage (40.84%) and calcareous soil (CS) cabbage (21.54%) was significantly higher than small intestinal phase with the corresponding values of 21.2% and 11.11%, respectively. Cadmium bioavailability was higher in YS cabbage (5.27%–14.66%) than in CS cabbage (1.12%–9.64%). Cadmium concentrations (>0.74 μg) transported from YS and CS cabbage were able to induce oxidative (MDA, H2O2) stress by inhibiting antioxidant (SOD, GPx) enzyme activities in human liver cells (HL-7702). Additionally the study revealed that the ingestion of Cd contaminated Chinese cabbage grown in acidic soil (yellow soil) weakened the antioxidant defense system under all levels of contamination (2, 6, and 9 mg·kg−1) which ultimately escalated the oxidative stress in liver cells; however, in case of CS cabbage, a marked oxidative stress was observed only at 9 mg kg−1 Cd level of soil. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor Cd concentrations in leafy vegetables grown on acidic soils to minimize human health risk. PMID:26167479

  2. Radionuclide concentration in cabbage samples due to gamma radiation in Samsun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıkulaç, Aydan; Gümüş, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    Establishing of radioactivity planes in foodstuff has emphasis because it allows the evaluation of population exposure to radiation by take nourishment. In this paper, the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined in cabbage samples collected from Samsun city of Turkey using a gamma ray spectrometry method with a HPGe detector. The mean concentration value of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in cabbage samples were 1.11±0.03 Bqkg-1, 1.44±0.04 Bqkg-1, 743.75±21.21 Bqkg-1 and 0.18±0.003 Bqkg-1, respectively. The calculated total annual effective dose received from 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs due to cabbage samples by population of Samsun province was quite lower than the World average value as suggested by UNSCEAR.

  3. The Effect of Adjuvants on Penetration of beta-cypermethrin Through the Epidermis of Cabbage Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yi; ZHANG Li-ta; ZHENG Fei-neng; CHEN Fu-liang; LIANG Wen-ping

    2002-01-01

    The effects of three types of adjuvant (mineral oil, higher aliphatic acid and nonionic surfactant) on the penetration of beta-cypermethrin through the cabbage leaf surface were studied. The results showed that the penetration was positively correlated with both the concentration of adjuvant and the time after application, in a given range of treatment. A synergistic effect of two types of adjuvant on the penetration was found. Some physical properties of emulsions were determined. The change of the structures of the cabbage leaf surface by these adjuvants was observed from photomicrographs. The mechanism concerned with the effect of these adjuvants on the penetration of beta-cypermethrin through the cabbage leaf surface was tentatively discussed.

  4. A repellent net as a new technology to protect cabbage crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Palix, R; Kamal, A; Delétré, E; Bonafos, R; Simon, S; Ngouajio, M

    2013-08-01

    Floating row covers or insect-proof nets with fine mesh are effective at protecting vegetable crops against aphids but negatively impact plant health, especially under warm conditions. Furthermore, in control of cabbage insect pests, aphid parasitoids cannot enter the fine-mesh nets, leading to frequent aphid outbreaks. To surmount these difficulties, a 40-mesh-size repellent net treated with alphacypermethrin was studied in laboratory and field tests. Results showed both irritant and repellent effects of the alphacypermethrin-treated net on Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphidius colemani (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Under field conditions, there were no pests on cabbage protected with the repellent net. The repellent net allowed combining a visual and repellent barrier against aphids. Because of this additive effect, repellent nets allowed covering cabbage permanently with adequate protection against all pests.

  5. Correlations between colonization of onion thrips and leaf reflectance measures across six cabbage varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Bálint

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana - considered resistant - and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor - considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340-400 nm and visible (401-650 nm light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management.

  6. Isolation of a cadmium-binding complex from cabbage and tobacco leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C

    1980-01-01

    Cd binding complexes with mol wts of approximately 10k daltons were observed in extracts, protoplast lysates, and protoplast cytosol obtained from the leaves of several plants. Extracts of the roots and stems of cabbage also contain the complex. In cabbage and tobacco the ligand appears to be both inducible and constitutive as determined by its association with Cd acquired either during growth of plants in the presence of the metal or after addition of the metal to extracts of Cd free leaves. Current efforts are directed toward determining the nature of the ligand.

  7. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  8. Phenotype microarray profiling of the antibacterial activity of red cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh RR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional food can be a potent source of wide array of biocomonents with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the antibacterial activity of red cabbage (RC extract on Gram negative and positive ATCC strains. Most intersting, we, for the first time, explored and analysed the complete phenotypic profile of RC-treated bacteria using Omnilog Phenotype Microarray. Results: This study revealed that the phenotype microarray (PM screen was a valuable tool in the search for compounds and their antibacterial mechanisms that can inhibit bacterial growth by affecting certain metabolic pathways. It was shown that RC exerted remarkable antibacterial effect on S. aureus and E. coli bacteria, and PM showed a wide range phenotypic profile of the exerted RC antibacterial activity. RC targeted the peptide, carbon, nutriontional assembly, and sulfur metbolic pathways altogether. The peptidoglycan synthesis pathway was inferred to be targeted by RC extract at a metabolic point different from other available cell wall-targeting drugs; these could be hot targets for the discovery of new therapy for many problematic microbes.Conclusions: Taken together, the phenotype microarray for functional food and medicinal plants can be a very useful tool for profiling their antimicrobial activity. Moreover, extracts of functional food can exert antibacterial activity by hitting a wide range of metabolic pathways, at the same time leading to very difficult condition for bacteria to rapidly develop resistance. Therefore, using functional foods or medicinal plants as such, or as extracts, can be superior on mono-targeting antibiotics if the optimal concentrations and conditions of these functional foods were sought.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  10. Genome-wide identification, classification, and analysis of heat shock transcription factor family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X Y; Tao, P; Li, B Y; Wang, W H; Yue, Z C; Lei, J L; Zhong, X M

    2015-03-27

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide, and various methods exist for selection, propagation, and cultivation. The entire Chinese cabbage genome has been sequenced, and the heat shock transcription factor family (Hsfs) has been found to play a central role in plant growth and development and in the response to biotic and abiotic stress conditions, particularly in acquired thermotolerance. We analyzed heat tolerance mechanisms in Chinese cabbage. In this study, 30 Hsfs were identified from the Chinese cabbage genome database. The classification, phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution, conserved motifs, expression analysis, and interaction networks of the Hsfs were predicted and analyzed. Thirty BrHsfs were classified into 3 major classes (class A, B, and C) according to their structural characteristics and phylogenetic comparisons, and class A was further subdivided into 8 subclasses. Distribution mapping results showed that Hsf genes were located on 10 Chinese cabbage chromosomes. The expression profile indicated that Hsfs play differential roles in 5 organs in Chinese cabbage, and likely participate in the development of underground parts and regulation of reproductive growth. An orthologous gene interaction network was constructed, and included MBF1C, ROF1, TBP2, CDC2, and HSP70 5 genes, which are closely related to heat stress. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of Hsfs in Chinese cabbage and provide a basis for further functional gene research.

  11. IMPACT OF BACTERIAL QUORUM SENSING SYSTEM ON CHANGES OF ORGANOLEPTIC MARKERS OF STORAGE CABBAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Myszka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of phenotypes of vegetable-associated bacteria can be mediated through the production of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs. This knowledge is essential for successful control of bacterial diseases of vegetable. The purpose of these investigations was to define the AHL patterns of gram-negative bacteria presented in storage cabbage by LC/MS technique. The phenomenon of regulating the pectinolytic activity and the exopolysaccharide (EPS production by AHLs that are associated with microbial spoilage of cabbage was also examined. Among 100 strains isolated from storage cabbage, 47 isolates produced AHLs. The results of the 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that selected microflora was highly closely related to Pantoea agglomerans, Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas syringae, and Pseudomonas cedrina (approximately 98%-99% confidence. The chemical nature of AHLs produced by selected microflora differ from species to species. The pattern of AHLs of Ps. cedrina consisting of C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C10-HSL, and 3-hydroxy-C14-HSL, has not been previously reported. The present study demonstrates that bacterial spoilage of storage cabbage is influenced by quorum sensing. Application of furanone C-30 that acts as quorum sensing inhibitor, caused the significant reduction in the production of EPS and pectinolytic enzymes by examined bacteria.

  12. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an ovipos

  13. Pathotype Classification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Isolates Using Clubroot-Resistant Cultivars of Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae is one of the most serious diseases in Brassica crops worldwide. In this study, the pathotypes of 12 Korean P. brassicae field isolates were determined using various Chinese cabbage including 22 commercial cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan, and 15 inbred lines. All P. brassicae isolates exhibited the typical clubroot disease on non-clubroot resistant cultivar, indicating that the isolates were highly pathogenic. According to the reactions on the Williams’ hosts, the 12 field isolates were initially classified into five races. However, when these isolates were inoculated onto clubroot-resistant (CR cultivars of Chinese cabbage, several isolates led to different disease responses even though the isolates have been assigned to the same race by the Williams’ host responses. Based on the pathogenicity results, the 12 field isolates were reclassified into four different groups: pathotype 1 (GN1, GN2, GS, JS, and HS, 2 (DJ and KS, 3 (HN1, PC, and YC, and 4 (HN2 and SS. In addition, the CR cultivars from Korea, China, and Japan exhibited distinguishable disease responses to the P. brassicae isolates, suggesting that the 22 cultivars used in this study, including the non-CR cultivars, are classified into four different host groups based on their disease resistance. Combining these findings, the four differential hosts of Chinese cabbage and four pathotype groups of P. brassicae might provide an efficient screening system for resistant cultivars and a new foundation of breeding strategies for CR Chinese cabbage.

  14. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  15. Host plant mediation of diapause induction in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-PING WANG; FENG GE; FANG-SEN XUE

    2006-01-01

    The cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of crucifers in China, undergoing an imaginal summer and winter diapause in the soil. The effects of host plants on diapause incidence were tested in the beetle. The ratio of adults entering diapause was significantly low when they fed on the mature leaves of Chinese cabbage Shanghaiqin (Brassica chinesis var communis) than those feeding on Chinese cabbage Suzhouqin (Brassica chinesis var communis), radish (Raphanus sativus var longipinnatus) and stem mustard (Brassicajuncea var tumida) at 25℃ combined with 13:11 (L: D) h. Fewer adults entered diapause on young leaves compared to physiologically aged and mature radish leaves at 25 ℃ combined with 13:11 (L: D) h. The effect of host plant species on diapause induction was also evident under continuously dark rearing conditions or at different photoperiods. These experimental results demonstrate that host plant mediation of diapause induction exists in the cabbage beetle. However, at temperatures ≤ 20℃ or photoperiods of 16:8 (L: D) h combined with 25 ℃, all individuals entered diapause regardless of the host plants, indicating that the effects of host plants on diapause induction could be expressed only within a limited range of temperatures and photoperiods.

  16. Survival of cabbage stem flea beetle larvae, Psylliodes chrysocephala, exposed to low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Bligaard, J.; Esbjerg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. The larvae live throughout winter in leaf petioles and stems. Winter temperatures might play an important role in survival during winter and hence population dynamics...

  17. Biological Aspects for Forecasting of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    Summary The cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest in winter oilseed rape (WOSR) Brassica napus L. with variation in abundance and damage between years. The adult beetles invade fields at the time of crop emergence and cause...

  18. Black rot of cabbage in The Netherlands: studies on spatial and temporal development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocks, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Black rot in cabbage is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris . An exploratory survey at farm level suggested that major aspects contributing to black rot development are cultivar, initial inoculum, refuse management, origin of transplants, and seed quality. Black rot develop

  19. Obtaining and Cytological Identification of a Set of Primary Trisomics in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-he; ZHU Hai-yan; LI Xiao-feng; SHEN Shu-xing; CHEN Xue-ping; MAN Hong; XUAN Shu-xin

    2006-01-01

    Selection of primary trisomics of the cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata L) forms an important basis for gene chromosome mapping and for other genetic studies. The cabbage self-fertilization line - 9601 was used as material, using the root-tip cell chromosome number and pollen mother cell chromosome number identification and karyotype analysis to select the primary trisomics from the progenies of 3x × 2x in the cabbage. Many aneuploid plants with one or two extra chromosomes were obtained and a set of primary trisomics (Tri-1, Tri-2, Tri-3, Tri-4, Tri-5, Tri-6, Tri-7, Tri-8, and Tri-9, in which the Tri- 1 and Tri-4 were from 2n + 2 plants and others from 2n + 1 plants) was acquired from these plants. Each trisomic exhibited some unique features, such as plant height, plant type, leaf type, size of flower bud, and inflorescence.The triploid crossing by the diploid is a convenient and effective way to select trisomics in the cabbage.

  20. Evaluation of nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings using hyper-spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suming; Chen, Chia-Tseng; Wang, Ching-Yin; Yang, I.-Chang; Hsiao, Shih-Chieh

    2007-09-01

    Monitoring of nutrient status of crops is essential for better management of crop production. Nitrogen is one of the most important elements in fertilizer for the growth and yield of vegetable crops. In this study, nitrogen content of cabbage seedlings was evaluated using hyper-spectral images. Cabbage seedlings, cultured at five nitrogen fertilization levels, were planted in the 128-cell plug trays and grown in a phytotron at National Taiwan University. The images, ranged from 410 to 1090 nm, of cabbage seedlings were analyzed by a hyper-spectral imaging system consisting of CCD cameras with liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF), which was developed in this study. The digital images of seedling canopies were processed including image segmentation, gray level calibration and absorbance conversion. Models including modified partial least square regression (MPLSR), step-wise multi-linear regression (SMLR) and artificial neural network with cross-learning strategy (ANN-CL) were developed for the determination of the nitrogen content in cabbage seedlings. The three significant wavelengths derived from SMLR model are 470, 710, and 1080; and the best result is obtained by ANN-CL model, in which r c=0.89, SEC=6.41 mg/g, r v=0.87, and SEV=6.96 mg/g. The ANN-CL model is more suitable for the remote sensing in precision agriculture applications because not only its model accuracy but also only 3 wavelengths are needed.

  1. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  2. Zinc and cadmium accumulation in cabbage aphid(Brevicoryne brassicae)host plants and developmental instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gazi G(o)rür

    2009-01-01

    Developmental instability in morphological characters can occur during individual development due to various environmental stresses.Fluctuating asymmetry (FA)is often used as a measurement of developmental instability.but within-environment variation(cve)is also considered an indicator of developmental instability.Cabbage aphid nated cabbage and radish plants.Developmental instability indicators were measured and their relations with fitness were explored.Results revealed that cabbage aphids exposed to Cd and Zn displayed considerable developmental instability,particularly fluctuating asymmetry.Differences in developmental instability between the two metals were also detected,as well as differences between the two developmental instability measurements.For almost all measured traits.FA was greater on Cd-and Zn-contaminated compared to non-contaminated host plants.In contrast.CV of some traits was greater on non-contami-nated host plants,yet for Otller traits CV Was greater on contaminated host plants.There were also non-significant inverse relationships between FA and fitness of cabbage aphid populations.Due to weak correlations between FA and different patterns of two developmental instability measurements,this study does not support the hypothesis that developmental instability is a useful bioindicator of environmental quality.

  3. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Podsędek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage.

  4. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-fa LIU; Ting-qiang LI; Xiao-e YANG; Cheng-xian WU; Muhammad T. RAFIQ; Rukhsanda AZIZ; Dan-di HOU; Zhe-li DING; Zi-wen LIN; Lin-jun LOU; Yuan-yuan FENG

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mol isol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physico-chemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mol isol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively.

  5. Accumulation of mercury in rice grain and cabbage grown on representative Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-fa; Wu, Cheng-xian; Rafiq, Muhammad T; Aziz, Rukhsanda; Hou, Dan-di; Ding, Zhe-li; Lin, Zi-wen; Lou, Lin-jun; Feng, Yuan-yuan; Li, Ting-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2013-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the accumulation properties of mercury (Hg) in rice grain and cabbage grown in seven soil types (Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols) spiked with different concentrations of Hg (CK, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00, and 4.00 mg/kg). The results of this study showed that Hg accumulation of plants was significantly affected by soil types. Hg concentration in both rice grain and cabbage increased with soil Hg concentrations, but this increase differed among the seven soils. The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that pH, Mn(II), particle size distribution, and cation exchange capacity have a close relationship with Hg accumulation in plants, which suggested that physicochemical characteristics of soils can affect the Hg accumulation in rice grain and cabbage. Critical Hg concentrations in seven soils were identified for rice grain and cabbage based on the maximum safe level for daily intake of Hg, dietary habits of the population, and Hg accumulation in plants grown in different soil types. Soil Hg limits for rice grain in Udic Ferrisols, Mollisol, Periudic Argosols, Latosol, Ustic Cambosols, Calcaric Regosols, and Stagnic Anthrosols were 1.10, 2.00, 2.60, 2.78, 1.53, 0.63, and 2.17 mg/kg, respectively, and critical soil Hg levels for cabbage are 0.27, 1.35, 1.80, 1.70, 0.69, 1.68, and 2.60 mg/kg, respectively.

  6. Molecular identification and population dynamics of two species of Pemphigus (Homoptera: Pemphidae) on cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiqi Chen; Tong-Xian Liu; Mamoudou Sétamou; J. Victor French; Eliezer S. Louzada

    2009-01-01

    The poplar petiole gall aphid, Pemphiguspopulitransversus Riley, has been one of the major pests on cruciferous vegetable in the Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas since the late 1940s. It normally migrates from poplar trees to cruciferous vegetables in the fall, and migrates back to the trees in early spring of the coming year. Some root-feeding aphids were found on cruciferous vegetables in late spring and early summer in 1998 and the following years. Those aphids have been identified as Pemphigus obesinymphae Moran. This discovery completely changed the current knowledge about the root-feeding aphids on cruciferous vegetables in the LRGV. Due to their small size, morphological and feeding similarities between P. populitransversus and P. obesinymphae, their identification and distinction are difficult. In this study, random amplification ofpolymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were used to distinguish these two species over a period of time when the two species occurred together, or separately, in cabbage fields. The two species occurred on cabbage at different times of the year, and overlapped from October to June. From May to October, both species migrated to their primary hosts. The apterous aphids found on cabbage in winter contained mainly P. obesinymphae, whereas in early spring more apterous P. populitransversus were recovered. The root-feeding aphids would feed on cabbage plants as long as this host was available even during the hot, dry summer in the LRGV, although their populations were generally low. Both RAPD and AFLP techniques were efficient in discriminating the two species that showed obviously genetic variability. These molecular techniques confirmed the existence of the two aphid species in apterous samples collected from the soil in cabbage fields in the LRGV, and the results performed by RAPD were confirmed by AFLP. Furthermore, the results suggest that RAPD technique was a better choice despite its

  7. Role of xylo-oligosaccharides in protection against salinity-induced adversities in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Guo, Chen; Hussain, Saddam; Zhu, Bingxin; Deng, Fang; Xue, Yan; Geng, Mingjian; Wu, Lishu

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is a stringent abiotic constraint limiting crop growth and productivity. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) in improving the salinity tolerance of Chinese cabbage. Salinity stress (0.5% NaCl solution) and four levels (0, 40, 80, 120 mg L(-1)) of XOSs were imposed on 20-day-old plants cultured under controlled conditions. Salinity stress decreased the aboveground fresh biomass, photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll contents but increased the stomatal limitation value of Chinese cabbage compared with control. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Chinese cabbage were significantly alleviated by the addition of XOSs under salinity stress. Under salinity stress, application of XOSs significantly enhanced the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, carotene) antioxidants and reduced the malondialdehyde content in the leaves of Chinese cabbage. The XOS-applied plants under salinity stress also recorded higher soluble sugars, proline, and soluble protein content in their leaves. Exposure of salinity stress increased the ratio of Na(+)/K(+), Na(+)/Ca(2+), and Na(+)/Mg(2+) in shoot as well as root of Chinese cabbage, however, XOS application significantly reduced these ratios particularly in shoot. Lower levels of XOSs (40 or 80 mg L(-1)) were more effective for most of the studied attributes. The greater salinity tolerance and better growth in these treatments were related with enhanced antioxidative defense system, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased osmolyte accumulation, and maintenance of ionic balance.

  8. Evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-08-01

    Delia radicum L. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for Brassicaceous crops. There are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in Slovenia. Fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. In the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage maggot eggs. The soil tests mimicked pathways of natural exposure of various insect life stages to the fungal strains. Conidial concentrations used in soil tests were comparable to economic rates for in-furrow application. The following fungi were tested: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst. (2 isolates), Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans (1), Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin. (3), Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch (1), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (2), Metarhizium robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (1), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (4), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2), and Clonostachys solani f. nigrovirens (J.F.H. Beyma) Schroers (2). Abbott's corrected mortality in the in vitro tests ranged from 0.0 +/- 18.9 to 47.6 +/- 9.0% and in the soil test from 2.4 +/- 13.0 to 68.2 +/- 21.5%. Seven isolates (B. bassiana [isolate 1174], C. solani [1828], M. anisopliae [1154 and 1868], T. atroviride [1872], T. koningiopsis [1874], and T. gamsii [1876]) caused significant cabbage maggot mortality in either in vitro or soil tests. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion during the screening of potential biological control agents is discussed.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films With Essential Oils Against Listeria monocytogenes on Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Gordana D.; Klaus, Anita S.; P. Niksic, Miomir

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of listeriosis, due to consumption of ready-to-eat foods and fresh, shredded, minimally processed vegetables, occurs among pregnant women and the elderly. In order to reduce the prevalence of listeriosis among consumers, better protective measures are recommended. Chitosan films, with or without added essential oils, represent a modern, safe method of preserving the quality of such vegetables and significantly reducing the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in these foods. Objectives The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of composite chitosan-gelatin films with and without essential oils against two strains of L. monocytogenes, ATCC 19115 and ATCC 19112, in fresh shredded cabbage. Methods Shredded cabbage was inoculated with L. monocytogenes and packed between two layers of the chitosan composite film, then placed in Petri dishes. The prepared samples were stored at 4°C then analyzed for total viable count on PALCAM agar while incubated at 37°C, every 24 hours for 7 days. Results Average L. monocytogenes content ranged from 4.2 - 5.4 log CFU/g, reaching values of 7.2 - 8.6 log CFU/g in samples of untreated cabbage. A complete reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on cabbage was achieved after 120 hours in the presence of 0.5% chitosan film, whereas reduction of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved after 144 hours. In the presence of 1% chitosan film, the bacteria withered more quickly and complete reduction of both species of L. monocytogenes was achieved after 96 hours. Conclusions All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of both strains of L. monocytogenes on cabbage. The best effect was achieved with a 1% chitosan concentration. The addition of essential oils increased the antimicrobial activity of all tested films. PMID:27800143

  10. Extraction of red cabbage anthocyanins: optimization of the operation conditions of the column process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fonseca Xavier

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to extract anthocyanins from the red cabbage. Batch studies under several extraction conditions indicated that acetic acid in aqueous solution (10% V/V was the best solvent, used in the proportion of 0.25 g of red cabbage mL-1. At this condition, column assays were carried out to evaluate the influence of the ionic force, pH, solvent flow rate, recirculated volume of red cabbage juice and the mass of red cabbage. Results showed that the pH, recirculation and mass of red cabbage had statistically significant effects, where the optimum operation conditions found for the process were pH 2.3, recirculation volume of the solvent 0.83 L and mass of red cabbage 50 g.Desde os primórdios dos tempos as antocianinas são extraídas de vegetais, mas avanços que garantam um processo viável e rentável exigem conhecimento, quantificação e controle das condições de operação. Estudos em batelada sob várias condições de extração indicaram que ácido acético em solução aquosa (10% V/V foi o melhor solvente, quando usado na proporção de 0,25 g de repolho roxo mL-1. Nesta condição de operação foram feitos ensaios em coluna para avaliar a influência da força iônica, pH, taxa de escoamento do solvente, volume recirculado da solução de extração e massa de repolho roxo. Os resultados mostraram que o pH, recirculação e massa de repolho foram estatisticamente significativos, e as condições ótimas de operação encontradas para o processo foram pH 2,3, volume de solvente recirculado de 0,83 L e massa de repolho roxo igual a 50g.

  11. Effects of a Pre-Filter and Electrolysis Systems on the Reuse of Brine in the Chinese Cabbage Salting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Jae Yeol; Jang, Keum-Il

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of a pre-filter system and electrolysis system on the safe and efficient reuse of brine in the cabbage salting process were investigated. First, sediment filter-electrolyzed brine (SF-EB) was selected as brine for reuse. Then, we evaluated the quality and microbiological properties of SF-EB and Chinese cabbage salted with SF-EB. The salinity (9.4%) and pH (4.63) of SF-EB were similar to those of control brine (CB). SF-EB turbidity was decreased (from 0.112 to 0.062) and SF-EB residual chlorine (15.86 ppm) was higher than CB residual chlorine (0.31 ppm), and bacteria were not detected. Salinity (2.0%), pH (6.21), residual chlorine (0.39 ppm), chromaticity, hardness, and chewiness of cabbage salted with SF-EB were similar to those of cabbage salted with CB. The total bacterial count in cabbage salted with CB was increased as the number of reuses increased (from 6.55 to 8.30 log CFU/g), whereas bacteria in cabbage salted with SF-EB was decreased (from 6.55 to 5.21 log CFU/g). These results show that SF-EB improved the reusability of brine by removing contaminated materials and by sterilization.

  12. Effect of NH4+-N/NO-3-N Ratios on Growth and Some Physiological Parameters of Chinese Cabbage Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; LUO Jin-Kui; SHEN Qi-Rong

    2005-01-01

    The responses of three cultivars of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.), one of the main vegetable crops in China,to different ratios of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was investigated to find the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrate for maximal growth and to explore ways of decreasing the nitrate content, increasing nitrogen use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and determining distributions of nitrogen and carbon. Three cultivars of Chinese cabbage were hydroponically grown with three different NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratios (0:100, 25:75 and 50:50). The optimal ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N for maximal growth of Chinese cabbage was 25:75. The increase in the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N significantly decreased nitrate content in various tissues of Chinese cabbage in the order of petiole > leaf blade > root. The highest total nitrogen (N) content was found when the ratio of NH4+-N/NO-3-N was 25:75, and N contents in plant tissues were significantly different, mostly being in the order of leaf blade > petiole > root. At the NH4+-N/NO-3-N ratio of 25:75, the biomasses of Chinese cabbage nitrate and total nitrogen contents were lower. Thus, partial replacement of nitrate by ammonium could improve vegetable production by both increasing yields and decreasing nitrate content of the plants.

  13. Identification of Heat Tolerance Linked Molecular Markers of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L.ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiao-ying; WANG Yong-jian; SONG Shun-hua; LI Li; YU Shuan-cang

    2002-01-01

    Genetically stable population of recombination inbred line (RIL) was derived from a cross between a heat tolerant line 177 and a heat sensitive line 276 of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp.pekinensis ) by single seed descent. The RILs were analyzed using isozyme, RAPD and AFLP techniques in order to find molecular markers that are linked to heat tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL). The results of variance analysis of single factor indicated that there were 9 molecular markers closely linked with heat tolerance QTL, including 5 AFLP markers, 3 RAPD markers and 1 PGM isozyme marker. Total genetic contribution of these makers to heat tolerance was 46.7%. Five of the nine markers distributed in one linkage group,the remaining 4 markers were located in separate groups. Thus the 9 heat tolerance linked markers distributed in 5 independent locations in the genome of Chinese cabbage.

  14. Study on the Effect of Pickled Cabbage using Freeze-drying Protective Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Long

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of pickled cabbage using biological material was researched in the study. Firstly, the research determined the centrifugal condition of bacterial sludge and then detected the influence of various protective agents on the survival rate of lactobacillus. The final test result can show the influence degree of various protective agents on the survival rate of the freeze-drying lactobacillus was sodium glutamate>skim milk>mannitol>sucrose>glycerol>maltose. The best formula of the protective agent was: the skim milk, sucrose, glycerol, maltose and sodium glutamate shall be 6% and the mannitol shall be 4%. The survival rate of the lactobacillus after using the sodium glutamate with the best protection effect can reach 65.5%. The experience proved that these protective agents and ratio can guarantee the nutrients in the pickled cabbage not destroyed.

  15. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; pkale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  16. Relation between tipburn appearance of Chinese cabbage and calcium content and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000-2001 investigations were carried out on the dependence between the tipburn appearance on Chinese cabbage and the content of calcium and its distribution in leaves. It was found that the highest concentration of calcium (to 4,4% occurred in outside leaves and the lowest was found in leaves inside the head (to 1,0 %. The marginal part in every outside leaf contained more calcium than midrib of leaf. This dependence weakly appeared in leaves wrapping the head and was absent inside the head, where often the calcium concentration was higher in the midrib part of leaf than in the margin part. Distinct differences in the calcium content in leaves of four culti vars of F1, Chinese cabbage: ´Bilko', ´Parkin', 'Kasumi' and 'Yamiko' were not found. These cultivars differed clearly in the susceptibility to the tipburn incidence which appearance depended also on the temperature stress.

  17. Determining inhibition effects of some aromatic compounds on peroxidase enzyme purified from white and red cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztekin, Aykut; Almaz, Züleyha; Özdemir, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Peroxidases (E.C.1.11.1.7) catalyze the one electron oxidation of wide range of substrates. They are used in synthesis reaction, removal of peroxide from industrial wastes, clinical biochemistry and immunoassays. In this study, the white cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var. capitata f. alba) and red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra) peroxidase enzymes were purified for investigation of inhibitory effect of some aromatic compounds on these enzymes. IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzymes and inhibition type of these molecules were determined. (This research was supported by Ataturk University. Project Number: BAP-2015/98).

  18. Identification of candidate genes for Fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage by differential expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motoki; Fujimoto, Ryo; Ying, Hua; Pu, Zi-jing; Ebe, Yusuke; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Saeki, Natsumi; Taylor, Jennifer M; Kaji, Makoto; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is an important disease of Brassica worldwide. To identify a resistance (R) gene against Fusarium yellows in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we analyzed differential expression at the whole genome level between resistant and susceptible inbred lines using RNA sequencing. Four hundred and eighteen genes were significantly differentially expressed, and these were enriched for genes involved in response to stress or stimulus. Seven dominant DNA markers at putative R-genes were identified. Presence and absence of the sequence of the putative R-genes, Bra012688 and Bra012689, correlated with the resistance of six inbred lines and susceptibility of four inbred lines, respectively. In F(2) populations derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible inbred lines, presence of Bra012688 and Bra012689 cosegregated with resistance, suggesting that Bra012688 and Bra012689 are good candidates for fusarium yellows resistance in Chinese cabbage.

  19. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  20. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of acidic peroxidase from cabbage leaves (Brasicca olearacea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The present work deals with extraction of cabbage peroxidase (CP from fresh cabbage leaves and subsequent purification using ammonium sulphate (80% w/v precipitation. The peroxidase extraction has been carried out by screening two different cabbage and then different parameters like different buffer systems, strength of buffers, buffer volumes, grinding time and cabbage leaves weight ratio to buffer volumes were optimized. The purified peroxidase showed maximum activity at pH 5.5 and at temperature 55 °C. The enzyme action followed the Michelis–Menton kinetics and gave a Km of 0.7018 mg/ml for Guaiacol oxidation over different concentrations (0 – 10 mg/ml at pH 5.0 and Vmax was obtained as 0.6498 mg/min.ml. The molecular weight of the partially purified enzyme was found to be about 67,000 Daltons using SDS-PAGE and zymogram method. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  1. The use of legume cover crops in no-tillage broccoli and cabbage production

    OpenAIRE

    Seward, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 1983 and 1984 to compare conventional tillage (CT) versus no-tillage (NT) production of broccoli and cabbage. The tillage treatments were applied in combination with four rates of applied nitrogen fertilizer and three cover crops: hairy vetch (Vigia villosa Roth), Austrian winter pea (Fisum arvenu L.), and cereal rye (Secale cereale L.). Transplants of 'Premium Crop' broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) and 'Market Prize'...

  2. Toxic Metals up taken by Cabbage Grown in Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.L.O. Jimoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, iron and zinc were investigated in soil and lettuce obtained from irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained were compared with limit recommended by FAO/WHO standard (2007 so as to ascertain the extent of their pollution. The level of cadmium in cabbage ranged from 0.04-1.20μg/g. The concentrations of lead was found to be in range of 0.61-3.87 μg/g ,these were above the limit stipulated by WHO while iron concentration ranged from 0.50-12.40μg/g and zinc 2.72:g/g-18.53μg/g were within the recommended limit given by the FAO/WHO standard. This suggests that consumers of cabbage grown in the studied areas might be liable to lead and cadmium toxicity as at the time of this research work. Pearson correlation shows positive correlation between soil and cabbage in these irrigation sites.

  3. Effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on Chinese cabbage yield and soil phosphorus accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua LIAO; Jianling LIU; Xinjun Wang; Ke JIA; Na MENG

    2008-01-01

    The yield response of Chinese cabbage to phosphate fertilizer and manure was studied.The effect of over-application of phosphate fertilizer and manure on plant total phosphorus content and phosphorus accumulation in soil was also investigated.The experiment was arranged in a plastic barrel in the field for two years.Application of phosphate fertilizer at the rates of 150-Chinese cabbage.Application of manure at the rates of 33.3-133.2 g.kg-1 gave a yield increase of 18.2%-25.9% of the crop.There was no significant difference of yield resfertilizer,and no significant yield response to the application of phosphate fertilizer after applying manure.The total P content in Chinese cabbage was increased gradually with the rate increase of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Phosphorus was absorbed luxuriously by the plant with over-application phosphate fertilizer and manure.The content of total-P,Olsen-P,water-soluble P,biological available P in the soil was increased with the rate of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Organic phosphorus in the soil was increased by the application of manure.Olsen-P had high correlations with water-soluble-P and biological available-P,but there was a poor relationship between Olsen-P and organic-P.

  4. Phosphorus fertilization of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbages in phosphorus-rich Eutrustox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop fertilization with P is a practice that constantly needs to be improved because of its high cost, natural reserve constraints, and environmental impact caused by the excessive use of nutrients. Phosphorus rates (0, 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720 kg P2O5 ha-1 in the cultivation of 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata in a P-rich Eutrustox soil (93 mg P dm-3 in Jaboticabal (21°15'22'' S, 48°15'58" W; 575 m a.s.l., São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Phosphorus rates influenced plant characteristics and soil P content. Maximum leaf and soil P content was obtained with 720 kg P2O5 ha-1, but maximum values of leaf area, leaf dry mass, cabbage head mass, and productivity were obtained with 420, 310, 430, and 437.5 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively. Results indicate that even crops grown in a P-rich soil benefit from applying P fertilizer, which has a positive effect on the growth and productivity of the 'Fuyutoyo' cabbage.

  5. Effects of an environmental friendly slow-releasing woodchip fertilizer on cabbage production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh Ali Ahmed; Su Kyoung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Wood from three tree species was used for making slow-releasing woodchip fertilizer. Fertilizer made from Populus tomentiglandulosa retained the highest amounts of N(29. 04%),P2O5(26. 03%)and K2O(16. 93%). On the other hand, woodchip fertilizer made from Pinus koraiensis retained the lowest amounts of N(26. 22%),P2O5(21. 80%)and K2O(14. 49%). Afield experiment Was performed in a 50 m2 experimental plot at Gangwon Agricultural Research and Extension Services,Chuncheon, Korea from August to November 1999. The effects of a general fertilizer along with compost and slow releasing woodchip fertilizer without compost on the cabbage production were observed. Cabbage production parameters,such as top height, head weight,head height,head width,number of outer and inner leaves,leaf width and head length,increased in the field where Larix kaempferi woodchip fertilizer was added as a basal dose. The result showed that the woodchip fertilizer made from Pinus koraiensis had faster releasing properties compared to other woodchip fertilizers. Without adding any compost in the woodchip fertilized field, woodchip fertilizer showed a superior outcome over a general chemical fertilizer. Although the amount of woodchip fertilizer Was larger compared to that of a chemical fertilizer, it increased cabbage production.

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Xanthomonas campestris strains isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-six strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc isolated from cabbage, kale and broccoli were identified according to their pathogenicity, phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Pathogenicity was confirmed by the injection method with a hypodermic syringe into the mesophilic tissue of cabbage leaves. All strains were Gramnegative, aerobic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, grew at 35°C, produced levan, H2S and indole, did not reduce nitrate, hydrolyzed Tween 80, starch, gelatin and esculin and did not show tolerance to 0.1 and 0.02% TTC. The strains produced acid from d-arabinose, arginine, dulcitol, galactose, d-glucose, maltose, mannose, sorbitol, sucrose and xylose. The genetic characterization was based on the sequence analyses of 16S rDNA and ERIC and BOX PCR. Strains of different pathovars were also used to compare PCR resulting patterns. BOX-PCR of the strains from kale and broccoli, obtained using (GTG5 primer, yielded patterns with a high similarity level to pathovar reference strain Xcc. The strains from cabbage yielded BOX and ERIC product patterns, distinguishing them from the other tested strains and reference strains. 16S rDNA of the representative strains was closely related to Xcc strain ATCC 33913. ERIC PCR and BOX using (GTG5 primer generated different Xcc patterns and were effective in distinguishing strains from different plant hosts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010 i br. III46007

  7. Parasitoid Quality of Gronotoma micromorpha Parasitizing Liriomyza huidobrensis on Chinese Cabbage and Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA DAHA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A study with the aim to investigate the quality of Gronotoma micromorpha which attack the immature developmental stages of Liriomyza huidobrensis has been carried out. Such variables as body length measured from caput to the tip of abdomen, wing span and the length of tibia of hind leg were measured to represent parasitoid quality. The immature developmental stage period of the parasitoid was also recorded. The result indicated that a better quality Gronotoma was obtained when it was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on chinese cabbage with the average of 123.85 m for body length, 253.45 m for wing span, and 42.85 m for the length of hind tibia, respectively. When Gronotoma was developed in the Liriomyza larvae fed on soy bean, its size became smaller with the average of 97.7 um for body length, 214.3 um for wing span, and 37.2 um for the hind tibia. When it is developed in the Liriomyza on chinese cabbage host plant the immature developmental period of Gronotoma is sligthly shorter with the average of 18.4 and 17.3 days for which developed in the larvae and pupa respectively and on soy bean it become longer with the average of 19.2 days for in eggs, 19.9 days for that in the larvae. On chinese cabbage, Liriomyza tend to have bigger size for both flies and pupae.

  8. Chemical stimulants of leaf-trenching by cabbage loopers: natural products, neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussourd, David E

    2003-09-01

    Larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), often transect leaves with a narrow trench before eating the distal section. The trench reduces larval exposure to exudates, such as latex, during feeding. Plant species that do not emit exudate, such as Plantago lanceolata, are not trenched. However, if exudate is applied to a looper's mouth during feeding on P. lanceolata, the larva will often stop and cut a trench. Dissolved chemicals can be similarly applied and tested for effectiveness at triggering trenching. With this assay, I have documented that lactucin from lettuce latex (Lactuca sativa), myristicin from parsley oil (Petroselinum crispum), and lobeline from cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) elicit trenching. These compounds are the first trenching stimulants reported. Several other constituents of lettuce and parsley, including some phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes, and furanocoumarins had little or no activity. Cucurbitacin E glycoside found in cucurbits, another plant family trenched by cabbage loopers, also was inactive. Lactucin, myristicin, and lobeline all affect the nervous system of mammals, with lobeline acting specifically as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. To determine if cabbage loopers respond selectively to compounds active at acetylcholine synapses, I tested several neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs with known neurological activity, many of which triggered trenching. Active compounds included dopamine, serotonin, the insecticide imidacloprid, and various drugs such as ipratropium, apomorphine, buspirone, and metoclopramide. These results document that noxious plant chemicals trigger trenching, that loopers respond to different trenching stimulants in different plants, that diverse neuroactive chemicals elicit the behavior, and that feeding deterrents are not all trenching stimulants. The trenching assay offers a novel approach for identifying defensive plant compounds with potential uses

  9. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and medium zeolite doses (≤ 10 g · kg⁻¹), while inhibited by high zeolite doses (20 g · kg⁻¹). Compared to ordinary zeolite, the biomass of Chinese cabbage was significantly increased

  10. The application of soil amendments benefits to the reduction of phosphorus depletion and the growth of cabbage and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Kerr, Philip; Wu, Yonghong; Fang, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    The loss of phosphorus from agricultural intensive areas can cause ecological problems such as eutrophication in downstream surface waters. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to control the phosphorus loss using environmentally benign soil amendments, viz, ferrous sulfate (FES), aluminum sulfate (ALS), and polyacrylamide (PAM). The phosphorus concentration changes in soil and leaching solution, the morphological index of plant (including stem and root), and root activity and quality (represented by chlorophyll and soluble sugar) at different growth stages of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were monitored in a pilot experiment. Phosphorus contents in soil and runoff were also investigated in field experiments cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.). The results show that the application of these amendments improved the phosphorus uptake by cabbage and corn, resulting in the enhanced morphologies of root and stem as well as the root activity at the early and middle stages of cabbage growth. The soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soils treated with FES, ALS, and PAM declined, resulting in lower concentrations of phosphorus in the leachate and the soil runoff. During the use of the soil amendments, the cabbage quality measures, determined as chlorophyll and soluble sugar in leaves, were not significantly different from those in the control. It is suggested that the application of these soil amendments is safe for cabbage production under single season cropping conditions, and the use of these three amendments is a promising measure to reduce phosphorus loss in intensive agricultural areas.

  11. Genistein: A Novel Anthocyanin Synthesis Promoter that Directly Regulates Biosynthetic Genes in Red Cabbage in a Light-Dependent Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Qi, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Hongfei; Shi, Yantong; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Genistein (GNT), an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L) as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage. PMID:27990149

  12. Genistein: a novel anthocyanin synthesis promoter that directly regulates biosynthetic genes in red cabbage in a light-dependent way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genistein (GNT, an isoflavone, is used in the clinical treatment of various health disorders. GNT is found in primary food source plants and some medical plants. However, studies on the functions of GNT in plants are rarely reported. In this study, we demonstrated that GNT plays an important role in promoting anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage. GNT solutions (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/L as foliar fertilizers were applied to red cabbage. Consequently, anthocyanin accumulation in red cabbage increased in a light-dependent manner. GNT solution at 30 mg/L exhibited the optimal effect on anthocyanin accumulation, which was twice that of the control. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GNT application upregulated the expression of all structural genes, contributing to anthocyanin biosynthesis under light conditions. Under dark conditions, GNT exerted no significant promotive effect on anthocyanin accumulation; only early biosynthetic genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis responded to GNT. The promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin biosynthesis is directly attributable to the regulation of structural gene expression. Transcription factors exhibited no response to GNT. The levels of anthocyanin in red cabbage positively correlated with the enzyme activities of antioxidant systems. This finding correlation suggested that the promotive effect of GNT on anthocyanin levels was correlated with improved antioxidant activity in the red cabbage.

  13. Temperature dependent functional response of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moayeri, Hamid R. S.; Madadi, Hossein; Pouraskari, Hossein;

    2013-01-01

    Diaeretiella rapae MacIntosh (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is one of the most common and successful parasitoids of the cabbage aphid. The functional response of D. rapae towards cabbage aphids was examined in laboratory studies at three constant temperatures, 17°C, 25°C and 30°C. D. rapae exhibited...

  14. Feeding Deterrence of Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 1-Allyloxy-4-Propoxybenzene, Alone and Blended With Neem Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda M; Rogers, Megan; Aalhus, Melissa; Seward, Brendan; Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2014-12-01

    The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most damaging insect pests of cabbage (Brassica oleracea variety capitata) and broccoli (B. oleracea variety italica) in North America. Leaf-feeding larvae attack crucifer and vegetable crops in greenhouses and fields. Here, we have studied a synthetic feeding deterrent, 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, and a botanical deterrent, neem (an extract from seeds of Azadirachta indica A. de Jussieu (Meliaceae)), in leaf disc choice bioassays with T. ni. We tested the two deterrents and the combination, and we found that the blend exhibits synergy between the two deterrents. We also tested the deterrents in assays with whole cabbage plants in ventilated enclosures and found that 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene evaporated and, therefore, in that context addition of 1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene to neem did not enhance deterrence against T. ni.

  15. Influence of fermentation conditions on glucosinolates, ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid content in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Peñas, E; Frias, J; Ciska, E; Honke, J; Piskula, M K; Kozlowska, H; Vidal-Valverde, C

    2009-01-01

    The content of glucosinolates (GLS), ascorbigen, and ascorbic acid in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata cv. Taler) cultivated in different seasons (summer and winter) was determined, before and after spontaneous and starter-induced fermentation. Different salt concentrations (0.5% NaCl or 1.5% NaCl) were used for sauerkraut production. Glucoiberin, sinigrin, and glucobrassicin were dominating in raw white cabbage cultivated either in winter or summer seasons. Ascorbigen precursor, glucobrassicin, was found higher in cabbage cultivated in winter (2.54 micromol/g dw) than those grown in summer (1.83 micromol/g dw). Cabbage fermented for 7 d was found to contain only traces of some GLS irrespective of the fermentation conditions used. Ascorbigen synthesis occurred during white cabbage fermentation. Brining cabbage at low salt concentration (0.5% NaCl) improved ascorbigen content in sauerkraut after 7 d of fermentation at 25 degrees C. The highest ascorbigen concentration was observed in low-sodium (0.5% NaCl) sauerkraut produced from cabbage cultivated in winter submitted to either natural (109.0 micromol/100 g dw) or starter-induced fermentation (108.3 and 104.6 micromol/100 g dw in cabbages fermented by L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides, respectively). Ascorbic acid content was found higher in cabbage cultivated in summer and fermentation process led to significant reductions. Therefore, the selection of cabbages with high glucobrassicin content and the production of low-sodium sauerkrauts may provide enhanced health benefits towards prevention of chronic diseases.

  16. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  17. Phytotoxic Effects of Cinnamic Acid on Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the effects of exogenous application of cinnamic acid (CA on growth and metabolism in growing seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage in hydroponic culture. CA was added at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM concentrations. CA has shown inhibitory effects on shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of seedlings. CA significantly decreased the photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase activity and protein content. Graded concentrations of CA increased lipid peroxidation and sugar content. The increasing concentrations of CA significantly increased the antioxidative enzyme activities viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase against the oxidative stress caused by CA.

  18. Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreres, F; Valentão, P; Llorach, R.; Pinheiro, C.; Cardoso, L; Pereira, J.A.; Seabra, R.M.; Andrade, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Glycosylated kaempferol derivatives from the external leaves of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costataDC) characterized by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI were kaempferol 3- Osophorotrioside- 7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O- (methoxycaffeoyl/caffeoyl)sophoroside-7- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophorotrioside-7-O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-sophoroside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempferol 3- O-tetraglucoside-7- O-sophoroside, kaempf...

  19. Microbiota contaminante em repolho minimamente processado Microbial population in minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Fantuzzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota contaminante de repolho minimamente processado foi avaliada durante as etapas de sanitização e estocagem sob atmosfera modificada passiva em embalagens com diferentes taxas de permeabilidade a O2 e CO2 e a 1ºC, 5ºC e 12ºC. A sanitização do repolho por 10min., à temperatura ambiente, em soluções sanitizantes de hipoclorito de sódio a 200mgL-1, de composto orgânico clorado a 200mgL-1 ou ácido acético a 1% reduziu em, no máximo, 1,8log10 UFCg-1 a população de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos. A concentração de CO2 no interior das embalagens variou significativamente (PThe microbial populations associated with minimally processed cabbage after sanitation and storage at 1ºC, 5ºC and 12ºC under modified atmosphere was analyzed. Sanitation of cabbage for ten minutes at room temperature in 200mgL-1 sodium hypochlorite and chlorinated organic compound or 1% acetic acid resulted in the reduction of up to 1.8log10CFUg-1 in the aerobic mesophilic bacteria population (P0.05 differences in concentrations of CO2 were found in the interior of the packages during fifteen days of storage. No variation was found in the mesophilic aerobic or anaerobic counts, and psycrotrophic microorganisms during storage at 1ºC and 5ºC for the three packaging materials used. The minimally processed cabbage was in good sensorial conditions for up to 20 days of storage at 1ºC and 5ºC in the packaging materials of high O2 permeability. The samples packed in transparent plastic trays sealed with thermal-shrinking PVC presented undesirable sensorial characteristics on the twentieth day of storage at 5ºC. After five days of storage at 12ºC the fresh-cut cabbage presented evident signs of deterioration, as dark spots, slime and off odor. There was a 3log10 CFUg-1 increase in the aerobic and anaerobic mesophiles and psycrotrophic populations in these samples.

  20. Carotenoid and polyphenol bioaccessibility and cellular uptake from plum and cabbage varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulmann, Anouk; André, Christelle M; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Hoffmann, Lucien; Bohn, Torsten

    2016-04-15

    Plum and cabbage are rich in carotenoids and polyphenols. However, their bioactivity depends on their release and intestinal uptake. Four varieties of Brassicaceae (Duchy, Scots Kale, Kale, Kalorama) and Prunus (Cherry Plum, Plum 620, Ersinger, Italian Plum) were studied; bioaccessibility following in vitro digestion, cellular uptake (Caco-2 vs. co-culture cell model: Caco-2:HT-29-MTX (90:10%) and colonic fermentation were determined for carotenoids/polyphenols; the influence of certain kitchen preparations was likewise studied. Carotenoids were non-significantly influenced by the latter, while for polyphenols, boiling and steaming significantly reduced total phenolics (pfuture.

  1. [Spectrophotometric determination of scandium,gallium and vanadium in white cabbage leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, F; Połedniok, J

    1997-01-01

    Scandium, gallium and vanadium contents in plants is on the ppm level, although plants from industrial areas can show higher concentrations of these elements. In Department of Analytical Chemistry of Silesian University there have been elaborated new, sensitive, spectrophotometric methods of determination of scandium, gallium and vanadium using Chrome Azurol S (CAS) and Sterinol (ST). The aim of this study was the application of these methods in analysis of cultivated plants from polluted regions. White cabbage from Upper Silesia was chosen. Because the spectrophotometric methods are not selective, scandium, gallium and vanadium should be preliminary separated from interfering elements. The solvent reaction was applied for the isolation from main and trace components of investigated material. Tienoiltrifluoracetone solution in xylene was used for the extraction of scandium, mesithyloxide for vanadium and n-butyl acetate--for gallium. Interfering and not separated Fe(III) was isolated using the extraction with acetylacetone solution in CHCl3 in the case of scandium and the reduction to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid in the case of gallium and vanadium. Due to influence of Fe(II) on the vanadium determination, KCN was used as a masking agent directly after the reduction. Scandium, gallium and vanadium were determined in 6 independent samples of white cabbage after dry or wet mineralization and contents of these leemnets were found from calibration graphs. Obtain results were checked by the internal standard addition method and Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method (ICP AES). The amounts of gallium and vanadium in white cabbage from Upper Silesia District determined by elaborated methods are in good correlation with a literature data, although the contents of vanadium are on the toxic level. The scandium concentration is higher than in plants from not industrial areas. The standard recovery is satisfactory. The Atomic Emission Spectrometry Method gave comparable results. The

  2. Extinction of Vibrio choleare in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo; Vargas, Cecilia; Saborío-Argüello, Daniel; Vives-Blanco, Marcela

    1994-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1994 Lime juice killed Malian of Vibrio cholerae 01, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9 % of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The nu...

  3. A Co-Dominant Marker BoE332 Applied to Marker-Assisted Selection of Homozygous Male-Sterile Plants in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chen; ZHUANG Mu; FANG Zhi-yuan; WANG Qing-biao; ZHANG Yang-yong; LIU Yu-mei; YANG Li-mei; CHENG Fei

    2013-01-01

    The dominant genic male sterility (DGMS) gene CDMs399-3 derived from a spontaneous mutation in the line 79-399-3 of spring cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), has been successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several cabbage cultivars in China. During the development of dominant male sterility lines in cabbage, the conventional identification of homozygous male-sterile plants (CDMs399-3/CDMs399-3) is a laborious and time-consuming process. For marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the gene CDMs399-3 transferred into key spring cabbage line 397, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and SSR technology were used to identify markers that were linked to CDMs399-3 based on method of bulked segregant analysis (BSA). By screening a set of 978 EST-SSRs and 395 SSRs, a marker BoE332 linked to the CDMs399-3 at a distance of 3.6 cM in the genetic background of cabbage line 397 were identified. 7 homozygous male-sterile plants in population P1170 with 20 plants were obtained finally via MAS of BoE332. Thus, BoE332 will greatly facilitate the transferring of the gene CDMs399-3 into the key spring cabbage line 397 and improve the application of DGMS in cabbage hybrid breeding.

  4. Characterization of Natural Dye Extracted from Wormwood and Purple Cabbage for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used natural dyes as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to replace expensive chemical synthetic dyes. We prepared two natural dyes, chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye, by extracting them from wormwood and purple cabbage, respectively. Moreover, we mixed the prepared chlorophyll dye and anthocyanin dye at 5 different volume ratios to form cocktail dyes. For preparation of photoelectrode, P25 TiO2 nanoparticles were used to prepare paste, which was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO conductive glass by the spin coating method at different spin coating speeds in order to form TiO2 thin films with different thicknesses. The DSSC prepared by the cocktail dye achieves photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 1.95%, open-circuit voltage (VOC of 0.765 V, and short-circuit current density (JSC of 5.83 mA/cm2. Moreover, the prepared DSSC sensitized solely by chlorophyll extract of wormwood achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency (η of 0.9%, whereas the DSSC sensitized solely by anthocyanin extract of purple cabbage achieved a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 1.47%, achieving the longest lifetime of electrons amongst these three dyes.

  5. [Research on discrimination of cabbage and weeds based on visible and near-infrared spectrum analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Zhao, Chun-Jiang; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu

    2013-05-01

    The automatic identification of weeds forms the basis for precision spraying of crops infest. The canopy spectral reflectance within the 350-2 500 nm band of two strains of cabbages and five kinds of weeds such as barnyard grass, setaria, crabgrass, goosegrass and pigweed was acquired by ASD spectrometer. According to the spectral curve characteristics, the data in different bands were compressed with different levels to improve the operation efficiency. Firstly, the spectrum was denoised in accordance with the different order of multiple scattering correction (MSC) method and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing method set by different parameters, then the model was built by combining the principal component analysis (PCA) method to extract principal components, finally all kinds of plants were classified by using the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) taxonomy and the classification results were compared. The tests results indicate that after the pretreatment of the spectral data with the method of the combination of MSC and SG set with 3rd order, 5th degree polynomial, 21 smoothing points, and the top 10 principal components extraction using PCA as a classification model input variable, 100% correct classification rate was achieved, and it is able to identify cabbage and several kinds of common weeds quickly and nondestructively.

  6. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang, E-mail: ceszf@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC–MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. - Highlights: • In vivo SPME was employed to sample organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables. • Uptake and elimination of OPPs were traced in cabbage and aloe. • In vivo tracing of fenthion demonstrated its metabolites could be rather dangerous. • The risks of OPPs were assessed based on the in vivo tracing data.

  7. Impact of Vermicompost on Growth and Development of Cabbage, Brassica oleracea Linn. and their Sucking Pest, Brevicoryne brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew Getnet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to produce vermicompost from organic solid wastes by using red earth worm, Eisenia fetida and to check growth promoting and pest suppression properties on cabbage, Brassica oleracea. The mass of 100 kg of various organic waste sources were collected from Gondar and used to prepare vermicompost. The vermicompost was prepared in the month of June-August 2011 and tested on cabbage, B. oleracea from October 2011 to February 2012. Vermicompost was applied at the rate of 25, 50, 100 and 200 gm/plant individually. Each application 10 plants were selected and vermicompost application was continued on bimonthly basis. Totally 40 plants were used for control group in which 10 plants were selected randomly. Total number of leaves per plant; leaf length and width; plant stand height and root length; cabbage head round distance and weight and aphid population built-up were the parameters studied in experimental and control cabbage plants. Significant differences (p<0.05; LSD were observed in the growth and development and pest infestation level between vermicompost applied and control plants. The number of plant stand height, cabbage head, leaves of cabbage were also significantly different (p<0.05; LSD in experimental cabbage compared to control. Maximum number of cabbage plant was infested by aphid in control than experimental groups. In conclusion vermicompost have significant impact on cabbage growth promotion and reduce the aphid infestation. In future using vermicompost to all kinds of crops and adopting it as commercial fertilizer may create job opportunity to small scale farming society. Also, in this ever escalating cost of chemical fertilizers, the use of vermicompost seems to be quite reasonable in agro-management and should be inclusive as one of the elements of poverty alleviation strategies in such as Ethiopian context.

  8. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption.

  9. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR normalisation in non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, D.; Zhang, N.; Jianjun Zhao, Jianjun; Bonnema, A.B.; Hou, X.L.

    2012-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop that includes pak choi, caixin and several Japanese vegetables like mizuna, mibuna and komatsuna. Gene expression studies are frequently used to unravel the genetics of complex traits and in such studies the proper selection of reference gen

  10. Risk of Egg Parasitoid Attraction Depends on Anti-aphrodisiac Titre in the Large Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Swart, de E.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Tric

  11. Copper exposure interferes with the regulation of the uptake, distribution and metabolism of sulfate in Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Tseng, Mei Hwei; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Koralewska, Aleksandra; Posthumus, Freek S.; Venema, Jan Henk; Parmar, Saroj; Schat, Henk; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis) to enhanced Cu(2+) concentrations (1-10 mu M) resulted in leaf chlorosis, a loss of photosynthetic capacity and lower biomass production at >= 5 mu M. The decrease in pigment content was likely not the consequence of degradation, but due to hindered

  12. Redesigning biotechnology: experiences of a public-private partnership in the development of pro-poor transgenic cabbages in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the attempts of a public-private consortium in developing transgenic cabbages for resource-poor farmers in India, and its attempts to address several controversial issues related to the use of transgenic technology in plant breeding. A conceptual introduction suggests that the

  13. Melatonin improved anthocyanin accumulation by regulating gene expressions and resulted in high reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we found that exogenous melatonin pretreatment improved anthocyanin accumulation (1- to 2-fold in cabbage. To verify the relationship with melatonin and anthocyanin, an Arabidopsis mutant, snat, which expresses a defective form of the melatonin biosynthesis enzyme SNAT (Serotonin N-acetyl transferase, was employed. Under cold conditions, the foliage of wild-type Arabidopsis exhibited a deeper red color than the snat mutant. This finding further proved that exogenous melatonin treatment was able to affect anthocyanin accumulation. To gain a better understanding of how exogenous melatonin upregulates anthocyanin, we measured gene expression in cabbage samples treated with melatonin and untreated controls. We found that the transcript levels of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were upregulated by melatonin treatment. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased the expression levels of the transcription factors MYB, bHLH, and WD40, which constitute the transcriptional activation complex responsible for coordinative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. We found that free radical generation was downregulated, whereas the osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities were upregulated in exogenous melatonin-treated cabbage plants. We concluded that melatonin increases anthocyanin production and benefits cabbage growth.

  14. Effect of temperature on reproduction and embryonic development of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L., (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Sørensen, Helle; Bligaard, J.

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of winter oilseed rape. Despite the importance of this pest, detailed information on reproduction to predict risk of crop damage is lacking. This study investigates the effect of temperature...

  15. Fine-Mapping and Analysis of Cgl1, a Gene Conferring Glossy Trait in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezhou; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Sun, Peitian; Tang, Jun; Liu, Dongming; Zhang, Zhenxian; Yang, Limei

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes covering the outer plant surface impart a whitish appearance. Wax-less cabbage mutant shows glossy in leaf surface and plays important roles in riching cabbage germplasm resources and breeding brilliant green cabbage. This is the first report describing the characterization and fine-mapping of a wax biosynthesis gene using a novel glossy Brassica oleracea mutant. In the present paper, we identified a glossy cabbage mutant (line10Q-961) with a brilliant green phenotype. Genetic analyses indicated that the glossy trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Preliminary mapping results using an F2 population containing 189 recessive individuals revealed that the Cgl1 gene was located at the end of chromosome C08. Several new markers closely linked to the target gene were designed according to the cabbage reference genome sequence. Another population of 1,172 recessive F2 individuals was used to fine-map the Cgl1 gene to a 188.7-kb interval between the C08SSR61 simple sequence repeat marker and the end of chromosome C08. There were 33 genes located in this region. According to gene annotation and homology analyses, the Bol018504 gene, which is a homolog of CER1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, was the most likely candidate for the Cgl1 gene. Its coding and promoter regions were sequenced, which indicated that the RNA splice site was altered because of a 2,722-bp insertion in the first intron of Bol018504 in the glossy mutant. Based on the FGENESH 2.6 prediction and sequence alignments, the PLN02869 domain, which controls fatty aldehyde decarbonylase activity, was absent from the Bol018504 gene of the 10Q-961 glossy mutant. We inferred that the inserted sequence in Bol018504 may result in the glossy cabbage mutant. This study represents the first step toward the characterization of cuticular wax biosynthesis in B. oleracea, and may contribute to the breeding of new cabbage varieties exhibiting a brilliant green phenotype.

  16. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  17. Optimization of fermentation technology of the cabbage wine%甘蓝酿酒工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰; 华承伟; 武庆东; 呼慧丽

    2011-01-01

    The fermentation technology of the cabbage wine was studied using cabbage as raw material. The single factor experiments were used to evaluate the influence of different factors. Four factors including cabbage juice content, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and yeast inoculum were screened out. The orthogonal experiment was used to optimize fermentation technology, in which, sensory evaluation and alcohol content were indicators. The optimal fermentation technology was obtained as follows: cabbage juice content 60%, yeast inoculum 6%, fermentation time 6d and fermentation temperature 28tC. Under above conditions, alcohol content of the cabbage wine was 13%vol; the appearance was clear and brilliant with outstanding light green characteristic color, and it was full-bodied and rich in vegetable flavors.%以甘蓝为原料研究甘蓝酒的发酵工艺.分别对酿造工艺中的酵母接种量、发酵时间、发酵温度、甘蓝汁含量等因素进行了单因素试验,选取4个因素的合适水平进行4因素3水平的正交试验,以感官评分为指标对正交试验结果进行极差、方差分析,得出甘蓝滔的最佳发酵工艺条件是甘蓝汁含量60%,酵母的接种量6%,发酵时间6d,发酵温度32℃.经过发酵可得到酒精度13%vol,颜色漩绿、鲜亮,清澈、酒体透明,富含蔬菜清香、醇厚、口味纯正的优质甘蓝酒.

  18. Spatially-Optimized Sequential Sampling Plan for Cabbage Aphids Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Canola Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The cabbage aphid is a significant pest worldwide in brassica crops, including canola. This pest has shown considerable ability to develop resistance to insecticides, so these should only be applied on a "when and where needed" basis. Thus, optimized sampling plans to accurately assess cabbage aphid densities are critically important to determine the potential need for pesticide applications. In this study, we developed a spatially optimized binomial sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields. Based on five sampled canola fields, sampling plans were developed using 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 proportions of plants infested as action thresholds. Average sample numbers required to make a decision ranged from 10 to 25 plants. Decreasing acceptable error from 10 to 5% was not considered practically feasible, as it substantially increased the number of samples required to reach a decision. We determined the relationship between the proportions of canola plants infested and cabbage aphid densities per plant, and proposed a spatially optimized sequential sampling plan for cabbage aphids in canola fields, in which spatial features (i.e., edge effects) and optimization of sampling effort (i.e., sequential sampling) are combined. Two forms of stratification were performed to reduce spatial variability caused by edge effects and large field sizes. Spatially optimized sampling, starting at the edge of fields, reduced spatial variability and therefore increased the accuracy of infested plant density estimates. The proposed spatially optimized sampling plan may be used to spatially target insecticide applications, resulting in cost savings, insecticide resistance mitigation, conservation of natural enemies, and reduced environmental impact.

  19. Enhancement of tolerance to soft rot disease in the transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanjildorj, Enkhchimeg; Song, Seo Young; Yang, Zhi Hong; Choi, Jae Eul; Noh, Yoo Sun; Park, Suhyoung; Lim, Woo Jin; Cho, Kye Man; Yun, Han Dae; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2009-10-01

    We developed a transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin, with high tolerance to soft rot disease. Tolerance was conferred by expression of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AHL-lactonase) in Chinese cabbage through an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. To synthesize and express the AHL-lactonase in Chinese cabbage, the plant was transformed with the aii gene (AHL-lactonase gene from Bacillus sp. GH02) fused to the PinII signal peptide (protease inhibitor II from potato). Five transgenic lines were selected by growth on hygromycin-containing medium (3.7% transformation efficiency). Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated into the genome. Among these five transgenic lines, single copy number integrations were observed in four lines and a double copy number integration was observed in one transgenic line. Northern blot analysis confirmed that pinIISP-aii fusion gene was expressed in all the transgenic lines. Soft rot disease tolerance was evaluated at tissue and seedling stage. Transgenic plants showed a significantly enhanced tolerance (2-3-fold) to soft rot disease compared to wild-type plants. Thus, expression of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii reduces susceptibility to soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. We conclude that the recombinant AHL-lactonase, encoded by aii, can effectively quench bacterial quorum-sensing and prevent bacterial population density-dependent infections. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate the transformation of Chinese cabbage inbred line Kenshin, and the first to describe the effect of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii on enhancement of soft rot disease tolerance.

  20. Comprehensive Analysis of Photosynthetic Characteristics and Quality Improvement of Purple Cabbage under Different Combinations of Monochromatic Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biyun; Zhou, Xiangzhu; Xu, Ru; Wang, Jin; Lin, Yizhang; Pang, Jie; Wu, Shuang; Zhong, Fenglin

    2016-01-01

    Light is essential for plant growth. Light intensity, photoperiod, and light quality all affect plant morphology and physiology. Compared to light intensity, photoperiod, little is known about the effects of different monochromatic lights on crop species. To investigate how different lighting conditions influence crops with heterogeneous colors in leaves, we examined photosynthetic characteristics and quality (regarding edibility and nutrition) of purple cabbage under different combinations of lights. Eight different treatments were applied including monochromic red (R), monochromic blue (B), monochromic yellow (Y), monochromic green (G), and the combination of red and blue (3/1, RB), red/blue/yellow (3/1/1, RBY), red/blue/green (3/1/1,RBG), and white light as the control. Our results indicate that RBY (3/1/1) treatment promotes the PSII activity of purple cabbage, resulting in improved light energy utilization. By contrast, both G and Y lights alone have inhibitory effect on the PSII activity of purple cabbage. In addition, RBY (3/1/1) significantly boosts the anthocyanin and flavonoids content compared with other treatments. Although we detected highest soluble protein and vitamin C content under B treatment (increased by 30.0 and 14.3% compared with the control, respectively), RBY (3/1/1) appeared to be the second-best lighting condition (with soluble protein and vitamin C content increased by 8.6 and 4.1%, respectively compared with the control). Thus we prove that the addition of yellow light to the traditional combination of red/blue lighting conditions is beneficial to synthesizing photosynthetic pigments and enables superior outcome of purple cabbage growth. Our results indicate that the growth and nutritional quality of purple cabbage are greatly enhanced under RBY (3/1/1) light, and suggest that strategical management of lighting conditions holds promise in maximizing the economic efficiency of plant production and food quality of vegetables grown in

  1. Integrative Research and Development Utilization of Flowering Cabbage%菜心的综合开发利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿安静; 于秀荣; 王富华

    2012-01-01

    Flowering cabbage is one main kind of vegetable cultivated in southern region in China, which is most cultivated, produced and supplied all over the year in Guangdong province. Its leaf is eaten most, but its stem leaf and root which are taken up 30%-50% of the total flowering cabbage plant are rotten in vegetable field as waste. It pollutes the environment and wastes resource. Flowering cabbage can be used as raw material of pectin, dietary fiber and pigment. By use of biological fermentation technology, it could be deep precessed into many products such as alcohol, lactate and its derivatives, sewage gas and so on. Integrative research and development of flowering cabbage is the tendency of production development of flowering cabbage for enhancing economic returns.%菜心是我国华南地区栽培的主要蔬菜,是广东省栽培面积大、周年生产供应的重要蔬菜之一。菜心以食菜薹为主,占植株30%-50%的茎叶、根被当作废弃物腐烂于菜地里,既污染环境又浪费资源。菜心是提取果胶、膳食纤维、色素的原料,采用生物发酵技术又可生产乙醇、乳酸及衍生物、沼气等。对菜心进行综合开发利用提高经济效益是菜心生产发展的趋势。

  2. Production of a primary trisomic from progeny of cabbage-Chinese cabbage allotriploid backcrossing with cabbage%结球甘蓝-大白菜异源三倍体与结球甘蓝回交获得初级三体的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞; 管志坤; 赵建军; 申书兴; 王彦华

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an aneuploid plant with 2n + l chromosome was obtained from the progeny of cabbage-Chinese cabbage allotriploid backcrossing with cabbage. Cytological and SSR analysis showed that the aneuploid plant was a primary trisomic - 8 of cabbage. Furthermore, the chromosome number of the self ing and backcrossing progenies of the primary triso-mic-8 plant was identified, and the transfer rate of female and male gametes of extra-chromosome was clarified as 34. 74% and 6. 17%, respectively.%采用结球甘蓝-大白菜异源三倍体与二倍体结球甘蓝回交的方式,从回交后代BC2中获得了1株2n+1非整倍体植株.经细胞学和SSR鉴定分析,确认该2n+1植株为结球甘蓝8号初级三体.通过对8号初级三体植株自交和回交后代染色体数目的测定,明确了其额外染色体雌、雄配子的传递率分别为34.74%和6.17%.

  3. [Research on identification of cabbages and weeds combining spectral imaging technology and SAM taxonomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Zhang, Shui-fa; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Hui-yi; Dang, Chang-qing

    2015-02-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide. Therefore, accurate, rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cabbage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed, barnyard grass, goosegrass, crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1000 to 2500 nm. In ENVI, by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11, and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra, finally, using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds, the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0. 1 radians. In HSI Analyzer, after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum, the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages. Furthermore, in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally, the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classification image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image. The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing, 0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle, the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds, non-weeds and overall samples was 80%, 97.3% and 96.8% respectively. The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image. By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level, integrating the advantages of

  4. Myosuppressin is involved in the regulation of pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nobuto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest, is common in insects, enabling them to survive adverse seasons. It is well established that pupal diapause is regulated by ecdysteroids secreted by the prothoracic glands (PGs), with cessation of ecdysteroid secretion after pupal ecdysis leading to pupal diapause. A major factor regulating the gland activity is prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted from the brain. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the cessation of PTTH release after pupal ecdysis resulted in the inactivation of the PGs, leading to pupal diapause in the cabbage army moth Mamestra brassicae. Here we show that a neuropeptide myosuppressin also contributes to the inactivation of PGs at the initiation of diapause. Myosuppressin suppresses PTTH-stimulated activation of the PGs in vitro. Concentrations of myosuppressin in the hemolymph after pupal ecdysis are higher in diapause pupae than in nondiapause pupae. PMID:28139750

  5. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm, Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wan-Wei; Feng, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Guo-Hua; Jiang, Guo-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced mitochondrial genome of the cabbage webworm Hellula undalis includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (nad1-6, cox1-3, atp6, atp8, nad4L and cob), two ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S) and 19 transfer RNAs, which is 14,678 bp in length. Its gene order and orientation are identical to the common types found in most of the other completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. Thirteen PCGs start with a typical ATN codon, while cox1 uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs use the standard TAA as their termination codon, while others use the incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2 and nad4).

  6. Carrying a Wolf, a Goat, and a Cabbage across the Stream. Metamorphoses of ATU 1579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Voolaid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the functioning of the plot of a fixed tale typeATU 1579 (Carrying a Wolf, a Goat, and a Cabbage across the Stream as a riddle and a narrative and its forms which have surrounded the plot and originate in traditional folklore genres. Folklore, reconstructed and placed in new contexts, emerges in new genres. In the present computer era, the plot has not only emerged in narrative and riddle genre, but has emerged in an entirely new context – it has been widely applied in the form of an interactive computer game. The different forms, contexts, functions and goals of the type plot may be regarded as aspects of the dynamic folklore process.

  7. Essential plant oils in reducing the intensity of soft rot in Chinese cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrzânia de Lira Guerra

    Full Text Available The action of essential oils in reducing soft rot in Chinese cabbage, and their influence on the colorimetry and physicochemical characteristics of the vegetable were evaluated. In the greenhouse, plants of the cultivar Natsume were sprayed with 11 oils selected in preliminary tests for phytotoxicity: bergamot, lemongrass, copaiba, Eucalyptus citriodora, blue gum, fennel, ginger, spearmint, sweet orange, lemon and clary sage (0.5% and also the antibiotic Mycoshield® (3 g L-1. After 72 hours the plants were inoculated with Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc-c. The oils and the Mycoshield® significantly reduced (P<0.05 the severity (SEV and the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The oils of bergamot, copaiba, E. citriodora, spearmint and sweet orange were then tested for the stability of their effectiveness in the control of three isolates of P. carotovora subsp. carotovorum. These oils reduced the SEV (30.5 to 38.6% and the AUDPC (23.1 to 26.6% with no differences between them or the Mycoshield® (SEV 45.2 and AUDPC 32.8%, except for the copaiba (20.3% which was less effective than the antibiotic in the reduction of the AUDPC. In vitro, only Mycoshield® inhibited the pathogen. None of the treatments altered the colorimetry, levels of ascorbic acid or pH of the leaves of the Chinese cabbage. The spearmint oil increased the total titratable acidity in the same way as the oils of sweet orange, E. citriodora and bergamot increased the total soluble solids. Therefore, spraying with the oils of bergamot, copaiba, E. citriodora, spearmint and sweet orange has potential in the control of this disease.

  8. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  9. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  10. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blankson W Amoabeng

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae, Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae, Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae, chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae, tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae, physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae, castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae. In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis, all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from

  11. Performance of arrhenotokous and thelytokous Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion and cabbage and its implications on evolution and pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Fail, Jozsef; Wang, Ping; Feng, Ji-Nian; Shelton, A M

    2014-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest on onion and cabbage. Two reproductive modes--arrhenotoky and thelytoky--are found in this species and co-occur in the field. We compared life table traits between arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci on cabbage and onion. Experiments were conducted in cages to determine which reproductive mode is more competitive. Additionally, host adaption of the arrhenotokous and thelytokous T. tabaci between onion and cabbage was investigated. On onion, arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better than thelytokous T. tabaci, while on cabbage the opposite occurred. When comparing life table and demographic growth parameters (net reproductive rates R(o), mean generation time T, the intrinsic rate of natural increase r(m), finite rate of increase A, and population doubling time T(d)) on different host plants, we found that arrhenotokous T. tabaci performed better on onion than on cabbage, whereas thelytokous T. tabaci performed better on cabbage than on onion. Host-related performance differences in this species suggest that the divergence between two reproductive modes might be associated with host adaption. Pest management strategies for this global pest should recognize that the two reproductive modes can impact population dynamics on different crops.

  12. Studies on Genomic DNA Extraction and Establishment of AFLP Reaction System in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜基因组DNA的提取及AFLP反应体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟淑春; 张海英; 郑晓鹰; 刘玉梅; 王永健

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The obtained clear AFLP fingerprint of Chinese cabbage provided basis for studies on the molecular markers of Chinese cabbage cultivars and the phylogenetic relationship among Chinese cabbage cultivars. [Method] With the test materials of leaves of Chinese cabbages, the high-quality total DNA from leaves of Chinese cabbages was extracted by the modified CTAB method. DNA restriction-ligase reaction, pre-amplification and selective amplification were optimized, and the AFLP silver-staining reaction system for Chinese cabbage was established. [Result] The quality of DNA template influenced restriction enzyme digestion and the subsequent ligase amplification reaction, while the modified CTAB extraction method could be used in AFLP analysis of Chinese cabbage to obtain a clear AFLP fingerprint. The optimum conditions for restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA from Chinese cabbage were as follows: 150 g DNA template, 12.5 μl reaction volume, 1.25 U Eco R Ⅰ, 1.25 U Mse Ⅰ and 5×Reaction Buffer with 4 h at 37 ℃. The ligation reaction with 2.5 h at 20 ℃ was the optimum condition. Six pairs of primers including E-AAC/M-CAG, E-AAG/M-CAC, E-ACA/M-CTG, E-ACT/M-CAC, E-ACT/M-CTT and E-ACT/M-CTC all had its own stable and clear patterns. [Conclusion] With abundant bands and high polymorphism, AFLP selective amplification is an efficient molecular marker for genomic polymorphism of Chinese cabbage.

  13. AFLP Marker Linked to Turnip Mosaic Virus Susceptible Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN He-ping; SUN Ri-fei; ZHANG Shu-jiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Shi-fan; NIU Xin-ke

    2004-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) which has several strains causes the most important virusdisease in Chinese cabbage in terms of crop damage. In China, Chinese cabbage is infectedby a mixture of strains, breeding of cultivar for the TuMV resistance has become themajor aim. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV-resistance gene formolecular assisted selection is the major method to improve the breeding efficiency. Inthis study, we used AFLP technique and the method of bulked segregant analysis(BSA) tostudy the progeny of Brp0058 x Brp0108, and identified two DNA molecular marker linked toTurnip mosaic virus-resistance gene with a recombination frequency 7.5 cM and 8.4 cM.

  14. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-05

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  15. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  16. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower. A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions.

  17. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  18. Control of Verticillium Yellows in Chinese Cabbage by the Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus LtVB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narisawa, K; Usuki, F; Hashiba, T

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Three hundred forty-nine fungal endophytes were obtained from a total of 1,214 root segments of eggplant, melon, barley, and Chinese cabbage grown as bait plants in a mixed soil made up of samples from different forest soils in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Three of the 349 isolates, when inoculated in axenically reared Chinese cabbage seedlings grown in petri dishes, almost completely suppressed the effects of a postinoculated and virulent strain of Verticillium longisporum. Two isolates effective against the pathogen were Phialocephala fortinii, which had been obtained from the roots of eggplant and Chinese cabbage. The third isolate was a dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungus obtained from barley roots. Hyphae of P. fortinii grew along the surface of the root and formed microsclerotia on or in the epidermal layer. Hyphae of the DSE fungus heavily colonized root cells of the cortex. Seedlings grown for 1 week in the presence of the endophytes were then challenged with the Verticillium pathogen. In DSE-treated roots, some of cell walls in the epidermal and cortical layers showed cell wall appositions and thickenings, which appeared to limit the ingress of the pathogen into adjacent cells. Such marked host reactions were not observed in the root cells colonized by P. fortinii. Chinese cabbage preinoculated with the above endophytes and, for comparison, a previously reported disease-suppressive fungal endophyte, Heteroconium chaetospira, were transplanted into the field and disease symptoms were assessed. The DSE could most effectively inhibit the development of Verticillium yellows, with reductions in the percentages of external and internal disease symptoms of 84 and 88%, respectively. The protective values against the disease are extremely high compared with those of other isolates. Most of the DSE-treated plants in the plots achieved marketable quality.

  19. Anthocoris nemorum (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) as predator of cabbage pests - voracity and prey preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marie-Louise Rugholm; Enkegaard, Annie; Bang, Camilla Nordborg

    2010-01-01

    .) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) andWestern flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (model species for cabbage thrips (Thrips angusticeps Uzel) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)). When offered individually, A. nemorum readily accepted all three species with no significant differences...... in consumption. When aphids and moth larvae were offered simultaneously, A. nemorum showed preference for the latter (numbers eaten and biomass consumed). When aphids and thrips were offered together, A. nemorum preferred thrips in terms of numbers eaten but preferred aphids in terms of biomass consumed...

  20. [Environmental safety assessment on the new super absorbent polymers applied into a soil-Chinese cabbage system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; He, Ji-Zheng; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Zheng, Ming-Lan

    2014-02-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs), a new water retention material, have a potential for application in water-saving agricultural production. In this study, we investigated the effects of SAPs, synthesized from natural plant extracts, on Chinese cabbage fresh weight, soil water content, soil water stable aggregates, soil microbial biomass (carbon) and soil microbial respiration under three water conditions (excessive, normal and deficient) and two SAPs application strategies (bulk treatment and spraying treatment). The results showed that the SAPs significantly promoted the soil water content, water-stable aggregates (> 0.25 mm) and the soil microbial activities, especially under the water deficient conditions. Meanwhile, SAP application strategy was of great significance to the effects on Chinese cabbage and soil properties. Compared with the control treatment under normal water condition, spraying treatment of Jaguar C (S-JC) could reduce irrigation water amount by about 25% without reducing the crop production. Furthermore, compared with the control treatment under the same water condition with S-JC (deficient), it could increase Chinese cabbage production by 287%. Thus, SAPs is an environmental friendly water-saving technique in agricultural production.

  1. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  2. Structural features and complement-fixing activity of pectin from three Brassica oleracea varieties: white cabbage, kale, and red kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit; Westereng, Bjørge; Yousif, Osman; Holtekjølen, Ann Katrin; Michaelsen, Terje E; Knutsen, Svein H

    2007-02-01

    Leaves of different cabbage species are used both as food and as wound healing remedies in traditional medicine. This supposed wound healing activity might be connected to presence of immunomodulating water soluble polysaccharides. To study this, three different cabbage varieties, white cabbage (W), kale (K), and red kale (RK), were pretreated with 80% ethanol and then extracted with water at 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C for isolation of polysaccharide-containing fractions. The fractions were analyzed for monosaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages, Mw distribution, protein content, and phenolic compounds and then tested for complement-fixing activity. All fractions contained pectin type polysaccharides with linkages corresponding to homogalacturonan and hairy regions. Those extracted at 50 degrees C contained higher amounts of neutral side chains and were more active in the complement-fixation test than those extracted at 100 degrees C. The fractions can be ranged by decreasing activity: K-50 > RK-50 > W-50 approximately = K-100 > RK100 approximately = W-100. Studies on structure-activity relationships (SAR) employing multivariate statistical analysis strongly suggest that the magnitude of the measured activity is influenced by the content of certain side chains in the polymers. High activity correlates to large neutral side chains with high amounts of (1-->6)- and (1-->3,6)-linked Gal and low amounts of (1-->4)-linked GalA but not on molecular weight distribution of the polymers.

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.), “tri......-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect...

  4. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g-1 dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g-1 dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders. PMID:27055120

  5. Transgenic Cabbage Expressing Cry1Ac1 Does Not Affect the Survival and Growth of the Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Harn, Chee Hark; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-01-01

    Both herbivores that consume transgenic crops and their predators can be exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in those crops. We conducted a tritrophic bioassay to evaluate the ecotoxicological impacts that Bt cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) expressing Cry1Ac1 protein might have on the wolf spider (Pardosa astrigera), a non-target generalist predator. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays indicated that protein levels were 4.61 ng g(-1) dry weight in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) fed with the transgenic cabbage and 1.86 ng g(-1) dry weight in the wolf spiders that preyed upon them. We also compared the life history traits of spiders collected from Bt versus non-Bt cabbage and found no significant differences in their growth, survival, and developmental rates. Because Bt cabbage did not affect the growth of fruit flies, we conclude that any indirect effects that this crop had on the wolf spider were probably not mediated by prey quality. Therefore, exposure to Cry1Ac1 protein when feeding upon prey containing that substance from transgenic cabbage has only a negligible influence on those non-target predatory spiders.

  6. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  7. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins.

  8. Decarboxylation and transport of auxin in segments of sunflower and cabbage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, T H; Aasheim, T

    1970-12-01

    The movement of (14)C from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (14)C has been examined in 5 mm root segments of dark-grown seedlings of Helianthus annuus and Brassica oleracea. Contaminants from distilled water, phosphate buffer and the razor-blade cutter increase the decarboxylation of IAA-(14)C, and cutting of root segments results in an activation of IAA-destroying enzymes at the cut surfaces. When these sources of errors were eliminated the following was shown: a) Both in sunflower and cabbage there is a slight acropetal flux of (14)C through the root segments into the agar receiver blocks. The amount of (14)C found in the receiver blocks increases with the lenght of the transport period. b) When the root segments, after the transport period, are cut in two equal parts and these assayed separately, the amounts of (14)C in the two parts indicate a greater acropetal than basipetal transport. c) The total radioactivity of the receiver blocks is in part due to IAA-(14)C and in part to (14)CO2, the latter being a result of enzymatic destruction of auxin. d) Addition of ferulic acid, an inhibitor of IAA oxidases, to the receiver blocks markedly inhibits the decarboxylation of IAA-(14)C and thus increases the amount transported. This effect is more pronounced after a 20 hr than after a 6 hr transport period.

  9. Serotonin-induced mate rejection in the female cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Yoshiaki; Fukano, Yuya; Watanabe, Kenta; Ozawa, Gaku; Sasaki, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Virgin female cabbage butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora, accept and mate with courting males, whereas mated females reject them and assume the "mate refusal posture". This study tested whether the biogenic amines, serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and octopamine (OA), were responsible for this change in behavior. The results showed that 2-3-day-old virgin females fed with 5HT rejected courting males significantly more frequently compared with controls fed on sucrose. In contrast, the proportions of courting males rejected by virgin females fed with either DA or OA did not differ from sucrose-fed controls. Oral application of each amine resulted in significantly increased levels of the amine applied (or its metabolite) in the brain. The results strongly suggest that 5HT or a 5HT metabolite may be responsible for the post-mating change in behavioral response of 2-3-day-old virgin females to courting males. Similar effects of 5HT treatment were observed in 6-8-day-old virgin females, but in this case the results were only marginally different from the controls, suggesting that the effect may decline with increasing female age.

  10. Evaluation of Phytoavailability of Heavy Metals to Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis L. in Rural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.

  11. Commercial versus synthesized polymers for soil erosion control and growth of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Soo; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-01-01

    Soil erosion leads to environmental degradation and reduces soil productivity. The use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) and synthesized biopolymer (BP) using lignin, corn starch, acrylamide, and acrylic acid were tested to evaluate soil erosion, water quality, and growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). Each treatment of PAM and BP was applied at 200 kg ha(-1) to loamy sand soil and subjected to a slope of 36% with a 20 mm h(-1) simulated rainfall. Application of BP decreased soil pH compared to the untreated check (CK); however, the soil pH was not altered with PAM. The decrease in pH might most likely be due to availability of anionic sites to be protonated on soils having pH >6 and soil buffering capacity. Both PAM and BP applications may not induce eutrophication with stable levels of total contents of N and P. With PAM and BP, the average values of suspended soil (SS) and turbidity were reduced by up to 96.0 and 99.9%, respectively, compared to CK. Reduction of SS can be attributed to increasing soil stability and shear strength by clay flocculation. There was no toxicity effects resulting from germination tests and the dry weight was increased by 17.7% (vs. CK) when PAM and BP were applied. These results are attributed to increases in water retention and plant-available water. The use of polymeric soil amendments is an environmentally friendly way to mitigate soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution.

  12. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuto Yamada

    Full Text Available Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH. Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid.

  13. Endocrine Mechanisms Regulating Post-Diapause Development in the Cabbage Armyworm, Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nobuto; Okamoto, Naoki; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Diapause, a programmed developmental arrest at a specific stage, is common in insects and is regulated by hormones. It is well established that in pupal diapause, cessation of ecdysteroid secretion from the prothoracic glands (PGs) after pupal ecdysis leads to diapause initiation, while resumption of its secretion induces post-diapause development. However, what regulates the activity of the glands is poorly understood, especially for the glands of diapause-terminated pupae. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms by which post-diapause development is regulated in the cabbage armyworm Mamestra brassicae. We demonstrate that the brain is necessary for the initiation of post-diapause development and that the factor in the brain responsible for the activation of the PGs is the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Further, through measuring the hemolymph PTTH titers by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, we show that PTTH is actually released into the hemolymph prior to the activation of the PGs. Although its peak titer is much lower than expected, this low concentration of PTTH is most likely still effective to activate the PGs of post-diapause pupae, because the responsiveness to PTTH of the glands at this stage is very high compared to that of nondiapause pupal PGs. These results strongly suggest that in M. brassicae, PTTH serves as a trigger to initiate pupa-adult development after diapause termination by stimulating the PGs to secrete ecdysteroid.

  14. Altered Cultivar Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage Seedlings Mediated by Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two cultivars Buram-3-ho (susceptible and CR-Hagwang (moderate resistant of kimchi cabbage seedlings showed differential defense responses to anthracnose (Colletotrichum higginsianum, black spot (Alternaria brassicicola and black rot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Xcc diseases in our previous study. Defense-related hormones salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene led to different transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR gene expression in both cultivars. In this study, exogenous application of SA suppressed basal defenses to C. higginsianum in the 1st leaves of the susceptible cultivar and cultivar resistance of the 2nd leaves of the resistant cultivar. SA also enhanced susceptibility of the susceptible cultivar to A. brassicicola. By contrast, SA elevated disease resistance to Xcc in the resistant cultivar, but not in the susceptible cultivar. Methyl jasmonate (MJ treatment did not affect the disease resistance to C. higginsianum and Xcc in either cultivar, but it compromised the disease resistance to A. brassicicola in the resistant cultivar. Treatment with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC ethylene precursor did not change resistance of the either cultivar to C. higginsianum and Xcc. Effect of ACC pretreatment on the resistance to A. brassicicola was not distinguished between susceptible and resistant cultivars, because cultivar resistance of the resistant cultivar was lost by prolonged moist dark conditions. Taken together, exogenously applied SA, JA and ethylene altered defense signaling crosstalk to three diseases of anthracnose, black spot and black rot in a cultivar-dependent manner.

  15. Genetic resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis alters feeding behaviour in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikkei Shikano

    Full Text Available Evolved resistance to xenobiotics and parasites is often associated with fitness costs when the selection pressure is absent. Resistance to the widely used microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has evolved in several insect species through the modification of insect midgut binding sites for Bt toxins, and reports of costs associated with Bt resistance are common. Studies on the costs of Bt-resistance restrict the insect to a single artificial diet or host-plant. However, it is well documented that insects can self-select appropriate proportions of multiple nutritionally unbalanced foods to optimize life-history traits. Therefore, we examined whether Bt-resistant and susceptible cabbage loopers Trichoplusia ni differed in their nutrient intake and fitness costs when they were allowed to compose their own protein:carbohydrate diet. We found that Bt-resistant T. ni composed a higher ratio of protein to carbohydrate than susceptible T. ni. Bt-resistant males exhibited no fitness cost, while the fitness cost (reduced pupal weight was present in resistant females. The absence of the fitness cost in resistant males was associated with increased carbohydrate consumption compared to females. We demonstrate a sex difference in a fitness cost and a new behavioural outcome associated with Bt resistance.

  16. Roseomonas soli sp. nov., isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2014-03-01

    A bacterial strain, designated 5N26(T), was isolated from an agricultural soil cultivated with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris). Cells of this strain were Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming rods, and catalase- and urease-negative. The major fatty acids of strain 5N26(T) were C16 : 0 (7.5 %), C18 : 1 2-OH (13.4 %) and summed feature 8 (C18:1ω6c and/or C18:1ω7c; 63.2%). The polar lipid profile contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and one unidentified aminolipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain 5N26(T) was 68.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5N26(T) was phylogenetically related to Roseomonas lacus TH-G33(T) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48(T) (97.0 % and 96.6 % sequence similarity, respectively). The results of genotypic and phenotypic data showed that strain 5N26(T) could be distinguished from phylogenetically related species, and that this strain represented a novel species within the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain 5N26(T) = KACC 16376(T) = NBRC 109097(T)) is proposed.

  17. Studies on the Formation and Transmission of n+1 Gametes of Cabbage Primary Trisomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; ZHU Hai-yan; SHEN Shu-xing; MAN Hong

    2007-01-01

    The transmission rate of n + 1 gamete is an important parameter for the genetic analysis of trisomics. To correctly use the trisomics of the cabbage to carry out gene orientation and other genetic studies, the n + 1 gamete transmission rates by female parent and by male parent were determined. The results showed that the n + 1 gamete transmission rates were 15.28% for tri-1, 12.68% for tri-2, 12.31% for tri-3, 30.51% for tri-4, 22.81% for tri-5, 7.46% for tri-6, 5.36% for tri-7, 42.37% for tri-8, and 9.23% for tri-9 by female parent, and were 12.12% for tri-1, 12.33% for tri-2, 7.81% for tri-3, 4.76% for tri-4, 8.93% for tri-5, 10.94% for tri-6, 1.54% for tri-7, 2.94% for tri-8, and 13.04% for tri-9 by male parent. The main factors affecting the male n + 1 gamete formation and transmission were the rate of trivalent formation at prophase Ⅰ, the rate of 9-9-10-10 division at anaphase Ⅱ, and the pollen viability.

  18. Contribution of cell walls, nonprotein thiols, and organic acids to cadmium resistance in two cabbage varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyun; Cui, Jin; Luo, Chunling; Gao, Lu; Chen, Yahua; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-02-01

    To study possible cadmium (Cd) resistance mechanisms in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), several parameters of metal uptake, distribution, and complexation were compared between two varieties Chunfeng [CF (Cd-tolerant)] and Lvfeng [LF (Cd-sensitive)]. Results showed that CF contained significantly lower Cd concentrations in leaves and higher Cd concentrations in roots than LF. Approximately 70 to 74 % and 66 to 68 % of Cd taken up by LF and CF, respectively, was transported to shoots. More Cd was bound to the cell walls of leaves, stems, and roots in CF than in LF. The higher capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots could be explained by immobilization of Cd in root cell walls. Compared with control groups, Cd treatment also significantly increased concentrations of nonprotein thiols, phytochelatins (PCs), and citric acid in the leaves and roots of the two varieties; the increases were more pronounced in CF than in LF. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater Cd resistance in CF than in LF may be attributable to the greater capacity of CF to limit Cd uptake into shoots and complex Cd in cell walls and metal binding ligands, such as PCs and citric acid. However, the contributions of PCs and citric acid to Cd detoxification might be smaller than those in cell walls.

  19. [Research on spectra recognition method for cabbages and weeds based on PCA and SIMCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qin; Deng, Wei; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Chun-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of weed identification, the difference of spectral reflectance was employed to distinguish between crops and weeds. Firstly, the different combinations of Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolutional derivation and multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) method were applied to preprocess the raw spectral data. Then the clustering analysis of various types of plants was completed by using principal component analysis (PCA) method, and the feature wavelengths which were sensitive for classifying various types of plants were extracted according to the corresponding loading plots of the optimal principal components in PCA results. Finally, setting the feature wavelengths as the input variables, the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification method was used to identify the various types of plants. The experimental results of classifying cabbages and weeds showed that on the basis of the optimal pretreatment by a synthetic application of MSC and SG convolutional derivation with SG's parameters set as 1rd order derivation, 3th degree polynomial and 51 smoothing points, 23 feature wavelengths were extracted in accordance with the top three principal components in PCA results. When SIMCA method was used for classification while the previously selected 23 feature wavelengths were set as the input variables, the classification rates of the modeling set and the prediction set were respectively up to 98.6% and 100%.

  20. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production.

  1. Extinction of Vibrio cholerae in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, L; Vargas, C; Saborío, D; Vives, M

    1994-12-01

    Lime juice killed millions of Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9% of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The number of vibrios killed by lime juice was 2 to 6 logarithms greater than the maximum infecting dose, and 4 to 8 logs greater than the minimum infecting dose for cholera El Tor. The time interval needed for killing was smaller than the usual waiting time for serving food in homes and restaurants. The addition of lime juice to non-acidic foods, beverages and water, is strongly recommended to prevent infection with cholera vibrios and other acid-sensitive microorganisms. This measure is particularly important for rural and slum populations in the tropics and subtropics.

  2. Biogas by two-stage microbial anaerobic and semi-continuous digestion of Chinese cabbage waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoying Dong; Lijie Shao; Yan Wang; Wei Kou; Yanxin Cao; Dalei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste was investigated through a pilot-scale two-stage digester at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C. In the acidification digester, the main product was acetic acid, with the maxi-mum concentration of 4289 mg·L-1 on the fourth day, accounting for 50.32%of total volatile fatty acids. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and NH4+-N level decreased gradual y with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of acidification. In the second digestion phase, the maximum methanogenic bacterial concentration reached 9.6 × 1010 ml-1 at the organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.5–4 kg VS·m-3, with corresponding HRT of 12–16 days. Accordingly, the optimal biogas production was 0.62 m3·(kg VS)-1, with methane content of 65%–68%. ORP and NH4+-N levels in the methanizer remained between-500 and-560 mV and 2000–4500 mg·L-1, respec-tively. Methanococcus and Methanosarcina served as the main methanogens in the anaerobic digester.

  3. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Alleviated the Inhibition of Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Iron-Deficient Chinese Cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Fei; WANG Xiu-feng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Mei-ling; YANG Feng-juan; GAO Qing-hai

    2008-01-01

    The effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO)on plant growth,chlorophyll contents,photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters as well as lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Chinese cabbage plants exposed to iron(Fe)deficiency.Iron deficiency led to serious chlorosis in Chinese cabbage leaves,and resulted in significant decrease in plant growth,photosynthetic pigments,net photosynthetic rate,Fv/Fm,ΦPsⅡand activities of antioxidant enzymes,and increase in lipid peroxidation.While treatment with SNP,a NO donor,it could revert the iron deficiency symptoms,increased photosynthetic rate as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes,and protected membrane from lipid peroxidation,as a result,the growth inhibition of Chinese cabbage by Fe deficiency was alleviated.

  4. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture......, measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  5. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-09-19

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production.

  6. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    , measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant...... (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  7. Analysis of Antifungal Components in the Galls of Melaphis chinensis and Their Effects on Control of Anthracnose Disease of Chinese Cabbage Caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens caused various diseases which resulted in heavy yield and quality losses on plants of commercial interests such as fruits, vegetables, and flowers. In our preliminary experimental results, the methanol extracts of four species of medicinal plants Melaphis chinensis, Eugenia caryophyllata, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Rheum officinale possessed antifungal activity to causal agent of cabbage anthracnose, Colletotrichum higginsianum. Thus it was conducted to identify and quantify the chemical constituents in these herbs and to assess the antifungal effects of these compounds. Among the tested principles, the indicator compound methyl gallate from M. chinensis was the most effective one against the conidial germination. In addition, it exhibited significant effects of controlling anthracnose disease of Chinese cabbage caused by C. higginsianum PA-01 in growth chamber. These results indicate that M. chinensis may be potential for further development of plant-derived pesticides for control of anthracnose of cabbage and other cruciferous crops.

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of Tuscan black cabbage (Brassica Oleracea botrytis L.......), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial...... physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim were provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between consumption of a combination of Tuscan black cabbage...

  9. The Prevention of Tipburn on Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson with Foliar Fertilizers and Biostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkowski Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2008-2010 on Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour. Olson. The main problem in cultivation of this vegetable is physiological disorder – tipburn. It is connected with low level of calcium in young leaves and with water deficiency. In 2008, seeds of Chinese cabbage were sown twice, in April and July. In July, the day temperature was high (25-30 °C and relative air humidity was low (35-50%. In these conditions, the young leaves were injured heavily. Rotting was caused by the activity of bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones Hauben et al. However, three times foliar application of 1.5% calcium nitrate or 1.5% Wapnovit significantly reduced the tipburn. Also spraying with 0.03% of Tytanit (containing ions of titanium or with 2.5% of Biochikol 020 PC (containing chitosan gave similar effect. In these conditions, application of 1.5% K-300 (containing potassium oxide and ammonium nitrate exacerbated symptoms of tipburn. Application of Wapnovit or Tytanit reduced instantly rotting of heads contrary to the application of their mixture. In autumn cultivation, when the relative air humidity was 80-100%, spraying with 1.5% solution of K-300 significantly decreased injuries in comparison to control. Application of Wapnovit, K-300, Biochikol, Tytanit or the mixture of Biochikol and calcium nitrate eliminated rotting. In experiments done in the springs of 2009 and 2010, when weather conditions were less favorable for tipburn appearance, a severity of it was lower but application of K-300 increased it appearance. In these experiments, Biochikol and Wapnovit eliminated rotting of heads. The results of three years of study have shown that calcium nitrate, Wapnovit, Tytanit and Biochikol limited occurrence of tipburn and bacterial rotting of Chinese cabbage, but the weather conditions during cultivation had the greatest impact on the severity of tipburn.

  10. Electrophysiology and behavior feedback of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to volatile secondary metabolites emitted by Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The volatiles, absorbed by Porapak Q and eluted by hexane, from Chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris chinesis (L.) Makino. var. communis Tsen et Lee, have been identified as allyl isothiocyanate, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene, 2,5-hexanediol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol, nonanol, (-myrcene, (-pinene, E-2-hexen-1-ol, D-limonene, Z-3-hexenyl propanoate, linalool, geraniol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate, (-terpinene, (-caryophyllene, 3-carene and (-caryophyllene, by their mass spectra and retention times in comparison with authentic samples. The first five chemicals are the main components. All components can elicite electroantennogram (EAG) responses of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, in which allyl isothiocyanate and C6 alcohols and esters, i.e. Z-3-hexen-1-ol, E-2-hexen-1-ol, E-4-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate and 2,5-hexanediol elicite stronger EAG responses than other components, and EAG responses of female moths to them are slightly larger than those of male moths. However, EAG responses elicited by terpenes are smaller, and EAG responses from females to terpenes are smaller than those from males, but ((myrcene can evoke stronger EAG responses from both females and males. Volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage, allyl isothiocyanate, 2,5-hexanediol and Z-3-hexenyl isovalerate intensely cause DBM directional flying and landing in wind tunnel, in which volatiles from intact Chinese cabbage have the strongest activity, and the next is allyl isothiocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate is more attractive to females than to males a bit. As for (-terpinene and other subordinate components, EAG and wind tunnel test make sure they have weak activity.

  11. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming practices on the content of single nutrients in plants is disputed in the scientific literature. Here, large-scale untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics was used to compare the composition of white cabbage from organic and conventional agriculture, ...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  12. The effect of micro-architectural structure of cabbage substratum and or background bacterial flora on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Vermeulen, An; Devlieghere, Frank

    2007-11-01

    The effect of micro-architectural structure of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) substratum and or background bacterial flora on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of incubation temperature was investigated. A cocktail mixture of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pantoea agglomerans and Lactobacillus plantarum was constituted to a population density of approximately 5 log CFU/ml in order to pseudo-simulate background bacterial flora of fresh-cut cabbage. This mixture was co-inoculated with L. monocytogenes (approximately 3 log CFU/ml) on fresh-cut cabbage or in autoclaved cabbage juice followed by incubation at different temperatures (4-30 degrees C). Data on growth of L. monocytogenes were fitted to the primary growth model of Baranyi in order to generate the growth kinetic parameters of the pathogen. During storage, microbial ecology was dominated by P. fluorescens and L. plantarum at refrigeration and abuse temperature, respectively. At all temperatures investigated, lag duration (lambda, h), maximum specific growth rate (micro(max), h(-1)) and maximum population density (MPD, log CFU/ml) of L. monocytogenes were only affected by medium micro-architectural structure, except at 4 degrees C where it had no effect on the micro(max) of the pathogen. Comparison of observed values of micro(max) with those obtained from the Pathogen Modelling Program (PMP), showed that PMP overestimated the growth rate of L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut cabbage and in cabbage juice, respectively. Temperature dependency of micro(max) of L. monocytogenes, according to the models of Ratkowsky and Arrhenius, showed linearity for temperature range of 4-15 degrees C, discontinuities and linearity again for temperature range of 20-30 degrees C. The results of this experiment have shown that the constituted background bacterial flora had no effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes and that micro-architectural structure of the vegetable was the primary factor that limited the

  13. Nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracae var. capitata seedlings affected by the different nitrogen fertilizer forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Turan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, urea and farmyard manure on nitrate reductase activity in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seedlings were studied. pH of the plant growth niedia was higher in the nitrate fertilizer treatment than the ammonium and other fertilizer forms. NO3--N application increased NRA in plant, but NH4+-N decreased NRA in plant. Harvesting date and different fertilizer doses increased NRA while NH4+-N decreased plant nitrate uptake. There was a significant relationship between NRA and fertilizer types.

  14. Risk of Egg Parasitoid Attraction Depends on Anti-aphrodisiac Titre in the Large Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Huigens, M.E.; Swart, de, Jacques; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the larg...

  15. Estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado sob diferentes sistemas de embalagem Storage of minimally processed cabbage in differents packaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a estabilidade de repolho minimamente processado acondicionado em embalagens de polietileno de baixa densidade com atmosfera modificada ativa e passiva, e em bandejas de poliestireno expandido revestidas com filme de policloreto de vinila. O produto foi armazenado por 16 dias em câmara frigorífica na temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e 95 ± 5 % de umidade relativa, e em um balcão refrigerado similar aos utilizados em lojas de conveniência, com o intuito de representar os locais de comercialização no varejo, com temperatura média de 2,7 ± 3,3 °C. Analisou-se a concentração de oxigênio e dióxido de carbono no interior das embalagens, e no repolho minimamente processado o incremento no escurecimento, luminosidade, atividade da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, perda de massa fresca e teor de ácido ascórbico. A estabilidade do repolho minimamente processado mostrou-se superior na temperatura de 5 °C quando comparada ao armazenamento no balcão refrigerado. A atmosfera modificada ativa não foi efetiva no aumento da vida útil do repolho minimamente processado quando comparada aos outros tratamentos. A embalagem de PEBD foi a mais adequada ao acondicionamento do repolho minimamente processado. No entanto, a embalagem de PVC também apresentou resultados satisfatórios.Stability of fresh-cut cabbage packed in low density polyethylene under active modified atmosphere and in expanded polyestyrene trays wrapped with PVC was evaluated. The fresh-cut product was stored for 16 days in a cold room at 5 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 5% RH and in a refrigerated display case similar to those found in grocery stores. The following variables were analyzed: content of oxygen and carbon dioxide inside the package headspace; browning, luminosity, polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities, pH, titratable acidity; soluble solids, fresh mass loss, and ascorbic acid content. The stability of fresh-cut cabbage was higher

  16. Vapor-phase toxicity of butylbenzyl phthalate to three plant species: white mustard, chinese cabbage, and white clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, J W; Staples, C A; Brown, D; Enste-Diefenbach, R

    2008-08-01

    During the manufacture of products containing butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), low emissions to the air may occur. Due to potential exposure of terrestrial communities to BBP vapors, phytotoxicity tests were conducted using Chinese cabbage, white mustard, and white clover. No significant effects on shoot growth were observed at the higher BBP vapor-phase concentration tested, which measured 5.7 microg/m(3). The overall practicality of vapor-phase testing of chemicals with very low vapor pressures is reviewed. These study results suggest that environmental risk from exposure to BBP vapor is negligible for plants.

  17. WEED INTERFERENCE IN TRANSPLANTED CABBAGE INTERFERÊNCIA DE PLANTAS DANINHAS NA CULTURA DE REPOLHO TRANSPLANTADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Fontoura da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In tropical regions, irrigated vegetable crops are subject to strong weed interference. In Brazil there are few herbicides registered for use in brassica crops. Weed control is usually done by hoeing or mechanical cultivation. Cabbage and other brassicas are planted by transplanting to shorten the weed interference period. The effect of weed control on the productive performance of Fuyotoyo hybrid cabbage crop, was investigated in Goiânia from May 17th through August 22th, 2002. The experimental design was randomized blocks in four replications of the following treatments: no weeding after transplanting, weeding once, one month or two months after transplanting, and weeding twice, one and two months after transplanting. Regarding yield (kg.ha-1 and number of marketable heads as well as average head weight, the weeding treatments were similar to each other but significantly better than the control. The plants of plots weeded once, one month after transplanting, and twice (one and two months after transplanting were significantly earlier than those weeded only once, two month after transplanting, or not weeded. The ratio between head width and height and the harvesting concentration rate were not influenced by treatments.

    KEY-WORDS: Brassica oleracea; yield; earliness; harvest concentration; weed control.

    Nas regiões tropicais, culturas irrigadas de hortaliças estão sujeitas a forte interferência de plantas daninhas. No Brasil há poucos herbicidas registrados para uso em culturas de brássicas. O controle das plantas daninhas geralmente é feito com a enxada ou por cultivos mecânicos. As mudas de repolho e de outras brássicas são transplantadas para encurtar o período de interferência das plantas daninhas. O efeito do controle de plantas daninhas, no

  18. Molecular and functional properties of three different peroxiredoxin isotypes in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Jung, Young Jun; Shin, Mi Rim; Park, Jung Hoon; Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Lee, Eun Seon; Kim, Kang-San; Paeng, Seol Ki; Kim, Woe Yeon; Lee, Kyun Oh; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kang, Chang Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2012-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), which are classified into three isotypes in plants, play important roles in protection systems as peroxidases or molecular chaperones. The three Prx isotypes of Chinese cabbage, namely C1C-Prx, C2C-Prx, and C-PrxII, have recently been identified and characterized. The present study compares their molecular properties and biochemical functions to gain insights into their concerted roles in plants. The three Prx isotype genes were differentially expressed in tissue- and developmental stage-specific manners. The transcript level of the C1C-Prx gene was abundant at the seed stage, but rapidly decreased after imbibitions. In contrast, the C2C-Prx transcript was not detected in the seeds, but its expression level increased at germination and was maintained thereafter. The C-PrxII transcript level was mild at the seed stage, rapidly increased for 10 days after imbibitions, and gradually disappeared thereafter. In the localization analysis using GFP-fusion proteins, the three isotypes showed different cellular distributions. C1C-Prx was localized in the cytosol and nucleus, whereas C2C-Prx and C-Prx were found mainly in the chloroplast and cytosol, respectively. In vitro thiol-dependent antioxidant assays revealed that the relative peroxidase activities of the isotypes were CPrxII > C2C-Prx > C1C-Prx. C1C-Prx and C2C-Prx, but not C-PrxII, prevented aggregation of malate dehydrogenase as a molecular chaperone. Taken together, these results suggest that the three isotypes of Prx play specific roles in the cells in timely and spatially different manners, but they also cooperate with each other to protect the plant.

  19. Rhizosphere effect on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in manure-amended soil during cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivation under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Muyanja, Charles; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Geeraerd, Annemie H; Springael, Dirk

    2011-09-15

    The effect of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) rhizosphere on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in manure-amended soils under tropical field conditions was investigated in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Three-week old cabbage seedlings were transplanted and cultivated for 120 days on manure-amended soil inoculated with 4 or 7 log CFU/g non-virulent E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Cabbage rhizosphere did not affect survival of the 4log CFU/g inocula in manure-amended soil and the two enteric bacteria were not detected on/in cabbage leaves at harvest. The 7 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in bulk soil for a maximum of 80 and 96 days, respectively, but the organisms remained culturable in cabbage rhizosphere up to the time of harvest. At 7 log CFU/g inoculum, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium contamination on cabbage leaves occurred throughout the cultivation period. Leaf surface sterilisation with 1% AgNO(3) indicated that the organisms were present superficially and in protected locations on the leaves. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, cabbage rhizosphere enhances the persistence of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in manure-amended soil at high inoculum density and is associated with long-term contamination of the leaves.

  20. Characterization of plant-growth promoting diazotrophic bacteria isolated from field grown Chinese cabbage under different fertilization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woo-Jong; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Palaniappan, Pitchai; Siddikee, M A; Sa, Tongmin

    2009-04-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Chinese cabbage were assessed for other plant growth promoting characteristics viz., production of IAA, ethylene, ACC deaminase, phosphate solubilization, and gnotobiotic root elongation. Their effect on inoculation to Chinese cabbage was also observed under growth chamber conditions. A total of 19 strains that showed higher nitrogenase activity identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were found to be the members of the genera Pseudomonas and Agrobacterium belonging to alpha- and gamma-Proteobacteria groups. These strains were also efficient in producing IAA and ACC deaminase though they produced low levels of ethylene and no phosphate solubilization. In addition, inoculation of selected diazotrophic bacterial strains significantly increased seedling length, dry weight, and total nitrogen when compared to uninoculated control. The colonization of crop plants by diazotrophic bacteria can be affected by many biotic and abiotic factors, and further studies are oriented towards investigating the factors that could influence the establishment of a selected bacterial community.

  1. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time.

  2. Geographic expansion of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae)and the evolution of highly UV-reflecting females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuya Fukano; Toshiyuki Satoh; Tadao Hirota; Yudai Nishide; Yoshiaki Obara

    2012-01-01

    Reflection ofultraviolet (UV) light by the wings of the female Eurasian cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae,shows a large geographic variation.The wings of the female of the European subspecies,P rapae rapae,reflect little UV light,while butterflies of the Asian subspecies,P.rapae crucivora,may reflect it strongly or at only intermediate levels.The geographic region where P.rapae originated remains to be determined.Moreover,it is not clear if females with wings that reflect little UV light are ancestral to females with wings that reflect UV strongly or vice versa.In the present study,we aimed to determine the geographic origin and ancestral UV pattern of cabbage butterflies through mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.The results of these investigations suggest that P rapae is of European origin and that it has expanded its distribution eastward to Asia.It follows that the ancestral subspecies is the type with UV-absorbing wings.Lower nucleotide diversities and haplotype network patterns ofmtDNA derived from East Asian populations suggest that population expansion from Europe to East Asia probably occurred fairly recently and at a rapid rate.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Chitosan-Binding Protein from Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Ping CHEN; Lang-Lai XU

    2005-01-01

    To know the mechanism of ammonia assimilation in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) leaves regulated by chitosan (CTS), a CTS-binding protein was isolated from non-heading Chinese cabbage leaves using the chitosan affinity chromatography approach and this CTS-binding protein was partially characterized. The profile of the 53.1 kDa purified protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was compared with the native molecular weight of 106.5 kDa, which indicated that the purified protein was a dimer with identical subunits. After isoelectric focusing, a band was obtained at pH 8.25. The agglutination test and periodic acid-Schiff staining further revealed that the protein was a glycoprotein with lectin activity. Moreover, the purified protein contained 17.4 % (w/w) neutral carbohydrate and 82.56% (w/w) protein. The comparison of this protein and the 67 kDa CTS-binding protein isolated previously from Rubus culture tissue exhibited some differences in characterization. According to results of peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, the protein purified in the present study does not show any similarity with any protein in the protein data bank. Thus, it was deduced that the protein purified in the present study is a novel CTS-binding protein.

  4. Risk of egg parasitoid attraction depends on anti-aphrodisiac titre in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huigens, Martinus E; de Swart, Erik; Mumm, Roland

    2011-04-01

    Males of a variety of insects transfer an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone to females during mating that renders them less attractive to conspecific males. In cabbage white butterflies, the transfer of an anti-aphrodisiac can result in the unwanted attraction of tiny egg parasitoid wasps of the genus Trichogramma that hitch-hike with mated female butterflies to a host plant where they parasitize the freshly laid butterfly eggs. Here, we show that the anti-aphrodisiac benzyl cyanide (BC) of the large cabbage white Pieris brassicae is depleted by frequent display of the mate-refusal posture that signals a female's unreceptivity to mating. This depletion of BC is ecologically important because it results in a reduced risk of attracting the hitch-hiking egg parasitoid Trichogramma brassicae to mated female butterflies over time since mating. Our results indicate for the first time that a reduction in anti-aphrodisiac titre in mated females due to frequent adoption of the mate-refusal posture is beneficial to both mated females and males particularly when parasitoid pressure is high.

  5. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, M A; Ong, T P; Jordão, A A; Vannucchi, H; Moreno, F S; Lajolo, F M

    2010-03-01

    The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito's hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group). Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats). Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05) placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL). The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05) among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P kale- (110.8 +/- 10.0 microm) treated animals compared with control (120.9 +/- 12.7 microm), as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet) assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 +/- 0.3 microg/g) or kale (4 +/- 0.2 microg/g) resulted in increased (P kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  6. Impact of habitat diversification on arthropod communities: A study in the fields of Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-JIAO CAI; ZHI-SHENG LI; MIN-SHENG YOU

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out from June to August in 2004 at Wuyishan (Wuyi Mountains), Fujian province, China, to determine the effects of habitat diversification on arthropod communities. Two Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis, field 1 (Fl) and field 2 (F2) surrounded by diverse vegetable cultivars were selected, while a monoculture of Chinese cabbage served as the control field (CK). The results showed that: (i) when comparing insect abundance of each order between different habitats, significantly higher numbers of lepidopterous insects (39.76% from the each order) and lower densities of Hymenoptera (19.82%) were found in CK than in F1 and F2; (ii) compared with CK, F1 and F2 had a lower percentage of species richness and an abundance of herbivorous insects, but increased richness, abundance and biodiversity of predatory insects; (iii) no differences were observed in neutral insects' guild between different fields; and (iv) the dominant species for each guild depends on the habitat types and sampling dates. This study suggests that intercropping could conceivably be used in these habitats to increase the population of natural predators, thus achieving desirable and ecologically friendly results in vegetable fields.

  7. Cloning and structural and expressional characterization of BcpLH gene preferentially expressed in folding leaf of Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Vegetative growth of Chinese cabbage undergoes the four successive stages which are characterized with the definite types of juvenile,rosette,folding and head leaves.From shoot tips of Chinese cabbage at early folding stage,we constructed a cDNA library and screened the differentially expressed cDNA clones using the cDNAs derived from developing folding leaves and rosette leaves as probes.One complete length of cDNA clone is designated as BcpLH.Computer alignment matched BcpLH to the domains of double-stranded RNA binding (DBRM) and the homologous regions were recognized between BcpLH and human and mouse double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP.PCR expression analysis shows that during vegetative growth BcpLH gene was expressed preferentially in folding leaves at folding stage.Transcripts of BcpLH gene were increased when plants were sprayed with IAA.It is deduced that BcpLH gene may be related to initiation of folding leaf and leafy head and induced by auxin in the aspect of transcriptional expression.

  8. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression.

  9. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants.

  10. Nondestructive Optical Sensing of Flavonols and Chlorophyll in White Head Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba) Grown under Different Nitrogen Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agati, Giovanni; Tuccio, Lorenza; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Chmiel, Tomasz; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Kowalski, Artur; Grzegorzewska, Maria; Kosson, Ryszard; Kaniszewski, Stanislaw

    2016-01-13

    A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.

  11. [Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

    2010-12-01

    An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment.

  12. Characterizing volatiles and attractiveness of five brassicaceous plants with potential for a 'push-pull' strategy toward the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Dugravot, Sébastien; Danner, Holger; van Dam, Nicole M; Cortesero, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) released by plants are involved in various orientation processes of herbivorous insects and consequently play a crucial role in their reproductive success. In the context of developing new strategies for crop protection, several studies have previously demonstrated the possibility to limit insect density on crops using either host or non-host plants that release attractive or repellent VOCs, respectively. The cabbage root fly, Delia radicum, is an important pest of brassicaceous crops for which control methods have to be implemented. Several studies have shown that plant odors influence cabbage root fly behavior, but only few VOCs have been identified so far. The present study aimed at selecting both plants and olfactory stimuli that could be used in the development of a "push-pull" strategy against the cabbage root fly. Olfactometer results revealed that plants belonging to the same family, even to the same species, may exhibit different levels of attractiveness toward D. radicum. Plants that were found attractive in behavioral observations were characterized by high release rates of distinct terpenes, such as linalool, β-caryophyllene, humulene, and α-farnesene. This study represents a first step to identify both attractive plants of agronomic interest, and additional volatiles that could be used in the context of trap crops to protect broccoli fields against the cabbage root fly.

  13. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  14. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  15. The role of dark septate endophytic fungal isolates in the accumulation of cesium by chinese cabbage and tomato plants under contaminated environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane Diene

    Full Text Available Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the preservation of the food chain from radionuclides contamination has become of crucial importance. The potential of Dark septate endophytic fungi in the management of Cs accumulation in plants under contaminated environments was investigated using Chinese cabbage and tomato plants. Four endophytic fungal isolates of different species, i.e. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, Helminthosporium velutinum 41-1, and as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 were tested In Vitro in two levels of Cs (5ppm and 10ppm. On the plant growth, the inoculation of the selected DSEs to both Chinese cabbage and tomato resulted in an increased biomass of up to 82% and 122%, respectively compared to control (non-inoculated plants. With regards to the Cs accumulation, it varied with the host plant considered. In Chinese cabbage, DSEs inoculation caused higher Cs accumulation in above ground plant parts, whereas in tomato, Cs accumulation decreased significantly with three of the isolates tested, i.e., V. simplex Y34, P. ibarakiensis I.4-2-1, and the as yet unidentified taxon 312-6 suggesting low-risk transfer on the above ground plants parts as a result of high and negative plant reactions rather than high and positive reactions as it is the case with Chinese cabbage. These results suggested that DSEs can be recommended for use with Chinese cabbage to enhance phytoremediation of Cs in surrounding contaminated areas. With tomato, DSEs can be recommended for decreasing the accumulation of Cs in plants under contaminated environments.

  16. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species.

  17. 结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究和应用进展%Progress in Studying and Applying Cabbage Male Sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季家磊; 杨丽梅; 方智远; 庄木; 张扬勇; 吕红豪; 刘玉梅; 李占省

    2016-01-01

    Strong heterosis on yield,quality,disease resistance and stress tolerance is displayed in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L.).It is an important approach for heterosis utilization to use male sterile line to produce hybrid seed.In recent years,great progress has been made in studying cabbage male sterility. This paper reviews the types of cabbage male sterility line,its genetic characteristics,and achievements gained in studying its cytology,physiology,biochemistry and molecular biology.The paper also introduces the selective breeding of cabbage male sterile line,and its application.At the same time,the paper analyzes the existing problems and prospects the future for cabbage male sterility line application.%结球甘蓝在产量、品质、抗病性、抗逆性等性状上具有明显的杂种优势。利用雄性不育系配制杂交种是杂种优势利用的重要途径。近年来,结球甘蓝雄性不育的研究取得了很大进展。本文综述了结球甘蓝雄性不育的类型、遗传特性及其在细胞学、生理生化和分子生物学等方面取得的研究成果,介绍了结球甘蓝雄性不育系的选育和应用,同时分析了目前存在的问题,并对结球甘蓝雄性不育的应用前景做了展望。

  18. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育基因向卵圆型大白菜'60'的转育%Introgression of genic male sterile gene of Chinese cabbage into ovate ecotype Chinese cabbage variety '60'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关雪松; 许明

    2009-01-01

    根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,运用合成转育模式将大白菜'189'细胞核雄性不育基因转入基因型为msms的卵圆型白菜'160'中,获得了卵圆型白菜'160'的新甲型'两用系'及相应的不育系和保持系.%Based on the Multiple Allele Hypothesis of genie male sterility, the synthesis transferring method was used to transfer the gene of male sterility into the orbicular-ovate type Chinese cabbage variety '160', whose genotypes were msms by crossing, inbreeding, sibling and test crossing. New AB lines type I,new male sterile lines and their corresponding temporary maintainer lines of Chinese cabbage variety '160' were obtained from the transferred progenies of the Chinese cabbage variety '189'.

  19. A novel class of heat-responsive small RNAs derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa

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    de Ruiter Marjo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-coding small RNAs play critical roles in various cellular processes in a wide spectrum of eukaryotic organisms. Their responses to abiotic stress have become a popular topic of economic and scientific importance in biological research. Several studies in recent years have reported a small number of non-coding small RNAs that map to chloroplast genomes. However, it remains uncertain whether small RNAs are generated from chloroplast genome and how they respond to environmental stress, such as high temperature. Chinese cabbage is an important vegetable crop, and heat stress usually causes great losses in yields and quality. Under heat stress, the leaves become etiolated due to the disruption and disassembly of chloroplasts. In an attempt to determine the heat-responsive small RNAs in chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage, we carried out deep sequencing, using heat-treated samples, and analysed the proportion of small RNAs that were matched to chloroplast genome. Results Deep sequencing provided evidence that a novel subset of small RNAs were derived from the chloroplast genome of Chinese cabbage. The chloroplast small RNAs (csRNAs include those derived from mRNA, rRNA, tRNA and intergenic RNA. The rRNA-derived csRNAs were preferentially located at the 3'-ends of the rRNAs, while the tRNA-derived csRNAs were mainly located at 5'-termini of the tRNAs. After heat treatment, the abundance of csRNAs decreased in seedlings, except those of 24 nt in length. The novel heat-responsive csRNAs and their locations in the chloroplast were verified by Northern blotting. The regulation of some csRNAs to the putative target genes were identified by real-time PCR. Our results reveal that high temperature suppresses the production of some csRNAs, which have potential roles in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions In addition to nucleus, the chloroplast is another important organelle that generates a number of small

  20. Shelf-life of minimally processed cabbage treated with neutral electrolysed oxidising water and stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Ragaert, Peter; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Jeyachchandran, Visvalingam; Debevere, Johan; Devlieghere, Frank

    2007-06-10

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) have a short shelf-life. Neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEW) is a novel decontamination method. The objective of this study was to test the potential of NEW to extend the shelf-life of a MPV, namely shredded cabbage. Samples of shredded cabbage were immersed in NEW containing 40 mg/L of free chlorine or tap water (control) up to 5 min, and then stored under equilibrium modified atmosphere at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Proliferation of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were studied during the shelf-life. Also pH and sensorial quality of the samples as well as O(2) and CO(2) composition of the headspace of the bags was evaluated. From the microbial groups, only psychrotrophic counts decreased significantly (P<0.05) due to the effect of NEW, but the counts in treated samples and controls were similar after 3 days of storage at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C. Packaging configurations kept O(2) concentration around 5% and prevented CO(2) accumulation. pH increased from 6.1-6.2 to 6.4 during the shelf-life. No microbial parameter reached unacceptable counts after 14 days at 4 degrees C and 8 days of storage at 7 degrees C. The shelf-life of controls stored at 4 degrees C was limited to 9 days by overall visual quality (OVQ), while samples treated with NEW remained acceptable during the 14 days of the experiment. The shelf-life of controls stored at 7 degrees C was limited to 6 days by OVQ and browning, while that of samples treated with NEW were limited to 9 days by OVQ, browning and dryness. According to these results, a shelf-life extension of at least 5 days and 3 days in samples stored respectively at 4 degrees C and 7 degrees C can be achieved by treating shredded cabbage with NEW. NEW seems to be a promising method to prolong the shelf-life of MPV.

  1. Transformation of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis) by Agrobacterium Micro-Injection into Flower Bud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ji-yong; HE Yu-ke; CAO Jia-shu

    2003-01-01

    We obtained two lines of Chinese head cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) selfed progenies containing both an anti-sense gene of BcpLH and a gene for resistance to kanamycin by micro-injecting buds of their primary transformants (T0) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. 31 positive plants resistant to kanamycien were recovered. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in two transgenic plants. One (DHZ-13-1) exhibits the characteristics of out-toward rosette and cauline leaves, and nested flower model in which secondary complete flower developed from the base of the primary ovary and the third flower from the ovary in the secondary flower, and so on, while another(DHZ-6-1) has no phenotype change. ABA and IAA affected the root growth of progeny of DHZ-13-1, but 6-BA was insensitive to hypocotyl growth during its seedling development.

  2. Efeito da embalagem e temperatura de armazenamento em repolho minimamente processado Minimally processed cabbage: effects of packaging and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Rinaldi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações no repolho minimamente processado quando armazenado em diferentes embalagens e temperaturas. O processamento mínimo consistiu em seleção, classificação e resfriamento da matéria-prima, seguido do processo de corte em tiras, enxágüe em água tratada para a remoção dos exudados celulares, sanitização em solução com 150mgL-1 de cloro ativo, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem, acondicionamento em bandejas de poliestireno expandido, revestidas com filme flexível de policloreto de vinila (PVC, 12µm, e embalagens de tereftalato de polietileno (PET, e armazenamento por 15 dias em temperaturas de 0, 5 e 10ºC. A cada três dias avaliou-se a concentração de O2 e CO2 na atmosfera interna das embal agens, bem como o pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis e vitamina C no repolho minimamente processado. Concluiu-se que o repolho acondicionado na embalagem PVC apresentou menor perda de vitamina C durante os 15 dias de armazenamento nas três temperaturas. Esta embalagem também apresentou maior concentração de CO2 e menor de O2 , porém dentro dos níveis aceitáveis, garantindo assim maior vida útil ao repolho minimamente processado. Observou-se que não houve diferença significativa na vida útil do produto armazenado em temperaturas de 0 e 5ºC, nas duas embalagens avaliadas, porém a 10ºC a mesma reduziu-se significativamente, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade.The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in the minimally processed cabbage when stored in different packages and temperatures. The minimum process consisted of selection, classification and refrigeration of the raw material, followed by cutting in slices, rinsed with treated tap water for the elimination of cellular exudates, sanitization in solutions with 150mgL-1 of active chlorine, rinsing, centrifugation, weighing, conditioning in polystyrene expanded trays covered with polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 12µm

  3. The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum.

  4. Feasibility Study for Detection of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV Infection of Chinese Cabbage Plants Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saetbyeol Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy provides many advantages compared to other common analytical techniques due to its ability of rapid and accurate identification of unknown specimens as well as simple sample preparation. Here, we described potential of Raman spectroscopic technique as an efficient and high throughput method to detect plants infected by economically important viruses. To enhance the detection sensitivity of Raman measurement, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS was employed. Spectra of extracts from healthy and Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV infected Chinese cabbage leaves were collected by mixing with gold (Au nanoparticles. Our result showed that TYMV infected plants could be discriminated from non-infected healthy plants, suggesting the current method described here would be an alternative potential tool to screen virus-infection of plants in fields although it needs more studies to generalize the technique.

  5. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD REZA LASHKARI; AHAD SAHRAGARD; MOHAMMAD GHADAMYARI

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was determined using demographic toxicology by leaf dip method. At first, bioassay tests were performed. The LC50 value and confidence limit for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 1.61×10-5 mol/L (0.74×10-5-2.66×10-5) and 2.14×10-4 mol/L (1.24×10-4-3.40×10-4), respectively. To evaluate the sublethal effect of two insecticides on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, LC30 concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine were used at 5 mol/L and 30 mol/L. The experiments were carried out in a incubator at 20 +-1℃, 60% +-5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod on canola seedlings, Brassica napus L. var.' PF'. Net fecundity rate decreased in both insecticide-treated populations. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were lower in imidacloprid and pymetrozine treatments than in controls. Intrinsic birth rates also decreased in treated populations. There was a relative increase in intrinsic death rates of treated populations. The mean generation times and doubling time were also lower in populations treated with insecticides than in controls. There was a considerable reduction in the average numbers of nymphs reproduced per female as compared with the control. The average longevity of female adults in the control was significantly different from those treated with imidacloprid and pymetrozine. However, there was no significant differences in aphid life-table parameters between the two insecticide-treated populations (P > 0.01).

  6. Seasonal Flight, Optimal Timing and Efficacy of Selected Insecticides for Cabbage Maggot (Delia radicum L., Diptera: Anthomyiidae Control

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    Tomislav Kos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe seasonal flight activity of the cabbage maggot Delia radicum (L. adults in relation to Julian days (JD, degree-day accumulations (DDA and precipitation, flight dynamics were followed weekly with the use of yellow sticky traps (YST. Climatic data were collected and DDA were calculated using the lower developmental threshold of 4.3 °C. The efficacy of four insecticides applied either as standard foliar treatment or through dipping the seedlings before transplanting was determined. Seasonal flight activity during the cultivation season of a mid-early variety of white cabbage was correlated with DDA and JD and was characterized by having two peaks. The first peak occurred between 119 ± 7.5 JD and 125.5 ± 8 JD when DDA was 471.35 ± 74.97 °C. The second occurred between 172.8 ± 6.1 JD and 179.3 ± 6.7 JD when DDA was 1,217.28 ± 96.12 °C. The DDA, cumulative capture of flies and JD are suitable for predicting the timing of insecticide application. Spraying with insecticides should be applied when the cumulative capture of flies reaches 100 flies/YST and when DDA reaches 400 °C. If only one parameter reaches the threshold, additional visual surveys should be employed to establish the level of infestation. Insecticides were able to ensure only partial control. In the future, alternative control tactics which employ seed treatments and nonpesticide measures should be investigated in Croatia.

  7. Chemoprevention of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-induced carcinogen-DNA adducts by Chinese cabbage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM The food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induces colon and mammary gland tumors in rats and has been implicated in the etiology of human colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to examine the potentially preventive effect of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis), a brassica vegetable most commonly consumed in China, against this carcinogen-induced DNA adduct formation in rats and its possible mechanisms.METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for 10 days on basal diet or diet containing 20% (w/ w) freeze-dried cabbage powder prior to administration of a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/ kg) by oral gavage. Rats were sacrificed at 20 h after PhIP treatment and PhIP-DNA adducts in the colon, heart, lung and liver were analyzed using 32P-postlabeling technique. Levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1A2, as indicated by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and 7-methlxyresorufin O-demethylase activity, and cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) towards 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) in the liver, lung and colon were measured.RESULTS Rats pre-treated with Chinese cabbage and given a single dose of PhIP had reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts in the colon, heart, lung and liver, with inhibition rates of 82.3%, 60.6%, 48.4% and 48.9%, respectively (P<0.01). The enzyme assays revealed that Chinese cabbage induced both CYP1A1 and 1A2 activity, but the induction was preferential for CYP1A1 over 1A2 (81% vs 51%). GST activity towards CDNB in the liver and lung, but not colon, was also significantly increased by cabbage treatment.CONCLUSION The results indicate that Chinese cabbage has a preventive effect on PhIP-initiated carcinogenesis in rats and the mechanism is likely to involve the induction of detoxification enzymes.

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM LEVELS IN WHITE CABBAGE (Brassica rapa L., SOIL, AND IRRIGATION WATER OF URBAN AGRICULTURAL SITES IN THE PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiyanto Hardiyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture comprises a variety of farming systems, ranging from subsistence to fully commercialized agriculture. Pollution from automobile exhaust, industrial and commercialactivities may affect humans, crops, soil, and water in and around urban agriculture areas. The research aimed to investigate the level and distribution of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd in white cabbage (Brassica rapa L., soil, and irrigation water taken from urban sites. The research was conducted in Las Piñas and Parañaque, Metro Manila, Philippines. The field area was divided into three sections based on its distance from the main road (0, 25, and 50 m. Irrigation water was taken from canal (Las Piñas and river (Parañaque. Pb and Cd contents of the extract were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Combined analysis over locations was used. The relationship between distance from the main road and metal contents was measured by Pearson’s correlation. Based on combined analyses, highly significant difference over locations was only showed on Cd content in white cabbage. Cd content in white cabbage grown in Parañaque was higher than that cultivated in Las Piñas, while Cd content in the soil between both sites was comparable.The average Pb content (1.09 µg g-1 dry weight was highest in the white cabbage grown right beside the main road. A similar trend was also observed in the soil, with the highest concentration being recorded at 26 µg g-1 dry weight. There was a negative relationship between distance from the main road and Pb and Cd contents in white cabbage and the soil. Level of Pb in water taken from the canal and river was similar (0.12 mg l-1, whereaslevels of Cd were 0.0084 and 0.0095 mg l-1, respectively. In general, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in white cabbage and soil as well as irrigation water were still in the acceptable limits. In terms of environmental hazards and polluted city environment, it seems that

  9. Quantitative profiling of glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis reveals several cultivars of cabbage and kale as promising sources of sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Katsunori; Neyazaki, Makiko; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Ogawa, Toshiya; Momose, Masaki

    2012-08-15

    Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate well known for its potential health benefits. With the aim of finding sulforaphane supply sources, its precursor, glucoraphanin, was widely searched for among Brassica oleracea varieties. Quantitative profiling of seven glucosinolates by LC-MS analysis was performed on 6 cultivars of broccoli, 32 of cabbage and 24 cultivars of kale. The glucoraphanin levels found in three cultivars of cabbage and six cultivars of kale were comparable with, or even higher than, the highest of broccoli (119.4 mg/100g FW). The most promising group belonged to the black kale, Cavolo nero. Use of a C30 column and an ammonium formate buffer in LC-MS and a micro plate solid phase extraction technique was highly effective.

  10. Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora Infection Induced "Defense Lignin" Accumulation and Lignin Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) infects and causes soft rot disease in hundreds of crop species including vegetables, flowers and fruits. Lignin biosynthesis has been implicated in defensive reactions to injury and pathogen Infection in plants. In this work, variations of lignin content and gene expression in the molecular interaction between Chinese cabbage and Ecc were investigated. H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity were detected by 3, 3'-Dimethoxybenzidine staining at mocked and Ecc-inoculated sites of Chinese cabbage leafstalks. Klason lignin content in inoculated plants increased by about 7.84%, 40.37%, and 43.13% more than that of the mocked site at 12, 24 and 72 h after inoculation, respectively. Gas chromatography detected more p-coumaryl (H) and less coniferyl (G) and sinapyl (S)monolignins in leafstalks of Chinese cabbage. All three monomers increased in Ecc-infected leafstalks, and the Ecc-induced "defense lignin" were composed of more G and H monolignins, and less S monolignin. After searching the expressed sequence tags (EST) data of Chinese cabbage, 12 genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis were selected to study their expression. All of these genes could be Induced by mock inoculation and Ecc infection, while the gene expression lasted for several more hours in the infected samples than in mocked and untreated plants. Our results indicated that "defense lignin" was different from the developmental lignin in composition; G and S monolignins were significantly induced in plants in response to the soft rot Ecc; thus, lignin biosynthesis was differentially regulated and played a role in plant response to the soft rot Ecc.

  11. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Localization of Exo70A1 Related to Self Incompatibility in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; GE Ting-ting; PENG Hai-tao; WANG Cheng; LIU Tong-kun; HOU Xi-lin; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex, and required for vesicles tethering, fusion and polarized exocytosis. Exo70A1, the exocyst subunit, is essential for assembly of the exocyst complex. To better understand potential roles of Exo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis), we obtained the full-length cDNA ofExo70A1 gene, which consisted of 1917 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids. BlastX showed BcExo70A1 shared 94.9% identity with Brassica oleraceavar. acephala (AEI26267.1), and clustered into a same group with other homologues inB. oleracea var. acephala andBrassica napus. Subcellular localization analysis showed BcExo70A1 was localized to punctate structures in cytosol of onion epithelial cells. Results showed that BcExo70A1 was widely presented in stamens, young stems, petals, unpollinated pistils, roots and leaves of self compatible and incompatible plants. The transcripts ofBcExo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage declined during initial 1.5 h after incompatible pollination, while an opposite trend was presented after compatible pollination. Our study reveals that BcExo70A1 could play essential roles in plant growth and development, and is related to the rejection of self pollen in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  12. Responses of different Chinese flowering cabbage (brassica parachinensis l.) cultivars to cadmium and lead exposure: screening for Cd + Pb pollution-safe cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Qiu; Yang, Zhongyi; Xin, Junliang; Yuan, Jiangang; Wang, Jianbing; Xin, Guorong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yutao [Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2011-11-15

    To reduce the potential risks of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) entering the human food chain in vegetables, two pot experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) were carried out to screen for Cd and Pb pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) of Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.). The three Cd treatments in Exp. 1 (0.114, 0.667, and 1.127 mg kg{sup -1}) showed that Chinese flowering cabbage could easily take up Cd from polluted soils, and there were wide variations in Cd accumulation among different cultivars. The Cd accumulation trait at cultivar level was rather stable under different soil Cd treatments. In Exp. 2, seven cultivars that had been shown in Exp. 1 to be typical high or low accumulators of Cd were selected and six Cd + Pb joint exposure treatments were applied to them. The results showed that there were similar trends of accumulation between Cd and Pb for the tested cultivars, but Pb accumulation by the species was much poorer than that of Cd. It was worth noting that an increase in soil Pb levels significantly (p < 0.01) depressed shoot Cd accumulation. Six cultivars were selected as Cd + Pb PSCs. This study showed that it is feasible to apply a PSC strategy in Chinese flowering cabbage cultivation, to cope with the Cd and Pb contamination commonly found in agricultural soils. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

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    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control without application of sludge nor nitrogen fertilization, a treatment without sludge, but nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, applied at before sowing of wheat and five treatments where, respectively 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons sludge ha-1. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results showed that all the yield components of wheat and yield of white head cabbage and tomato increased significantly with increasing rates of sewage sludge as compared to control. As a result, 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge application could be recommended the suitable dose for the rotation of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato in soil and climatic conditions of Bafra Plain.

  14. Application of a simple method using minute particles of amorphous calcium phosphate for recovery of norovirus from cabbage, lettuce, and ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Michiyo; Uchida, Kazue; Shimada, Shin-ichi; Tomioka, Kyoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Minegishi, Toshitaka; Kawahashi, Sachie; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Ohashi, Norio

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) method developed previously for calicivirus concentration from water was applied for norovirus detection from food. The viral recovery from cabbage, lettuce, or ham (10g of each) was firstly examined in seeding experiments with feline caliciviruses (FCVs). The viruses were concentrated by viral adsorption to ACP particles (0.3g) in the eluent solution (40ml) from foods, collection of the particles by centrifugation, followed by dissolution of the particles with 3.3M citric acid (3ml). In ham, FCV recovery was improved by addition of ascorbic acids into the eluent solution before ACP-particle adsorption. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that FCV recoveries were 32-33%, 50-55%, and 37-46% from cabbage, lettuce, and ham, respectively, when seeded with 10(3)-10(4) viruses, and detection limits were estimated ∼10(3) genomic copies in all 3 foods. Subsequently, the ACP-concentration method was evaluated for norovirus (NoV) detection from these 3 foods. The recoveries and detection limit of NoVs determined by qRT-PCR were 12-41% and 10(3) (genomic copies) from cabbage, 30-57% and 10(3) from lettuce, and 20-26% and 10(4) from ham, when seeded with 10(3)-10(5) viruses. This simple method may be suitable for NoV detection from these foods.

  15. Effect of Partial Replacement of Nitrate by Amino Acid and Urea on Nitrate Content of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage and Lettuce in Hydroponic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Gui-lin; GAO Xiu-rui; ZHANG Xian-bin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the authors studied the effect of different mixtures of glyeine (Gly), isoleucine (Iso), proline (Pro), and urea solutions used as a partial (20%) replacment of nitrate in the nitrate content and quality of non-heading Chinese cabbage and lettuce in hydroponice. Five treatments were done 12 d before harvest. Compared to the control group, Gly had the best effect in reducing the nitrate content of both vegetable leaves and petioles; the mixture of Giy, Iso and Pro ranked second and urea the least. Treatments with amino acid could also increase soluble sugar and protein contents and enhance total-N in leaves significantly.In contrast, amino acid enhanced NRA in non-heading Chinese cabbage, while they decreased it slightly in lettuce. The results showed that amino acids and urea could reduce the nitrate content of both vegetables, but they had almost the same effect on non-heading Chinese cabbage. Moreover, amino acids were more effective than urea in lettuce. As a result, it was concluded that partial replacement of nitrate with amino acids not only reduced the nitrate content but also improved the quality of vegetables.

  16. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in the Recirculating Aquaculture System with Water Treatment Tank containing Baked Clay Beads and Chinese Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeknarin Thanakitpairin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the nitrogen and phosphorus removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS by crop plants biomass production. The 3 experiment systems consisted of 1 treatment (fish tank + baked clay beads + Chinese cabbage and 2 controls as control-1 (fish tank only and control-2 (fish tank + baked clay beads, were performed. With all experimental RAS, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was cultured at 2 kg/m3 density. The baked clay beads (8-16 mm in diameter were filled as a layer of 10 cm in the water treatment tank of control-2. While in the treatment tank, Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis was planted at 334 plants/m2 in baked clay beads layer. During 35 days of experiment, the average fish wet-weight in control-1, control-2 and treatment systems increased from 16.31±1.49, 15.18±1.28 and 11.31±1.49 g to 29.43±7.06, 28.65±3.12 and 27.20±6.56 g, respectively. It was found that the growth rate of 0.45±0.15 g-wet weight/day in a treatment tank was higher than in those 2 controls, which were rather similar at 0.37±0.16 and 0.38±0.05 g-wet weight/day, respectively. The fish survival rate of all experimental units was 100%. The average Chinese cabbage wet-weight in treatment system increased from 0.15±0.02 g to 1.00±0.38 g. For water quality, all parameters were within the acceptable range for aquaculture. The assimilation inorganic nitrogen in a treatment tank showed a slower rate and lower nitrite accumulation relative to those in control tanks. The nitrogen and phosphorus balance analysis illustrated that most of the nitrogen and phosphorus input in all systems was from feed (82-87% and 21-87% while at the final day of experiments, nitrogen and phosphorus in tilapia culture revealed at 15-19% and 4-13%. The accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the water, up to 56% and 70%, was found in control-1 while water in the tank with baked clay beads had substantial lower nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. The

  17. Calcium involved in the poly(γ-glutamic acid)-mediated promotion of Chinese cabbage nitrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongqi; Lei, Peng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Xianju; Liang, Jinfeng; Chi, Bo; Xu, Hong

    2014-07-01

    Plant growth can reportedly be promoted by poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA). However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. To reveal the mechanism of γ-PGA, we designed an experiment that investigated the effect of γ-PGA on the nitrogen metabolism of Chinese cabbage hydroponic cultured at different calcium (Ca) levels and varied exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors. The results showed that nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in leaves and roots were obviously enhanced by γ-PGA at the normal Ca(2+) level (4.0 mM). Meanwhile, γ-PGA increased the content of total nitrogen, soluble protein, and soluble amino acids in leaves. However, the promotional effect of γ-PGA on fresh weight weakened when Ca(2+) was inadequate. Moreover, γ-PGA not only induced the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) in organelles into cytoplasm, but also increased the Ca(2+)-ATPase level to modify Ca(2+) homeostasis in plant cells. In addition, exogenous Ca(2+) inhibitors significantly suppressed the γ-PGA-mediated promotion of cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) level, calmodulin (CaM) content, GS and glutamate dehydrogenase activities. In summary, γ-PGA accelerated the nitrogen metabolism of plants through the Ca(2+)/CaM signaling pathway, thereby improving the growth of the plant.

  18. In vivo real-time monitoring of aphrodisiac pheromone release of small white cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Mathews, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The study of insect behavior is of practical importance for developing possible control methods in Integrated Pest Management. Currently, one model of butterfly mating behavior suggests that the initial location of potential mates occurs visually followed by the release of one or more short-range male aphrodisiac pheromones. This model is supported by data obtained from field observations and inferences based on the behavioral effects of chemicals extracted or isolated using indirect and offline techniques. In this study, we performed in vivo real-time monitoring of the male aphrodisiac pheromones released by the small white cabbage male butterfly (Pieris rapae Linnaeus) using confined direct analysis in real time (cDART) mass spectrometry. cDART is a new method easily adapted to the study in real time of chemicals released into the environment by virtually any insect. The major compound released by the male Pieris rapae was identified as ferrulactone. The experimental results reported here indicate that the release of ferrulactone occurs less than 1s after the male visualizes its partner, and reaches a maximum after about one half minute. This study is the first reported in vivo detection and monitoring of butterfly male aphrodisiac pheromones in real time.

  19. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-01-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay. PMID:28181580

  20. Penetration-enhancement underlies synergy of plant essential oil terpenoids as insecticides in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B.

    2017-02-01

    Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer. Among the major constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil, in vitro analysis revealed up to a 19-fold increase in penetration of camphor in a binary mixture with 1,8-cineole through the larval integument, suggesting increased penetration as the major mechanism for synergy. A total of 138 synergistic or antagonistic interactions among 39 compounds were identified in binary mixtures via topical application, and these were highly correlated to changes in surface tension as measured by contact angle of the mixtures on a beeswax layer. Among compounds tested, trans-anethole alone showed evidence of internal synergy, whereas most of remaining synergistic or antagonistic combinations among the three most active compounds were identified as penetration-related interactions, confirmed via a divided-application bioassay.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage with swine manure for biogas production: batch and continuous study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Bhattarai, Sujala; Kim, Sang Hun; Chen, Lide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for anaerobic co-digestion of Chinese cabbage waste silage (CCWS) with swine manure (SM). Batch and continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions (36-38°C). The batch test evaluated the effect of CCWS co-digestion with SM (SM: CCWS=100:0; 25:75; 33:67; 0:100, % volatile solids (VS) basis). The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor with SM alone and with a mixture of SM and CCWS. Batch test results showed no significant difference in biogas yield up to 25-33% of CCWS; however, biogas yield was significantly decreased when CCWS contents in feed increased to 67% and 100%. When testing continuous digestion, the biogas yield at organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ increased by 17% with a mixture of SM and CCWS (SM:CCWS=75:25) (423 mL g⁻¹ VS) than with SM alone (361 mL g⁻¹ VS). The continuous anaerobic digestion process (biogas production, pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and TVFA/total alkalinity ratios) was stable when co-digesting SM and CCWS (75:25) at OLR of 2.0 g VSL⁻¹ d⁻¹ and hydraulic retention time of 20 days under mesophilic conditions.

  2. Influence of postharvest UV-B treatment and fermentation on secondary plant compounds in white cabbage leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaum-Piayda, Britta; Palani, Kalpana; Schwarz, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The influence of postharvest UV-B on its own and in combination with fermentation (e.g. sauerkraut production) on formation and degradation of bioactive compounds was investigated in white cabbage, processed according to traditional Chinese fermentation methods. The pattern of polyphenols was affected by postharvest UV-B: Newly formed coumaroylglycoside, feruloylglycoside, caffeoylglycoside (up to 1 mg/g dry matter; 4 days) and quercetintriglycoside (0.4-0.5 mg/gdm; 4 days) might be related to postharvest increase in enzyme activity in the biosynthesis. Decreasing contents were observed for the glucosinolates glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, but the formation of the degradation products dihydroascorbigen and dihydro-4-methoxyascorbigen, which might be related to cell shrinking as mechanical damage. Fermentation resulted in deglycosidation of hydroxycinnamic acids. Newly generated cinnamic acid from coumaric acid aglycone was detected in fermented plant material combined with UV-B (50 μg/g). Glucosinolates and dihydroascorbigens were completely degraded. This study shows exemplary UV-B as a supplemental step to improve the nutritional quality of processed plants.

  3. “小狮头”大白菜细胞核不育系转育初探%Transferring Breeding of Cell Nucleic Sterile Line in "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建锋; 秦进华; 孙玉东; 罗德旭; 张朝阳

    2011-01-01

    Genetic male sterile gene is transferred from French 45 hot-resistance(a source of male sterility) Chinese cabbage to "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage through conventional hybrid.At the same time,new AB lines Type I,temporary maintainers and male sterile lines are obtained on the transferred progenies derived from "Xiaoshitou" Chinese cabbage.%以法45抗热大白菜核不育系为不育源,通过常规杂交的方法,向"小狮头"大白菜转育核不育基因,初步转育成"小狮头"大白菜细胞核不育系、甲型两用系和临时保持系。

  4. 分蘖洋葱复种大白菜栽培模式初探%Preliminary Research on Cultivation Pattern of Potato Onion Multi-Cropping with Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪宗仁; 张清友; 蒋欣梅; 于锡宏; 齐月; 陈典

    2013-01-01

    以分蘖洋葱(Allium cepa L.var.multiplcans Bailey)‘海伦兔耳红’和大白菜(Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)‘金福’为试材,以常规模式(分蘖洋葱复种大白菜直播栽培模式)为对照,研究分蘖洋葱复种大白菜育苗栽培模式的生产效果.结果表明,采用分蘖洋葱复种大白菜育苗栽培模式可以使大白菜播种期、出苗期、莲座期、结球期分别提前20、20、6、9d,延长了大白菜的生育期;大白菜的株高、球高和球直径显著提高,根肿病发病率显著降低.%To research the productive effects on seedling cultivation pattern of potato onion (Allium cepa L.var.multiplcans Bailey) multi-cropping with Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis),this study used potato onion ‘Hai lun tu er hong’ and Chinese cabbage ‘Jin fu’ as the materials and traditional pattern as the control.The results showed sowing stage,seedling stage,rosette stage and heading stage of Chinese cabbage were advanced correspondingly for 20、20、6 and 9 d respectively,and growing period of Chinese cabbage was extended under potato onion multi-cropping with Chinese cabbage.In addition,plant height,heading height and heading diameter of Chinese cabbage were increased significantly,and the incidence of clubroot disease had fallen greatly.

  5. Effects of field application of phosphate fertilizers on the availability and uptake of lead, zinc and cadmium by cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in a mining tailing contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Biling; XIE Zhengmiao; CHEN Jianjun; JIANG Juntao; SU Qiufeng

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in a soil contaminated by mining railings in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Three commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers including phosphate rock (PR), calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), and single superphosphate (SSP) were applied to the plot at three P application rates, 50, 300, and 500 g/m with 9 treatments and control (CK). Plants, water soluble and exchangeable (WE) extraction procedure and modified toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were employed. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers significantly decreased WE Pb (22.0%-81.4%), Cd (1.5%-30.7%) and Zn (11.7%,75.3%, exception of SSP treatments with no significant difference) and TCLP Pb concentration (27.1%-71.2%), compared with the control, leading to reduced uptake of Pb (16.0%-58.0%), Cd (16.5%-66.9%) and Zn (1.2%,73.2%) by cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.). It was suggested that P fertilizers induced immobilization of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, and Zn. CMP provided the most effective method of reducing metal toxicity, mobility, and phytoavailability. At the P application rate of 300 g/m2, CMP would be cost-effective to decrease WE Pb, Zn, and Cd concentration from 666 to 137 mg/kg, from 31.2 to 8.71 mg/kg, and from 1.69 to 1.36 mg/kg, respectively. SSP was more effective in reducing Pb bioavailability than PR but had variable effects on Zn bioavailability. Cd uptake by cabbage was negatively correlated with soil pH rather than with WE or TCLE indicating that Cd uptake by cabbage was a complex process. It should be careful to evaluate the impact of phosphate application on Cd availability in soil.

  6. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in incompatible interaction between infected non-heading Chinese cabbage and Hyaloperonospora parasitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Liu, Shi-Tuo; Wei, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Dao-Yun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying; Hu, Chun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is one of the main green leafy vegetables in the world, especially in China, with significant economic value. Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a fungal pathogen responsible for causing downy mildew disease in Chinese cabbage, which greatly affects its production. The objective of this study was to identify transcriptionally regulated genes during incompatible interactions between non-heading Chinese cabbage and H. parasitica using complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP). We obtained 129 reliable differential transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in a resistant line 'Suzhou Qing'. Among them, 121 upregulated TDFs displayed an expression peak at 24-48 h post inoculation (h.p.i.). Fifteen genes were further selected for validation of cDNA-AFLP expression patterns using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results confirmed the altered expression patterns of 13 genes (86.7%) revealed by the cDNA-AFLP. We identified four TDFs related to fungal resistance among the 15 TDFs. Furthermore, comparative analysis of four TDFs between resistant line 'Suzhou Qing' and susceptible line 'Aijiao Huang' showed that transcript levels of TDF14 (BcLIK1_A01) peaked at 48 h.p.i. and 25.1-fold increased in the resistant line compared with the susceptible line. Similarly, transcript levels of the other three genes, TDF42 (BcCAT3_A07), TDF75 (BcAAE3_A06) and TDF88 (BcAMT2_A05) peaked at 24, 48 and 24 h.p.i. with 25.1-, 100- and 15.8-fold increases, respectively. The results suggested that the resistance genes tended to transcribe at higher levels in the resistance line than in the susceptible line, which may provide resistance against pathogen infections. The present study might facilitate elucidating the molecular basis of the infection process and identifying candidate genes for resistance improvement of susceptible cultivars.

  7. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) Against Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) Eggs and Larvae on Cabbage Under Semi-Controlled Greenhouse Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legwaila, Mitch M.; Munthali, David C.; Kwerepe, Baone C.; Obopile, Motshwari

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis (var. kurstaki) (Btk) against the diamondback moth (DBM) on cabbage was studied at Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana. Using five concentrations of Btk: 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g/L, bioassays were conducted against DBM eggs and second instar larvae at 30°C ± 5°C. Each treatment was replicated three times. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 and LD90 values for the treatments against eggs and larvae. When the treatments were assessed at 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours, LD90 values against larvae were 11.02, 10.22, 5.92, and 4.01 g/L, whereas they were 7.71, 6.94, and 6.24 g/L against eggs when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicated that Btk was effective against both eggs and larvae when exposed for long periods. The slopes of the probit lines for larvae assessed at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after application were 0.250, 1.064, 0.910, 0.383, 0.453, and 0.414, while those against eggs were 1.153, 1.246, and 0.933 when assessed 48, 72, and 96 hours after the expected time of hatching. This indicates a smaller change in mortality with increase in pesticide dosage for both eggs and larvae. Btk treatments achieved 85.7%–94.6% reduction in DBM damage on cabbage. Therefore, Btk can be used to achieve effective control of DBM eggs and larvae and reduce damage on cabbage under greenhouse conditions. PMID:26816488

  8. 大白菜雄性不育系MS200712的研究简报%Brief Report on Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Line MS200712

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 汪维红; 苏同兵; 卢桂香

    2014-01-01

    Creation and abortive mechanism of new male sterile lines are hot-topics on Chinese cabbage breeding.F1 hybrid crossing Brassica allohexaploid(AABBCC,n=27),which owns A,B and C chromosomes simultaneously,with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Jinchun’was obtained.Then the F1 as a male parent was crossed with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Yihe No. 5’.Thus male sterile MS200712 was founded due to multi-parents crossing.MS200712 owned yellow petal and light-yellow anther.The anthers were regressive,which were 100% male sterility.Stigma of MS200712 was normal and nectaries were vigor. Meanwhile 832172,male parent of‘Beijingnew No. 3’was crossed with MS200712,and male sterile MS20071208-916 was obtained.%以芸薹属异源六倍体AABBCC为母本,以大白菜品种金春为父本进行杂交,获得F1(AABBCC×AA);再以大白菜品种义和5号为母本,与F1进行杂交,在多亲本杂交后代中获得大白菜雄性不育系MS200712。该不育系花瓣为黄色,花药浅黄色、退化、败育彻底,柱头正常,蜜腺发达。同时,利用北京新3号的父本832172与雄性不育系MS200712进行回交,获得了转育的MS20071208-916不育系。

  9. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (p5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at napa cabbages were within the ranges required for kimchi production (pH 5.1-5.3 and 1.5-2.0%, respectively). These results suggest that this novel method of salting food ensures microbiological safety and reduces the production time.

  10. Target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in German populations of the cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph T; Müller, Andreas; Heimbach, Udo; Nauen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage stem flea beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major pest of winter oilseed rape in several European countries particularly attacking young emerging plants in autumn. Over the last several decades, pyrethroid insecticides have been foliarly applied to control flea beetle outbreaks. Recent control failures in northern Germany suggested pyrethroid resistance development in cabbage stem flea beetles, which were confirmed by resistance monitoring bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin in an adult vial test. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in the para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene of P. chrysocephala known to be involved in knock-down resistance (kdr). By using a degenerate primer approach we PCR amplified part of the para-type sodium channel gene and identified in resistant flea beetles a single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in an L1014F (kdr) mutation within domain IIS6 of the channel protein, known as one of the chief pyrethroid target-site resistance mechanisms in several other pest insects. Twenty populations including four archived museum samples collected between 1945 and 1958 were analyzed using a newly developed pyrosequencing diagnostic assay. The assay revealed a kdr allele frequency of 90-100% in those flea beetle populations expressing high-level cross-resistance in discriminating dose bioassays against different pyrethroids such as lambda-cyhalothrin, tau-fluvalinate, etofenprox and bifenthrin. The presence of target-site resistance to pyrethroids in cabbage stem flea beetle is extremely worrying considering the lack of effective alternative modes of action to control this pest in Germany and other European countries, and is likely to result in major control problems once it expands to other geographies. The striking fact that cabbage stem flea beetle is next to pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus the second coleopteran pest in European winter oilseed rape resisting

  11. 纳米硒用于小白菜补硒的研究%Experiment in the Nano-selenium-added in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴永军; 倪永红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]利用低毒纳米硒对小白菜进行补硒.[方法]利用水浴法在表面活性剂辅助下制备表征纳米硒;将红色纳米硒用于小白菜补硒试验,并使用邻苯二胺紫外分光光度法测定样本含硒量、回收率和稳定性,分析低毒纳米硒对小白菜进行补硒的可行性.[结果]经过纳米硒补硒的小白菜含硒量平均为5.326μg/g,比未经补硒的小白菜含硒量提高了6倍多.试验回收率在97.84% ~ 100.47%,样本在24 h内稳定,补硒效果明显.[结论]该研究为富硒蔬菜的开发与研究提供了有益的参考.%[Objective]The low toxicity nano -selenium was added in cabbage. [Method]The nano -selenium was prepared under the surfactant copy by means of the water - bathing method and the product of red nano - selenium was experimented for its addition for cabbage. And the content of selenium in sample, its recovery and stability were tested with o - phenylene - diamine UV spectrophotometry and the feasibility of low toxicity nano -selenium added in cabbage was analyzed. [ Result]The average content of selenium in the treated cabbage was 5. 326 μg/g, which was 6 times higher than that of CK. The recovery of selenium was 97.84% - 100.47% ,the sample could be was stabilized within 24 hours, which effect was obvious. [Conclusion]The useful reference for the development and research on selenium -richening vegetable was provided.

  12. Preparation and Properties of Vegetable-Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Complex FilmsЦ Water Bamboo-CMC,Chinese Cabbage-CMC etc.Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymers have been researched[1].In our previous papers,cellulose-alginic acid[2],cellulose-agar[3],vegetable-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) etc.complex films have been researched.Recently,some other kinds of vegetable such as water bamboo,Chinese cabbage,eggplant,spinach,naked oats,and basella,asparagus and pumpkin were used to perpare vegetable-CMC complex films.Every kind of vegetable has different content of water,cellulose,protein,carbohydrate and a small amou...

  13. Whitefly, aphids and thrips attack on cabbage Ataque de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes em repolho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationships between predators and parasitoids, leaf chemical composition, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, total rainfall, relative humidity, daylight and median temperature on the intensity of whitefly, aphid, and thrips attack on cabbage. Whitefly, aphids and thrips population tended to proliferate in the final stage of plant or reached a peak population about 40 days after plantation. The whitefly and thrips tended to increase with an increase in the median temperature. A dependence of Cheiracanthium inclusum and Adialytus spp. populations on whitefly and aphids populations, respectively, was observed. No significant effect was detected between K and nonacosane leaf content and aphid population. However, an increase in leaf N content was followed by a decrease of this insect population. No significant relation was observed between leaf N, K and nonacosane and whitefly and thrips populations. Highest nonacosane levels were observed in plants 40 days after transplant, and relative humidity correlated negatively with nonacosane. Natural enemies, especially the parasitoid Adialytus spp. and the spiders can be useful controlling agents of the whitefly and aphids in cabbage. Median temperature can increase whitefly and thrips populations.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as relações entre predadores, parasitóides, composição química foliar, níveis de nitrogênio e de potássio foliar, pluviosidade, umidade relativa, insolação e temperatura média na intensidade de ataque de mosca-branca, pulgão e tripes em repolho. As populações de mosca-branca, pulgões e tripes tenderam a aumentar no final do cultivo ou apresentaram pico 40 dias depois do transplantio. As populações de mosca-branca e tripes tenderam a aumentar sob temperaturas mais elevadas. As populações de Cheiracanthium inclusum e Adialytus spp. dependiam das populações de mosca-branca e pulg

  14. Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides on important parasitoids of cabbage butterflies in cruciferous ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firake, D M; Thubru, D P; Behere, G T

    2017-02-01

    Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides was estimated on three important parasitoids of butterflies viz., Hyposoter ebeninus, Cotesia glomerata and Pteromalus puparum. Four commonly used pesticides were evaluated using standard protocol (of IOBC/WPRS-group). In laboratory tests, the survival of the female wasps decreased significantly on fresh contact and ingestion of deltamethrin, spinosad and azadirachtin; whereas Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk) was found harmless pesticide. Under semi-field conditions, parasitoid mortality decreased significantly on fresh contact with the pesticides. Although, at 72 h after treatment, spinosad and deltamethrin were found harmful (Class-IV) and azadirachtin was moderately harmful (Class-III), whereas Btk was harmless (Class-I). Furthermore, 15-day-old residues of pesticides (except deltamethrin) were harmless to all parasitoid species under semi-field conditions. Notably, adult emergence and pupal duration in pesticide-treated cocoons were not significantly affected; however, their survival decreased after emergence except in Btk. The contact and oral toxicity trends of the pesticides were almost similar for three species of parasitoid females and pupae; however little variability was observed in toxicity to the host caterpillars parasitized by H. ebeninus (HCPHE) and C. glomerata (HCPCG). In semi-field tests, fresh residues of all the pesticides were harmful to HCPHE and HCPCG. However, action of Btk was slightly delayed and toxicity was rather low for HCPCG. In 15-day-old residues, deltamethrin and azadirachtin were slightly harmful to the parasitized caterpillars, whereas those of Btk and spinosad were harmless. Since, Btk appeared to be safe for parasitoids; it could be used for managing cabbage butterflies in brassicaceous crops.

  15. Purification of purple cabbage anthocyains%紫甘蓝花色苷的分离纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振宝; 吴园芳; 易建华

    2012-01-01

    初步研究了紫甘蓝花色苷在SephadexLH-20凝胶层析柱上最佳的分离条件,以及在最佳条件下收集合并各组分,并进行紫外可见全扫描、薄层色谱实验。结果表明:当以30%乙醇为洗脱液,流速为1mL/min时,紫甘蓝花色苷的分离效果最好,共收集合并4个组分。紫外可见全扫描确定Ⅰ组分为非花色苷,Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ组分为花色苷,薄层色谱实验表明Ⅱ、Ⅲ组分分别分离出2组花色苷,Ⅳ组分分离出3组花色苷。%This work was conducted to research the condition of purification, UV-Visspectrum and thin layer chromatography, which the purple cabbage anthocyains was purifited by sephadex LH-20. It was shown that optimum purification condition was elute with 30% ethanol with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and collected four pigments, Ⅰ pigment not belonged to anthocyains, and Ⅱ, Ⅲ, IV pigment belonged to anthocyains by UV-Visspectrum; Ⅱ,Ⅲ pigment sepatated 2 anthocyains respectively, and IV pigment sepatated 3 anthocyains by thin layer chromatography.

  16. Evidence for inbreeding depression and pre-copulatory, but not post copulatory inbreeding avoidance in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XingPing Liu

    Full Text Available Inbreeding is known to have adverse effects on fitness-related traits in a range of insect species. A series of theoretical and experimental studies have suggested that polyandrous insects could avoid the cost of inbreeding via pre-copulatory mate choice and/or post-copulatory mechanisms. We looked for evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance using female mate preference trials, in which females were given the choice of mating with either of two males, a sibling and a non-sibling. We also tested for evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance by conducting double mating experiments, in which four sibling females were mated with two males sequentially, either two siblings, two non-siblings or a sibling and a non-sibling in either order. We identified substantial inbreeding depression: offspring of females mated to full siblings had lower hatching success, slower development time from egg to adult, lower survival of larval and pupal stages, and lower adult body mass than the offspring of females mated to non-sibling males. We also found evidence of pre-copulatory inbreeding avoidance, as females preferred to mate with non-sibling males. However, we did not find any evidence of post-copulatory inbreeding avoidance: egg hatching success of females mating to both sibling and non-sibling males were consistent with sperm being used without bias in relation to mate relatedness. Our results suggest that this cabbage beetle has evolved a pre-copulatory mechanism to avoid matings between close relative, but that polyandry is apparently not an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in C. bowringi.

  17. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects.

  18. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haefele

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg−1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixture of compost, liquid compost and lake sediment. The rice-husk biochar used was slightly alkaline (pH 7.79, increased the pH of the soil, and contained elevated levels of some trace metals and exchangeable cations (K, Ca and Mg in comparison to the soil. The biochar treatments were found to increase the final biomass, root biomass, plant height and number of leaves in all the cropping cycles in comparison to no biochar treatments. The greatest biomass increase due to biochar additions (903% was found in the soils without fertilization, rather than fertilized soils (483% with the same biochar application as in the “without fertilization” case. Over the cropping cycles the impact was reduced; a 363% increase in biomass was observed in the third lettuce cycle.

  19. 喷雾干燥速溶甘蓝粉的工艺研究%Study on Production Technology of Instant Cabbage Powder by Spray Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓志青; 石贤权; 王文亮; 程安玮; 孙华; 陈相艳

    2013-01-01

    为研究速溶甘蓝粉的加工工艺,对影响喷雾干燥甘蓝粉品质的几个因素进行了试验,结果表明:喷雾干燥进口温度为180℃,均质压力为20 MPa,均质2次,添加总固形物含量60%的麦芽糊精作为助干剂,喷雾效果较好,进一步通过流化床造粒,可得到冲调性较好的甘蓝固体饮料.经此工艺加工的甘蓝粉营养损失小,速溶性好.%In order to study the production technology of instant cabbage powder, several factors affecting its quality were tested and analyzed. The results showed the optimum conditions were 180℃ of inlet air temperature , 20 MPa of homogenizer pressure for 2 times, 60% additive amount of maltodextrin as drying agent; and through fluided - bed agglomeration, the instant solid beverage could be produced. The obtained cabbage powder had higher nutrition and better solubility.

  20. Over-expression of rice leucine-rich repeat protein results in activation of defense response, thereby enhancing resistance to bacterial soft rot in Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Ho; Choi, Changhyun; Park, Eun Mi; Kim, Hyo Sun; Park, Hong Jae; Bae, Shin Cheol; Ahn, Ilpyung; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju

    2012-10-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. The simple extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain proteins have been implicated in disease resistance. Rice leucine-rich repeat protein (OsLRP), a rice simple eLRR domain protein, is induced by pathogens, phytohormones, and salt. To see whether OsLRP enhances disease resistance to bacterial soft rot, OsLRP was introduced into Chinese cabbage by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two independent transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP were generated and further analyzed. Transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP showed enhanced disease resistance to bacterial soft rot compared to non-transgenic control. Bacterial growth was retarded in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP compared to non-transgenic controls. We propose that OsLRP confers enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot. Monitoring expression of defense-associated genes in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP, two different glucanases and Brassica rapa polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 2, PDF1 were constitutively activated in transgenic lines compared to non-transgenic control. Taken together, heterologous expression of OsLRP results in the activation of defense response and enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot.

  1. Determination of n+1 Gamete Transmission Rate of Trisomics and Location of Gene Controlling 2n Gamete Formation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-He Zhang; Xiao-Feng Li; Shu-Xing Shen; He Yuan; Shu-Xin Xuan

    2009-01-01

    A set of trisomics of Chinese cabbage was used for determining the n+1 gamete transmission rate and locating the gene controlling 2n gamete formation on the corresponding chromosome. The results showed that the transmission rates of extra chromosomes in different trisomica varied from 0% to 15.38% by male gametes and from 0% to 17.39% by female gametes. Of the nine F2 populations derived from the hybridizations between each triaomic and Bp058 (2n gamete material), only Tri-4×Bp058 showed that the segregation ratio of plants without 2n gamete formation to plants with 2n gamete formation was 10.38:1, which fitted the expected segregation ratio of the trisomics (AAa) based on the 7.37% of n+1 gamete transmission through female and 5.88% through male. In other populations the segregation ratios varied from 2.48:1 to 3.72:1, which fitted the expected 3:1 segregation ratio of the bisomice (Aa). These results suggested that the gene controlling 2n gamete formation in Chinese cabbage Bp058 was located on chromosome 4. Further trisomic analysis based on the chromosome segregation and the incomplete stochastic chromatid segregation indicated that the gene locus was tightly linked to the centromere.

  2. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  3. 苗用型大白菜新品种'双耐'%A New Seedling-edible Chinese Cabbage Hybrid'Shuangnai'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟新民; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣

    2011-01-01

    ‘Shuangnai’ is a seedling-edible Chinese cabbage hybrid with excellent quality, which developed by crossing S99-534 with S02-PB658. It has bright and pale green leaves without fuzz, white petiole, and good quality. It has strong resistance to hot and moist environment and also a high general disease resistance. It is suitable for planting as seedling-edible Chinese cabbage in the summer in Yangtze River Valley and South China.%'双耐'是以S99-534为母本,S02-PB658为父本配制而成的优质苗用型大白菜一代杂种.叶色浅绿,叶柄色白,叶面光滑无茸毛,叶质柔嫩,品质优良,商品性状好;耐热,耐湿,综合抗病性强,适于中国长江流域及华南地区夏季作苗用型大白菜栽培.

  4. Measurement of Some Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of the Antisense Fragment of CYP86MF Gene Transgenic Male Sterile Plantlets in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; CAO Jia-shu; DONG De-kun

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of the transgenic male sterility induced by the antisense fragment of gene CYP86MF, some physiological and biochemical indexes were compared between the transgenic plantlets of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) and their controls.Results showed that there was significant difference between content of the endogenous hormones in leaves and floral buds. GA3 contents in leaves of the transgenic plantlets of B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino cv.Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 31.72 and 46.88% respectively as compared with those of their controls, and GA3 contents in floral buds of them were reduced by 62.92 and 80.57 % respectively. In addition, ZT contents in leaves of cv. Shanghai-qing and cv. Youqing were reduced by 11.81 and 181.20%respectively as compared with those of their controls and those in floral buds were reduced by 105.94 and 128.75% respectively. But, ABA content in transgenic plantlets was significantly higher than that in nontransgenic plantlets. However, differences among respiratory rate and cyanide-resistant respiratory rate, the photosynthesic rate and the content of total flavones in floral buds were not significant. In this study, the results indicated that the gene CYP86MF might be one of the key functional genes to control fertility of Chinese cabbage.

  5. Bioinformatic Analysis of GIF Protein Family in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜GIF蛋白家族的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤德; 李利斌; 李化银; 刘立峰; 高建伟

    2012-01-01

    GIF( GRF - interacting factor)家族是一类含有SNH和QG结构域的蛋白质,可与GRF( Growth regulating factor)转录因子蛋白相结合形成功能复合体,通过促进和维持细胞的分裂能力参与调控植物叶器官的发育.本研究系统鉴定了5个大白菜的GIF基因,并对这些基因编码的蛋白质序列进行了保守性和系统进化分析,最后对BrGIF1基因的表达进行了分析.结果表明,所有的大白菜和拟南芥GIF蛋白家族成员都具有高度保守的SNH和QG结构域.在进化上,GIF蛋白家族可分为两个不同的亚家族,并且这种特征在大白菜和拟南芥分离之前就已经形成.在表达模式上,BrGIF1基因在具有较大叶球的白菜自交系以及具有较强细胞分裂能力的组织中的转录表达水平较高.另外,BrGIF1基因的表达受到NAA的诱导和ABA的抑制.这些结果表明大白菜GIF蛋白可能具有和拟南芥GIF蛋白相似的生物学功能,在调控植物器官发育中具有重要作用.%GIF ( GRF - interacting factor) protein family is one kind of transcription coactivator which features the existence of SNH and QG domains. The members of this family could form a functional complex with GRF and act synergistically in regulating the development of leaves through the promotion and/or maintenance of cell proliferation activity in leaf primordia. In this study, five GIF genes were identified from Chinese cabbage by bioinformatics analysis. The conserved sequences of these proteins were analyzed and a polygenetic tree was constructed based on the corresponding GIF proteins from Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of these genes was analyzed, too. The results showed that all GIF proteins had the highly conservative SNH and QG domains and could be divided into two sub - family groups, which might have existed before the split of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis thalina. The expression level of BrGIF1 was higher not only in the inbred lines

  6. Breeding Report of Purple Flowering Stalk, Flowering Chinese Cabbage and White Flowering Stalk from 1985 to 2014%“三薹”育种研究报告(1985-2014)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏儒来; 王先琳; 杨静; 陈利丹; 周妍萍

    2014-01-01

    自1985-2014年育成一批红菜薹、菜心雄性不育系及其保持系,并用不育系配成一批红菜薹、白菜薹及菜心等杂交种,育成菜心、白菜薹、红菜薹新品种共9个,极大丰富了这3种薹用不结球白菜的品种,现将其育种研究过程总结发表,希望对育种工作者有参考价值。%We have bred some male sterile lines and maintainer lines of purple flowering stalk and flowering Chinese cabbage from 1985 to 2014, and obtained some hybrids of purple flowering stalk, white flowering stalk and flowering Chinese cabbage by mating with the sterile lines, meanwhile, we bred nine new cultivars of flowering Chinese cabbage, white flowering stalk and purple flowering stalk, which has greatly enriched cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage for stalk. Here, we summarize research process of their breeding, in order to provide reference value for breeders.

  7. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes.

  8. The Effect of PickIed Chinese Cabbage on Lipid Oxidation and QuaIity of Sausage%酸菜对风干香肠中脂类氧化及品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车宇博; 张峰; 马利华; 宋慧; 陈学红; 陈丹; 李继昊

    2016-01-01

    Take pickled Chinese cabbage and pork as the main materials to make air-dried sausage. Take non-added pickled Chinese cabbage powder as the control,the effect of different additive amount of pickled Chinese cabbage powder on the color,texture,POV,AV,inhibition ratio of LPO of sausage is studied.The results show that adding pickled Chinese cabbage powder has a certain effect on the lipid oxidation and quality of air-dried sausage,adding 12% pickled Chinese cabbage powder, the color,texture,POV,AV of sausage are all decreased,the inhibition ratio of LPO is increased compared with the control.After 100 days,the POV and AV of sausage added with pickled Chinese cabbage powder are decreased by 31.6%,21.14% compared with the control,the inhibition ratio of LPO is increased by 47.24%.The lipid oxidation can be inhibited to some extent with the addition of pickled Chinese cabbage,the quality of sausage can be improved and the product has unique flavor and good taste.%实验以酸菜、猪肉为主要原料,制成风干香肠。以不加酸菜粉为对照,研究了酸菜粉不同添加量对香肠的色泽、质构、过氧化值、酸价、脂质过氧化物抑制率的影响。结果表明:添加酸菜粉对风干香肠的脂类氧化及品质均有一定程度的影响,香肠添加酸菜粉12%,香肠的色泽、质构、过氧化值、酸价比对照均有下降,脂质过氧化物抑制率比对照有所升高。储藏100天后,添加酸菜粉香肠的过氧化值、酸价比对照分别大幅降低了31.6%,21.14%,脂质过氧化物抑制率则显著提高了47.24%。酸菜的添加可以一定程度抑制香肠的脂类氧化,提高香肠的品质,口味独特而鲜美。

  9. Different influences of cadmium on soil microbial activity and structure with Chinese cabbage cultivated and non-cultivated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Min; Ma Aili; Peng Ying [Dept. of Resources Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, Hangzhou (China); Xie Xiaomei [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal, accumulated in soil by anthropogenic activities and has serious effects on soil microbial activities in contaminated soils. Moreover, there is a lack of reliable data on the effects of Cd in the soil-plant system, since most of the information on Cd-microorganism interactions in soils are based on sewage sludge without plants. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of Cd on soil microbial activities and community structure during growth of plant. Materials and methods: A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of different concentrations of Cd on soil microbial activities during the growth of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) in two different soils. The field soils were used in this short-term (60 days) greenhouse pot experiment. The soils were spiked with different Cd concentrations, namely, 0, 1, 3, 8, 15, 30 mg Cd kg{sup -1} oven dry soil, respectively. The experimental design was a 2 (soil) x 2 (vegetation/non-vegetation) x 5 (treatments (Cd)) x 3 (replicate factorial experiment). After 60 days, the study was terminated and soils were analyzed for selected microbial parameters, such as, microbial biomass carbon (C{sub mic}), basal respiration and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Results and discussion: Application of Cd at lower concentrations (1 and 3 mg kg{sup -1}) resulted in a slight increase in C{sub mic}, whereas Cd concentrations >8 mg kg{sup -1} caused an immediate significant decline in C{sub mic}, the ratio of C{sub mic} to total organic C (C{sub mic}/C{sub org}) decreased and the metabolic quotient (qCO{sub 2}, namely, the basal respiration CO{sub 2}/C{sub mic}) increased with elevated Cd concentration. However, the impact on soil C{sub mic} and basal respiration caused by Cd was dependent from plant cover or soil properties. The results of PLFAs showed relative increase in fatty acid indicators for fungi and actinomycetes and gradual increase in the ratio of

  10. 小白菜与苋菜营养生长期的吸水量研究%Water Absorption of Chinese Cabbage and Amaranth in Vegetative Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏告; 彭选明; 张乐平; 吴同斌; 李青峰; 张跃龙

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide more accurate reference data to irrigate crops, by using plant water absorption simple measuring instrument developed specially, the biggest water absorption of Chinese cabbage and amaranth in the vegetative growth stage was surveyed in every day and different periods in a day. The results showed that the water absorption of above mentioned plant increased in plant growth, and the water absorption of china cabbage and amaranth in the second half stage of growth were 5.93 and 2.74 times of that in the first half stage, respectively. In one day, the main time for water absorbing plants was at 7:00-19:00, and peak period was at 12:00-16:00. In addition, crop water quantity and temperature in 0.01 level has significant correlation level (bilateral). Cultivating cabbage and amaranth under the test conditions, the water consumption quantity per 1 g of grass yield were 19.7 and 17.7 g, respectively.%为了给作物浇灌提供更精准的参考数据,利用专门研制的植物吸水数量简易测量仪,测量小白菜和苋菜营养生长期每天最大吸水量,以及全天不同时段的最大吸水量.结果表明:小白菜和苋菜的吸水量随着植株的生长而增大;小白菜和苋菜营养生长期的后半段的吸水量分别为前半段的5.93倍和2.74倍,在一天中,植物的吸水时间主要是7:00~19:00,高峰时间段为12:00~16:00.植物吸水量与气温在0.01水平(双侧)上显著相关.栽培小白菜和苋菜,每lg鲜草产量消耗的水量分别为19.7 g和17.7 g.

  11. Avaliação da intenção de compra de couve minimamente processada Consumer intention to purchase for minimally processed cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. S. Dantas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Vários fatores influenciam a percepção do produto pelo consumidor e, conseqüentemente, sua intenção de compra. Dentre tais fatores pode estar a expectativa criada pelas características da embalagem e do rótulo, pois representam o primeiro contato entre o indivíduo e o produto. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das características da embalagem na intenção de compra de couve minimamente processada, considerando as diferenças individuais dos consumidores para processar as informações. Cinco características da embalagem de couve minimamente processada (informação, tipo de produção, cor, preço e visibilidade do produto foram manipuladas e 12 embalagens criadas seguindo delineamento fatorial incompleto. A intenção de compra para o produto foi avaliada por 144 consumidores baseada apenas na observação das referidas embalagens. Os dados foram analisados utilizando Conjoint e Cluster Analyses. Os resultados apontaram para um segmento único de consumidores, composto por indivíduos com percepção do produto bastante similar quanto à intenção de compra. Dentre as características da embalagem, a informação foi a que obteve maior importância relativa (77%, enfatizando seu papel na intenção de compra para esse grupo de consumidores. Em seguida, o tipo de produção, cor e preço também contribuíram significativamente (pSeveral factors affect the consumer product perception and, consequently, his/her intention to purchase. Among such factors is the expectation which can be created by the food label/packaging, which represents the first contact between the person and the product. This study aimed at investigating the effect of the manipulated package characteristics on the consumer intention to purchase for minimally processed cabbage, taking into account the consumer individual differences. Five minimally processed cabbage package characteristics (information, production type, colour, price and product

  12. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP (3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate) on Nitrate Accumulation and Quality of Cabbage (Brassica campastris L.ssp.pekinesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chao; WU Liang-huan; JU Xiao-tang; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of N fertilizer ammonium sulphate nitrate [(NH4)2SO4 plus NH4NO3;ASN] with the new nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP)(ASN+DMPP) on yield, nitrate accumulation, and quality of cabbage (Brassica campastrisL. ssp. pekinesis), two field trials were carried out under various soil-climatic conditions in Jinhua City and Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province of China in 2002.Results showed that DMPP could increase the mean yield by + 2.0 t ha-1 in Jinhua, +5.5 t ha-1 in Xinchang, decrease NO3--N content by -9.4% in Jinhua, -7.3% in Xinchang and improve nutritional quality by increasing vitamin C (VC), soluble sugar, K, Fe, Zn contents significantly.

  13. Change of 3 Kinds of Enzyme Activity and Soluble Sugar in 3 Chinese Cabbage Varieties with Different Resistance Level During the Process of Plasmodiophora brassicae lnfecting Their Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohua REN; Hu ZHOU; Xiaoli HUANG; Qiong SONG; Minjie LlU; Erming LlU

    2015-01-01

    There are different levels of resistance in Chinese cabbage varieties a-gainst clubroot. The content of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanin am-monia-lyase (PAL), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar activities of 3 cultivars with different clubroot-resistant levelswere detected after inoculation in this study. The results suggest that the changing rates of CAT, PAL and SOD contents of resistance cultivars after inoculation were higher than those of susceptible culti-vars (Baigengbaiye > Zaobaicaitai > Huangjinxiaobaicai); the POD activities of resis-tance cultivars reached a peak on an earlier day than those of susceptible cultivars;the increasing rate of soluble sugar of susceptible cultivars was higher than that of the resistance cultivars, and ended with two peaks. Therefore, the four enzymes (CAT, POD, PAL and SOD) and soluble sugar may be used as physiological and biochemical reference indexes for the resistance identification to clubroot after inoc-ulation with P. brassicae.

  14. Encapsulation of Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.capitata L. f. rubra Anthocyanins by Spray Drying using Different Encapsulating Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahi Bernstein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the drying air temperature (140 and 160°C and the concentration of encapsulating agents gum Arabic and polydextrose (10 and 15% on the physicochemical characteristics of the red cabbage extract obtained through extraction in acidulated water and drying using a spray dryer. The anthocyanin retention, antioxidant activity, water activity, solubility, color and microstructure of the final product were analyzed. Results showed that increase in the temperature did not cause significant changes in the anthocyanin quantity and antioxidant activity. The microscopic analysis revealed that for both the encapsulating agents, the absence of fissures and porosity in the particle surfaces produced powder with high solubility in water. The principal component analyses showed a strong correlation between the anthocyanin content and the antioxidant activity (r = 0.82 and luminosity (r = 0.81.

  15. Variations in phthalate ester (PAE) accumulation and their formation mechanism in Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.) cultivars grown on PAE-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Chen, Yi-Liang; Lu, Lei-An; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2015-11-01

    Phthalate ester (PAE) accumulation in crops poses great risks to human health and has aroused great concern. Here, we investigated variations in di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accumulation by various Chinese flowering cabbage cultivars and revealed their variation mechanism. There were significant differences (p PAE concentrations of 28 cultivars. Moreover, significant positive correlations between DBP and DEHP concentrations in shoots of all cultivars indicated that they could be taken up simultaneously by various cultivars. Due to the lower translocation factor of low-PAE accumulator, its shoot PAEs concentrations were much lower than root compared to high-PAE accumulator. Further, subcellular distribution showed that PAE concentrations of root cell walls and organelles were much higher than those of shoots in low-PAE accumulator. Therefore, lower translocation from root to shoot and more PAEs accumulating in cell walls and organelles of root might act as main formation mechanism of low-PAE accumulator.

  16. Nitrogen, Phosphor and Potassium Fertilization Index for Kale Cabbage in Fujian%福建结球甘蓝氮磷钾施肥指标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章明清; 李娟; 孔庆波; 姚宝全; 沈金泉

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of 59 field experiments of kale cabbage response to N, P and K fertilization in recent years, NPK fertilization indices for head cabbage in Fujian Province were developed. The results showed that there were linear positive correlation between the yield applying balanced fertilization and the yield in blank. The average contribution rate of soil nutrients to yield of head cabbage was 51.0%, the average increased yield of N, P and K applications was 40.4%, 11.6% and 15.0% respectively. The critical indices of alkali -hydrolyzable nitrogen, Olsen-P and available K for high yield of head cabbage was 207 mg/kg, 71 mg/kg and 157 mg/kg respectively. In general, the economic application rates was N 238 kg/hm2, P2O5 70kg/hm2 and K2O 192kg/hm2, and their proportion was 1':0.29: 0.81. Relationship between soil testing value and their fertilization recommendation met with exponent regression equation. The model may be used for fertilization recommendation according to soil testing value and played the role of different application rate in different soil fertility levels.%根据59个氮磷钾肥效试验结果,研究了福建结球甘蓝氮磷钾施肥指标.结果表明,平衡施肥产量与空白区产量呈现线性正相关关系,土壤养分对结球甘蓝产量的平均贡献率为51.0%,施用氮磷钾平均增产40.4%、11.6%和15.0%;土壤速效氮磷钾高产临界指标分别为碱解氮207 mg/kg、Olsen-P 71 mg/kg和速效钾157 mg/kg;平均经济施肥量为N 238 kg/hm2、P2O5 70 kg/hm2和K2O 192 kg/hm2,三要素比例为1∶0.29∶0.81;土壤有效氮磷钾测定值与推荐施肥量之间满足指数回归方程,根据土壤养分测定值可推算结球甘蓝推荐施肥量,起到因土施肥的作用.

  17. Identification of expressed genes during infection of chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) by Plasmodiophora brassicae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundelin, Thomas; Jensen, Dan Funck; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    is impossible. Discovery of genes expressed during infection and gene organization are the first steps toward a better understanding of the pathogen–host interaction. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to search for the P. brassicae genes expressed during plant infection. One-hundred and forty...... ESTs were found of which 49% proved to be P. brassicae genes. Ten novel P. brassicae genes were identified, and the genomic sequences surrounding four of the ESTs were acquired using genome walking. Alignment of the ESTs and the genomic DNA sequences confirmed that P. brassicae genes are intron rich...... and that the introns are small. These results show that it is possible to discover new P. brassicae genes from a mixed pool of both plant and pathogen cDNA. The results also revealed that some of the P. brassicae genes expressed in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) were identical to the genes expressed...

  18. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E. Fatouros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated with eggs of Cabbage White butterflies (Pieris spp. induce chemical changes in Brussels sprouts plants recruiting egg-killing parasitoids. Only secretions of mated female butterflies contain minute amounts of male-derived anti-aphrodisiac compounds that elicit this indirect plant defense. Here, we used the black mustard (Brassica nigra to investigate how eggs of the Large Cabbage White butterfly (P. brassicae induce, either an egg-killing direct (i.e. hypersensitive response (HR-like necrosis or indirect defense (i.e. oviposition-induced plant volatiles attracting Trichogramma egg parasitoids. Plants induced by P. brassicae egg-associated secretions expressed both traits and previous mating enhanced elicitation. Treatment with the anti-aphrodisiac compound of P. brassicae, benzyl cyanide, induced stronger HR when compared to controls. Expression of the salicylic (SA pathway- and HR-marker PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1 (PR1 was induced only in plants showing an HR-like necrosis. Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles induced by secretion of mated P. brassicae females but application of benzyl cyanide did not elicit the parasitoid-attracting volatiles. We conclude that egg-associated secretions of Pieris butterflies contain specific elicitors of the different plant defense traits against eggs in Brassica plants. While in Brussels sprouts plants anti-aphrodisiac compounds in Pieris egg-associated secretions were clearly shown to elicit indirect defense, the wild relative B. nigra, recognizes different herbivore cues that mediate the defensive responses. These results add another level of specificity to the mechanisms by which plants recognize their

  19. Diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Azizul; Yun, Han Dae; Cho, Kye Man

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of Chinese cabbage (CC) cultivated in two areas in Korea, namely, Seosang-gun (SS) and Haenam-gun (HN), and also in a transgenic plant (TP) from the laboratory. A total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of CC roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from SS, HN, and TP samples, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC-GPB), low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC-GPB), Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The most dominant groups in the roots of the SS, HN, and TP cultivars were LGC-GPB (48.3%), Proteobacteria (50.2%), and HGC-GPB (38.2%), respectively. Importantly, most of the isolates that produced cell-walldegrading enzymes belonged to the genus Bacillus. Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, TPR07), and Bacillus subtilis (TPR03) showed high antagonism against the tested food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, HNR17, TPR11), Microbacterium oxidans (SSR09, TPR04), Bacillus cereus HNR10, Pseudomonas sp. HNR13, and Bacillus subtilis (TPR02, TPR03) showed strong antagonistic activity against the fungi Phythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The endophytes isolated from the TP cultivar showed the strongest antagonistic reactions against pathogens. This study is the first report on endophytic bacteria from Chinese cabbage roots.

  20. 白菜根肿病菌致病性因素研究%Study on Pathogenic Factors of Cabbage Root Swelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明英; 李向东; 孙道旺; 曹继芬; 彭荣珍; 杨佩文; 代玉华; 杨家鸾; 严位中

    2011-01-01

    BaSed on Study of the main factoRS of Plasmodiophora brassicae in 2002 -2004 , the reSults ahowed : ( i ) When the soil moiature were 20 % , 30 % , 40 % , 50 % , 60 % , 70 % and 80 % , the cabbage disease indax were 0,1. 5 ,10. 5 ,28. 6,26. 9,19. 8 and 2.9, respectively. ( ii ) Tte vertical distribution of dormant sprores in the field were measured, the results showed that the numbers of dormant sporea were 0. 49 × 106 -208. 27 × 106 , 83. 85 × 106 - 1400. 15 × 106 , 5. 1 × 102 - 28.7 × 102 in the soil layer of 0, 10 and 20 cm, respectively. And the numbers of dormant spores were 10 cm > 0 cm > 20 cm. ( iii) With 0, 10 and 20 cm contaminated soil to inoculated Chinese cabbage, the disase index of clubroot disease were 30. 7 , 25. 8 and 20. 0 ,respectively. But with the dried contaminated soil to inoculated the Chinese cabbage, there were no disease appearance. Soil pH was cloaely related to the occurrence of clubroot diaease in the fields. When the pH was between 5. 6 -5. 97 , the frequency of infected plants were 100 % ; the pH was between 6. 9 - 7. 59 , the frequency of infected plants were 45. 68 % - 62. 96 % . When the diseased soil uptumed under sun in 60, 40 , 20 d inoculated cabbage and kale ,the disease indcxes were 0. 47 , 4. 4 . 38. 2 and 0. 2 , 1. 2 . 24. 8 . respectively. The diseased root treated by flood damage and aun for 5 , 10 , 15 d inoculated cabbage, the diseased plant rate were 55. 2 % , 79. 2 % , 89. 6 % and 85. 7 % . 100 % , 100 % , respectively. The fresh root inoculated cabbage, the diseased plant rate was 84. 9 % , and the disease-free soil did not cause the incidence.%通过对2002年至2004年白菜根肿病主要影响因素研究,结果表明,土壤含水量为20%、30%、40%、50%、60%、70%、80%时,白菜根肿病病情指数分别为0,1.5,10.5,28.6,26.9,19.8,2.9.对病田土壤中根肿病菌休眠孢子囊垂直分布测定,结果为0 cm土层平均含菌量为0.49×106~208.27×106

  1. Transfer and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in cabbage cultivated on contaminated manure-amended soil under tropical field conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, D; Vasquez, G A; Muyanja, C; Ryckeboer, J; Geeraerd, A H; Springael, D

    2011-01-31

    Surface contamination and internalisation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest (120 days post-transplantation) following amendment of contaminated bovine manure to soil at different times during crop cultivation were investigated under tropical field conditions in the Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Uganda. Fresh bovine manure inoculated with rifampicin-resistant derivatives of non-virulent strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium was incorporated into the soil to achieve inoculum concentrations of 4 and 7 log CFU/g at the point of transplantation, 56 or 105 days post-transplantation of cabbage seedlings. Frequent sampling of the soil enabled the accurate identification of the survival kinetics in soil, which could be described by the Double Weibull model in all but one of the cases. The persistence of 4 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in the soil was limited, i.e. only inocula applied 105 days post-transplantation were still present at harvest. Moreover, no internalisation in cabbage leaf tissues was observed. In contrast, at the 7 log CFU/g inoculum level, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium survived in the soil throughout the cultivation period. All plants (18/18) examined for leaf contamination were positive for E. coli O157:H7 at harvest irrespective of the time of manure application. A similar incidence of leaf contamination was found for S. Typhimurium. On the other hand, only plants (18/18) cultivated on soil amended with contaminated manure at the point of transplantation showed internalised E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at harvest. These results demonstrate that under tropical field conditions, the risk of surface contamination and internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues at harvest depend on the inoculum concentration and the time of manure application. Moreover, the internalisation of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in cabbage leaf tissues

  2. Recuperação de azoto de origem orgânica e inorgânica pela cultura da couve repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata Organic and inorganic nitrogen recovery by white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Brito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta da couve repolho à aplicação de um fertilizante mineral nas doses de 0, 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de N em combinações com um fertilizante orgânico, resultante da compostagem durante 182 dias da fracção sólida de chorume, nas doses de 0, 20 e 40 t ha-1, através de uma experiência de arranjos sistemáticos com o objectivo de investigar o efeito da utilização deste composto no crescimento e na absorção de N com e sem aplicação do fertilizante mineral azotado. A produção de couve repolho dependeu fortemente da aplicação do adubo mineral azotado e da aplicação do composto quando não se aplicou adubo. O aumento de aplicação de N mineral de 90 para 180 kg ha-1 aumentou a acumulação de N na couve, mas o correspondente aumento de peso não foi significativo. Recomenda-se a aplicação do composto da FSC até doses de 20 t ha-1, particularmente quando não se aplica adubo mineral.The response of white cabbage to increasing rates of a mineral fertilizer (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 of mineral nitrogen combined with increasing rates (0, 20 and 40 t ha-1 of an organic fertilizer resulting from the composting process (182 days of the solid fraction of dairy cattle slurry, was assessed throughout a systematically arranged experiment to investigate the effect of this compost on cabbage growth and N uptake, with and without mineral N application. Cabbage yield was strongly related to mineral N application and to compost application in treatments without mineral N fertilizer. The increase on mineral N application from 90 to 180 kg ha-1 increased cabbage N uptake but not significantly cabbage yield. The application of this compost to cabbage crop is recommended up to 20 t ha-1, particularly when mineral N is not applied.

  3. Effect of Dimethyl Dicarbonate(DMDC) as disinfectant on the quality of Fresh-cut flowering cabbages%DMDC杀菌对鲜切菜心品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠惠; 王维民; 陈于陇; 徐玉娟; 范梅红

    2013-01-01

    In the paper,the effect of total aerobic plate count and count of total yeasts and molds in the fresh-cut flowering cabbage treated by DMDC was investigated.And the sensory,nutritional quality and browning-related enzymes in fresh-cut flowering cabbage treated by DMDC were also determined at storage.This study aims to evaluate the effect of DMDC on fresh-cut flowering cabbage.It turned out that the total aerobic plate count and count of total yeasts and molds in the fresh-cut flowering cabbage treated by DMDC were significantly reduced (p <0.05).DMDC treatment made negative impact on firmness,color and chlorophyll at early storage of 8d,and had no significant influence on Vc and soluble sugar.However the treatment could reduce the loss of soluble protein and inhibit PPO and POD activities.As shown above,DMDC treatment can effectively reduce the occurrence of microorganisms on the surface of flowering cabbage,delay the browning-related enzymes'activity,and slow down the senescence and maintain the quality of flowering cabbage.%本文以鲜切菜心为原料,研究了二甲基二碳酸盐(DMDC)作为杀菌剂对其细菌、霉菌和酵母菌总数的影响,并通过测定鲜切菜心在贮藏期间外观品质、营养成分及其褐变相关主要酶的变化,对DMDC用于鲜切菜心的杀菌效果进行评价.结果表明:DMDC可以有效减少鲜切菜心中细菌(革兰氏阳性菌)、霉菌和酵母菌总数,对其贮藏前期的硬度、色泽、叶绿素含量的变化有一定影响,但是对Vc和可溶性糖无明显影响;并且可有效减少可溶性蛋白的损失,抑制多酚氧化酶(PPO)、过氧化物酶(POD)的活性.说明DMDC杀菌可以有效杀灭菜心表面微生物,延缓菜心贮藏期褐变相关酶活性的增加和衰老,有利于维持菜心的营养品质.

  4. Effect of Potassium Fertilizer on Cabbage Yield and Quality in Lead Pollution Soils%钾肥对铅污染土壤白菜产量和品质的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊驰; 陈怡; 王小晶; 徐丹; 王丽; 何慧明; 王正银

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the role of potassium fertilizer in safe vegetable production under lead pollution soils condition, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different potassium fertilizers (potassium sulphate and potassium chloride) on cabbage yield, nutritional quality and safety quality (nitrate and heavy metals) in lead pollution soils. Results indicated that the yield and roots weight of cabbage were significantly increased by the fertilized treatments by 9.5%-48.4% compared to the CK1. Application of potassium fertilizer could significantly reduce amino acid and Vc content in cabbage, but increase the content of the reducing sugar in it. The nitrate content of cabbage was increased in lead contaminated soil and reduced by 15.3%-54.6% in potassium fertilizer treatments. Potassium sulphate could significantly reduce the lead content of cabbage. Lead content of cabbage was increased by the low dosage of potassium chloride and the others significantly decreased in low lead contaminated soil.%为了探讨钾肥对铅污染土壤蔬菜安全生产的影响,本试验采用温室盆栽,研究了不同钾肥对紫色菜园土壤2种铅污染条件下白菜产量、营养品质和安全品质(硝酸盐和重金属)的影响.结果表明,与不施钾肥(CK1)相比,钾肥能显著提高铅污染土壤白菜产量和根系重量,施用钾肥增产幅度为9.5%~48.4%.施用钾肥显著降低白菜游离氨基酸和维生素C含量,增加还原糖的含量.铅污染土壤上,白菜硝酸盐含量增加,施用钾肥能降低白菜硝酸盐含量,降低幅度为15.3%~54.6%.硫酸钾能显著降低铅含量,氯化钾在低铅污染条件下低量施用时,显著增加铅含量,其余处理均显著降低铅含量.

  5. Studies on the Breeding of the Genetic Male Sterility Lines of‘Heiye’Chinese Cabbage with Anti-Clubroot%‘黑叶’大白菜抗根肿病雄性不育系转育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 沈向群; 郭艳锋; 王菲菲; 洪雅婷; 陈永浩

    2013-01-01

    In order to breed new Chinese cabbage variety with anti-clubroot, according to the genetic hypothesis of multi-allele and the conclusion that the anti-clubroot is controlled by a dominant nuclear gene in Chinese cabbage, the resistant gene against clubroot disease and the sterile genes were transferred to‘Heiye’ Chinese cabbage with cycle male parents using anti-clubroot sterile plants of AB lines (type Ⅰ) of Chinese cabbage as resistance resources and infertility resources. By means of crossing, consecutive backcrossing, self-crossing, test cross, sib-mating and resistance inoculation screening, etc., anti-clubroot new AB lines (type Ⅰ) and temporary maintainer lines of‘Heiye’Chinese cabbage were achieved. Breeding the male sterility lines of‘Heiye’Chinese cabbage with anti-clubroot can lay the foundation for selection of new varieties in anti-clubroot.%为选育抗根肿病大白菜新品种,根据“复等位基因”遗传假说及大白菜对根肿病的抗性由1对显性核基因控制的结论,以抗根肿病大白菜甲型雄性不育“两用系”的不育株为抗源和不育源,以‘黑叶’大白菜为轮回父本,经过杂交、连续回交、自交、测交、兄妹交和抗病接种筛选鉴定等方法,将抗根肿病基因和核不育基因导入‘黑叶’大白菜中,获得抗根肿病‘黑叶’大白菜新甲型雄性不育“两用系”和“临时保持系”。抗根肿病的大白菜雄性不育系的育成,为抗根肿病新品种选育提供参考。

  6. Analysis on Slow Sales of Cabbage in Qinshan Town of Haiyan County%海盐县秦山街道结球甘蓝滞销情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芹

    2012-01-01

    2011年海盐县秦山街道结球甘蓝出现罕见的滞销现象,菜贱伤农,引起社会的广泛关注。借助实地调研资料,透彻剖析滞销的深层原因,并提出相应的对策和建议。%In 2011, vegetable farmers of Qinshan street in Haivan county suffered great loss of uusalable cabbage which aroused great concerns. According to field investigation data, the underlying reasons leading to the slow sales of cabbage were exposed. Some advices and measures were put forward in this paper.

  7. 小白菜潮汐式栽培专用基质的筛选%Screening of Special Cultivation Substrate for Chinese Cabbage with Ebb-and-flow Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓平; 刘静波; 刘庆叶; 杨巍; 徐明喜; 王蓓; 甘小虎; 章鸥; 王东升

    2015-01-01

    对3种不同栽培基质和常规栽培基质(市场销售)在潮汐式灌溉模式下进行小白菜栽培试验,比较小白菜的植物学性状,筛选出适用于潮汐式灌溉的小白菜专用型栽培基质。研究结果表明,处理2(40%茶渣蚓粪、20%泥炭、20%蛭石、20%珍珠岩)培育的小白菜株高、生物量、株幅、SPAD 值均显著优于其他处理,栽培效果显著提高,可推荐作为潮汐式灌溉小白菜栽培的专用型基质。%In this paper,we used 3 different special cultivation substrates and 1 common cultivation substrate (for market sale)to take the experiment of Chinese cabbage planting with ebb-and-flow irrigation, and the botany characters of Chi-nese cabbage were observed to screening special Chinese cabbage cultivation substrates with Ebb-and-flow Irrigation. The result showed that the cultivation results of treatment 2 (40% tea leaf and vermicompost, 20% peat, 20% vermiculite, 20%perlite ) were significantly better than others in plant height, biomass, SPAD value, leaves spreading, it could be recom-mended as special cultivation substrates for Chinese cabbage with ebb-and-flow irrigation.

  8. 抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”转育研究%Breeding of Anti-clubroot AB Lines Type I of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新翠; 沈向群; 郭艳峰; 马士芳; 洪雅婷

    2012-01-01

    Orange head Chinese cabbage is becoming an important development direction of Chinese cabbage quality breeding for its fresh and lovely color, nutritional value and health value. Its production will be affected seversly by the rapid spreading of clubroot disease. In accordance with the Multiple Allele Hypothesis of genetic male sterility, genetic rules of anti-clubroot genes and head color, the transfer model of anti-clubroot AB lines type I of orange head Chinese cabbage were put forward. On the basis of the model, orange head genes were transferred to AB line type I of anti-clubroot Chinese cabbage by crossing, backcross, self ing, sibling and test-crossing. During the course of breeding, head color screening, resistance identification, economic characters sifting and fertility identification were carried out for the plants from each generation. AB lines type I of orange head plants with ho-mozygosis resistant genes were generated after 4 generations.%根据大白菜“核不育复等位基因遗传假说”、抗根肿病基因和球心色的遗传规律,提出抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”转育模式.依照转育模式采用杂交、回交、自交、系内交和测交等方法,对不同转育世代依次进行球心色筛选、抗性鉴定、经济性状筛选和育性调查,经过4代转育得到抗根肿病桔红心大白菜甲型“两用系”.

  9. Effects of Imidacloprid on the Chinese Cabbage Growth and Biochemistry%吡虫啉对小白菜生长及其生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐辉; 赵盼盼; 吕福堂; 李海云

    2011-01-01

    本试验以四季小白菜为试材,研究不同剂量的吡虫啉溶液对小白菜生长及其生理生化指标的影响结果表明:吡虫啉处理对提高小白菜的生长及抗性具有明显的作用.在一定范围内,随着吡虫啉溶液稀释倍数的增加,脯氨酸、可溶性糖、叶绿素、根系活力升高,丙二醛、相对电导率降低,其中以5%吡虫啉稀释到600倍时效果最好.%The effects of imidacloprid on Chinese cabbage growth and physiological and biochemical index were studied.The results show that: imidacloprid improved obviously growth and resistance of Chinese cabbage.Within a certain range,when dilution of imidacloprid solution increased,proline,soluble sugars,chlorophyll content,and root activity of Chinese cabbage increased,but malondialdehyde and the relative conductivity reduced.Among them,the best results obtained when 5% imidacloprid diluted to 600 times.

  10. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  11. Recovery in the soil-plant system of nitrogen from green manure applied on cabbage crop; Recuperacao no sistema solo-planta de nitrogenio derivado da adubacao verde aplicada a cultura do repolho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Urquiaga, Segundo; Boddey, Robert Michael; Alves, Bruno Jose Rodrigues, E-mail: ednaldo@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: gmguerra@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: urquiaga@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: bob@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: bruno@cnpab.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Martelleto, Luiz Aurelio Peres [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Estacao Experimental de Seropedica

    2011-07-15

    The objective of this work was to determine, in the soil-plant system, the recovery efficiency of N derived from green manure applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) crop. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first one consisted of the straw production of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna cinereum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), in substrate enriched with {sup 15}N. The second stage consisted of the application of {sup 15}N-labeled green manure on the cabbage beds. Treatments consisted of: fresh residues of jack bean; fresh residues of velvet bean; fresh residues of sorghum; mixture of residues of jack bean, velvet bean, and sorghum at 1:1:1; and control without green manure addition. The N recovery in the soil plant system was influenced by the green manure species used, and the recovery efficiency of the N derived from the green manure legumes varied from 9 to 16%. The jack bean treatment shows a greater recovery efficiency of nitrogen and, therefore, the best synchrony of N supply, by straw decomposition, with the cabbage crop demand. (author)

  12. The Result of 8% Diethyl Aminoethyl Hexanoate Agent Sprayed in the Cabbage%8%胺鲜酯水剂在白菜上应用药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柏莲

    2012-01-01

    用8%胺鲜酯水剂在大白菜上进行田间药效试验,试验表明,在大白菜的大田返青期、生长期喷施,能有效地促进大白菜的生长,提高大白菜的产量。对大白菜中的维生素C和可溶性固形物含量等品质指标未发现有不良影响,且对品质有所提升。%The trial of 8% diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate agent sprayed in the cabbage was carried out at Peifeng town.The results showed that spraying this agent in the turning green and growth stages can effectively accelerate growth and increase yield of cabbage,but not influence quality indices such as vitamin C and soluble solid contents.On the contrary,this agent helps to improve quality of cabbage.

  13. Qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com diferentes produtos Quality of Chinese cabbage minimally processed and treated with different products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de couve-chinesa minimamente processada e tratada com cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C, ácido etileno-diamino-tetracético (EDTA e mantida sob refrigeração. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: T1: testemunha (imersão em água contendo 50 mg L-1 clorin/5 minutos; T2: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 1%/5 minutos; T3: imersão em solução contendo CaCl2 a 2%/5 minutos; T4: imersão em solução contendo vitamina C a 1%/5 minutos; T5: imersão em solução contendo Vitamina C a 2%/5 minutos; T6: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 1%/5 minutos; e T7: imersão em solução contendo EDTA a 2%/5 minutos. Após a realização dos tratamentos a couve-chinesa foi centrifugada, embalada em bandejas de polietileno expandido, recoberta com policloreto de vinila (PVC e armazenada em temperatura de 5 ± 1 °C e umidade relativa (UR de 90 ± 2% por 8 dias. As análises físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais foram realizadas de dois em dois dias. A presença de Salmonella foi verificada somente após a realização dos tratamentos. A partir dos resultados obtidos procedeu-se à análise de variância (ANAVA e aplicou-se o teste de Tukey considerando-se um nível de significância p The present research aimed at evaluating the quality of minimally processed Chinese cabbage treated with calcium chloride (CaCl2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, and ethylene-diamine-tetracetic acid (EDTA and kept under refrigeration. Treatments were as follows: T1: control (immersion in water containing 50 mg L-1 Clorin/5 minutes; T2: immersion in 1% CaCl2 solution/5 minutes; T3: immersion in 2% aCl2 solution/5 minutes; T4: immersion in 1% vitamin C solution/5 minutes; T5: immersion in 2% vitamin C solution/5 minutes, T6: immersion in 1% EDTA solution/5 minutes; and T7: immersion in 2% EDTA solution/5 minutes. After the treatments, the Chinese cabbage was centrifuged, wrapped with polyvinyl

  14. 含砷鸡粪施肥后对青菜和番茄植株中砷富集的影响%Effect of As-bearing Chicken Manure on As Accumulation of Pakchoi Cabbage and Tomato Shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雨梅; 殷俊; 胡成云; 崔卫波; 刘学

    2011-01-01

    利用给鸡饲喂50 mg· kg-1和80 mg· kg-1洛克沙生得到的鸡粪进行盆栽试验,研究两种含砷鸡粪对青菜和番茄中砷含量、砷富集因子的影响.结果表明,含砷鸡粪施肥后青菜和番茄植株中砷含量均明显提高;青菜砷含量、砷富集因子高于番茄植株,青菜有明显的砷富集作用;番茄植株中砷含量与其生物量呈负相关、未表现出对砷的富集作用.不同种属蔬菜在含砷鸡粪施肥后对砷有不同的摄入,青菜对砷有明显的富集现象,提示青菜在含砷鸡粪施肥后砷水平有较大影响,存在着砷超标风险.%The pot cultivation experiments were conducted to investigate the As content and As accumulation of Chinese pakchoi cabbage and tomato shoots in soils amended with As-bearing chicken manures which were obtained from feeding 50 mg kg-1 and 80 mg kg-1 roxarsone to chicken respectively. A one-way analysis of variance( ANOVA) was analyzed the data of As content, biomass, As accumulation factor and chicken manure tested. Results showed As content of two vegetables was significantly higher than the control. The As content and As accumulation factor of pakchoi cabbage were significantly higher than that of tomato shoots, which appeared clear As accumulation trend in pakchoi cabbage. The As content of tomato shoots was negatively correlated with its biomass and the As accumulation phenomena was not appeared. A conclusion was that As uptake capability was depended on its vegetable species and pakchoi cabbage appeared clear As accumulation trend in As contaminated soils. It is implied that heavy application of As containing manures should be avoided in produce of vegetable species with high accumulated potential like as pakchoi cabbage for As safety of foods.

  15. Experimental study of vacuum cooling methods for cabbage%卷心菜真空预冷方式的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程启康; 陈亮

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum cooling is one of the effective pre-cooling methods , which has the advantages of rapid cooling rate and uniform temperature.Cabbage was used in this paper as research object to study the suitable vacuum chamber cooling pressure by controlling different vacuum cooling end pressure . Using various vacuum cooling methods as direct vacuum cooling , spray water vacuum cooling,spray water and preserve film vacuum cooling and water absorbent film package vacuum cooling,the results show that vegetables packaged with water absorbent film have the fastest temperature decreasing rate,the shortest cooling time and the lowest water loss rate and energy consumption.The spending time of cabbage temperature decreasing from 27 ℃ to 5 ℃ in this vacuum cooling method is 48% less than the method of direct vacuum cooling,and the water loss rate reduced 76.7% and the energy consumption reduced 45%.So,water absorbent film package vacuum cooling is an effective method to improve temperature decreasing rate and reduce water loss during vacuum cooling.%真空预冷是果蔬采摘后有效的预冷方式之一,具有冷却速度快、温度均匀等特点。本文以组织致密类蔬菜卷心菜为研究对象,通过实验找出其适合的真空预冷终压,并以此终压为实验结束压力,分别对卷心菜进行直接预冷、喷水预冷、喷水加保鲜膜和表面包覆吸水膜预冷实验研究。结果表明:通过采用吸水膜包覆卷心菜这种预冷方式,可以显著提高降温速率,缩短预冷时间,降低失水率,降低能耗。吸水膜包覆方式从初温27℃降低到5℃需要的时间比直接预冷少48%,失水率降低76.7%,能耗降低45%。因此,采用吸水膜包覆是提高卷心菜降温速率,降低失水率的有效方法。

  16. 大白菜育性相关蛋白差异表达%Differencial Expression of Fertility-related Proteins in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕青; 周雪; 冀瑞琴; 冯辉

    2015-01-01

    为揭示复等位基因遗传的大白菜雄性不育分子机制,通过基于质谱的蛋白质组学同位素相对标记与绝对定量技术技术( iTRAQ),开展了大白菜核基因雄性不育蛋白质组学研究,以找到不育与可育材料中差异表达蛋白,从蛋白水平来进一步揭示大白菜雄性不育的分子遗传机制。通过研究,共发现了358个差异蛋白,其中可育中上调表达的蛋白有226个,下调表达的蛋白有132个,GO 分析结果表明,鉴定的蛋白质组数据具有较好的生物学功能覆盖范围。通过双向电泳验证,差异蛋白点差异特性与 iTRAQ结果类似,表明 iTRAQ用于差异蛋白分析结果可靠。%To better understand the molecular mechanisms of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage( Brassica rapa L. ssp pekinensis),the iTRAQ quantitation technique based on mass spectrometry were used to study the differencial expression between proteins fertile- and sterile-buds. This research would provide the basis for analyzing the molecular mechanism of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage. In this re-search,a total of 358 differencial expressed proteins(226 up-expressed and 132 down-expressed proteins in fertile buds)were found and Gene Ontology( GO)analysis showed that the proteins identified data has better coverage of biological functions. It is verified by two-dimensional electrophoresis(2-DE). This results is consistent with iTRAQ technique,which indicated that using iTRAQ to analyze protein profile is reliable.

  17. Breeding and Utilization of Cabbage Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines%甘蓝胞质雄性不育系的选育及其利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵贵荣; 陈文辉; 方淑桂; 郑学立; 林翮飞

    2012-01-01

    Through field investigation, seven broccoli cytoplasmic male sterile materials were selected out of 19 crossbreed materials of Japanese broccoli. Six cabbage cytoplasmic male sterile lines were obtained by crossing the male sterile materials with cabbage inbred lines as recurrent parents) the sterile lines showed excellent general characteristics with high combining ability, both of sterile plant rates and sterility reached 100%. Five excellent hybridized combinations were obtained by crossing with the male sterile lines. Xiahua No. 2 is a variety that developed through the field screening.%从日本引进青花菜杂种19份,通过秋季田间经济性状和翌年春季开花习性鉴定,筛选出7份青花菜不育材料.用甘蓝类蔬菜自交系分别与其杂交,后代鉴定结果表明该7份青花菜不育材料为优良的胞质雄性不育材料.2000年以青花菜胞质不育材料为不育源,用甘蓝高代自交系为轮回亲本进行转育,连续回交5代,育成6个综合性状优良、配合力强、雄性不育株率和不育度均达100%的甘蓝胞质雄性不育系及相应的保持系.不育系植株生长健壮,苗期低温无叶片黄化现象,花瓣完全开放,雌蕊发育较正常,蜜腺较发达,雄蕊完全退化,杂交结实正常.利用该不育系配制一代杂种,经田间试验鉴定,筛选出5个优良杂交组合,通过进一步试验、示范,育成甘蓝新品种夏华2号在生产上推广应用.

  18. Isolated-Microspore Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜游离小孢子的培养及植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓英; 陶莲; 李正丽; 郭惊涛; 吴康云; 孟平红; 赵大芹

    2012-01-01

    为快速创新蔬菜种质材料,缩短大白菜杂交育种工作中自交系的选育过程,对10个优良大白菜杂交种进行游离小孢子培养.结果表明,采用游离小孢子培养方法1~2年内可获得双单倍体(DH)纯合植株,在供试的10个基因型中,有6个得到胚状体,胚诱导成功率为60%,不同基因型之间最高和最低的小孢子产胚数相差极大,春秋霸王平均每花蕾产胚10.92个,天绿58平均每花蕾产胚0.17个;出胚基因型中有5个基因型得到植株,植株诱导率为83%;经田间观察得到20个以上的株系,2012年春季试配杂交组合.%In order to bring new germ plasm resource quickly and shorten the breeding process of inbred line during the cross breeding of Chinese cabbage, the isolated-microspore culture was carried among 10 excellent Chinese cabbage hybrids. The results showed that by isolated-microspore culture, the double haploid(DH) homozygous plants could be obtained in 1~2 years. Among the 10 genotype, six got the embryoid and embryogenesis success rate was 60%. The differences of embryiod quantities between the highest and the lowest microspore from different genotype were great. The average embryoid quantity per bud of Chunqiubawang was 10. 92, while the average embryoid quantity per bud of Tianlv 58 was only 0. 17. Among the embryo genotype, five got the strains and the strain inductivity was 83%. More than 20 strains were obtained by investigating in the field and hybrid combinations were trialed in spring 2012.

  19. Effect of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (LINNAEUS, 1753 GAERTNER, 1791 and elder (Sambucus nigra LINNAEUS, 1753 on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae LINNAEUS, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’INTOSH, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and elder Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage were investigated in 2008-2009. Both extracts reduced the number of cabbage aphids, although the Sambucus nigra extract proved to have a better effect. Differences were seen both in the numbers of winged aphids settling on plants and in the overall numbers of aphids on plants during the entire season. There were no significant differences in the degree of parasitization by Diaeretiella rapae in the three experimental combinations. Eight species of Syrphidae were found in the Brevicoryne brassicae colonies: Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria scripta, S. rueppelli, S. menthastri, Eupeodes corollae, Scaeva pyrastri, Scaeva selenitica and Syrphus vitripennis. The dominant species was Episyrphus balteatus. The largest numbers of syrphid larvae and pupae were collected from cabbage aphid colonies on the control plants. Smaller numbers were recorded on the plot where the cabbages were sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract. The results of this study indicate that botanical insecticides based on S. nigra have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for the cabbage aphid.

  20. 早熟大白菜新品种夏白45的选育%New Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid - 'Xiabai 45'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋聚红

    2001-01-01

    夏白45大白菜的母本是从晋菜3号中筛选出的直筒舒心型自交不亲和系87- 3-1,父本是从北早4号中选出的自交不亲和系90-7-5。该一代杂种极早熟,从播种到收获45~50d(天),抗病毒病和黑腐病,一般667m2产量为3000~4000kg,比对照夏阳50增产30%左右,适于在河北、山东、山西、河南等地推广。%Xiabai 45 is a new Chinese Cabbage F1 hybrid by cro ssing self-incompatible line 87-3-1 and 90-7-5. It has early maturity,dise ase resistance and high yield. The yield is about 45~60 t*hm-2,3 0 % higher than Xiayang 50. It is suitable to be grown in Hebei,Shandong ,Shanxi and Henan.

  1. Effect of crop plants on fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in cabbage loopers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins critically impact the development of resistance in insect populations. In this study, the fitness costs in Trichoplusia ni strains associated with two genetically independent resistance mechanisms to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, individually and in combination, on four crop plants (cabbage, cotton, tobacco and tomato) were analyzed, in comparison with their near-isogenic susceptible strain. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the T. ni strains, regardless of their resistance traits, were strongly affected by the host plants. The ABCC2 gene-linked mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance was associated with relatively low fitness costs, while the Cry2Ab resistance mechanism was associated with higher fitness costs. The fitness costs in the presence of both resistance mechanisms in T. ni appeared to be non-additive. The relative fitness of Bt-resistant T. ni depended on the specific resistance mechanisms as well as host plants. In addition to difference in survivorship and fecundity, an asynchrony of adult emergence was observed among T. ni with different resistance mechanisms and on different host plants. Therefore, mechanisms of resistance and host plants available in the field are both important factors affecting development of Bt resistance in insects. PMID:26868936

  2. Active oxygen metabolism in the floral buds and leaves of the new cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jianyu; HOU Xilin; ZHANG Changwei; YE Fan

    2007-01-01

    The cytoplasm male sterile(CMS)line and its maintainer line of the newly-bred non-heading Chinese cabbage were taken as experimental materials.The production rate of superoxide anion radical(O2-),contents of malondialdehyde(MDA)and hydrogen peroxide(H2O2),and the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT)as well as ascorbate peroxidase(APX)were determined in buds of different developmental stages and leaves during vegetative and florescence stages.As showed by the results,there were higher levels of MDA and H2O2 contents,higher 02- production rate and higher activities of SOD,POD,and CAT in the buds of the CMS lines than that in the buds of the fertile lines,while the APX activity was different from the other three enzymes above.There were differences in activities of protective enzymes in leaves but no significant differences in MDA contents and O2- production rate,which showed that the differences in metabolism of active oxygen between CMS and its maintainer were mainly apparent in reproductive organs.

  3. Reasoned opinion on the modification of maximum residue levels (MRLs for fipronil following the withdrawal of the authorised uses on kale and head cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 43 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, EFSA received a request of the European Commission for a scientific opinion on the modification of MRLs for the active substance fipronil. The European Commission requested EFSA to recalculate the MRLs for fipronil in animal commodities which were recommended by EFSA in its previous reasoned opinion on the review of the existing MRLs for fipronil according to Article 12 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, and to update EFSA’s conclusion on the safety of all proposed MRLs. For this assessment EFSA was also requested to take into account the existing emergency authorisation of fipronil on potatoes as granted in Germany and the recent withdrawal of fipronil authorisations in Europe on head cabbage and kale. MRL proposals were derived by EFSA according to different scenarios, as requested by the European Commission, and a consumer risk assessment was carried out for each scenario. Regardless of the scenario presented, no information required by the regulatory framework was found to be missing and no risk to consumers was identified.

  4. Effect of crop plants on fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in cabbage loopers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Ping

    2016-02-12

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins critically impact the development of resistance in insect populations. In this study, the fitness costs in Trichoplusia ni strains associated with two genetically independent resistance mechanisms to Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab, individually and in combination, on four crop plants (cabbage, cotton, tobacco and tomato) were analyzed, in comparison with their near-isogenic susceptible strain. The net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the T. ni strains, regardless of their resistance traits, were strongly affected by the host plants. The ABCC2 gene-linked mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance was associated with relatively low fitness costs, while the Cry2Ab resistance mechanism was associated with higher fitness costs. The fitness costs in the presence of both resistance mechanisms in T. ni appeared to be non-additive. The relative fitness of Bt-resistant T. ni depended on the specific resistance mechanisms as well as host plants. In addition to difference in survivorship and fecundity, an asynchrony of adult emergence was observed among T. ni with different resistance mechanisms and on different host plants. Therefore, mechanisms of resistance and host plants available in the field are both important factors affecting development of Bt resistance in insects.

  5. 春大白菜新品种‘晋春2号’%A New Spring Chinese Cabbage Hybrid ‘Jinchun 2'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李改珍; 巫东堂; 赵军良; 王秀英; 赵俊

    2013-01-01

    'Jinchun 2' is a new hybrid of early-mid maturity spring Chinese cabbage, with a growth period of 70 - 75 days. Compactly closed, its head is medium-sized and shell-shaped. It has a good taste and a good marketability. The average plant weight is 2.0 - 2.5 kg, the average yield is 72 000 - 78 000 kg · hm-2. Due to its resistance to viral diseases, downy mildew and soft rot disease, it can be planted in central and southern Shanxi province and the same ecological types of area.%‘晋春2号’为早中熟春大白菜一代杂交种.生育期70~75 d,叶球合抱,中桩,炮弹形,商品性好,品质佳,单株质量2.0~2.5kg,净菜产量72 000~78 000 kg·hm-2,抗病毒病、霜霉病和软腐病,在山西省中南部及全国同生态类型地区均可种植.

  6. Patterns of phenotypic plasticity in common and rare environments: a study of host use and color learning in the cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Papaj, Daniel R

    2009-05-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is adaptive in variable environments but, given its costs, may be disfavored if only one environment is commonly encountered. Yet species in relatively constant environments often adjust phenotypes successfully in rare or novel environments. Developmental biases may reduce the costs of plasticity in common environments, favoring the maintenance of plasticity. We explored this proposition by studying the flexibility of visually guided host-selection behavior in cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae), wherein common and rare environments consisted of green and red host types, respectively. We demonstrated in greenhouse assays that adult females display an innate bias toward green color during host search but alter that bias through learning in red-host assemblages such that, after several hours of experience, red hosts are located as efficiently as green hosts. Full-sib analyses suggested there was genetic variation in host and color choice that was more pronounced in the red-host environment. We found no evidence of genetic correlations in behavior across host environments or of fitness costs of plasticity in color choice. Our results support the idea that learning may persist in less variable environments through the evolution of innate biases that reduce operating costs in common environments.

  7. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution.

  8. Differential Expression Analysis of Genic Male Sterility A/B Lines in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi(Brassica Campestris ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-qin; CAO Jia-shu; FU Qing-gong; YU Xiao-lin; YE Wan-zhi; XIANG Xun

    2003-01-01

    To determine differential expression of genic male sterility A/B lines in Chinese cabbage-pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Teen et Lee), we used the RNA fingerprinting technique, cDNA-AFLP analysis, in different developmental stages and different tissues. While no obvious differential expressions were observed in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes, some differential expressions were found in alabstrums of A/B lines and among leaves, scapes and alabstrums. We analyzed the alabstrums collected in different developmental stages with 10 primer combinations. We got a unique band between middle size alabstrums and large alabstrums in B line in one of the ten pair primers, and in another one pair, one band reflecting a higher gene-expression level in A line than that in B line was obtained. No unique bands were found with the other primer combinations. The bands reflecting different gene-expression level were confirmed by Northern hybridization. The results indicated that cDNA-AFLP was a suitable tool for studying differential expression of genic male sterility in plants. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins further verified the difference in A/B lines.

  9. 甘蓝新品种夏华2号的选育%A New Cabbage F1 Hybrid — ‘Xiahua No.2'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文辉; 方淑桂; 邵贵荣

    2011-01-01

    夏华2号是由细胞质雄性不育系NBB10-87和优良自交系107-1配制而成的甘蓝一代杂种.中熟,较耐热,从定植到采收70 d(天).株高32 cm,开展度60 cm,叶色灰绿,蜡粉中等,叶球扁圆,球高13.5 cm、球宽17 cm,中心柱长6 cm,单球质量1.1 kg,净菜率75%,每667 m2产量2 500~3 000 kg.适合福建省夏、秋季栽培.%'Xiahua No.2' is a new cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing cytoplasmic male sterile line NBB10-87 and inbred line 107-1. It is a mid-maturing and heat-resisting cultivar. It takes about 70 days from transplanting to harvest. The plant is about 32 cm in height, 60 cm in expansion diameter. It is green in color with medium wax powder. The head is flat and 13.5 cm in height, 17 cm in diameter. The average head weight is 1.1 kg and mean yield is 37.5-45.01 · hm-2. It is suitable for cultivation in summer and autumn in Fujian Province.

  10. 观赏甘蓝新品种‘京莲红2号’%A New Ornamental Cabbage Hybrid 'Beijing Peony Red 2'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凡; 韩硕; 张月云; 王桂香; 陆坤; 宗梅; 司亚平

    2012-01-01

    The new ornamental cabbage cultiva'rBeijing Peony Red 2'was the male sterile F1 hybrid which was developed combining the double haploid technique with the transferring of cytoplasmic male sterile trait.The hybrid is about 25 cm in height,with strong growth vigor.Numerous round leaves overlapped resemble a rose with magenta center and grey-green outer foliage.The color of the leaves developed early and fade late.Ornamental characters keep well even in-5℃condition.%‘京莲红2号’是结合双单倍体技术与胞质雄性不育转育培育而成的观赏甘蓝圆叶红色系一代杂种。其株高约25cm,生长势强,株形饱满,叶数多。内叶挺立,互叠排列,形似玫瑰,紫红色,颜色鲜艳,着色早,均匀,褪色晚,整齐度高,耐-5℃低温。

  11. Decontamination of tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion inoculated with Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri by some Essential oils (in vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Aliakbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Essential oils and their major constituents are useful sources of antimicrobial compounds. There are a few reports on the decontamination and antimicrobial activity of essential oils towards Shigella spp.Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimicrobial and decontamination potentials of essential oils at different concentrations, belonging to plants such as Thymus vulgaris, Saturiea hortensis, Mentha polegium, Cuminum cyminum, Lavandula officinalis and Mentha viridis L. (spearmint, towards Shigella sonnei and Shigella  flexneri were investigated. The disk diffusion method demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of the essential oils.Results: The ability of essential oils to decontaminate vegetables such as, tomato, red cabbage, carrot, fresh parsley and fresh green onion that were previously inoculated with Shigella spp. was determined. Inhibitory effects of essential oils towards Shigella spp. were noted in the disk diffusion method. There was a reduction in Shigella population following inoculation of cultures with 0.5% and 0.1% (v/v essential oils.Conclusion: This study confirmed that essential oils have the potential to be used for decontamination of vegetables.

  12. Cultivation Trial of F1 Hybrids of Several Cabbage Sprouts%几个白菜薹杂种一代试种小结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利丹; 王先琳; 林馥芬

    2012-01-01

      为了充分了解6个新选育的白菜薹品种在华南地区的特征特性以及适应性,以雪莹为对照进行品比试验,试验中充分调查了各杂种一代的特征特性,连续采收统计产量,进行多重比较。试验结果表明,组合1002和对照雪莹产量高,适应性强,品质佳,适宜在广东地区推广。%  In order to fully understand the characteristics and adaptability of the six new cabbage sprouts cultivars in south China, we studied the characteristics of their F1 hybrids, and carried out the multiple comparison of their total yields, by taking the cultivar Xueying as control. The results showed that the combination 1002 and the control cultivar Xueying possessed high yield, strong adaptability and good quality, which could be promoted in Guangdong area.

  13. Effect of atrazine on growth and physio-biochemical characteristics of cabbage seedling%莠去津对白菜幼苗生长量及生理效应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉敏; 黄其椿; 陈正麟; 黄莹磐; 娄国强; 陆温

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究不同浓度莠去津对白菜幼苗生长量及其生理效应的影响.[方法]采用室内播种后苗前土壤处理法,用5种不同浓度莠去津(6.0391、12.0781、24.1563、48.3125、96.6250μg/mL)处理白菜幼苗,并对白菜幼苗叶片的叶绿素、丙二醛、可溶性糖含量及生长量进行测定.[结果]莠去津对白菜芽长的影响比对根长敏感,其对白菜幼苗芽长和根长的LC10分别为4.2077和16.9191μg/mL;经莠去津处理后,白菜叶片中叶绿素的生成受到抑制,丙二醛、可溶性糖含量增加,不同处理浓度之间存在差异.[结论]莠去津对白菜幼苗的生长发育及生理指标均有影响,当莠去津的处理浓度超过其安全极限时,将会抑制白菜幼苗生长,且抑制程度随处理浓度的增大而加重.因此,生产上要注意控制莠去津使用浓度,不能随意加大用药量,以免造成药害.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study the effects of different atrazine concentrations on growth and some physio-biochemical characteristics of cabbage seedling. [Method]The chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in the leaves and some growth parameters were determined in cabbage seedling treated with different concentrations of atrazine (6.0391, 12.0781, 24.1563, 48.3125 and 96.6250 μg/mL). The treatments were applied in the soil after seed sowing and before emergence stage. [Result]The impact of atrazine on cabbage bud growth was more pronounced compared to effect on root growth, the LC10 values of bud and root length were 4.2077 and 16.9191 μg/mL, respectively. The chlorophyll content of cabbage leaves was inhibited after treatment, while MDA contents and soluble sugars were increased, and the effect of different atrazine concentrations on cabbage plant differed significantly. [Conclusion] Treatments of soils with different concentrations of atrazine affected the growth and physio-biochemical processes of cabbage. A

  14. Viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete Feasibility of intercropping pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Luciano A Rezende

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, de setembro/2003 a janeiro/2004, com objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade da consorciação de pimentão com as culturas de repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete. O experimento constou de 15 tratamentos, correspondentes a 10 cultivos consorciados (combinações das cinco hortaliças e cinco monocultivos. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Foram utilizados os híbridos Magali R e Kenzan, respectivamente, para pimentão e repolho; e as cultivares Vera, Cultivada e Crimson Gigante, respectivamente, para alface, rúcula e rabanete. As produtividades de pimentão e repolho em cultivo consorciado não diferiram significativamente das obtidas em monocultivo. Maior massa fresca de parte aérea de plantas de alface (438,86 g/planta foi observada quando a alface foi consorciada com pimentão, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais cultivos que obtiveram em média 323,05 g/planta de alface. Aumento na produtividade de raízes comerciais de rabanete foi observado quando consorciado com pimentão, porém, foi significativamente superior apenas ao cultivo consorciado de pimentão+repolho+rabanete. A massa fresca da parte aérea da rúcula mostrou diferença estatística apenas entre os consórcios de pimentão+rúcula+alface e pimentão+repolho+rúcula. Exceto o consórcio pimentão+repolho que obteve índice de uso eficiente da terra (UET de 1,92; todos os outros consórcios apresentaram UET superior a 2,0, com maior UET (2,64 obtido no consórcio pimentão+alface. A superioridade de 92 a 164% na produção de alimento por área dos consórcios sobre os monocultivos, demonstra a viabilidade dos policultivos e maior eficiência do uso da terra.This work was carried out in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, from September 2003 to January 2004, to evaluate the feasibility of an intercropping system of pepper with cabbage, rocket, lettuce and radish, in relation

  15. Physiological Changes before and after Leaf Color Transition in the Bolting Process of Chinese Cabbage%大白菜抽薹过程叶色转变前后的生理变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丹萍; 李春刚; 张耀伟

    2011-01-01

    Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis ( Lour.) Olsson ] shows leaf color transition during the period from vernalization to bolting. After the change it will bud and then bolting, flowering. This phenomenon is particularly prominent in early-bolting species. In present study, Chinese cabbage cultivars of late-bolting and early-bolting were used to investigate the physiological changes during leaf color transition in the bolting process. The results revealed that there were some correlations between leaf color transition and the hormones, pigment content and protein composition. The content of chlorophyll (a/b), IAA and GA3 reached their peak in bolting process, the stem initiates elongation growth after leaf color is changed. The changes of leaf color are physiological signal in Chinese cabbage bolting.%大白菜通过春化后至抽薹,叶色由绿变灰,这一叶色转变过程在弱冬性品系上的表现尤为突出.本试验以不同冬性的大白菜品系为材料,从激素、色素含量变化和蛋白质组分变化等方面研究大白菜抽薹过程叶色转变前后的生理变化.结果表明:激素、色素含量和蛋白质的变化均与叶色转变有一定关系,叶绿素a/b、IAA和GA3含量均在叶色转变期出现峰值.

  16. 甘蓝Ogura胞质雄性不育系发生同源异型转化的分子机制研究%Study on Molecular Mechanism of Homeosis in Cabbage Ogura CMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 张晓伟; 原玉香; 姚秋菊; 赵艳艳; 蒋武生; 魏小春; 王志勇

    2015-01-01

    RT-PCR and transgenic method were used to elucidate the molecular mechanism of mitochondria homeosis in cabbage Ogura CMS. The RT-PCR research indicated that the high ectopic expression of homeobox gene B(AP3) was discovered in green pistil(carpel),and which of C gene(AG3) was discovered in carpelloid stamen, which probably caused mitochondria homeosis in cabbage Ogura CMS. In addition,the test with transgenic Arabidopsis with mitochondria-directed expression vector p3301-ATP-ORF138 indicated that ORF138 could cause male sterile of Arabidopsis,which revealed that orf138 was a determinant factor of male sterility in cabbage Ogura CMS with mitochondria homeosis.%为了揭示甘蓝Ogura胞质雄性不育系发生线粒体同源异型转化的分子机制,利用RT-PCR和转基因的方法分别进行了研究。 RT-PCR试验结果表明,甘蓝B基因AP3在雌蕊(心皮)发育初期异位高表达,C基因AG3在发生心皮化的雄蕊部位异位高表达,这可能导致了甘蓝Ogura胞质不育系线粒体同源转化的发生。而拟南芥转基因试验表明,线粒体定位表达载体p3301-ATP-ORF138能导致拟南芥雄性不育的发生,这说明orf138基因是发生线粒体同源异型转化的甘蓝Ogura胞质雄性不育系不育的决定因素。

  17. Change of Nitrite Content in the Process of Making Five Flavor Pickled Cabbage%五香味泡菜制作过程中亚硝酸盐含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余蕾; 尤嘉; 顾文炎; 陈凌

    2016-01-01

    Taking the cabbage and cylinder beans as the main raw material, the dynamic change of nitrite content in pickled cabbage natural fermentation production process at 30℃ was studied. The result showed that the content of nitrite in the fermentation process first increased and then decreased with fermentation time. Nitrite content in fourth day reached 68. 37 mg·kg-1 , and then began to decline. The content of nitrite in seventh day was 6. 96 mg/kg. Nitrite content in eighth day was only 2. 87 mg/kg. After 7 days fermentation, nitrite content was far below the standards prescribed by the state. As the result, pickled cabbage produced in this way 7 days will be safe to eat after 7 days.%本文以包心菜和缸豆为主要原料,研究了在30℃条件下自然发酵制作泡菜的过程中亚硝酸盐含量的动态变化。试验结果显示:发酵过程中亚硝酸盐的含量,随发酵时间呈“先增后降”的趋势,第4天亚硝酸盐含量最高达到68.37 mg · kg-1,随后开始下降,第七天为6.96 mg·kg-1,第8天亚硝酸盐含量仅为2.87 mg·kg-1。发酵7天后亚硝酸盐的含量远远低于国家规定的标准,因此用这种方法制作的泡菜7天后食用是安全的。

  18. Effects of Bast Fiber Mulching Film on Heat Preservation and Growth and Yield of Chinese Cabbage%麻地膜覆盖保温特性及对白菜生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚瑞广; 王朝云; 易永健; 谭石林; 汪洪鹰; 李懋; 周晚来

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify the heat preservation of bast fiber mulching film and its effects on growth and yield of crops in different seasons, the comparison tests of Chinese cabbage covered by different films had been conducted in winter, spring and summer respectively. The results showed that bast fiber mulching film could increase the soil temperature in different seasons and the effects were stable. In summer, the temperature under the bast fiber mulching film would not reach too high. With the covering of bast fiber mulching film, it could increase the rate of leaf emergence, the plant height, leaf number and leaf area. The interaction between different seasons and different covering was significant (P<0.0l). And the yield-increasing effects in spring and summer were more remarkable than winter. The yield of Chinese cabbage covered with bast fiber mulching film in spring and summer were 45.97% (P<0.05) and 48.89% (P<0.05) respectively higher than that of Chinese cabbage without film; which were also 6.66% (P<0.05) and 51.05% (P<0.05) respectively higher than that of Chinese cabbage covered with plastic film.%为了明确不同季节麻地膜覆盖栽培保温特性及对作物生长和产量的影响,分别在冬季、春季和夏季进行不同地膜覆盖白菜对比试验.结果表明:不同季节麻地膜覆盖均能提高土壤温度,增温效果平缓,夏季不会出现膜下高温情况.麻地膜覆盖能够促进白菜出叶速率、增加株高和叶片数、增大叶面积.不同季节和不同覆盖处理间互作效应极显著(p<0.01),春季和夏季麻地膜覆盖的增产效果比冬季明显.春季和夏季麻地膜覆盖下白菜产量分别比无覆盖高45.97%和48.89%,均呈显著差异(P<0.05);分别比塑料地膜覆盖的高6.66%和51.05%,也均达显著差异(P<0.05).

  19. Directional Transfer of a Genetic Male Sterile Line Derived from Flowering Chinese Cabbage ' Ever-Green'%‘四季油青’菜心核基因雄性不育系定向转育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧; 周鹏; 王玉刚; 冯辉

    2012-01-01

    为选育菜心雄性不育系解决其杂种优势利用中的制种手段问题,以复等位基因遗传的小白菜核基因雄性不育系‘00S107’为不育源,采用连续回交转育园艺学性状的同时,测交筛选基因型的方法,向‘四季油青’菜心中转育核不育基因,育成了不育株率和不育度均为100%的菜心核基因雄性不育系‘GMS203’.用菜心不育系试配的杂交组合,经品种比较试验筛选出2个综合性状优良的强优势组合.利用本项研究设计的核不育系定向转育方案,实现了不育性和园艺学性状的同时转育.%In order to create a procedure for utilization of heterosis in flowering Chinese cabbage, a breeding method for genetic male sterile line was carried out in the experiment. A multiple allele male sterile line of Chinese cabbage '00S107' was used as a source of male sterility, and recurrent backcrossing method was employed to transfer horticultural characters while the genotype was identified through test cross to transfer the male sterility to a male fertile line ' Ever-Green' of flowering Chinese cabbage. A new genetic male sterile line of flowering Chinese cabbage with 100% of male sterile plants and 100% of male sterility ' GMS203' was bred. The new male sterile line was applied to develop hybrid combinations. Two excellent combinations were selected through variety compare test. Based on the directional transfer program designed by the research according to the genetic characteristics of the male sterility, the male sterility and horticultural characters could be transferred simultaneously.

  20. Breeding and Utilization of the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Milk Chinese Cabbage%奶白菜核基因雄性不育系的选育与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐巍; 冯辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to resolve the problem that cross breeding and production of hybrid in milk Chinese cabbage. According to the hypothesis of multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile, A genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage with green stipe 00S107 was used as a source of male sterility,and methods of continuous backcross-ing and identifying of the genotypes were applied to transfer the male sterile line of milk Chinese cabbage. Hybridized combinations were obtained by the male sterile line as female parent cross with excellent self-line and we analysed the hybrid vigor. A new genetic male sterile line GMS3 with 100% male sterile plants and 100% male sterility was obtained. Two excellent hybridized combinations GMS3 × B1 ,GMS3×B2 were selected, whieh is uniform and superior to CK in yield. Directional transfer model which transfer sterile gene and horticultural characters at the same time resolved the puzzle that breeding and utilization of the genetic male sterile line in milk Chinese cabbage.%为解决奶白菜杂交种生产中的杂交制种手段问题,配制优良杂交种.以核不育“复等位基因遗传”假说为指导,以青梗白菜核基因雄性不育系00S107作不育源,采用连续回交转育同时测交鉴定基因型的方法,定向转育奶白菜核基因雄性不育系.并利用转育成的不育系与奶白菜优良自交系配制杂交组合,进行了杂种优势分析.选育出园艺学性状与目标品系相似,具有100%不育株率和不育度的奶白菜核基因雄性不育系GMS3,筛选出2个产量高、整齐度高的优异杂交组合GMS3×B1、GMS3×B2.定向转育模式兼顾了不育基因和园艺学性状的转育,解决了奶白菜核不育系转育和利用的难题.

  1. Study on resistance of Chinese cabbage to Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora by exogenous 24-Epibrassinolide treatment%表油菜素内酯诱导大白菜抗软腐病研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈淑平; 张灵宇; 崔崇士

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain the induced resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by 24-Epibra-ssinolide and its physiological mechanism, Chinese cabbage was used to study the effects of 24-Epibra-ssinolide on its physiological and biochemical characteristics with foliar spray. The results showed that 24-Epibrassinolide decreased disease indexes of Chinese cabbage seedlings by 25.8%, increased H_2O_2 accumulation, decreased MDA contents, increased catalase (CAT) activities, peroxidase (POD) activities trend, increased slowly in early phase, and decreased in later stage. Erwinia carotovora subp. carotovora infection resulted in increased levels of H_2O_2 and MDA when plants were sprayed with EBR, but the MDA content was lower than the control treatment. Foliar spraying with EBR increased CAT activities, and POD activities reduced than the control treatment. EBR promoted the growth of Chinese cabbage seedling, this increasing appeared even after Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora infection. EBR kept the metabolism of active oxygen species at a balance state and increased the resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Chinese cabbage.%试验采用叶面喷施的方法,研究了24-表油菜素内酯(24-Epibrassinolide,EBR)对大白菜软腐病的诱抗作用及其生理机制.结果表明,外源EBR处理大白菜幼苗病情指教明显比对照降低,下降了25.8%;喷施EBR提高了大白菜叶片中H_2O_2含量,使丙二醛(Malondialdehyde,MDA)含量下降,提高了过氧化氢酶(Catalase,CAT)活性,过氧化物酶(Peroxidase,POD)活性先缓慢升高然后下降;接种软腐病菌后,EBR使H_2O_2和MDA含量缓慢增加,但EBR处理MDA含量低于对照处理,显著提高了CAT活性,POD活性与对照相比下降,呈现缓慢升高趋势;EBR处理明显促进幼苗的生长,即使在接种软腐病菌期间,植株的长势也比对照强.说明EBR通过调节植物体内氧的代谢平衡,增强对软腐病的抗性.

  2. 聚-γ-谷氨酸对小白菜生长和光合作用的影响%Growth and photosynthesis characteristics of Chinese cabbage under poly-γ-glutamic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚忠; 谭启玲; 胡承孝; 陈守文; 郑苍松; 孙学成

    2012-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was used to study the effects of poly-γ-glutamic acid addition on the growth of Chinese cabbage and its photosynthesis characteristics,such as net photosynthesis rate (Pn) ,stomatic conductance(Gs),intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) ,and transpiration rate(Tr). The results shows that the level of Pn,Gs,Tr and Ci in Chinese cabbage leaf treated with poly-γ-glutamate acid increases compared with control when the concentration of nutrient decreases. The application of poly-γ-glutamate acid with 90% nutrient concentration significantly increased chlorophyll a in Chinese cabbage leaves. When the nutrient concentration was 70%-100%, the above ground yield of cabbage improved compared with control,meaning that poly-γ-glutamate acid can promote transformation of light,energy capture,increase the energy efficiency through reducing the stomatal limitation, increasing the chlorophyll content and the capacity of absorption of light intensity.%采用水培方法研究了聚-γ-谷氨酸对小白菜地上部生长、叶片叶绿素含量、光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(G(n))、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)和蒸腾速率(Tr)的影响.结果表明,随着养分含量的降低,聚-γ-谷氨酸处理小白菜较对照叶片Pn、Gs、Tr和Ci均有提高;在90%养分含量下施加聚-γ-谷氨酸显著提高了叶片中叶绿素a的含量;在70%~100%养分含量范围内,小白菜地上部产量较对照均有所提高,说明聚-γ-谷氨酸可通过降低气孔限制值、增加叶绿素含量和提高吸收光强的能力,从而促进小白菜对光能的捕获及其转化,提高其光能利用效率.

  3. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  4. Cloning and Characterization of the Microspore Development-Related Gene BcMF2 in Chinese Cabbage Pak-Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qin WANG; Wan-Zhi YE; Jia-Shu CAO; Xiao-Lin YU; Xun XIANG; Gang LU

    2005-01-01

    For the sake of providing some important information relevant to the study of the molecular mechanism of genic male sterility in plants, gene differential expression in flower buds at different developmental stages, as well as in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes was analyzed using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile A and fertile B line of Chinese cabbage pak-choi. Following amplification of 125 pairs of primer combinations, 11 differential fragments were obtained, of which eight were from the B line and the other three were from the A line. Of 11 differential fragments, four were verified by Northern hybridization that were expressed preferentially in fertile flower buds. Results of GenBank BLAST showed that one fragment was with unknown function,whereas the other fragments have strong nucleotide sequence similarities with the polygalacturonase (PG)gene, the pectinesterase (PE) gene, and the polygalacturonase inhibitory protein (PGIP4) gene. Only fulllength cDNA from the differential fragment BcMF-A18T16-1 was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and Northern analysis showed that this fragment was expressed only in medium and largesized flower buds of the B line. The full-length cDNA, designated as BcMF2 (Brassica campestris Male Fertile 2), was 1 485 bp long and was composed of a 1 263-bp open reading frame, which had 83% nucleotide similarity to a PG gene from Arabidopsis encoding polygalacturonase. Analysis of the basic structure of the protein revealed that it had one polygalacturonase active site (RVTCGPGHGLSVGS) at 256th site of amino acids and was classified as being a member of family 28 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The role of the BcMF2 gene on microspore development is discussed in the present paper.

  5. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  6. 小白菜新品种寒香青菜的选育%Development of New Non-heading Chinese Cabbage Cultivar Hanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅; 韩建军; 张胜; 陈虎根

    2012-01-01

    Hanxi is a new Non-heading Chinese F1 hybrid cabbage cultivar developed by crossing Ogu-CMSOOlwxq female parent with 002dxq male parent. The plants are half-erected and loose, 33 cm in height,48 cm in width. The leaves are ellipse,dark green,glossy and full fringe,surface wrinkling and uneven, veins obvious, petiole green white and flat, with average plant weight of about 450 g and average yield of 35 811. 75 kg/ha. It shows 17. 07% higher than CK in yield. The plants have fragrance after cooking. It has stronger resistance to virus, downy mildew than Heiyexi. It is a winter variety,being tolerant to cold.%寒香青菜是以Ogu-CMS001wxq胞质雄性不育系为母本、香青菜株系002dxq为父本配制而成的一个黑叶香青菜杂交新品种.寒香青菜植株半直立,株形松散,成株平均株高33 cm,开展度48 cm,叶片椭圆形、深绿色、有光泽、全缘,叶面起皱不平,叶脉明显,叶柄绿白色、扁平,单株质量450 g,平均产量35 811.75 kg/hm2,较对照黑叶香青菜增产17.07%;炒食香味浓郁;对病毒病、霜霉病的抗性强于黑叶香青菜;冬性强,适合冷凉的气候条件栽培.

  7. Breeding of a New Cabbage Cultivar “Sugan 20”%结球甘蓝新品种苏甘20的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王神云; 王红; 万雁玲; 丁万霞; 李建斌

    2012-01-01

    越冬春甘蓝新品种苏甘20是以自交不亲和系Y9805和99132杂交育成的一代杂种,越冬栽培成熟期145d左右,冬性强,早熟,耐寒性好,植株开展度约49.9cmx50.3cm,生长势较强,整齐度好,叶色浅绿,蜡粉中等,叶球牛心形,叶球肉质脆嫩,单球质量1.0kg左右,667m2产量约3000kg,适合我国南方地区,特别是长江流域作越冬春栽培.%"Sugan 20" is an overwintering early cabbage hybrid developed by crossing self-incompatible lines Y9805 and 99132. The growth period is about 145 days for overwintering production. The plant is tolerant to cold and premature bolting, and the size is about 49.9 cm × 50.3 cm. The growth is strong and uniform; the leaves are pale green with average amount of wax powder. The head is bovine heart-shaped with average weight 1.0 kg. The head has tender leaves with good quality. This variety is suitable for production in South of China, especially the Yangtze River region, and 667 m2 yield is about 3 000 kg.

  8. Breeding of Nuclear Male Sterile Line in Qingmaye Type of Chinese cabbage%青麻叶结球白菜雄性不育系的转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻凤英; 宋连玖; 王玉龙; 刘晓晖; 赵冰; 丘玉秀

    2001-01-01

    The male sterile line 3A was being used as a source o f male sterility,the fertile line Qingmaye Hei227 as goal parent,the gene of m ale sterility was transferred to the Qingmaye type of Chinese cabbage by crossi ng,self,sibling and test crossing.The male sterile line of Qingmaye type S10 w as obtained,its sterility percent and degree were all 100%,its nectary and see d were all normal.Its horticultural characters were same as Qingmaye type.The co mbining ability of S10 and its combinations was tested.The transferring me thod of genetic male sterile line was discussed.%利用核型雄性不育系3A作为不育源,以青麻叶材料黑227为目标亲本,经过杂交、自交、兄妹交、测交等转育手段,将雄性不育基因转育到青麻叶结球白菜上,获得了青麻叶类型雄性不育系S10,其不育株率和不育度均为100%,蜜腺正常,结籽正常,农艺性状与青麻叶类型结球白菜基本相同。对育成的雄性不育系S10进行了配合力测定,并对所配组合做了品比试验。

  9. 露地越冬春甘蓝新品种‘苏甘20’%An Overwintering Spring Cabbage Cultivar‘Sugan 20’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王神云; 王红; 李建斌; 于利; 丁万霞

    2012-01-01

    ‘Sugan 20’is an overwintering spring early-maturing cabbage hybrid which developed by crossing self-incompatible line‘sY9805’and‘99132’. The overwintering growth period is about 145 days. It is tolerant to cold,and premature bolting. The expansion is about 49.9 cm × 50.3 cm. The growth is strong,the leaves are pale green,wax powder is secondary,the head is bovine heart-shaped,average head weight is about 1.0 kg,with tender leaves and good quality. The yield is about 45 000 kg · hm-2. It is suitable to be cultivated in the south of China,especially the Yangtze River.%‘苏甘20’是以自交不亲和系‘Y9805’和‘99132’杂交育成的甘蓝一代杂种,越冬栽培成熟期145d左右,冬性强,早熟,耐寒性好,植株开展度约49.9cm×50.3cm,生长势较强,整齐度好,叶色浅绿,蜡粉中等,叶球牛心形,肉质脆嫩,单球质量1.0kg左右,产量约45000kg·hm-2,适合中国南方地区,特别是长江流域作越冬春栽培。

  10. 甘蓝细胞质雄性不育材料的分子鉴定%Molecular Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娇娇; 王超; 王帅

    2015-01-01

    We used the two male sterile lines PM and QM of cabbage as materials, and designed specific primers according to the conserved regions of orf224 and orf138 gene sequence in Genebank, then amplified their mtDNA by PCR. The results showed that, the specific primers of orf138 had amplified a distinct band with the size about 350 bp on both two materials, and the homologous degree was 92.55% between the two specific fragments and the Ogu orf138 gene of radish Ogu CMS, and the size of homologous fragments were both 297 bp. Therefore, we concluded that these two sterile materials were Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility type.%根据Genebank中orf224和orf138基因序列的保守区设计特异引物,对2个甘蓝不育材料PM、QM的mtDNA进行PCR扩增。试验结果表明,orf138特异引物对2个不育材料的mtDNA扩增出350 bp大小的清晰条带;不育材料的特异片段与萝卜Ogu CMS所具有的Ogu orf138基因同源度达92.55%,长度均为297 bp,因此,初步推断2个不育材料是Ogura胞质雄性不育类型。

  11. 结球甘蓝新品种浙甘85的选育%A New Cabbage F1 Hybrid-'Zhegan 85'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟新民; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣

    2011-01-01

    浙甘85是以S04-C01为母本,以S05-SXGL为父本配制而成的甘蓝一代杂种.中晚熟,从定植到始收85 d(天)左右;叶球紧实,圆球形,不易裂球,耐贮运,球高20 cm左右,横径20~22 cm,中心柱长6~8 cm,单球质量2.4 kg左右;抗TuMV和黑腐病,一般每667 m产量5 000 kg左右,适宜长江流域及华南、华北、西南地区秋季种植.%‘Zhegan 85’ is a new cabbage F1 hybrid bred by crossing S04-G01 as female parent and S05-SXGL as male parent. It is a mid-late maturing variety, taking about 85 days from transplanting to harvest. The round head is compact and tough in structure which makes it a long shelf life. Its leaf head is 20 cm in height, 20-22 cm in diameter, with a short core of 6-8 cm in length. The head weight is about 2.4 kg. It has resistance to TuMV and black rot. Its yield is about 75 t · hm-2. Consequently, it is suitable to be cultivated in the Yangtze River valley, north China, south China, and southwest China.

  12. A New Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid -'Liaobai No.19'%大白菜新品种辽白19号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海东; 王鑫; 吕艳玲; 王丽丽

    2011-01-01

    ‘Liaobai No.19’ is a new Chinese cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing genetic male sterility line Jiaobai No.1 A with selfing line Xinxiang 903-S10-1.Its growing period is about 82 days.The plant is 46.2 cm in height, 64.3 cm in width.Its leaf head is 37.5 cm in height, 17 cm in diameter.The average plant weight is 4.5 kg and the net product ratio is 87.78 %.It is resistant to TMV and downy mildew and soft rot.Its output is about 139.5 t · hm-2.It is suitable to be cultivated in Jilin, Liaoning,Heilongjiang Provinces and Inner Mogolian Autonomous Region, etc.%辽白19号是由细胞核基因雄性不育系胶白1号A和自交系新乡903-S10-1配制而成的筒形大白菜一代杂种.生育期82 d(天)左右,株高46.2 cm,开展度643 cm,球高37.5 cm,横径17.0 cm.单株叶球质量4.5 kg左右,净菜率87.78%,商品性好.生长势强,抗软腐病、霜霉病和病毒病,每667 m2产量9300kg左右.适宜吉林、辽宁、内蒙古、黑龙江等地栽培.

  13. Temperature determines size and direction of effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen form on yield quantity and quality of Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M; van den Meerakker, A N; Parmar, S; Hawkesford, M J; De Kok, L J

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2 ]) are presumed to have a significant impact on plant growth and yield and also on mineral nutrient composition, and therefore, on nutritional quality of crops and vegetables. To assess the relevance of these effects in future agroecosystems it is important to understand how e[CO2 ] interacts with other environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the interactive effects of e[CO2 ] with temperature and the form in which nitrogen is supplied (nitrate or ammonium nitrate) on growth, amino acid content and mineral nutrient composition of Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.), a crop characterised by its high nutritional value and increasing relevance for human nutrition in many developing countries. Higher temperature, ammonium nitrate and e[CO2 ] had a positive impact on net photosynthesis and growth. A stimulating effect of e[CO2 ] on growth was only observed if the temperature was high (21/18 °C, day/night), and an interaction of e[CO2 ] with N form was only observed if the temperature was ambient (15/12 °C, day/night). Mineral nutrient composition was affected in a complex manner by all three factors and their interaction. These results demonstrate how much the effect of e[CO2 ] on mineral quality of crops depends on other environmental factors. Changes in temperature, adapting N fertilisation and the oxidation state of N have the potential to counteract the mineral depletion caused by e[CO2 ].

  14. Incidence, Spread and Mechanisms of Pyrethroid Resistance in European Populations of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte H Højland

    Full Text Available Cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB, Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a major early season pest of oilseed rape throughout Europe. Pyrethroids have been used for controlling this pest by foliar application, but in recent years control failures have occurred, particularly in Germany due to the evolution of knock-down resistance (kdr. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and spread of pyrethroid resistance in CSFB collected in Germany, Denmark and the United Kingdom during 2014. The level of pyrethroid resistance was measured in adult vial tests and linked to the presence of kdr genotypes.Although kdr (L1014F genotypes are present in all three countries, marked differences in pyrethroid efficacy were found in adult vial tests. Whereas Danish CSFB samples were in general susceptible to recommended label rates, those collected in the UK mostly resist such rates to some extent. Moderately resistant and susceptible samples were found in Germany. Interestingly, some of the resistant samples from the UK did not carry the kdr allele, which is in contrast to German CSFB. Pre-treatment with PBO, prior to exposure to λ-cyhalothrin suggested involvement of metabolic resistance in UK samples.Danish samples were mostly susceptible with very low resistance ratios, while most other samples showed reduced sensitivity in varying degrees. Likewise, there was a clear difference in the presence of the kdr mutation between the three countries. In the UK, the presence of kdr genotypes did not always correlate well with resistant phenotypes. This appears to be primarily conferred by a yet undisclosed, metabolic-based mechanism. Nevertheless our survey disclosed an alarming trend concerning the incidence and spread of CSFB resistance to pyrethroids, which is likely to have negative impacts on oilseed production in affected regions due to the lack of alternative modes of action for resistance management purposes.

  15. Identification of SSR markers closely linked to the yellow seed coat color gene in heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanjing; Wu, Junqing; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Lingyu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F2 segregating population of 1575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded ‘92S105’ and yellow-seeded ‘91-125’). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01-A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/), two pairs located on the A06 chromosome showed polymorphic bands between the bulk DNA pools of eight brown-seeded and eight yellow-seeded F2 progeny. Based on the genome sequence, 454 SSR markers were designed to A06 to detect these polymorphic bands and were synthesized. Six SSR markers linked to the seed coat color gene were successfully selected for fine linkage genetic map construction, in which the two closest flanking markers, SSR449a and SSR317, mapped the Brsc-ye gene to a 40.2 kb region with distances of 0.07 and 0.06 cM, respectively. The molecular markers obtained in this report will assist in the marker-assisted selection and breeding of yellow-seeded lines in Brassica rapa L. and other close species. PMID:28069590

  16. Study on microspore culture of the hybrids between Chinese cabbage and turnip%白菜和芜菁杂种小孢子培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钢; 曹家树

    2001-01-01

    对白菜和芜菁的6个杂种F1代进行游离小孢子培养,结果表明,不同组合间小孢子胚胎发生频率存在很大差异,胚产量最高的两个组合“矮脚黄×气死孩”和“苏州青×气死孩”平均每蕾分别产生21.1和17.2个胚。诱导杂种胚状体发生的最佳时期是单核中期至单核靠边期。33℃、24h热激处理可明显提高杂种小孢子胚的诱导率,培养基中加入活性炭也可改善胚的分化。%Microspores of six hybrids between non-headed Chinese cabbage(Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis) and turnip (B. campestris ssp. rapifera Matzg) were cultured . The embryoid yield varied with the different materials used, and the two genotypes with the highest embryoid yield, B. campestris ssp. chinensis cv. aijiaohuang and shuzhouqing crossed with B. campestris ssp. rapifera Matzg cv. qisihai produced 21.2 and 17.2 embryoids per flower bud. The optimum period of inducing embryo was uninucleate period. Preheat of 33 ℃ for 24 h before the microspores were transferred to the culture condition of 25 ℃ could obviously enhance the yields, and the active carbon could improve embryo quality.

  17. 影响甘蓝小孢子胚状体发生的因素研究%Study on Factors Influencing Microspore Embryogenesis of Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红丽; 胡靖锋; 徐学忠; 和江明; 宋爽

    2015-01-01

    Taking 6 cabbage hybrids as experimental materials , the influence factors of somatic embryo-genesis were studied by isolated microspore culture method .The results showed that the flower bud length in the range of 3 .00~4 .00 mm was favorable to obtain embryoid;when centrifugation at the speed of 1 500 r/min and heat shocking at 32.5℃ for 24 hours, it was the most beneficial to the induction of embryoid; when the flower buds were pretreated at 4℃for 24 hours , the embryo induction rate could be improved;low oscillation culture could promote the embryogenesis .Genotype played a dominant role in microspore embryoid induction .%以6个甘蓝杂交种为试材,采用游离小孢子培养方法,研究影响胚状体发生的因素。结果表明:花蕾长度为3.00~4.00 mm时,有利于获得胚状体;1500 r/min离心、32.5℃热激24 h,最有利于胚状体的诱导;花蕾经低温4℃预处理24 h,可提高胚诱导率;低速振荡培养能够促进胚状体发生;基因型在小孢子胚状体诱导中起着主导作用。

  18. Purification and Characterization of Plantaricin JLA-9: A Novel Bacteriocin against Bacillus spp. Produced by Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9 from Suan-Tsai, a Traditional Chinese Fermented Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shengming; Han, Jinzhi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Lv, Fengxia

    2016-04-06

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antimicrobial activity produced by numerous bacteria. A novel bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus plantarum JLA-9, isolated from Suan-Tsai, a traditional Chinese fermented cabbage, was screened and identified by its physiobiochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A new bacteriocin, designated plantaricin JLA-9, was purified using butanol extraction, gel filtration, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of plantaricin JLA-9 was shown to be 1044 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS analyses. The amino acid sequence of plantaricin JLA-9 was predicted to be FWQKMSFA by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS, which was confirmed by Edman degradation. This bacteriocin exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus spp., high thermal stability (20 min, 121 °C), and narrow pH stability (pH 2.0-7.0). It was sensitive to α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, alkaline protease, and papain. The mode of action of this bacteriocin responsible for outgrowth inhibition of Bacillus cereus spores was studied. Plantaricin JLA-9 had no detectable effects on germination initiation over 1 h on monitoring the hydration, heat resistance, and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (DPA) release of spores. Rather, germination initiation is a prerequisite for the action of plantaricin JLA-9. Plantaricin JLA-9 inhibited growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and disrupting membrane integrity in germinating spores within 2 h. The results suggest that plantaricin JLA-9 has potential applications in the control of Bacillus spp. in the food industry.

  19. 秋季专用平头甘蓝新品种锦秋60的选育%Breeding of Jinqiu 60, a New Cabbage F1 Hybrid with Flattened-shaped Head in Autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾爱松; 宋立晓; 高兵; 严继勇

    2015-01-01

    Jinqiu 60 is a middle-maturing autumn cabbage F1 hybrid with flattened-shaped head, which was developed by Vegetable Crops Institute of Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It takes 70 days from transplanting to harvest, and Jinqiu 60 is suitable to be planted in South China in autumn. It has good adaptability and strong resistance to black rot, turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and cabbage Fusarium wilt (CFW). Its leaf head is green and compact and has good quality. Its average head weight is about 1.5 kg and its yield is about 3 650 kg/667 m2.%锦秋60是江苏省农业科学院蔬菜研究所结合小孢子培养技术与常规育种技术选育的秋季专用平头中熟甘蓝新品种。该品种适宜我国南方地区秋季栽培,中熟,定植后70 d左右收获,适应性好,抗黑腐病、病毒病、枯萎病等病害;球形美观,颜色绿,品质佳;单球质量1.5 kg左右,每667 m2产量3650 kg左右。

  20. Ectopic expression of a phytochrome B gene from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) in Arabidopsis thaliana promotes seedling de-etiolation, dwarfing in mature plants, and delayed flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Pei; Shang, Hong-Zhong; Gu, Hai-Ke; Li, Jing-Juan; Xiao, Yang; Guo, Lin; Su, Liang; Gao, Jian-Wei; Yang, Jian-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Phytochrome B (phyB) is an essential red light receptor that predominantly mediates seedling de-etiolation, shade-avoidance response, and flowering time. In this study, we isolate a full-length cDNA of PHYB, designated BrPHYB, from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), and we find that BrphyB protein has high amino acid sequence similarity and the closest evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana phyB (i.e., AtphyB). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results indicate that the BrPHYB gene is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues under all light conditions. Constitutive expression of the BrPHYB gene in A. thaliana significantly enhances seedling de-etiolation under red- and white-light conditions, and causes dwarf stature in mature plants. Unexpectedly, overexpression of BrPHYB in transgenic A. thaliana resulted in reduced expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes and delayed flowering under short-day conditions, whereas AtPHYB overexpression caused enhanced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and earlier flowering. Our results suggest that BrphyB might play an important role in regulating the development of Chinese cabbage. BrphyB and AtphyB have conserved functions during de-etiolation and vegetative plant growth and divergent functions in the regulation of flowering time.

  1. 甘蓝无蜡粉突变体叶表皮蜡质超微结构观察%Observation of Ultra Microstructure of Wax-less Mutant Epicuticular Wax on Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟香丽; 王超; 王帅

    2013-01-01

    Different growth periods of epicuticular wax development on cabbage (Brassica olera-cea L. var. capitata L. ) leaves were observed by scanning electron microscope, and types of wax mutant and wild-type cabbage leaves were selected as materials. Results showed that some waxes crystals were found in the wax mutant, the waxes crystals were immature and granular in the entire growth period. Different structure of waxes crystals were found in the wild-type, granular and flaky were major crystals structure at seedling stage, while cylindrical and flaky at head-forming stage, flaky and linear at mature stage.%运用扫描电子显微镜对结球甘蓝无蜡粉突变体及野生型材料不同生长时期的叶表皮蜡质发育状况进行比较观察.结果表明:甘蓝无蜡粉突变体也有蜡质晶体存在,但蜡质发育不完全,整个生长期以颗粒状晶体结构为主;野生型不同生长时期表现出不同的蜡质晶体结构,苗期以颗粒状和片状为主,结球期以圆柱状和片状为主,成熟期以片状和线状为主.

  2. Brassica chinensis (L.) transformation of male steriliry from non-heading Chinese cabbage GMS%以不结球白菜细胞核基因雄性不育系向乌塌菜作物转育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南海龙

    2014-01-01

    试验根据大白菜复等位基因遗传假说,以不结球白菜细胞核基因雄性不育系为不育源,向乌塌菜作物中转育,并对细胞核雄性不育基因转育机制进行系统研究。获得如下结果:设计遗传转育模式,完成乌塌菜4个世代雄性不育的转育工作,获得含有乌塌菜基因型的甲型“两用系”、临时保持系和雄性不育系。%In this experiment, based on the multiple allele inheritance hypothesis of Chinese cabbage, male steriliry of non-heading Chinese cabbage GMS was transferred to Brassica chinensis (L.). The experiment has been systematically investigated the transformation mechanism of genetic male sterility. Results showed that four male sterile generations of Brassica chinensis (L.) could be achieved according to the inheritance transformation mode.

  3. 蜜腺发达Ogura晚抽薹不结球白菜雄性不育系的鉴定%Evaluation of Late - bolting Ogura Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Lines with Developed Nectar Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳; 刘维信

    2011-01-01

    By comparing of bumble bee visiting and staying time on flowers of Ogura non - heading Chinese cabbage male sterile lines, two plants were identified and selected as they attracted more bumble bee visiting. Nectar gland size, flowering, and pod set of these two plants were further determined. The results showed that the two selected plants all had developed nectar glands, flowered and set pod normally. This finding set a well foundation for breeding out elite late -bolting Ogura male sterile lines in non -heading Chinese cabbage.%本试验以Ogura晚抽薹不结球白菜薹ms等为材料,通过观察和比较熊蜂对不同白菜品种访花次数和访花滞留时间的差异,选择出能吸引熊蜂访花且访花滞留时间长的Ogura薹ms植株.对选择出植株的蜜腺大小和开花结实特性进行了进一步鉴定,结果表明选出的薹ms株蜜腺发达,开花结实正常,为选育优良晚抽薹胞质不结球白菜雄性不育系奠定了基础.

  4. 大白菜雄性不育复等位基因的发现与利用%Discovery and Utilization of the Multiple Allele Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 刘志勇; 李承彧; 王玉刚; 冀瑞琴

    2011-01-01

    The discovery and its verification of the Multiple Allele Male Sterility in Chinese Cabbage were reviewed. The utilization models for the multiple allele male sterile line was put forward. Progresses in the developments of the male sterile lines in the varieties and sub-varieties of Chinese cabbage, and mapping of the male sterile gene were presented.%介绍了大白菜雄性不育复等位基因的发现过程,以及"大白菜核基因雄性不育复等位基因遗传假说"的验证试验结果.提出了不育系的应用模式,介绍了品种、变种和亚种间复等位基因型雄性不育系转育研究结果,以及不育基因分子标记、定位及表达的研究进展.

  5. The trapping effect of piemarker in cabbage fields for Bemisia tabaci and the evaluation of chemical control%苘麻对甘蓝田烟粉虱诱集效果及药剂防治评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永安; 柏立新; 肖留斌; 魏书艳; 赵洪霞

    2011-01-01

    本文针对烟粉虱Bemisia tabaci在不同寄主苘麻Abutilon theophrasti Medic和甘蓝Brassinca oleracea上的嗜好性、趋性、田间种群动态进行了研究,并设计苘麻不同种植方式和配套施药评价苘麻对烟粉虱的诱集防治效果.室内趋性试验结果表明,接虫60h后苘麻上的成虫数是甘蓝上的5.5倍,若虫数为4.7倍.在大田甘蓝生育期内,苘麻对烟粉虱成、若虫的诱集效果分别可达76.8%和60.1%,说明苘麻对烟粉虱具极显著的诱集作用.苘麻不同种植方式诱集烟粉虱的效果结果表明,点状分布种植格局上的烟粉虱成、若虫数量与条状和片状分布种植上烟粉虱数量相比差异显著.配套施药试验结果表明,苘麻喷施10%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂,10%高渗四氟乳油,1.8%阿维菌素乳油,0.3%印楝素乳油,25%阿克泰水分散粒剂5种药剂7d后对烟粉虱成、若虫的防治效果分别为74.38%~94.86%和68.91%~93.29%,以阿克泰和阿维菌素防治效果最好.%In this paper, the preference, tropism and field population dynamics of Bemisia tabaci in different host piemarker and cabbage were studied, and we designed different planting types and insecticide application on the piemarker plant for the effect of trap control. The result indicated that the piemarker plants showed strong attraction to B. tabaci adults and nymphs, when insects observed after 60 h among the indoor trend test, the number of adults on the piemarker was cabbage 5. 5 times and 4. 7 times of nymphs. Through the entire cabbage growth period in field, the effects of trapping to B. tabaci adults and nymphs were 76. 8% and 60. 1% , respectively. There was significant difference between different planting types for trapping B. tabaci adults and nymphs, the attractive efficiency from single -planting piemarker was much more as compared to the planting types of the strip - planting and plot -planting. The insecticide application of 10

  6. 三唑酮在设施栽培土壤及大白菜中的消解动态及残留%Degradation Dynamics and Residues of Triadimefon in Protected Cultivation Soil and Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵金良; 佴注; 刘宏程; 杨东顺; 邹艳虹; 杜丽娟; 王志飞; 樊建麟

    2012-01-01

    为评价三唑酮在大白菜施用后的环境安全性,建立了GC测定蔬菜及土壤中三唑酮残留的方法,进行露地与设施栽培条件三唑酮在大白莱和土壤中的消解动态和最终残留研究.在大白菜和土壤中的最低检测质量分数均为0.001 mg/kg,三唑酮的平均加标回收率为81.5%~110.6%,变异系数为1.32%~6.04%.消解动态试验为2倍推荐使用剂量施药1次,三唑酮在设施栽培大白菜的半衰期分别为2.72~3.30 d和3.21~3.35 d;露地栽培为2.35~2.87 d和2.30~3.12 d.设施栽培大白菜中三唑酮残留量与用药量正相关,随着施药量的增加,消解速度减慢,残留量相应增大.研究可为制定三唑酮设施栽培大白菜上最大残留限量和合理使用准则以及风险评估提供科学依据.%In order to definitude environmental safety and establish safe application standard, residue dynamics and final residue of Iriadimefon were comparatively studied by the method of GC in soil and Chinese cabbage in open field and greenhouse. The results showed that the limit of quantification in Chinese cabbage and soil were 0.001 mg/kg for Iriadimefon. Average fortified recovery of the method varied from 81.5% to 110.6% with the relative standard deviation ranging from 1.32% to 6.04%. The half-lives of triadimefon in greenhouse Chinese cabbage were 2.72 to 3.30 and 3.21 to 3.35 d, respectively, and those in open field were 2.35 to 2.87 d and 2.30 to 3.12 d. A positive correlation was found between pesticide residue in Chinese cabbage and pesticide dose. With the pesticide dose increased, the digestion rale of pesticide residue lowed down and the residual quantity increased. The scientific basis could be provided in the study for the establishment on the maximum residue limit of triadiraefon in greenhouse Chinese cabbage, setting up reasonable application rule, and risk assessment.

  7. Desempenho do consórcio entre repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico Performance of cabbage and radish intercropping under organic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos no Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica, em Seropédica, (RJ, durante dois anos consecutivos. O objetivo foi avaliar o desempenho do consórcio entre as culturas de repolho e rabanete com pré-cultivo de crotalária, sob manejo orgânico. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com sete repetições, em parcelas subdivididas, representando um fatorial 2 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator o pré-cultivo, com Crotalaria juncea e pousio (vegetação espontânea; e o segundo fator o sistema de cultivo (consórcio entre repolho e rabanete e os respectivos monocultivos. Não houve diferença significativa no tocante à produtividade do repolho ou rabanete, entre C. juncea e pousio, independentemente do tipo de manejo (monocultivos ou consórcio. O desenvolvimento do repolho não foi influenciado pela presença do rabanete, no consórcio entre essas espécies sob cultivo orgânico. O rabanete sob consórcio apresentou redução no diâmetro médio, massa média e produtividade de raízes, sem, contudo, desqualificar o padrão comercial das raízes colhidas. Considerando a média dos dois anos experimentais, o IEA atingiu 1,59, o que indicou a viabilidade do consórcio, otimizando práticas culturais, incluindo adubação, capina e irrigação.Field experiments were carried out during two consecutive years in the Integrated Agroecological Production System, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the performance of cabbageradish intercropping under organic management on the basis of agronomic traits and Area Equivalency Index (AEI. The contribution of green manure pre-planting to the system also was evaluated. A randomized complete blocks design with seven replicates in a 2x3 split-plot factorial scheme was used. Treatments in the main plots consisted of Crotalaria juncea pre-planting or fallow. Cabbage or radish single crops and the respective intercropping were distributed in the subplots. No

  8. Residue analysis and dissipation of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate(DA-6) in Chinese cabbage and soil%胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的残留分析及消解动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁林; 薄瑞; 蒋家珍; 王素利; 马立利; 刘丰茂

    2011-01-01

    The analytical method of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate(DA-6) residue and its dissipation in chinese cabbage and soil were investigated. Samples were extracted with ethyl-acetate, then cleaned up by dispersive SPE with PSA (primary secondary amine) and GCB (graphitized carbon black),followed by determination with GC-MS. The recoveries at the levels of 0.005 - 0.05 mg/kg were from 83.2% to 103.2% for Chinese cabbage and 83.0% to 98.5% for soil with coefficients of variation of 3.0% to 4.8% and 3.8% to 11.3% ,respectively. The limit of detection was 0.001 mg/kg. The limit of quantification was 0.005 mg/kg for both Chinese cabbage and soil. Results of field trial showed that the half-life of DA-6 was 0.3 to 1.1 days in Chinese cabbage and 1.5 to 1.6 days in soil. The terminal residues of DA-6 in cabbage were lower than 0.06 mg/kg.%建立了胺鲜酯在大白菜及土壤中的残留分析方法.样品经乙酸乙酯提取、N-丙基乙二胺(primary secondary amine,PSA)和石墨化碳黑(graphitized carbon black,GCB)分散固相萃取净化后,采用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)检测,外标法定量.结果表明:当胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的添加水平在0.005~0.05 mg/kg时,其回收率分别为83.2%~103.2%和83.0%~98.5%,相对标准偏差(RSD)分别为3.0%~4.8%和3.8%~11.3%.在土壤和大白菜中胺鲜酣的检出限为0.001 mg/kg,定量限为0.005 mg/kg.田间试验结果表明,胺鲜酯在大白菜和土壤中的半衰期分别为0.3~1.1d和1.5~1.6 d,在大白菜中的最终残留小于0.06 mg/kg.

  9. Study on the Method of Creation of Cabbage Breeding New Materials Using Biological Technology%利用生物技术创造甘蓝育种新材料的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文涛; 苏浴源; 栗淑芳; 申领艳; 康少辉

    2012-01-01

    以5个甘蓝品种为试材,从基因型以及培养基中的有机成分、蔗糖浓度和激素浓度4个方面,对利用生物技术创造甘蓝育种新材料的方法进行了研究。结果表明:不同品种之间的遗传差异影响了参试甘蓝花药胚状体的诱导频率;培养基中的有机成分、蔗糖浓度和激素浓度均对胚状体诱导频率有较大影响。并建立了1套通过甘蓝花粉培养诱导产生单倍体植株的技术:取未授粉甘蓝花药和花粉,接种在蔗糖浓度为10%、附加NAA0.2mg/L+6-BA2mg/L的MS培养基中,诱导胚状体产生及萌发;将胚状体接种在附加NAA0.2mg/L的MS培养基中进行生根诱导,30d后生根率达89%,且根数较多,平均根长1.0~2.0cm,芽苗生长健壮。利用该技术获得单倍体再生植株所需要的时间一般为80d左右。%Using 5 cabbage varieties as materials, the method of creation of cabbage breeding new materials by biological technology was studied from four aspects of genotype and organic component, sucrose concentration and hormone concentration in the culture medium. The results showed that induction frequency of anther embryoids of tested cabbage was affected by genetic differences of different varieties. Organic component, sucrose concentration and hormone concentration in the culture medium had great influences on embryoid induction frequency. A set of technology of induced haploid plants by cabbage pollen culture was established, the unpollinated anthers and pollen of cabbage were nurtured in MS medium with 10% of sucrose concentration and adding NAA 0.2 mg/L + 6-BA 2 mg/L to induce embryoids generation and germination, then the embryoids were inoculated on the MS medium with NAA 0. 2 mg/L for 30 days to root induction, and the rate of rooting reached to 89% , the number of roots was large, the average root length was 1.0 - 2.0 cm, bud seedling growed healthy. The time required to obtain haploid

  10. Resposta de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho à adubação com boro em solo arenoso Response of boron fertilization on broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage planted in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pizetta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados em condições de campo, em solo arenoso, com baixo teor de boro, os efeitos da adubação com cinco doses de boro (0; 2; 4; 6 e 8 kg ha-1 de B na forma de bórax na produção de brócolis, couve-flor e repolho. O experimento obedeceu a um esquema fatorial com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. As adubações orgânica e química, inclusive o bórax, foram feitas no sulco antes do transplantio das mudas e a colheita foi feita entre 63 e 93 dias após o transplantio. A produtividade de brócolis variou de 16,9 a 20,5 t ha-1; a de couve-flor de 21,6 a 29,6 t ha-1 e a de repolho de 40,5 a 46,4 t ha-1. O aumento observado na produtividade de brócolis e de repolho foi linear e o efeito das doses de boro na produtividade de couve-flor foi quadrático, sendo necessários 5,1 kg ha-1 de B para atingir a produtividade máxima de 30 t ha-1. Brócolis e repolho mostraram-se menos sensíveis do que a couve-flor tanto à deficiência quanto ao excesso de boro. No caso da couve-flor, com a aplicação de 2 kg ha-1 ou de 6 kg ha-1 de B houve significativa perda de qualidade do produto.The effects of boron fertilization on yield of broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage were evaluated through a field experiment carried out on a sandy soil low in available boron. Five boron levels (0; 2; 4; 6; and 8 kg ha-1 B as borax were applied in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage using a factorial scheme and a randomized block design with three replicates. Organic manure and chemical fertilizers, including borax, were applied in the planting furrow before seedlings transplant and plants were harvested 63 to 93 days after planting date. The yield intervals obtained with broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage varied according to the following intervals: 16.9 to 20.5 t ha-1, 21.6 to 29.6 t ha-1 and 40.5 to 46.3 t ha-1, respectively. The increase in production observed in broccoli and cabbage yield was linear with boron levels and the

  11. 转IL-4基因大白菜后代的分子检测及遗传分析%Molecular Detection and Genetic Analysis of Chinese Cabbage Progeny with the IL-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓霞; 高亚; 于丽杰

    2013-01-01

    采用PPT抗性筛选、PCR扩增、PCR-Southern杂交、ELISA、Western杂交等方法,对花粉管通道法介导IL-4基因转化大白菜的后代进行了分子生物学检测,同时结合统计分析手段研究了IL-4基因在转基因大白菜后代中的遗传规律.结果表明:(1)PPT抗性的转基因大白菜,T4代植株PPT抗性的阳性率为33.43%,IL-4基因PCR扩增的阳性率为1.39%.IL-4的分离情况不符合孟德尔分离定律.(2)对T4代5个株系的14个PCR阳性株进行ELISA检测,其中有7份样品为阳性,IL-4表达量约为326.87 ~ 1233.13 ng/g FW,同一株系内各株间IL-4的表达量差异显著.(3) Western杂交进一步证实IL-4在转基因大白菜后代中能正常表达.PCR-southern杂交表明IL-4基因已整合到大白菜基因组中,且在转基因后代植株中仍然存在.%IL-4 gene transformation mediated by pollen-tube pathway method of Chinese cabbage for molecular detection of descendants using PPT resistance screening,PCR amplification,PCR-Southern hybrid,ELISA,Western hybrid methods,combined with statistical analysis study IL-4 inheritance of genes in transgenic Chinese cabbage in future generations.Results indicated that:(1) PPT resistance in transgenic Chinese cabbage,PPT resistance positive rates of T4 generation was 33.43%,the positive rate of PCR amplification of IL-4 gene was 1.39%.IL-4 separation plant does not meet Mendel' s law of segregation.(2) ELISA test on 14 ones of PCR-positive strains of 5 strains in the T4 generation,7 samples of which are positive,IL-4 expression was about 326.87 ~ 1233.13 ng/g FW,the ones of IL-4 expression within the same strains significance of difference.(3) Western confirmed IL-4 in transgenic Chinese cabbage hybrid offspring in the regular expression.It indicated that IL-4 gene has been incorporated into the Chinese cabbage in the genome with PCR-southern hybrid,and that gene still exists in transgenic plants' future generations.

  12. Extraction and Stability of Purple Cabbage Pigment%紫甘蓝色素的提取及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东霞; 冷春玲

    2012-01-01

    Purple cabbage under natural, cold and freezing preservation was pretreated, respectively. Then, pigment was extracted from it with ultrasonic method under acidic conditions. The influence of pH value, tempera- ture, preservative concentration and sucrose concentration show that the color of the pigment changes remarkably cidic and neutral conditions. Temperature has um benzoate increases, the pigment changes on the stability of the pigment were studied. The results as the pH value increases, while is steady under weakly a- no obvious effect on the color of the pigment. As the content of sodi- gradually from pink color to lilac. The pigment is relatively stable when sodium benzoate content ranges from 0.05% to 0.2%. Sucrose has no remarkable effect on the color of the pigment. The stability of pigment extracted from samples under different preservation conditions is similar.%以紫甘蓝为研究对象,进行自然保藏、冷藏保藏和冷冻保藏的前处理并在酸性条件下结合超声波的方法提取紫甘蓝色素。对不同前处理的色素进行针对不同pH值、不同温度、不同防腐剂浓度、不同蔗糖浓度的稳定性研究。结果表明,三种样品随pH的升高颜色变化较为明显,在弱酸性至中性的范围内较稳定;随温度升高三种样品颜色无明显变化,热稳定性较好;随苯甲酸钠含量的增加,三种样品颜色由粉色逐渐变为淡紫色,在苯甲酸钠含量从0.05%~0.2%范围色素较稳定;蔗糖对三种色素样品的颜色无明显影响,稳定性也无明显变化。三种前处理的色素样品稳定性变化趋势大致相似,说明针对提取紫甘蓝色素而言,不同贮藏条件对色素稳定性影响不大。

  13. 早熟秋甘蓝新品种达光的选育%A New Autumn Cabbage F1 Hybrid-‘DaGuang’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保才; 化娟莉; 张延安

    2014-01-01

    ‘Daguang’ is a new autumn cabbage F1 hybrid developed by crossing self-incompatible line 98-19 as female parent and self-compatible line 99-36 as male parent.It is an early-maturing variety.It takes about 72 days from field planting to harvest.The plant grows vigorously.Its expansion degree is 49-52 cm. It has 12-14 outer leave blades,and the leaf is greyish green in color.There is a lot of wax powder on the leaf surface.The leafy head is oblate,green and compact.The compactness degree is 0.62.The leafy head is 19.8 cm in transverse diameter,11.3 cm in height.The central core is 5.9 cm in length.The single leafy head weights 1.5 kg.It has crisp texture and slightly sweet taste.It is tolerant to head splitting,and resistant to TuMV(Turnip mosaic virus)and black rot.Its average yield is about 67.5 t·hm-2.It is suitable to be cultivated in autumn open fields at north,central,and southwest part of China.%达光是以自交不亲和系98-19为母本,以自交系99-36为父本配制而成的早熟秋甘蓝一代杂种。早熟,定植至收获72d(天)左右;植株生长势强,株型平铺,开展度49~52cm,外叶12~14片,叶色灰绿,叶面蜡粉多;叶球扁圆形、色绿,紧实度0.62,球高11.3cm,横径19.8cm,中心柱长5.9cm,单球质量1.5kg,质地脆嫩,味微甜,耐裂球;抗芜菁花叶病毒病(TuMV)和黑腐病;一般每667m2产量4500kg左右,适宜华北、华中及西南地区秋季露地种植。

  14. Isolation and Expression Analysis of Two Cold-Inducible Genes Encoding Putative CBF Transcription Factors from Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two homologous genes of the Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding factors (CBF/DREB1) transcriptional activator were isolated by RT-PCR from Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.cv. Qinbai 5) and were designated as BcCBF1 and BcCBF2. Each encodes a putative CBF/DREB1 protein with an AP2 (Apetal2) DNA-binding domain, a putative nuclear localization signal, and a possible acidic activation domain. Deduced amino acid sequences show that BcCBF1 is very similar to the Arabidopsis CBF1, whereas BcCBF2 is different in that it contains two extra regions of 24 and 20 amino acids in the acidic domain. The mRNA accumulation profiles indicated that the expression of BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 is strongly induced by cold treatment, but does not respond similarly to dehydration or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. However,the cold-induced accumulation of BcCBF2 mRNA was rapid but short-lived compared with that of BcCBF1.The mRNA levels of both BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 were higher in leaves than in roots when plants were exposed to cold, whereas, salt stress caused higher accumulation of BcCBF2 mRNA in roots than in leaves,suggesting that the organ specificity of the gene expression of the BcCBFs is probably stress dependent.In addition, the accumulation of BcCBF1 and BcCBF2 mRNAs was greatly enhanced by light compared with darkness when seedlings were exposed to cold. It is concluded that the two BcCBF proteins may be involved in the process of plant response to cold stress through an ABA-independent pathway and that there is also a cross-talk between the light signaling conduction pathway and the cold response pathway in B. pekinensis as In Arabidopsis.

  15. UMEDECIMENTO E SUBSTRATOS PARA GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE REPOLHO SUBSTRATES AND MOISTURE LEVELS IN THE GERMINATION OF CABBAGE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvaneide Alves de Azeredo

    2009-12-01

    ="JUSTIFY">PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Brassica oleracea var. capitata; quantidade de água; análise de sementes, teste de germinação.

    The availability of water for seeds is closely related to their germination, since hydration is a limiting factor for their metabolic processes. Therefore, in tests carried out in laboratory, substrate must be sufficiently moistened, in order to assure both the embryo growth and seedling formation. This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of different quantities of water, in different substrates, for cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata seeds germination. The seeds, processed with Thiran 0.1%, were obtained in shops located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Germination tests were made in germitest rolled paper towel substrates, between and on draft paper, moistened with quantities of water equivalent to 1.0; 1.5; 2.0; 2.5; 3.0; 3.5; and 4.0 times the dry substrate weight. For each treatment, four repetitions of 50 seeds were used. The seeds were kept in a germinator, at an alternate temperature of 20-30ºC, without further addition of water to the substrate. The evaluations were made on the fifth and tenth days after the experiment preparation. The results obtained revealed that the quantities of water ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 times the paper weight were favorable for seeds germination, mainly in the substrate on and between the paper, while water levels above 3.0 times the substrate weight were

  16. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes, and transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yao, Qiuju; Yuan, Yuxiang; Li, Xixiang; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wusheng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS) has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa) and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H (+) -ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants from a mi

  17. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes and transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun eWei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H+-ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants

  18. 液相色谱-串联质谱法测定甘蓝中4-羟基百菌清的残留量%Determination of 4-Hydroxychlorothalonil Residues in Cabbage by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成; 任海雷; 赵志强; 王蕾

    2016-01-01

    The method for determination of 4-hydroxychlorothalonil residue in cabbage by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was established. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile, electrospray negative ion source(ESI–), multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM), matrix–matched and standard curve method were applied to samples analysis. The results showed that there was the good linear relationship(r=0.999) between chromatographic peak area and mass concentration of 4-hydroxychlorothalonil residue in cabbage, the linear range was 1.0–100 µg/L, the detection limit was 0.31μg/kg,the quantification limit was 1.0μg/kg. The method validation was carried out at 5,10,50μg/kg, the recoveries were from 88.0%to 91.4%, and the relative standard deviations of determination results were from 4.6%to 7.2%(n=6). The methods is simple, accurate, rapid, sensitive and suitable for monitoring the maximum residue limit of 4-hydroxychlorothalonil in cabbage.%建立液相色谱–串联质谱法测定甘蓝中4-羟基百菌清残留的方法。以乙腈提取样品中的4-羟基百菌清,采用电喷雾负离子源(ESI–)和多重反应监测(MRM)模式测定,基质匹配标准工作曲线法定量。结果表明,甘蓝中4-羟基百菌清的质量浓度与其色谱峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999),线性范围为1.0~100µg/L,方法检出限为0.31μg/kg,定量限为1.0μg/kg。在5,10,50μg/kg 3个添加水平下,方法的回收率为88.0%~91.4%,测定结果的相对标准偏差为4.6%~7.2%(n=6)。该法简单、准确、快速、灵敏,符合法规残留限量监测要求。

  19. Variation of moisture content in cabbage seeds with heat pump intermittent drying%热泵间歇干燥白菜种子内部含水率变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海波; 杨昭

    2012-01-01

    为了研究热泵干燥条件下种子内部传质机理,以热泵干燥的白菜种子为研究对象,建立了其非均质动态传质模型,并利用该模型分析热泵恒温连续干燥与间歇干燥条件下种子内部含水率变化规律.研究表明,所建模型能较好的模拟种子含水率的动态变化,模拟值与试验值相关系数为0.9974,相对偏差在士10%以内,模拟精度满足要求:间歇干燥时种子内部含水率更均匀,更有利于种子品质的保证;间歇干燥过程比例系数取1/3、间歇运行周期中运行时间取400 s时热泵机组节能近50%.该研究可为热泵干燥技术的应用推广提供参考.%Aimed at studying the moisture diffusion mechanism inside the seeds during heat pump drying, a nonhomogeneous dynamic mass transfer model was set up for cabbage seeds analyze the moisture diffusion in the cabbage seed under conditions of continuous drying with constant temperature and intermittent drying with on/off pulsating of air velocity. Results showed that the simulation results coincided well with experimental data with correlation coefficient of 0.9974 and relative deviation being less than ±10%. With the heat pump intermittent drying, the moisture distribution inside the cabbage seed was more uniform. With intermittency ratio of 1/3 and on-time in the intermittent drying cycle of 400 s, nearly 50% energy conservation for the heat pump equipment could be achieved during the drying process. This research can provide a reference for application of heat pump drying technique.

  20. Effects of Nutrient Solution Renewal Frequency and Ventilation on Yield and Quality of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%营养液更换频率和通气对菜心生长和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏蔚; 吴育智; 陈玮锋; 何燕文; 宋世威; 陈日远

    2013-01-01

    In the hydroponic condition, taking the treatment regular renewal of nutrient solution and ventilation as the control (CK), we studied the effects of T1 treatment (non-renewal of nutrient solution but ventilating regularly) and T2 treatment (non-renewal of nutrient solution and ventilation) on plant growth and quality of flowering Chinese cabbage. The results showed that, compared with CK, T1 treatment didn't affect the biomass of flowering Chinese cabbage, while T2 treatment significantly reduced the biomass. In addition, T1 and T2 treatments significantly improved the vitamin C and soluble sugar content, while reduced the nitrate content significantly. T1 treatment could obtain quite the same yield of CK treatment, and improve the nutritional quality in product organs and reduced the nitrate content, thus it could be taken as a simplified management method for flowering Chinese cabbage under hydroponic condition.%在水培条件下,以定期更换营养液和通气为对照(CK),研究了不更换营养液、定期通气(T1)和不更换营养液、不通气(T2)处理对菜心生长和品质的影响。研究结果表明,与对照相比,T1处理不影响菜心的生物量,而 T2处理显著降低了菜心的生物量;T1、T2处理显著提高了 VC 和可溶性糖含量,同时显著降低了硝酸盐含量。 T1处理可获得与对照相当的产量,并且可提高产品器官的营养品质、降低了硝酸盐含量,可作为菜心的简化水培管理模式。

  1. Comparison of Methods for Transferring Genetic Male Sterile Lines of Orange Head Chinese Cabbage with Anti-clubroot%桔红心大白菜抗根肿病不育系转育方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新翠; 沈向群; 李林; 李茜; 陈永浩

    2012-01-01

    以普通心抗根肿病甲型“两用系”和桔红心自交系LH为试材,通过杂交、回交和系内交等方法研究了桔红心与普通心的遗传关系、桔红心自交系抗性和育性的基因型.试验结果表明:桔红心对普通心表现为一对隐性基因控制的简单遗传,桔红心自交系的抗性和育性基因型分别为rr和msms;提出了桔红心大白菜抗根肿病雄性不育系的两种转育模式,其中系内交模式比回交模式提前一代得到新的不育系;在第二代筛选桔红心性状时,对子叶法、球心色法和花色法三种方法进行了比较,子叶法不但在幼苗期就可以筛选到桔红心性状,而且抗性调查和育性鉴定的群体最小,是三种方法中最理想的.%Taking the genetic male sterile AB lines (type 1) of yellow head Chinese cabbage with anti -clubroot and orange head Chinese cabbage lines (LH) as the test materials, the genetic relations between the head colors of orange and yellow and the genotypes of clubroot - resistance and fertility of orange head lines were studied through cross, backcross and sibling mate. The experimental results indecated clearly that orange to yellow was controlled by a pair of recessive genes, and rr and msms were the anti-cluhroot genotype and fertile genotype of LH. In the light of these, this study proposed two models of transferring genetic male sterile lines of orange head Chinese cabbage with anti-clubroot, among which model ( 2) could get genetic male sterile lines in the fourth generation, but model ( 1) in the fifth generation. Although orange plants will be sifled out in the second generation using cotyledon method, head color method or flower color method, cotyledon method will be the best one, for in this way orange plants can be screened in the seedling stage, and survey groups of resistance and fertility will be smaller than other methods.

  2. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”细胞学观察%Cytology Observation of Anther for Genic Male Sterility of AB Line Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明; 郑鹏婧; 张欣; 毕高熵

    2012-01-01

    以大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”为材料,对其可育与不育株的花器结构进行比较,并进行细胞学观察来明确该雄性不育类型的败育时期及败育原因.结果表明,大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”可育株的萼片长、花瓣长、花瓣宽、雄蕊长和雌蕊长都极显著高于不育株对应部位;不育植株和可育植株花蕾大小与花发育时期相对应;不育花蕾在2.5 mm后就已经败育,败育时期可能发生在减数分裂后期到四分体时期,该时期绒毡层细胞液膨大、呈现液泡化,将四分体挤压到药室的中间,致使四分体大量发育异常,小孢子得不到营养,不能形成正常的小孢子,导致小孢子完全解体,在开花前败育.%In this experiment, the materials are genic male sterility of AB Line Chinese cabbage. Comparisons between sterile flower and fertile flower on flower organic structure in Chinese cabbage, and cytology observation of anther, to find out the stage and reason of abortion. The results showed that: the sepal length, petal length, petal width, the stamens length of fertile plants and sterile plants in Chinese cabbage are very obviously different; development of anther was observed by using acid carmine staining and paraffin section method, stertility has been aborted after 2. 5 mm, abortion may occur during after meiosis stage to tetrad stage, tapetal cells showed vacuolation and crushed tetrad into central parts during this period. A large number of tetrads become abnormal, microspore development can not enough space and nutrition. Finally, microspores completely resolved and cause abortion before flowering.

  3. Male Sterile Transgenic Cabbage Plants with TA29-barnase Gene%TA29-barnase基因转化甘蓝产生雄性不育植株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈革志; 王新其; 朱玉英; 杨红娟; 陆桂华; 王江; 宛新衫; 张景六

    2001-01-01

    RNase gene (barnase) was cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciensgenomic DNA,and the upstream regulatory region (-1300~+51) of a tapetum-specific gene TA29 was cloned from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)total DNA by PCR and sequenced. Then a chimeric gene containing the regulatory region of TA29 gene and coding region of barnase gene was constructed (Fig. 1 ) and introduced into cabbage with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Plate Ⅰ-1). Completely sterile, and half-sterile were observed among some transformed cabbages carring TA29-barnase chimeric gene (Plate -2~5 ), and other traits were basically identical to untransformed control plants, but filaments of stamens of transformed plant were shorter than normal ones, anthers were shriveled and without pollen. Self pollination of transformed plants failed to produce fruit capsules and seeds, but hybrid seeds were obtained when these plants were cross-pollinated artificially with normal pollen from untransformed cabbage plants. The results showed that these transformed plants were male sterile ( Plate Ⅰ-6 ).%用PCR技术从烟草革新1号品种的总DNA中扩增了TA29基因的启动子和从解淀粉芽孢杆菌的总DNA中扩增了核糖核酸水解酶基因(barnse),将其构建成融合基因,并克隆于pCAMBIA2301载体上。通过根癌农杆茵介导转化甘蓝下胚轴,经Km选择压下连续选择、扩繁和进行生根培养,获得了甘蓝转基因植株。经GUS、PCR和Southernblot检测,证明TA29-bar-nase融合基因已经整合至转基因植株的染色体中。经花器官观察,转基因植株中有雄蕊退化的雄性不育和半不育植株出现。用正常花粉对不育株进行人工授粉,不育株能正常结实,这表明转基因不育植株的雌性器官发育正常,其不育性与TA29-barnse融合基因在转基因植株中的表达有关。

  4. Genetic Relationship between Chinese Cabbages in Anti-clubroot with Orange Head Traits%大白菜根肿病抗性与橘红心性状的遗传关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯华; 沈向群; 耿新翠; 徐硕

    2011-01-01

    以育成的黄心抗根肿病直筒叠抱型大白菜CR9112A和CR9112B为母本,直筒舒心橘红心大白菜龙园红1号JH-1自交系为父本,分别完成F1、F2及BC1F1各世代.验证龙园红1号橘红心性状的遗传规律,探究根肿病抗性与橘红心性状之间的遗传关系.抗性和花色鉴定结果表明:根肿病抗性与橘红心性状之间无连锁关系,二者表现为独立遗传.龙园红1号JH-1的基因型为msmsrrhh.提出了转育抗根肿病橘红心大白菜的遗传模式,以期获得经济性状优良的抗根肿病橘红心材料.%Taking the existing anti-clubroot CR9112A and CR9112B lines of straight canister folded common Chinese cabbage [ Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis ( Lour ) Olsson ] as female parent and stably inherited ‘Longyuanhong No.l’ JH-1 inbred lines of Chinese cabbage with orange head as male parent, we prepared every generations of F1, F2 and BC1F1. The inheritance rule of ‘ Longyuanhong No.1’inbred lines was verified, and the relationship between clubroot resistance gene with orange head leaf gene was explored. The identification results showed that there was no linkage relationship between clubroot resistance and orange head characteristics, and these 2 were independently inherited. The gene type of ‘Longyuanhong No.1’ JH-1 was msmsrrhh. On this basis, the paper put forward a genetic model for transferring clubroot resistance to orange head traits, so as to obtain an excellent orange head Chinese cabbage resistant to clubroot.

  5. 大白菜游离小孢子培养中胚胎发生及发育途径%Embryogenesis and Development of Isolated Microspore in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 盛鹏; 岳艳玲

    2013-01-01

    [目的]观察大白菜离体小孢子培养中的胚胎发生及发育途径.[方法]以大白菜F1代杂交种为试材,采用光学显微镜观察游离小孢子胚胎发生和发育途径.[结果]细胞热激后膨大是胚状体诱导的关键因素.大白菜小孢子诱导成胚有3种途径,小孢子均等分裂途径、小孢子不均等分裂途径和小孢子直接萌发出胚途径.均等分裂途径是在连续的均等分裂以后形成原胚,原胚继续分裂形成球形胚、心形胚、鱼雷形胚和子叶形胚.不均等分裂途径形成的两个细胞中较大的细胞继续分裂最终形成有极性的胚状体.[结论]该研究结果为大白菜小孢子的高频率诱导提供细胞学依据.%[Objective] The aim was to observe embryogenesis and development of isolated microspores in Chinese cabbage.[Method] Chinese cabbage F1 hybrids were used as the experimental materials,and optical microspore was employed to observe the embryogenesis and development of isolated microspores.[Result] Cells swelled after heat shock treatment,which was the critical factor of embryoid induction.Three pathways equal division,unequal division and germination of microspores were discovered to lead to the embryogenesis from isolated microspores after swelling.Microspore could grow directly to embryoid through germination path way.Equally divided microspores formed the original embryos after successive multiple equal divisions.Original embryos could develop into cotyledon-shaped embryos via globular,heart-shaped and torpedo-shaped embryos.The large one of the two cells from unequally divided microspores continued to divide and finally formed a polar embryoid.[Conclusion] The study will provide cytological basis for high induction frequency and embryoid of Chinese cabbage.

  6. 小白菜与大白菜亚种间杂交减数分裂染色体行为观察%Chromosome Behaviors in Meiotic of Pollen Mother Cells in Inter-subspecific Hybridization between Chinese Cabbage and Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙正; 徐海; 宋波; 樊小雪

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic behaviors of pollen mother cells ( PMCs) in inter-subspecific hybrid F1 and BC1-3 be⁃tween Chinese cabbage and non-heading Chinese cabbage were studied. It was observed that 90.7%of F1 pollen were stainable, indicating good fertility. The fertility of BC1-3 was gradually increased. 89.1%chro⁃mosome behavior in F1 meiotic PMCs was regular which could explain the good fertility. Abnormal chro⁃mosome behaviors such as double nucleoli, disordered paring in Prophase I, chromosome bridge in meta⁃phase I, segments loss in anaphase I were discovered which could explain the lower fertility of F1 hybrid than normal diploid. 14.3% abnormal chromosome behaviors were found in BC1 generation however very limited in BC2-3 which indicated that it was a repaid process for chromosome behavior of backcross genera⁃tion becoming normal;this result was consistent to phenotype and fertility investigation.%研究了小白菜与大白菜亚种间杂交及回交世代花粉母细胞减数分裂行为,发现杂种F1花粉可染率90.7%,表现出较好的育性;回交BC1-3花粉可染率升高,表明育性逐步提高.F1花粉母细胞减数分裂正常染色体行为细胞数占总观察数的89.1%,这解释了F1具有较好育性的原因.杂种F1减数分裂各个时期会出现不正常现象,如双核仁、配对紊乱、染色体桥、染色体片段丢失等,这在一定程度上可以说明杂种F1育性低于正常二倍体的原因.14.3%的BC1花粉母细胞会出现不正常现象,而BC2-3已经相对正常,极少观察到减数分裂不正常现象,表明在回交过程中染色体稳定是一个快速的过程,这与表型及育性调查结果相吻合.

  7. Selenium enrichment pattern in flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Zhang, M.

    2006-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS - Within a certain range, selenium accumulation in three studied vegetables was lineally correlated with spraying concentration. However, a too high concentration caused the reduction of vegetable output and damage in quality. - Twice spraying with lower concentration of selenium was a b

  8. 玉米‖甘蓝间作对土壤水分时空分布及水分利用效率的影响%Effect of Intercropped Models of Maize and Cabbage on the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture and Water Use Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪娇; 孙东宝; 王庆锁

    2012-01-01

    To explore the mechanism of high WUE in intercropping system, the experiment of intercropped and monocropped models of maize and cabbage was conducted in dryland agriculture areas in Shouyang of Shanxi province. The results indicated that (1 ) water use by maize and cabbage intercrops in the growing season was lower than monocropped maize and was higher than monocropped cabbage, which resulted in higher soil moisture in intercropped models than maize monoculture and lower than cabbage monoculture during the middle and later growing stage. For the intercropped models, as the rows of maize were decreased ( or the rows of cabbage were increased) , its soil moisture was increased gradually. ( 2 ) The soil water contours were the deppest in maize monoculture, and the shallowest in cabbage mowoculture during the middle and later growing stage. Water use intensity of the monocropped maize was higher than the monocropped cabbage before mid-August and was lower afterwards. Intercropped models of maize and cabbage formed temporal and spatial complementary on using water,so it improved water use efficiency. (3) Yield of maize was increased in intercropping. The growing of cabbage in intercropped models was shaded by maize to different degrees, but the effect was weaker as the rows of cabbage was increased, even was disappeared. When the cabbage rows in intercropped models were more than four ( one time than maize height) , yield, output value and water use efficiency of the intercropped maize and cabbage was higher than the monocropped maize and cabbage respectively. The conclusion was that when the cabbage rows in intercropped models were more one time than maize height,the intercropped models were reasonable and better.%为探讨作物间作的高效用水机制,在寿阳旱地农业试验站,开展了不同行比的玉米与甘蓝间作试验.结果表明,(1)玉米‖甘蓝间作生长季节的耗水量均低于玉米单作而高于甘蓝单作,从而使作物生长中后

  9. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP (3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate) on Nitrate Accumulation and Quality ofCabbage (Brassica campastris L. ssp. pekinesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUChao; WULiang-huan; JUXiao-tang; ZHANGFu-suo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of N fertilizer ammonium sulphate nitrate [ (NH4)2SO4 plus NH4NO3;ASN] with the new nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) (ASN+DMPP) on yield, nitrate accumulation, and quality of cabbage (Brassica campastris L. ssp. pekinesis), two field trials were carried out under various soil-climatic conditions in Jinhua City and Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province of China in 2002.Results showed that DMPP could increase the mean yield by + 2.0 t ha-1 in Jinhua, +5.5 t ha-1 in Xinchang, decrease NO3--N content by -9.4% in Jinhua, -7.3% in Xinchang and improve nutritional quality by increasing vitamin C (VC), soluble sugar, K, Fe, Zn contents significantly.

  10. Effects of Nano-preparation on Growth and Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency of Cabbage%纳米制剂对小白菜生长及氮肥利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王署娟; 刘强; 宋海星; 荣湘民; 彭建伟; 王小娟; 张振华; 陈利军

    2011-01-01

    为提高肥料利用率,研发环境友好型肥料,从源头上控制农业面源污染,采用土培试验,研究了纳米制剂对小白菜产量、养分吸收量、氮肥利用率、叶片叶绿素含量及部分品质指标的影响.结果表明,氮肥中添加纳米氢醌和纳米茶多酚均可提高小白菜产量和叶片叶绿素含量、增加氮磷钾养分吸收量、提高氮肥利用率,以上效果在纳米制剂添加量增加时更加明显.在本试验所设的4种添加纳米制剂处理中,以4%茶多酚处理的效果最好,与未添加纳米制剂处理相比,小白菜产量增加44.6%,氮肥利用率增加134.1%.添加纳米制剂对小白菜品质的影响却不同,可溶性糖含量变化不大,硝酸盐含量有所提高,维生素C含量也有提高趋势,但干重增加最多的(4%茶多酚)处理维生素C含量并没有提高.总之添加纳米制剂可以提高作物产量并能提高肥料利用率.%In order to improve the fertilizer use efficiency, research and develop environment-friendly fertilizers, which can control the agricultural nonpoint source pollution from the source, a soil pot experiment was taken to study the effects of nano-preparation on the production, nutrient absorption, nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, leaf chlorophyll content and some quality indexes of cabbage.The results showed that, the production, leaf chlorophyll content, the amount of nutrients (N, P, K) absorption and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of cabbage were increased by adding nano-hydroquinone and nano-tea-polyphenols in nitrogen fertilizer, and the higher adding amount of nano-preparation had a more obvious effect.The best effective treatment among the four nano-preparation treatments was the one with 4% tea-polyphenols.The production and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of cabbage were increased by 44.5% and 134.1%, respectively.However,the effect of adding nano-preparation on the quality of cabbage was different, the changes of

  11. 内生枯草芽孢杆菌E1R-J对萝卜、白菜促生作用%The Growth-promoting Effect of Endophytic Bacteria E1R-J on Radish and Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王心选; 高小宁; 郑刚; 王辉; 魏国荣; 康振生; 黄丽丽

    2009-01-01

    Effect of entophytic bacteria strain E1R-J on cabbage and radish seed germination, seedling growth was studied in plates, pot and outdoor field experiment. The results showed that the cell-free filtrate of strain E1R-J in different dilution and cell suspension promoted cabbage seed germination. In pot experiment, compared with untreated control, cabbage seedling height, fresh weight, dry weight increased 53% ,200% ,700% , and radish seedling height, fresh weight, dry weight increased 24. 4%, 215%, 159% after treated with 10 ×diluted E1R-J cell-free filtrate. The promotion of seedling growth by strain E1R-J was also found in the outdoor plot experiments. The chlorophyll content in the functional Leaves of the cabbage seedlings greatly increased in treatment of strain E1R-J 10×diluted cell-free filtrate and cell suspension of 10~7 cfu/mL compared with untreated control.%通过萝卜、白菜的种子萌发试验、幼苗盆栽试验以及小区试验,对小麦内生枯草芽孢杆菌E1R-J菌株的促生作用进行了研究.结果表明:E1R-J无菌滤液不同浓度稀释液及菌悬液可促进白菜种子的萌发,使萌芽整齐、萌发率增高.其无菌滤液10倍稀释液浇灌处理的盆栽白菜幼苗,株高、鲜质量、干质量分别比清水对照增长53%、200%和700%.同时发现,浇灌处理的盆栽萝卜幼苗与清水对照相比,株高、鲜质量、干质量也分别增长24.4%、215%和159%.田间小区试验结果也证明内生枯草芽孢杆菌E1R-J具有促生作用,但促生效果低于盆栽试验.利用丙酮直接浸提法测定盆栽白菜叶片中的叶绿素含量,发现无菌滤液10倍稀释液和菌悬液10倍稀释液处理的叶绿素含量增高2倍左右.

  12. Cytology Studies on Anther Development of Male Sterile Materials 'Ms2008076' in Cabbage%甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076花药发育的细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆林; 任雪松; 李成琼

    2011-01-01

    对甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076的花药发育过程进行了石蜡切片和显微观察.结果表明:Ms2008076花药败育主要发生在花粉母细胞时期,表现为绒毡层细胞发育异常,花粉母细胞迅速退化以至解体,花药败育.%Microscopic observations on anther development process of male sterile materials ‘Ms2008076' in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. ) showed that ‘Ms2008076' anther development was hindered at the stage of pollen mother cell differentiation. The main characteristic is that the tapetal cells developed abnormally and pollen mother cell de-gradated rapidly to disintegrate with the ultimate result that the anthers were abortive absolutely.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of a Pectin Methylesterase Gene BrPME1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜果胶甲酯酶基因BrPME1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 李承彧; 叶雪凌; 王晓霞; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] This paper aims at cloning a pectin methylesterase gene in order to provide assistance to study the roles of the pectin metabolism in the fertility regulation of Chinese cabbage. [Method] Analysis of gene differential expression was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line 'AB02'of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment,TDF-24, was found only in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of the gene related to TDF-24 was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR,and the characteristics of the deduced protein were analyzed using bioinformatics softwares. Gene expression characteristics were proved by Real-time PCR [Result] The novel pectin methylesterase (PME, EC 3.1.1.11) cDNA(BrPME1, GenBank accession number HM 185497), was isolated from Chinese cabbage. The cDNA was 1 290 bp long, encoding a putative preprotein of 363 amino acids with a signal peptide of 23 amino acids, which contains ten phosphorylation sites, six N-myristoylation site, one amidation site and one conserved PME domain, but no PMEI (pectin methylesterase inhibitor) site. BrPME1 was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with an extremely low expression level in sterile buds. [ Conclusion ] The results indicated that BrPME1 is a member of the PME gene family inhibited by genic male sterile gene in Chinese cabbage.%[目的]克隆大白菜果胶甲酯酶基因,为进一步探讨果胶代谢在大白菜育性调控中的分子机制提供帮助.[方法]利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-24,通过RACE技术扩增该基因的cDNA全长序列,采用生物信息学软件分析所克隆基因的编码蛋白特性,利用荧光定量PCR技术分析基因时空表达模式.[结果]该基因编码大白菜果胶甲酯酶(EC 3.1.1.11),被命名为BrPME1(GenBank登录号:HM185497).BrPME1

  14. Repellent effect of 7 non-host plants on main cabbage insect pests%七种非寄主植物对甘蓝主要害虫的田间驱避作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梅梅; 谌江华; 姚红燕; 柴伟纲; 陈若霞

    2016-01-01

    在田间测定了大蒜、薄荷、紫娇花等7种非寄主植物对蚜虫、小菜蛾和菜青虫3种甘蓝主要害虫的有效驱避距离及其消长动态的影响。结果表明,在甘蓝大棚入口处种植大蒜、薄荷后,甘蓝上蚜虫发生量分别减少了58.35%和56.17%,小菜蛾发生量分别减少了52.04%和40.52%;种植大蒜和紫娇花后,菜青虫发生量分别减少了55.36%和41.52%。大蒜对菜青虫的有效驱避距离为3.0 m,对甘蓝上蚜虫为1.0 m,对小菜蛾为0.5 m;薄荷对甘蓝上蚜虫的有效驱避距离为3.0 m,对菜青虫为1.0 m,对小菜蛾驱避效果不显著;其他处理对3种害虫的有效驱避距离均在0.5 m以下。总体驱避效果为:大蒜>薄荷>狭叶薰衣草、迷迭香、碰碰香、鼠尾草、紫娇花。%The repellent ability of 7 non-host plants such as Alliaceae sativum L. , Mentha haplocalyx Briq. and Tul⁃baghia violacea Harv. to 3 main cabbage insect pests such as aphid, Plutella xylostella and Pieris rapae, as well as the influence of interplanted with non-host plants on the population dynamics of the 3 pests were conducted in green-house. The results indicated that the amount of aphid were decreased by 58. 35% and 56. 17%, and the amount of Plutella xylostella were decreased by 52. 04% and 40. 52%, respectively, when A. sativum L. and M. haplocalyx Briq. were planted at the entrance of the cabbage greenhouse. Meanwhile, the amount of Pieris rapae were decreases by 55. 36% and 41. 52% in cabbage interplanted with A. sativum L. and T. violacea Harv, respectively. It also in-dicated that the effective repellent distances of A. sativum L. on Pieris rapae, aphid and Plutella xylostella were 3. 0, 1. 0 and 0. 5 m, respectively, which of M. haplocalyx Briq. on aphid and Pieris rapae were 3. 0 m and 1. 0 m, but showed no significant effect on Plutella xylostella. The effective repellent distances of other plants on the 3 main cab-bage pests were

  15. Influência da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura na conservação do repolho minimamente processado Effects of low density polyethylene packaging and temperature in the conservation of fresh-cut cabbage

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    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da embalagem de polietileno de baixa densidade e da temperatura de armazenagem na conservação de repolho minimamente processado. Os repolhos, previamente resfriados à temperatura de 10 ºC, foram submetidos à seleção, lavagem, corte em quatro partes com a retirada do talo central, sanitização, corte em tiras, enxágüe, centrifugação, pesagem e acondicionamento em embalagens plásticas de polietileno de baixa densidade (70 µm e armazenados em câmaras frias nas temperaturas de 1 e 10 ºC por 20 dias. Avaliaram-se dióxido de carbono, oxigênio e etileno na atmosfera interna da embalagem, bem como pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez no repolho minimamente processado. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os parâmetros de análise, com exceção da vitamina C, perda de massa fresca e etileno, apresentaram variação significativa entre as temperaturas e dias de armazenamento. O repolho armazenado na temperatura de 1 ºC apresentou vida de prateleira ao redor de 15 dias, significativamente maior que a 10 ºC. Nesta última, no 8º dia de armazenamento, o produto encontrava-se totalmente deteriorado, sem condições de comercialização e consumo.This research studied the effect of low density polyethylene packaging and storage temperature on the preservation of fresh-cut (minimally processed cabbage. The cabbages, previously cooled to a temperature of 10 ºC, were selected, washed, cut in four parts (with the central stalk removed, sanitized, cut in strips, rinsed, put in the centrifuge, weighed and stored in plastic packaging of low density polyethylene (70 µm, and then stored in cold chambers at temperatures of 1 and 10 ºC for 20 days. The following aspects were evaluated: carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethylene in the internal atmosphere of the package

  16. Cabbage production in function of seedling age. = Produção de repolho em função da idade das mudas.

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    Felipe Oliveira Magro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The seedling transplanting ages is a factor of great importance because it can affect the quality and yield of plants if the volume of the cell is not compatible with the phenology of seedlings at time of transplantation. The experiment was conducted at São Manuel Experimental farm, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP, from March to August, 2009. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seedling age on cabbage production, hybrid Kenzan. The seedlings were grown in polystyrene trays containing 128 cells. Seedings were done every four days and contained the following streatments: 37, 41, 45, 49 and 53 days after sowing (DAS. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replications. On transplantation’s day (11/05/2009,the number of leaves, fresh and dry weight and height, were evaluated to the characterization of seedlings. It was observed that the seedling age had no influence on traits at harvest: number of leaves inside and outside of “head”,fresh weight of shoot and “head”, dry mass of shoot and “head” and length of “heart”. =A idade de transplante das mudas é um fator de grande importância, pois pode afetar a qualidade e a produtividade das plantas se o volume da célula não for compatível às condições fenológicas das mudas no momento do transplante. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental São Manuel, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP, no período de março a agosto de 2009. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da idade das mudas na produção de repolho, híbrido Kenzan. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido contendo 128 células, sendo que as semeaduras foram realizadas a cada quatro dias compondo os seguintes tratamentos: 37, 41, 45, 49 e 53 dias após a semeadura (DAS. O delineamentoexperimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Foram avaliados, no dia do transplante (11/05/2009, o n

  17. 外源物质对大白菜芝麻状斑点病发生和缓解的影响%Effects of Exogenous Substances on Occurrence and Alleviation of Black Sesame Spot on Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东; 杨晓云; 张清霞; 王媛; 张淑霞; 司朝光; 郭瑞玲

    2014-01-01

    以感芝麻状斑点病大白菜品系03 B9为试材,通过钵栽及外源浇灌等方式,研究硝酸钾、硫酸钾、尿素等不同形态氮肥对大白菜芝麻状斑点病发生的影响,以及铵态氮代谢、酚类物质代谢有关物质对芝麻状斑点病发生或缓解的影响。结果表明:铵态氮肥能加重芝麻状斑点病发生;EDTA-Fe和苯丙烯酸等能增加硝酸还原酶活性或酚类物质含量,也会加重芝麻状斑点病发生;能抑制酶促褐变的抗坏血酸和对细胞膜具有保护作用的硅酸钾对缓解芝麻状斑点病作用最大。%The Chinese cabbage line 03 B9 with high sensitivity to black sesame spot was used as material to investigate the influences of different forms of nitrogen fertilizer (potassium nitrate,potassium sulfate,urea) and exogenous substances related to ammonium nitrogen or phenol substance metabolism on occurrence and al -leviation of black sesame spot on Chinese cabbage through pot culture and exogenous watering .The results showed that the ammonium nitrogen fertilizer could aggravate the occurrence of black sesame spot .EDTA-Fe and cinnamic acid could increase the activity of nitrate reductase or synthesis of phenolics , and also aggravated the occurrence of black sesame spot .Whereas the ascorbic acid inhibiting enzymatic browning and potassium silicate possessing protective action on cell membrane could alleviate the black sesame spot .

  18. 四倍体不结球白菜雄性不育系的选育%Breeding of 4x CMS Line of the Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

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    钟程; 田鑫; 张蜀宁

    2014-01-01

    To provide excellent parent resource for breeding new non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars,a test cross was made by the male parent 09P70Rexiao(2n=4x)and female parent of the sterile materials(09PY)of non-heading Chinese cabbage which was obtain by the sexual polyploidization.Then the Shu No.1,of which the sterile rate reached 100%,and their degree was over 95% and their character was stable,was selected by continues back-cross.The plant height was 30.0 cm,the level of unfold was 29.8 cm,the leaf was brilliant green,the petiole was white.It had some properties such as grow faster, high yield,disease-resistant,heat resistant,and so on.%为给不结球白菜新品种的选育提供优良亲本,以秋水仙素诱导2n 配子再与四倍体雄性不育系08P76杂交创制的四倍体不结球白菜雄性不育材料09PY(14株)为母本,四倍体09P70热小材料为父本进行成对测交,后进行连续回交选育出不育株率为100%、不育度大于95%、性状稳定一致的不育系暑1。该雄性不育系株高30.0 cm,开展度29.8 cm,叶片亮绿,叶柄白色,具有生长速度快,丰产、抗病、抗热等特性。

  19. 软腐白菜细菌群落结构多样性与生长环境的相关性%Correlation of bacterial diversity in rot Chinese cabbage with the habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜迅; 胡宜亮; 何蔚荭; 陈国参; 王腾飞; 仇雨晨; 王亚南

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过对比分析不同生境白菜软腐病变组织与根系土壤相关细菌的群落结构,探讨白菜软腐细菌种群的多样性,以及与生境土壤细菌种群的相关性.[方法]样品采自河南省2个不同生态型白菜田,以成熟白菜软腐组织及病株根系土壤为目标,利用模拟原环境的培养基成分和条件,对样品中的细菌进行高通量分离培养和细胞16S rRNA基因序列比对分析,获得各样品细菌种群结构及其丰度,进而对各样品的优势菌群进行对比分析.[结果]两种不同生境白菜软腐组织细菌总量M05T为4.0×l0s cell/g、Q2T为1.2×1011 cell/g,分别获得纯菌56株和85株.M05T优势菌为萎蔫短小杆菌萎蔫亚种(Curtobacterium flaccunfaciens pv.Flaccumfaciens);Q2T优势菌为假单胞菌(Pseudomonas spp.)(柄木槿假单胞菌(P.hibiscicola)、台湾假单胞菌(P.taiwanensis)、托木尔假单胞菌(P.tuomuerensis)、莫塞尔假单胞菌(P.mosselii)).根系土壤细菌总量M05S为2.7 × 105 cell/g、Q2S为6.2 × 107 cell/g,分别获得纯菌36株和70株.M05S优势菌为巨大芽胞杆菌(Bacillus megatherium);Q2S优势菌为假单胞菌(Pseudomonas spp.)(香鱼假单胞菌(P.plecoglossicida)、栖木槿假单胞菌(P.hibiscicola)、类黄色假单胞菌(P.parafulva)、蒙氏假单胞菌(P.monteilii)、膝形假单胞菌(P.geniculata)).[结论]依据不同生境的白菜软腐组织和根系土壤细菌群落结构对比分析,认为白菜软腐菌可能具有多样性和多种致病来源,本研究为软腐病多种防治措施的制定提供基础研究和菌种资源.%[Objective] To investigate the diversity of bacteria in soft rot Chinese cabbage and analyze their correlation with rhizosphere bacteria, we analyzed the bacterial population structures of soft rot Chinese cabbage and the rhizosphere in different habitat. [ Methods ] Based on the initial medium and artificial Chinese cabbage medium, we isolated the bacteria from soft rot tissues and

  20. Novas linhagens de repôlho e couve-flor para o Estado de São Paulo Improved cabbage and cauliflower types for São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leocádio de Souza Camargo

    1956-01-01

    ça, e a colheita dura cêrca de 60 dias. Iniciou-se o melhoramento da couve-flor "Campinas" em 1944, de material adquirido em casa comercial de São Paulo, com o nome "Quatro Estações". Após alguns anos de trabalho, criaram-se na E. E. Central em Campinas e na E. E. de Monte Alegre do Sul, linhagens muito boas. A variedade "Campinas" (I.A.C. n.° 1587 é de média precocidade, tendo produzido em 1950 e 1951, em campo de cooperação, respectivamente 398 e 1244 kg de sementes, ou uma média de 30 g por planta, ou sejam, 60 g por m², Para produção de sementes a melhor época de semeadura é fevereiro. As cabeças formam-se em junho e desde 120 dias após, as sementes são colhidas, durando a colheita 16 dias em média.Investigations on the cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L. and cauliflower (B. oleracea var. cauliflora, Gars, D.C. plants at the Instituto Agronômico and its various experiment stations were intensified since 1941. From 1944 on, a great deal of attention has been given to the variety problem, to improvement of local and imported types, and to their seed production. Seventy four varieties of cabbage and 59 varieties of cauliflower have been tested. The majority of these grew well in the cool season, when the average monthly temperature was around 22.5°C during the vegetative period and about 16.6°C at the time when heads were formed. In order to supply the local markets with cabbage and cauliflower during the warmer months, attention was turned to types that were capable of making satisfactory growth and forming heads during those months of the year when temperature was high. The local variety of cabbage named "Louco" (I.A.C. N.° 758, as well as the cauliflower Early Benares from India, could be cultivated in summer and fall in most mparts of São Paulo. Satisfactory growth of these types was obtained at average monthly temperatures from 20.4 to 22.6°C, and good heading when the average monthly was from 18 to 22.2°C. Improvement of the

  1. Effects of Different Covering Pattern s on Growth and Yield of Early Spring Chinese Cabbage in Faciliyt%不同覆盖模式对早春设施栽培大白菜生长及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德翠; 高文瑞; 徐刚; 孙艳军; 史珑燕; 韩冰

    2016-01-01

    In order to make clear the insulation characteristics of different specifications of non-woven fabric and their effects on the growth and yield of early spring Chinese cabbage in facility, taking the ordinary film covering as the check, we carried out the contrast test for non-woven fabric covering of Chinese cabbage in the greenhouse .The results showed that the non-woven fab-ric had a better insulation effect than the ordinary film, and covering with non-woven fabric could promote the leaf emergence rate of Chinese cabbage, increase the plant height, leaf number and leaf area, and speed up the rate of forming leaf-ball.Comprehen-sively considering the insulation effect and economic benefits , the author concluded that the 300 g/m2 non-woven fabric could be used as the covering material for early spring Chinese cabbage cultivation .%为了明确不同规格无纺布的保温特性及对大白菜生长和产量的影响,以普通薄膜覆盖为对照,在大棚内进行了无纺布覆盖大白菜的对比试验。结果表明:无纺布的保温效果优于普通薄膜的,能够提高大白菜的出叶速率,增加株高和叶片数,增大叶面积,加快结球速度。综合考虑保温效果和经济效益,可以选择300 g/m2无纺布作为早春大白菜栽培的覆盖材料。

  2. Influences of Combined Application of Water-soluble Organic Fertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield, Nutrient Absorption and Economic Benefit of Cabbage%有机水溶性肥与无机肥配施对包菜产量、养分吸收和经济效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏全杰; 蔡建华; 刘启华; 熊汉锋; 刘新伟; 李鸣凤; 张炜; 赵竹青

    2014-01-01

    研究了有机水溶性肥与无机肥配施对包菜产量、养分吸收和经济效益的影响。结果表明:与单施无机肥相比,有机水溶性肥以灌根的方式与无机肥配施能显著提高包菜的包心率、包心重、产量、经济效益以及叶片中叶绿素、磷、钾的含量,并在一定程度上提高包菜氮、磷、钾的累积量和各养分利用效率;有机水溶性肥与无机肥灌根的综合效果优于叶面喷施的综合效果。%The influences of combined application of water -soluble organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the yield , nu-trient absorption and economic benefit of cabbage were studied .The results revealed that:as compared with the single application of inorganic fertilizer , the application of water -soluble organic fertilizer in the manner of root -irrigation combined with inorganic fer-tilizer could significantly enhance the package rate , package weight , yield and economic benefit of cabbage , as well as the contents of chlorophyll , phosphorus and potassium in cabbage leaf , and could increase the accumulation and utilization efficiency of nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium in cabbage to a certain degree .The combined application of water -soluble organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer in the manner of root -irrigation obtained better comprehensive effect than that in the manner of foliage spray .

  3. 包膜控释尿素及硝化抑制剂结合尿素对大白菜产量和品质的影响%Effect of Coated Control-Release-Urea and Nitrification Inhibitor On Yield and Quality of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文静; 林海涛; 刘兆辉; 江丽华; 张玉凤; 沈玉文

    2015-01-01

    以“北京新3号”大白菜为试材,在露地生产条件下,研究了两种聚合物包膜尿素( CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱ)及硝化抑制剂结合尿素( DCD)对大白菜产量及品质的影响。结果表明,与习惯施肥( FP)相比, CRF-Ⅰ处理下大白菜产量提高了6.40%,CRF-Ⅱ、DCD处理下大白菜产量分别降低了1.48%、2.09%;CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱ及DCD处理均能显著降低大白菜叶片中硝酸盐含量并提高 VC、还原糖、粗纤维含量。%Taking Chinese cabbage variety “Beijing New No.3” as material, the effects of coated control -release-urea and nitrification inhibitor on its yield and quality were studied under open -field condition.The results showed that, compared with conventional fertilization (FP), the self -made control -release-urea ( CRF-Ⅰ) could significantly increase the yield of Chinese cabbage by 6 .4%.The sold control-release-urea (CRF-Ⅱ) and nitrification inhibitor (DCD) decreased the yield of Chinese cabbage slightly by 1.48%and 2.09%respectively, and there was no significant difference .Compared with FP, CRF-Ⅰ、CRF-Ⅱand DCD could improve nutritional quality , such as the contents of vitamin C , amino acid , reductive sugar and crude protein , and decrease the nitrate content in Chinese cabbage leaves .

  4. Dissipation dynamics of deltamethrin and imidacloprid in cabbage%溴氰菊酯和吡虫啉在甘蓝中的残留及消解行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姿; 秦旭; 徐应明; 孙有光; 孙扬; 王倩

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatngraphy (GC) and high-pressure liquid chro-matography ( HPLC ) for determining deltamethrin and imidacloprid, respectively, was established in wild cahhage, and the residue and dissipation dynamics of deltamethrin and imidacloprid were investigated through two consecutive years' field experiments in Tianjin, Shandong and Jiangsu. The results showed that the recovery rate of deltamethrin in wild cabbage was in a range of 92.19%- 102.48% , with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.98% - 9.46% at deltamethrin levels of 0.025- 0.5 mg/kg. The average recovery rate of imidacloprid in wild cabbage was 94.58%- 100.30% , with RSD of 0.85% - 4.10% at imidacloprid concentrations of 0.025 - 1 mg/kg, The minimum detectable concentrations of imidacloprid and deltamethrin in wild cabbage were 1.0 × 10-10 g and 5.0 × 10-10 g respectively, whereas the minimum detectable rates of imidacloprid and deltamethrin were 0.025 mg/kg. The field experiments indicated that the residual dissipation dynamics of deltamethrin and imidacloprid in wild cabbage conformed to the first order kinetics reaction model when deltamethrin & imidacloprid suspension concentrates was sprayed for once. The residual half-life of deltamethrin and imidacloprid of deltamethrin and imidacloprid was 4.4 - 8.8 d and 5.9 - 8.6 d, respectively. When the recommended dosage and 1.5 times recommended dosages of 20% deltamethrin & imidacloprid SC were sprayed for 3-4 times at an interval of 7 d, the residue of deltamethrin and imidacloprid in wild cabbage met with the maximum residues level of pesticide in food for deltamethrin (0.5 mg/kg. GR 2763-2005) and for imidacloprid (1.0 mg/kg, NY 1500.5.6-2007).%研究了溴氰菊酯和吡虫啉在甘蓝中残留的仪器检测方法,并在天津、山东和江苏连续开展了2a溴氰菊酯和吡虫啉在甘蓝中残留状况和消解动态规律研究的田间试验.结果表明,在溴氰菊酯和吡虫啉的添加质量比分别为0.025~0.5 mg/kg和0.025~1

  5. The Effect of Tea Polyphenol on Volatile Flavor Compounds in Pickled Cabbage during Shelf Life%茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向阳; 董欢欢; 俞兴伟

    2016-01-01

    茶多酚在腌菜中防腐效果好,为了解茶多酚对货架期泡菜气味的影响,在泡菜液中添加0.18%茶多酚,采用固相微萃取与气相质谱色谱联用法(SPME-MS/GC),分析泡菜的气味成分变化。结果表明:茶多酚抑制乳酸菌生长量,泡菜的主要风味物质是酮、酸、酯、醛、烯、醇。其中3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、苯甲酸类、烯丙基异硫氰酸酯、壬醛、石竹烯、1-辛烯-3-醇是含量较高的气味成分。泡菜后期醛类、酯类比例显著上升。另外,苯衍生物、烯、烷、萘类也有较多比例增加。壬醛、癸醛、烯丙基异硫氰酸酯、丁酸-3-甲基丁酯的大量增加可能是引起泡菜后期异味的主要原因。苯衍生物、烯、萘类增加可能也促进异味。茶多酚处理大幅度降低酸类、酮类,降低后期酯类、醛类,提高醇类和后期烯类,导致其他类中咔唑类消失,蒽醌物质上升,腙类消失,酚类出现。茶多酚处理显著降低了3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、苯甲酸类、异硫氰酸酯、壬醛,显著提升了后期 D-柠檬烯。茶多酚处理泡菜后期主要气味物质是 D-柠檬烯、3-乙酰-4-羟基-6-甲基-2H-吡喃-2-酮、1-辛烯-3-醇。%Tea polyphenols is an excellent preservative for pickles.To find out the effects of tea polyphenols on the smell of pickle during shelf life,tea polyphenols (0.18%,W/V)is added into pickled cabbage.The change of volatile components of pickled cabbage is analyzed with solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS).The results show that tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria,the main flavor compounds of pickled cabbage are ketones,acids,esters,aldehydes,alkenes and alcohols.The main odors components are 3-acetyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one,benzoic acids,allyl isothiocyanate,nonanal,caryophyllene and 1-octene-3-alcohol

  6. Control Efficiency of Four Biological Pesticides against Cabbage Caterpillar%4种生物农药对白菜菜青虫的田间防效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石爱丽; 邢占民; 张铃; 张杨; 郭玉炜; 高立起

    2014-01-01

    为明确不同生物农药对白菜菜青虫的田间防治效果,以白菜品种太原二青为试材,采用叶面喷雾的方法,在田间初见2~3龄菜青虫幼虫时进行第1次施药、间隔15 d 进行第2次施药,以高效氯氰菊酯乳油(有机化学农药)1500倍液和清水(不施药)为对照,研究了菜颗·苏云金杆菌可湿性粉剂1000倍液、苜核·苏云金杆菌悬浮剂750倍液、0.5%印楝素乳油750倍液、0.3%苦参碱水剂500倍液4种生物农药对菜青虫的田间防治效果以及对大白菜商品产量和种植收益的影响。结果表明:施用生物农药持效期长、防治效果好,虽然增加了购药成本,但生产出的白菜商品率和产量均高且绿色安全,最终扣除施药成本后的经济效益较高。本研究施药2次条件下,施用苜核·苏云金杆菌悬浮剂750倍液对菜青虫的防治效果最好,施药后第15 d防效为90.11%,白菜被害指数仅0.21%、商品率达100%,商品产量(177262.5 kg/hm2)和扣除施药成本后的收入(48858.5元/hm2)均最高,较施用化学农药产量增加14.47%、收入提高13.75%。%To make clear the control effect of different biological pesticides against cabbage caterpillar , taking the Chinese cabbage cultivar Taiyuanerqing as the test material, the biological pesticides was sprayed to the leaves first time when the 2-3 instar larvae was seen initially , and the second time interval of 15 days.Taking cypermethrin EC ( organic chemical pesticides ) 1 500 times liquid and water ( no pesticide ) as control, and the effects of PrGV Bt 1 000 times liquid, NPV Bt 750 times liquid, 0.5%azadirachtin EC 750 times liquid and 0.3%matrine 500 times liquid on control effect of pieris, yields and profit of cabbage were studied.The results showed that application of biological pesticides persistence length , the control effect was good , although the increase in the cost of purchase of medicines

  7. 小白菜不育系应用防虫网熊蜂制种效果初探%Use of Bumblebee for Hybrid Seed Production of Chinese Cabbage Based on Male Sterile Lines in Insect-proof Net Cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦武青; 马志; 宋春; 叶小松; 沈新华; 王浩挻; 高伟

    2011-01-01

    2009-2010年采用熊蜂在镇江市蔬菜研究所防虫网内进行小白菜雄性不育系制种.结果表明,利用熊蜂授粉能显著提高制种产量,熊蜂授粉种子产量较本地蜜蜂授粉种子产量提高146.7%,较人工辅助授粉种子产量提高15.9%;熊蜂制种较人工辅助授粉种子纯度提高3.5%;利用熊蜂在防虫网内进行小白菜不育系制种是可行的.%The use of bumblebee in seed production of Chinese cabbage male-sterile line in insect-proof net cage has been tested at Zhenjiang Vegetable Institute during 2009-2010. The results showed that bumblebee can significantly improve bybrid seed production based on Chinese cabbage male-sterile line. The hybrid seed yield was 246.7% of local honey bees and 115.9% of hand pollination. The hybrid seed purity also increased 3.5% compared with hand pollination. It is practical to use bumblebee for hybrid seed production base on male sterile lines of Chinese cabbage in insect-proof net cages.

  8. Antagonism of yeasts to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris on cabbage phylloplane in field Antagonismo de leveduras a Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris no filoplano de repolho em condições de campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayonara M.P. Assis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty yeast isolates, obtained from cabbage phylloplane, were evaluated for antagonistic activity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, in field. Plants of cabbage cv. Midori were pulverized simultaneously with suspensions of antagonists and pathogen. After 10 days, plants were evaluated through percentage of foliar area with lesions. Percentage of disease severity reduction (DSR% was also calculated. Yeast isolates LR32, LR42 and LR19 showed, respectively, 72, 75 and 79% of DSR. These antagonists were tested in seven different application periods in relation to pathogen inoculation (T1=4 d before; T2=simultaneously; T3=4 d after; T4=4 d before + simultaneously; T5=4 d after + simultaneously; T6=4 d before + 4 d after; T7=4 d before + simultaneously + 4 d after. The highest DSRs were showed by LR42 (71%, LR42 (67%, LR35 (69% and LR19 (68% in the treatments T7, T4, T5 and T6, which significantly differed from the others. The same yeast antagonists were also tested for black rot control using different cabbage cultivars (Fuyutoyo, Master-325, Matsukaze, Midori, Sekai I and Red Winner. The DSRs varied from 58 to 61%, and there was no significant difference among cultivars.Vinte isolados de leveduras, obtidos a partir do filoplano de repolho foram avaliados pela atividade antagônica contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, em condições de campo. Plantas de repolho cv. Midori foram pulverizadas simultaneamente com suspensões do antagonista e do patógeno. Após 10 dias, as plantas foram avaliadas através da porcentagem de área foliar infectada. A porcentagem de redução da severidade da doença (DSR%, também foi calculada. Os isolados de leveduras LR32, LR42 e LR19 apresentaram, respectivamente, 72, 75 e 79% de DSR. Estes isolados foram testados em sete diferentes períodos de aplicação dos antagonistas em relação a inoculação do patógeno. (T1=4d antes; T2=simultaneamente; T3=4 d após; T4=4 d antes + simultaneamente; T5

  9. Effect of Different Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on the Mycelial Growth of Alternaria brassicicola in Cabbage%不同碳、氮源对甘蓝链格孢菌菌丝生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁宁; 王超

    2012-01-01

    The research was to study the effect of different carbon sources and nitrogen sources on mycelial growth of Alternaria brassicicola in Cabbage. Cabbage varieties "W-14" isolated from acquired strains were used as test materials. Colony growth and diameter,mycelial growth rate,dry weight of mycelium from the strain in different carbon, nitrogen sources of culture medium were used as measurement index to study the function of 13 kinds of common species of nitrogen sources and 6 kinds of common carbon sources on the mycelial growth of Alternaria brassicicola in cabbage in order to select for the best Alternaria brassicicola growth nutrients. The results showed that: in the base medium with the addition of ammonium nitrate, the mycelium growth rate and colony diameter was higher, mycelial density, the hyphal growth index was the highest at 38. 33. The dry weight of mycelium was larger. When starch was used as the carbon source of the culture medium, mycelial growth index and the dry weight of mycelium were the highest, therefore the ammonium nitrate was identified to be the best nitrogen source and starch was the best carbon source for the mycelial growth of Alternaria brassicicola.%为探讨不同碳、氮源对甘蓝链格孢菌菌丝生长的影响,以从甘蓝品种W-14感病株上分离获得的菌种为供试材料,以该菌种在不同碳、氮源培养基上的菌落长势、直径、菌丝生长速率、生长指数、菌丝干重为测量指标,研究在基础培养基中添加13种常见氮源和6种常见碳源对甘蓝链格孢菌菌丝生长的作用,筛选出适宜该茵生长的营养物质.结果表明:在基础培养基中添加硝酸铵时,菌丝的生长速率及菌落直径较大,菌丝致密,其菌丝的生长指数最高为38.33,菌丝干重也较大;而在以淀粉为碳源的培养基上,菌丝的生长指数和菌丝干重最大,所以甘蓝链格孢菌菌丝生长的最佳氮源、碳源分别为硝酸铵和淀粉.

  10. One-field Comparative Study on Soil Testing and Fertilizer of Cabbage%结球甘蓝测土配方施肥同田对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽; 胡庆文; 余世洪; 彭朝良

    2012-01-01

    [目的]验证不同肥力水平下蔬菜结球甘蓝的最佳施肥量在实际应用中的效果,指导大面积生产。[方法]选取高肥力与中肥力地块2组,各设置无肥区、习惯施肥和配方施肥区3个处理,研究测土配方施肥对蔬菜结球甘蓝产量及经济效益的影响。[结果]高肥力地块配方施肥区与习惯施肥区相比,增产率达到了4.8%,与无肥区相比,增产率达到了22.4%;中肥力地块配方施肥区与习惯施肥区相比,增产率达到了4.3%,与无肥区相比,增产率达到了26.8%,增产效果显著,经济效益明显。[结论]在今后结球甘蓝生产中,应大量推广使用配方施肥技术,既提高产量又增加效益,同时提高肥料利用率,减少环境污染和肥料副成分的残留,对可持续农业发展意义深远。%[Object] The aim of this research was to test the effect of the best fertilizer rales of cabbage in different soil tertility levels in practical application and Io guide the production in large tracts of land. [Method] Non-fertilizing,conventinnal fertilization and formula fertilization treatments were taken on the high fertility and medium fertility soil, the soil testing and formulated fertilization on vegetable cabbage yield and economic effect were studied. [Result] The results showd that in the high fertility test formula fertilization plot, comparing with the eonventional fertilization plot, the yield rate was increased and reached 4.8%, anti comparing with the non-fertilizing plot, the yield rate reached 22.4%. in the medium fertility test formula plot. comparing with the conventional fertilization plot, the yield rate reached 4.3%, and comparing with the non-fertilizing plot, the yield rate reached 26.8%. The production was increased greatly, and the economic benefit is obvious. [Conclusion] In the future,the fertilizer technology should be popularized in cabbage production, since it not only increase the production and the benefits but also improve

  11. 定向转育卵圆生态型大白菜雄性不育系的研究%Directional Breeding of An Oval-ecotype Male Sterile Line of Chinese Cabbage(Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭翀; 郭瑛琪; 岳艳玲

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探究大白菜定向转育卵圆生态型雄性不育系的方法。[方法]以大白菜核不育"复等位基因遗传假说"为理论依据,以甲型两用系‘AB12’为不育供体品系,以卵圆生态型可育品系‘06048’为待转育品系,采用杂交、回交、兄妹交和测交的方法,按照定向转育方案将核不育基因定向转育。[结果]各世代育性分离比率与理论相一致,成功育成了一种不育株率100%的具有‘06048’园艺性状的新核不育系,实现了核不育基因和园艺特性的同时转育。[结论]该研究成果验证此定向转育方案是可行的,进一步为基因型为 msms的其他园艺性状的大白菜定向转育提供理论基础,也可以推广应用到整个芸薹属其它经济作物中,极大的拓宽了优良核不育基因的实际应用范围。%Objective] The study aimed to explore the method for directional breeding of a male-sterile line in oval-ecotype Chinese cabbage. [Method] Based on "Multiple Al ele Hypothesis of Genic Male Sterile Chinese Cabbage", an inbred line ‘06048’ of oval ecotype was used as the receptor, and male fertile plant of ‘AB12’ was used as the donor line. Crossing, backcross, selfing, testcross and sibling were ap-plied to transfer the multiple al eles under the directional genetic model. [Result] Segregation ratio of every generation was consistent with theoretical value. A new male sterile line with 100% male sterility and ‘06048’ horticultural traits was ob-tained successful y, which accomplished the transfer of male sterile multiple al ele and horticultural characters of receptor line at the same time. [Conclusion] The re-search verifies that the model of directional transfer is feasible, provides a theoreti-cal basis for the directional transfer of Chinese cabbage with other horticultural traits whose genotype is msms. The model can also be applied to other Brassica crops, to generate genetic male sterile lines

  12. 几种类型甘蓝雄性不育的研究 与显性不育系的利用%Investigation of Different Types of Male Sterility and Application of Dominant Male Sterility in Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方智远; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 王晓武; 庄木

    2001-01-01

    Several types of male sterility (MS) in cabbage were investigated. The results indicated that using male sterility in 81132 controlled by a recessive gene only 50% male sterile plants can be achieved. Nigra cytoplasmic male sterility in CMSn78091 is associated with small nectar glands and un-fully opened flowers. Radish cytoplasmic male sterility in R1cc409 has problems of poor seed setting and chlorosis at low temperature. It is difficult to apply these three materials in cabbage breeding. Male sterile material CMSR29551 with improved radish male sterile cytoplasm has very stable male sterility and no problem of chlorosis at low temperatures. Several MS lines were developed after backcrossing it with different inbred lines. However,it was found that after several generations of backcrossing,hybrid vigor of the male sterile lines decreased,which limited its application in practical breeding. Male sterile line CMSR3625 with another improved radish cytoplasm has not only promising plant growth,flowering and seed setting characteristics,but also high combining ability. It showed good prospect in cabbage breeding. Male sterility controlled by dominant male sterile gene has perfect economic characteristics and male sterility. Two hybrids,which have passed the test of Committee of National Agricultural Variety Examination and Approving, were developed.%隐性不育材料83121ms,不育株率仅50%。黑芥胞质不育材料CMSN78091不育花不能完全开放,蜜腺小。萝卜胞质不育材料CMSR1409等及其转育后代开花结实性状不良,且低温下叶色黄化,以上3类不育材料在甘蓝实际育种中应用困难。改良的萝卜胞质不育材料CMSR29551等及其转育后代低温下叶色不黄化,在其转育后代中筛选出几份开花结实性状较好的不育系,但多代回交后不育系配制的F1杂种优势弱,应用有局限性。改良的萝卜胞质不育系CMSR3625等,植株性状、开花结实特性

  13. Avaliação da disponibilidade de ferro em ovo, cenoura e couve e em suas misturas Iron availability in egg, carrot and cabbage and in their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi Machado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A desordem nutricional mais comum no mundo é a deficiência de ferro. Sua disponibilidade é influenciada por outras substâncias. Os objetivos da pesquisa foram: avaliar a disponibilidade de ferro em alimentos fonte deste e de vitamina A, ovo (o, cenoura (c e couve (cv, e verificar interação do ferro com alfa e beta-caroteno, e com outros interferentes. As misturas foram de ovo com cenoura e ovo com couve nas proporções (1:1, (1:1,5, (1:2, (1:2,5 e (1:3 e 3 alimentos sozinhos, totalizando 13 amostras. As amostras, após preparo, foram submetidas às análises de composição centesimal, ferro total, taninos, ácido fítico, ácido oxálico, alfa-caroteno e b-caroteno e diálise de ferro. Os dados foram analisados por teste de Tukey e correlação. Foi observada correlação positiva do ferro dialisável em relação à umidade e beta-caroteno e negativa para extrato etéreo, proteínas e cinza. A amostra 1,5 c apresentou teores mais elevados de taninos. As amostras 1 cv e 1,5 cv maiores teores de oxalato e ferro dialisável mais baixo. Pode ser concluído que misturas com maiores proporções de cenoura e couve aumentaram a disponibilidade do ferro e não houve interferência dos fatores antinutricionais. O beta-caroteno apresentou correlação positiva com ferro dialisável, exercendo influência na diminuição do efeito dos fatores antinutricionais.The most common nutritional disorder in the world is a deficiency in iron. The availability of iron is influenced by other substances. The aim of this research is to evaluate the availability of iron in food iron sources and vitamin A, egg (e, carrot (c and cabbage (cb, as well as to analyse the interaction of the iron with alpha, beta-carotene and with other interferences. The mixtures were egg with carrot and egg with cabbage in the proportions of (1:1, (1:1.5, (1:2, (1:2.5 and (1:3 plus the three food types alone, which totalled 13 food mixtures. After being prepared, the food mixtures

  14. Improved uptake of boron and growth in Chinese cabbage leaves by surfactin%表面活性素对不结球白菜叶片生长和硼吸收的促进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 邓杰勇; 王青青; 吴俊贤; 丁仕奇; 孙文

    2016-01-01

    以不结球白菜为试验材料,对其叶面喷施不同浓度表面活性素和硼溶液,研究表面活性素对其叶片通透性、气孔开度、蜡质层厚度及生长和硼吸收的影响。叶片的通透性随着表面活性素浓度的增加而提高,当表面活性素浓度≥0�400 g/L时,膜透性增加显著;表面活性素浓度为0�400 g/L时,不结球白菜叶片气孔开度达到最大;蜡质层的溶解程度随表面活性素浓度的增加而逐渐增加。喷施表面活性素的不结球白菜根长、株高和叶绿素含量都明显增加,在喷施浓度为0�040 g/L和0�400 g/L的表面活性素不同次数后,不结球白菜根长、株高和总叶绿素最高增长率分别达到62�38%、22�63%、42�94%和48�95%、15�89%、24�07%;表面活性素促进了植株对硼的吸收率,且浓度越高,对硼的吸收越多。可见,表面活性素叶面喷施有利于不结球白菜的生长和光合作用的增强,并能提高植株对微量元素的吸收,不仅可作为作物的叶面有机营养剂直接施用,而且可作为水溶性肥料的增效剂。%Different concentrations of surfactin and boron solutions were foliarly applied to Chinese cabbage leaves to study the leaf membrane permeability, stomatal aperture and waxy layer thickness, the absorption of boron, and the plant growth. The leaf permeability and waxy layer dissolvability were raised by increased concentrations of surfactin. The leaf stomatal aperture went to the highest level when treated with 0�400 g/L surfactin. The root length, plant height and chloro⁃phyll contents of cabbage foliarly⁃applied with surfactin for four times were boosted each time of application, and the highest increased rates were 62�38%, 22�63%, and 42�94% at surfactin concentration of 0�040 g/L, and 48�95%,15�89% and 24�07 at surfactin concentration of 0�400 g/L. The absorption of boron was improved by

  15. 叶面喷施钙镁肥对结球甘蓝养分积累及产量的影响%Effects of Foliar Application of Calcium and Magnesium Fertilizers on Nutrient Accumulation and Yield of Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓琳; 李洪杰; 赵同凯; 韩海红; 刘树堂

    2015-01-01

    通过大田小区试验研究叶面喷施钙、镁肥对结球甘蓝产量与品质的影响。结果表明:不同浓度的Ca(NO3)2和 MgSO4单施或配施,均可显著提高甘蓝球的横径、纵径和产量,其中0.7 g/L Ca(NO3)2+0.6 g/L MgSO4处理(T5)效果最好,与对照相比,分别增加29.10%、70.41%、32.09%;T5处理的甘蓝球全氮、全磷含量最高,与对照相比,分别增加40.1%、321.0%;全钾含量以0.3 g/L MgSO4(T3)处理最高,比对照增加15.98%。%The plot experiments were conducted in field to study the effects of foliar application of calci-um and magnesium fertilizers on the yield and quality of cabbage.The results indicated that the transverse di-ameter,vertical diameter and yield of cabbage could be significantly increased by both single and combined application of Ca(NO3 )2 and MgSO4 among which T5 treatment with 0.7 g/L Ca(NO3 )2 and 0.6 g/L MgSO4 had the best effect and increased them by 29.10%,70.41% and 32.09% compared with the control.The total nitrogen content and total phosphorus content increased by 40.1% and 321.0% respectively under T5 treat-ment compared with the control.The total potassium content was the highest under T3 treatment with 0.3 g/L MgSO4 ,which increased by 15.98% compared with the control.

  16. Breeding of a new combination of savoy cabbage ‘Paopaolü'%优质皱叶甘蓝新组合‘泡泡绿’的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦秀; 薄天岳; 缪体云; 任云英

    2012-01-01

    ‘泡泡绿’是由自交不亲和纯系197-121-75-143-3和146-3-1611杂交选育而成的皱叶甘蓝新组合.该组合半平铺型,开展度58.2 cm,叶色浅绿,外叶大,近圆形,叶面皱褶有叶泡,叶球圆形顶稍带尖,球面皱褶隆缩,单球重约780 g,产量约44 t/hm2,秋季栽培从定植到采收65~70 d.‘泡泡绿’品质优,帮叶比仅21.22%,Vc含量43.12 mg/100 g,粗蛋白含量2.94%,明显优于普通甘蓝品种‘争春’和国外皱叶甘蓝品种‘法美莎’.%'Paopaolii',a new combination of savoy cabbage,was bred by hybridizing two self-incompatible lines 197-121-75-143-3 and 146-3-1611. The plant of 'Paopaolü' is semi-procumbent and 58.2 cm in expansion degree;The plant's outer leaves are pale green,large and approximately round, and have wrinkles and phyllocysts;The head is round,slightly pointed at the top,and about 780 g in weight;The yield is 44 t/hm2 or so;The period from field planting to harvest is 65 - 70 d in fall cropping. 'Paopaolü' is good in quality,only 21.22% in petiole-leaf ratio,43.12 mg/100 g in vitamin C, and 2.94% in crude protein,and obviously superior to the control cultivars 'Zhengchun' (a common cabbage cultivar)and 'Fameisha' (a foreign savoy cultivar).

  17. 两类甘蓝雄性不育系种子产量构成因素分析%Analysis of Seed Yield Components between Two Cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var.capitata L.) Male Sterile Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆彪; 方智远; 张扬勇; 刘玉梅; 杨丽梅; 庄木; 陈琛

    2011-01-01

    The differences of seed yield and component factors among dominant genie male sterile line DGMS02-12, cytoplasmic male sterile line CMSR302-12 and inbred line of cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L. ) 02-12 were studied. The results showed that the differences of seed yield per plant and plot yield between DGMS02-12 and CMSR302-12 were significant. The whole plant valid siliqua and seeds per siliqua were the main factors for the differences of seed yield between these two male sterile lines of cabbage. The seed yield at the 1st branch account for more than 80% of per plant seed yield, and there were significantly positive correlations and high path coefficient between seed yield and seeds per siliqua and the valid siliqua at the 1st branch.%以结球甘蓝自交系02-12及其回交转育多代育成的显性核基因雄性不育系(DGMS)和细胞质雄性不育系(CMS)为试材,对其制种产量及种子产量构成因素进行分析.结果表明:显性核基因雄性不育系材料DGMS02-12与细胞质雄性不育系材料CMSR302-12在单株产量和小区产量方面存在显著差异,并且全株有效荚数和每荚种子粒数是两种类型甘蓝雄性不育系间制种产量存在差异的主要构成因素.其中,一级分枝种子产量占单株产量的80%以上,一级分枝有效荚数、每荚种子粒数与制种产量有显著的相关性和较高的通径系数.

  18. Study on the Effect of Allylisothiocyanate Formulations on Three Lepidopterous Insect Larvae, the Diamond Back Moth, Plutella xylostella (L., the Small Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris rapae (L. and Tobacco Cut Worm, Spodoptera litura Fabr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Eltayeb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The toxicity of seven of Allylisothiocyanate (AITC formulations, AITC pure and in mixture with cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, was evaluated using spray application and fumigation method against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., the small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae (L. and the tobacco cut worm, Spodoptera litura Fabr. Approach: Response varied according to insect species, specific formulation and AITC application rates. Results: Fumigant toxicity of the oil based on 9 h exposure was evaluated against the three insect larvae, the diamond back moth, P. xylostella larvae were more susceptible followed by tobacco cut worm, S. litura and cabbage white, P. rapae larvae. To P. xylostella larvae, LC50 value was 1.5 µL L-1 air, S. litura larvae (LC50, 1.8 µL L-1 air and P. rapae larvae (LC50, 2.0 µL L-1 air. These three insect larvae were killed after 9 h exposure to a dose of 4.3 µL L-1 air of the oil, showed no significance difference with that of phosphine (40 µg L-1 air a recommended dose. On the other hand, on the spray application bioassays, mortality data counted 72h after treatment, the P. rapae larvae were most susceptible to AITC formulations followed by S. litura larvae and P. xylostella larvae. LC50 values, to P. xylostella larvae, HJ(A and HJ(B were the most potent toxicant (33 mg L -1 and (46 mg L-1 respectively, while the least toxic was HJ(C (556 mg L-1. To S. litura larvae, HJ(B and HJ(A were the most efficient (10 mg L-1 and (22 mg L-1 respectively, while HJ(D (LC50, 385 mg L-1 was found to be the least toxic. The both of HJ (B and HJ (C had similar insecticidal activity (LC50, 8 mg L-1 to Pieris rapae larvae followed by HD (B (LC50, 22 mg L-1 and HD (A (LC50, 82 mg L-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was concluded that the AITC oil showed promise findings and may be a good alternative to old fumigant “phosphine”. The others were found efficient on the spray application bioassays but the

  19. TiO2/Chitosan-NH4I(+I2-BMII-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anthocyanin Dyes Extracted from Black Rice and Red Cabbage

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    M. H. Buraidah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using anthocyanin dye and polymer electrolyte with ammonium iodide (NH4I salt. The study was designed to focus on increasing the efficiency of the DSSC. DSSC using 26.9 wt. % chitosan-22 wt. % NH4I(+2.2 wt.% I2-48.9 wt. % IL solid electrolyte, black rice anthocyanin with Pt counter electrode showed Jsc of 172 μA cm−2 and Voc of 195 mV. The performance of the cell with Pt electrode was further improved by coating a blocking layer on the indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. The black rice DSSC using 11 wt. % (chitosan:PEO, wt. ratio 30:70-9 wt. % NH4I-80 wt. % BMII gel electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 1213 μA cm−2, Voc of 400 mV, FF of 0.47, and η of 0.23%. The red cabbage anthocyanin DSSC containing (phthaloyl chitosan-PEO-NH4I-BMII gel electrolyte using tartaric acid to adjust the pH of anthocyanin solution showed the best performance with the fill factor of 0.39, Jsc of 3503 μA cm−2, Voc of 340 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.46%.

  20. Effects of urea-formaldehyde fertilizer on yield of Chinese cabbage and its nitrogen use efficiency%脲甲醛肥料对小白菜产量和氮肥利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽娜; 樊小林

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究脲甲醛肥料的产量效应和氮肥利用率,为叶菜专用脲甲醛肥料的研制和施用提供理论依据。【方法】以小白菜为供试蔬菜,以不施氮肥为对照(CK),以常规氮肥尿素、脲甲醛肥料及两者混合氮肥(尿素与脲甲醛肥料氮素质量比为1∶1)为供试肥料,开展第1季施肥、第2季不施肥的连续两季田间微小区栽培试验,研究脲甲醛肥料对小白菜产量及氮肥利用率的影响。【结果】每季各氮肥处理小白菜产量均存在明显差异,且均显著高于CK。小白菜第1季产量以尿素+脲甲醛肥料处理最高,为50 678kg/hm2;第2季产量以脲甲醛肥料处理最高,为28 051kg/hm2;而以上2个处理的两季小白菜总产量无显著差异,但均显著高于尿素处理。不同处理每季小白菜氮吸收量和氮肥利用率存在明显差异,第1季尿素+脲甲醛肥料处理小白菜的氮吸收量和氮肥利用率最高,分别为202.73mg/株及24.94%;第2季脲甲醛肥料处理最高,分别为173.72mg/株及21.88%,而以上2个处理的氮吸收总量、氮肥累积利用率无显著差异,且均显著高于尿素处理,表明脲甲醛单独施用或与尿素混合施用具有明显的后效,可显著增加氮肥累积利用率。【结论】脲甲醛肥料与尿素混合施用既能保障第1季小白菜产量,又可降低缓释肥料成本,明显提高氮肥利用率。%【Objective】 The effects of urea-formaldehyde fertilizer on the yield and nitrogen use efficiency(NUE) of vegetables were studied to promote the development and application of urea-formaldehyde fertilizer special for leafy vegetables.【Method】 Three nitrogen fertilizers applied in the experiment were urea(U),urea-formaldehyde fertilize(UF),and urea blended with urea-formaldehyde fertilizer(U+UF).The study covered two continuous cropping seasons of Chinese cabbage in micro-plot field.All of the three fertilizers were applied in the first growing

  1. 花心大白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制%Studies on Breeding of Genetic Male Sterile Line in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp.Pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁; 王昊; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    以白菜核基因雄性不育系(Msms)为不育源,以花心大白菜宫古花蕊Y02(MsfMsf)为轮回亲本,采用连续回交,杂交和自交的转育方法,成功地将不育基因转入到可育品系YO2中,育成了不育度和不育株率均为100%,植物学性状与Y02相近的新核不育系GMS4.%A multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage was used as the source of male sterility, backcrossing, crossing and selfing were applied to transfer the male sterility to male fertile line Y02. The new male sterile line GMS4, which contained similar botanical characters with Y02 and the sterility frequency and sterility degree were all 100%, was obtained successfully.

  2. Breeding of Chinese Cabbage Gaokang 78 with Disease-resistance and High Quality and High Yield%抗病优质高产大白菜新品种高抗78的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞生; 刘海英; 韩靖玲; 侯奎华; 张艳欣

    2013-01-01

    The new Chinese cabbage variety Gaokang 78 was bred from the maternal parent 06C12-25 with high quality and strong combining ability and the male parent 05-10 with low affinity index and high disease resistance through incomplete diallel crossing.The variety is characterized by disease resistance, high quality and high yield which is suitable to be planted in the areas of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, north-east of China and so on.%以优质、配合力强的大白菜品种06 C12-25为母本,以亲和指数低、抗病性强的品种05-10为父本,经过不完全轮配法进行组配,选育出大白菜新品种高抗78。该品种具有抗病、优质、高产等特点,适宜在京津、河北、东北等地区播种。

  3. 大白菜隐性细胞核雄性不育恢复基因BrMsf3的标记%SRAP Marker Analysis of Recessive Genic Male Sterile Restoring Gene in Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 张淑江; 李菲; 章时蕃; 孙日飞

    2011-01-01

    对一大白菜隐性细胞核雄性不育系454AB的恢复基因BrMsf3进行了SRAP标记,构建包含320个单株的分离群体,筛选SRAP标记1 128个,筛选出与恢复基因BrMsf3连锁的2个标记BMe10SA4和M52K2,与恢复基因BrMsf3的遗传距离为4.35 cM和7.74 cM.%Genic male sterility lines were widely used in F1 seed production in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis ) . A recessive genic male sterile line 454AB which contained 320 individuals was constructed for this study. SRAP techniques and bulked segregant analysis ( BSA ) were used to screen markers linked to the RGMS restoring gene. Among the 1 128 primer combinations, only BMel0SA4 and M52K2 showed polymorphism between bulks of male sterile and fertile. The genic distances between restoring gene with BMe10SA4 and M52K2 were 4.35 cM and 7.74 cM, respectively.

  4. Selection and Identification of the SAT-chromosome Primary Trisomic of Flowering Chinese Cabbage%菜薹随体—染色体初级三体的筛选与遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申二巧; 张成合; 李晓锋; 轩淑欣; 申书兴

    2011-01-01

    The flowering Chinese cabbage cultiva'rQinglu Caixin'was used for the satellite-chromosome trisomic(SAT-trisomic)selection by karyotype analysis and morphological identification from the backcross progeny of triploid(2n = 3x = 30)× diploid parent(2n = 2x = 20).The results showed that one SAT-trisomic was obtained from the 374 progeny identified by chromosome examination and karyotype analysis.Development of the SAT-trisomic was almost normal,but its stigma was above the stamen.Transmission rate of the extra SAT-chromosome was 6.04% by female gametes and 3.20% by male gametes.%以菜薹品种‘青露菜心’为材料,采用核型分析和形态学鉴定的方法,从三倍体与二倍体的回交子代中筛选SAT-染色体初级三体。共鉴定了374个回交子代,获得了1株SAT-染色体初级三体。SAT-染色体初级三体生长发育基本正常,但柱头高出雄蕊,(n+1)雌、雄配子的传递率分别为6.04%和3.20%。

  5. The Molecular Characteristics of Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Related Gene orf138 in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var.capitata)%甘蓝细胞质雄性不育相关基因orf138的分子特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴; 康宗利; 简元才; 丁云花; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    以甘蓝Ogura细胞质雄性不育系为材料,找出能够有效鉴定由orf138导致的甘蓝CMS的标记,并明确此基因在甘蓝Ogu CMS基因组中的位置.根据萝卜CMS相关基因orf138的序列信息,设计特异引物,并在甘蓝不同类型不育系和保持系中鉴定PCR产物的稳定性.随后利用Tail-PCR技术,扩增获得此基因的侧翼序列并进行了生物信息学分析.根据orf138的全长序列设计引物B0138300BF/R,在甘蓝不育型材料中,能够稳定扩增出300 bp左右的单一条带,而在其他细胞质不育类型和可育材料中均未扩出条带,经多次验证结果稳定可靠.甘蓝中orf138的上下游侧翼序列有效碱基1789 bp,通过生物信息学分析,获得包括起始密码和终止密码的orf138的完整序列共417 bp.同源性比对结果显示:与甘蓝型油菜、白菜和萝卜的or38片段具有高度保守性.分析侧翼序列表明甘蓝orf138的3’端是由ORF83、trnfM、ORF125等基因片段构成的一个复杂序列.获得了甘蓝OguCMS特异的分子鉴定标记,明确了orf138在甘蓝线粒体中的位置,以上结果为甘蓝雄性不育的进一步研究奠定良好的基础.%The objective was to develop effective specific markers of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogu CMS) line in Brassica oleracea and illustrate the upstream and downstream genome sequence arrangement of the CMS gene orf!38. The orfl38 gene fragment in cabbage CMS line was amplified based on specific primers designed according to radish orfl38 gene sequence information. The upstream and downstream mitochondrion sequences of orfl38 sterile line were identified by use of Tail-PCR technology. Ogu CMS specific primer B0I38300 BF/R was designed according to the full-length sequence of orf138. It could stably amplify a single PCR product of about 300 bp in OguCMS cabbage line, while never in fertile maintainer lines and other types of cytoplasmic male sterility lines. Upstream and downstream flanking sequence of

  6. Mercury Content and Pollution Assessment of Soil and Cabbage Surrounding Yangshuo Pb-Zn Mining District in Guangxi%广西阳朔铅锌矿周边土壤和白菜汞含量及污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫福金; 钱建平; 王远炜; 张藜

    2016-01-01

    Yangshuo Pb-Zn mine is a relatively large mine in Guangxi. The article tries to understand the mercury pollution in soil and cabbage, as well as the transition and transform rule of mercury in soil-vegetables system. Investigation and research about the mercury content distribution and mercury pollution of soil and cabbage in the sourrouding farming area and residential area of Yangshuo Pb-Zn mine was done, in order to provide a scientific basis for mercury pollution prevention and remediation. In the research, 66 soil samples and 35 cabbage samples were collected in farming area of the downstream of Pb-Zn mine, 38 soil samples and 20 cabbage samples were collected in control farming area; 17 soil samples were collected in residential area. All soil and plant samples were digested by MDS-2003F-type pressure-controlled microwave digestion system and were analyzed with atomic fluorescence mercury analyzer. The result showed that the mercury concentration in the downstream arming area of Pb-Zn mine was (0.5674±0.2683) mg·kg-1, the mercury concentration in control farming area was (0.1471±0.0395) mg·kg-1, the mercury concentration in residential area was (0.1880±0.0972) mg·kg-1, which is 7.99, 2.07, 2.65 times higher compared with the natural content (0.071 mg·kg-1) of soil Mercury in some areas. In the downstream farming area of Pb-Zn mine, the soil mercury levels is decreasing when the distance from the mine is increasing. In the downstream farming area of Pb-Zn mine, the average mercury concentration at cabbage root was 27600 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage stem was 7100 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage leaf was 19300 ng·kg-1; in the control farming area, the average mercury concentration at cabbage root was 12500 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage stem was 4800 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage leaf was 10000 ng·kg-1. Cabbage mercury distribution characteristics is

  7. Comportamento agronômico de cultivares e híbridos de repolho na região nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul Agronomic behavior of cabbage cultivars and hybrids in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fracaro

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata é uma das plantas hortícolas mais importantes na região nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul. Assim sendo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar os melhores cultivares e híbridos de repolho para esta região. Quinze materiais comerciais de repolho, de distintos distribuidores e origens, foram avaliados quanto ao seu comportamento agronômico em Veranópolis, RS, de julho a novembro de 1997, adotando a tecnologia usualmente recomendada para esta região. As maiores produtividades foram obtidas com os híbridos Shinsei (54,8t/ha, Japonês (53,6t/ha, Astrus (48,6t/ha e Kenzan (44,8t/ha, e o cultivar Brunswick (43,5t/ha. Entretanto, considerando a preferência do mercado por repolhos de 1 a 1,5kg, os melhores materiais foram Saikô, Coração de Boi, Fuyutoyo, Chato de Quintal and Midori, com produtividades da ordem de 32 a 40t/ha.Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata is one of the most important horticultural plants in the northeast region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The objective of the present study was to identify the best cultivar and hybrid of cabbage for this region. Fifteen commercial materials of cabbage, from different distributors and origins, were evaluated for their agronomic behavior in Veranópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, from July to November, 1997, adopting the technology usually recommended for this region. The best productivities were obtained with the hybrids Shinsei (54.8t/ha, Japonês (53.6t/ha, Astrus (48.6t/ha and Kenzan (44.8t/ha, and the cultivar Brunswick (43.5t/ha. However, considering the preference of the market for cabbages of 1 to 1.5kg, the best materials were Saikô, Coração de Boi, Fuyutoyo, Chato de Quintal and Midori, with productivities of the order of 32 to 40t/ha.

  8. 西花蓟马与烟蓟马在紫甘蓝上的实验种群生命表%The life tables of laboratory population of Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci on purple cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健立; 王俊平; 郑长英

    2011-01-01

    为明确外来入侵害虫西花蓟马与本地物种烟蓟马的发育和繁殖的区别,在25℃恒温条件下,组建了西花蓟马与烟蓟马在紫甘蓝上的实验种群生命表。结果显示,西花蓟马在紫甘蓝上的未成熟期为11.55天,显著低于烟蓟马;西花蓟马两性生殖时,雌成虫平均寿命为32.06天,单雌产卵量为125.19粒,孤雌生殖时,雌成虫平均寿命可达43.33天,单雌产卵量上升到246.40粒,而烟蓟马雌成虫平均寿命仅为23.44天,终生可产卵186.06粒;西花蓟马取食紫甘蓝的内禀增长率为0.1543,低于烟蓟马的0.1872;西花蓟马的种群增长趋势指数为72.2456,而烟蓟马为126.2272;西花蓟马在紫甘蓝上的稳定年龄组配中未成熟期所占的比例低于烟蓟马,而成虫期所占的比例相对较高。%In order to compare the development and reproduction between Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci,the laboratory population life tables were studied on purple cabbage at 25℃.The results showed that the immature period of F.occidentalis was significantly shorter than that of T.tabaci.In F.occidentalis population,average lifespan of female adult was 32.06 days and could lay 125.19 eggs when it played gamogenesis,but when the female F.occidentalis played parthenogenesis,it's average lifespan was 43.33 days and could lay 246.40 eggs.The female lifespan of T.tabaci was only 23.44 days,but could lay 186.06 eggs all it's life.The intrinsic rate of natural increase of F.occidentalis(0.1543) was lower than that of T.tabaci(0.1872).The trend index of population of F.occidentalis was 72.2456,and T.tabaci was 126.2272.The rate of immaturity numbers in the age structure of F.occidentalis on the purple cabbage is lower than that of T.tabaci,but the maturity numbers of the former were higher than that of the latter.

  9. Produtividade do repolho utilizando cobertura morta e diferentes intervalos de irrigação com água moderadamente salina Cabbage yield using mulching and different irrigation intervals with moderately saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da irrigação em áreas sob escassez hídrica é imperativo para o incremento da eficiência do uso da água, particularmente em áreas susceptíveis a salinização e a elevadas demandas atmosféricas. Neste estudo avaliou-se o efeito da cobertura morta e de intervalos de irrigação utilizando-se água moderadamente salina sobre a produtividade do repolho e sobre suas variáveis relacionadas, em vale aluvial no semiárido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com 4 repetições, mediante a aplicação de intervalos de irrigação de 12, 24 e 48 h, com utilização de uma fração de lixiviação de 20%, e presença ou ausência de cobertura morta sobre o solo. Verificou-se que as produtividades foram afetadas pelos intervalos de irrigação e pela presença da cobertura morta. A máxima eficiência uso da água foi obtida aplicando-se o intervalo de irrigação de 12 h com cobertura morta, correspondendo a 110,49 Mg ha-1 mm-1, em consequência da menor variação da umidade ao longo do experimento. A relevância da cobertura morta ficou evidenciada para o tratamento com intervalo de irrigação de 48 h, tendendo a controlar as perdas de umidade e manter a produtividade do repolho.The irrigation management in areas under water scarcity is imperative to increase the water use efficiency particularly in areas with salinization risk and high atmospheric demands. In this study, effect of mulching and irrigation intervals was evaluated using moderately saline water on cabbage yield and on its related variables in an alluvial valley in the semiarid. The experimental design was in random blocks using a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with 4 replications, adopting irrigation application intervals of 12, 24 and 48 h, and a leaching fraction of 20%, and considering mulching presence or absence on the soil. It was verified that productivities have been affected by the irrigation interval and by mulching. The

  10. Electron Microscopic Study on Male Sterile CMS96 and Maintainer Line in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜CMS96不育系和保持系电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 徐家炳; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 王永健; 方智远

    2012-01-01

    为了研究大白菜CMS96不育系花药败育机理,采用透射和扫描电镜,观察大白菜CMS96不育系和保持系的花药发育过程、花药和花粉表面结构.透射电镜结果表明,与保持系相比,在减数分裂期,大白菜CMS96不育系绒毡层与花药壁中层分开,不育系花粉母细胞皱缩,形状不规则,空隙较大,严重影响减数分裂正常进行;在单核小孢子时期,小孢子开始液泡化,直至成熟花粉期完全液泡化为空细胞,细胞壁严重萎缩,堆积在一起,最终花粉失去功能,导致败育.扫描电镜结果表明,大白菜CMS96不育系药室内的花粉畸形,花粉粒空瘪,表现为凹陷、扁平等形状,表面纹饰也呈多种不规则形状.花粉囊不开裂,没有花粉散出.初步认为,大白菜CMS96不育系花粉的败育从减数分裂开始到成熟花粉,伴随花粉发育整个过程.大白菜CMS96不育系药室内花粉粒虽具有花粉壁的结构,但扁平、空瘪,重叠堆积在药室壁上,失去了活力,无法散开.%Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques, anther and pollen development, surface of anther and pollen grains were studied in order to obtain differences between CMS96 and maintainer line in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis). Results of transmission electron microscopy showed middle layer and tapetum of CMS96 were separated during meiosis. And early pollen mother cells (PMC) of CMS96 were with irregular shape and many larger gaps. Thus meiosis of PMC was influenced seriously. During mononuclear stage, microspore began to be vacuolated and mature pollens were empty to be seriously in cell wall and piled together leading to pollen grain abortion. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed pollen grains of CMS96 in the anther were abnormal and empty with hollow and flat shape. Pollen veins were irregular. No grains were released because pollen sac closed. Preliminary results showed pollen grains abortion

  11. Effect of Molybdenum on Growth and Cadmium Content in Chinese White Cabbage under Low Cadmium Concentration Medium%钼对低镉水平下小白菜的生长及镉含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振明; 肖艳辉; 何金明; 潘春香

    2015-01-01

    为了探明低浓度镉污染下,增加钼离子浓度后植物对镉的吸收累积状况,为低浓度镉污染土壤修复提供参考.以“四季上海青”小白菜为材料,采用营养液培养的方式,研究了钼对0.1 mg/L 镉水平下小白菜生长、生理指标及镉含量的影响.结果表明:在0.1 mg/L镉浓度培养液中随钼浓度增加,小白菜株高变化不显著,而其地上部鲜重和干重、地下部鲜重和干重、活根系总长度、根投影表面积、活根系总表面积、活根系平均直径、叶绿素a、叶绿素b、叶绿素a+b及类胡萝卜素含量、净光合速率和蒸腾速率、可溶性糖含量、全氮含量等均呈下降趋势,而全钾和全钠含量则有所增加.可见,在0.1 mg/L浓度镉污染土壤上种植小白菜,增加钼肥的施用,会增加小白菜体内镉的累积,增加食用风险.%The objective of this study was to ascertain the status that cadmium was absorbed by Chinese white cabbage in low concentration cadmium and molybdenum supplement medium. The effects of molybdenum ion c oncentratio n (0.05,0.1 mg·L-1)on the growth, cadmium content and physiological indexes under cadmium treatment(0.1 mg·L-1) were studied on the basis of Hoagland nutrition. The results showed no significant difference in plant height by increasing molybdenum concentrations , while fresh weight (F.W)and dry weight (D.W) aboveground and underground, total root length,total project area, total root surfer area,total average diameter, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid contents, net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate had the trend of decreasing, and cadmium content aboveground of Chinese white cabbage had a trend of increasing. With molybdenum concentrations increasing under cadmium treatment, solubility sugar and total nitrogen contents had the trend of reducing, while total kalium and total sodium contents had the trend of increasing. So the increased

  12. Primary Study on Impact of Chitosan Coating to Seedling Rate of Chinese Cabbage%壳聚糖包衣对大白菜种子出苗率的影响研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程季珍; 武峻新; 程伯瑛

    2012-01-01

    Three-year experiment of Chinese cabbage seeds with three specifications of chitosan coating showed: seed with chitosan coating in those years had normal growth, phytotoxicity and increased seedling rate. But considering the relationship of chitosan dosage with seedling rate, seedling rate of the coated seed in 1 ~ 2 storage years, no using of industrial chitosan coating was suggested. When coated seed with aluminum foil bag was kept in storage over 1 year, it was better not to be kept with 0.149 mm chitosan of food level; while available 3.4 ~ 13.6 mg/20 g seed of 0.177 mm chitosan of food level could improve stress and storage resistance of seed.%2003-2005年通过用3种规格的壳聚糖分别包衣大白菜种子进行试验,结果表明,当年包衣种子的幼苗生长正常,无药害,出苗率提高.但结合壳聚糖用量与出苗率之间的关系及包衣种子贮存1~2 a后的出苗率,不宜用工业级壳聚糖包衣大白菜种子;若用铝箔袋贮存包衣种子1a以上,也不宜用0.149 mm食品级壳聚糖,20g种子用3.4~13.6mg的0.177 mm食品级壳聚糖包衣较适用,能提高种子的抗逆性和耐贮性.

  13. 早熟耐热抗病大白菜新品种‘金早58’%A New Early Maturing Chinese Cabbage Cultivar 'Jinzao 58' with Diseases Resistance and Heat Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利民; 柯桂兰

    2012-01-01

    'Jinzao 58' is a new early maturing hybrid Chinese cabbage cultivar with diseases resistance and heat tolerance, it was crossed with new cytoplasm male sterile line 07RC4 as female parent and self-incompatibility line 07S132 as male plant. The plant is semi-erect. The leaf head is short and leaves congruence. The whole growing stage is about 58 days, average single head is 1.6 kg, and yield is 40 - 45 t·hm2. This cultivar is easy heading and leaf head is tight. It has good quality, high resistance to mildews, viruses, black rot and extensive adaptability. It is suitable to be cultivated in summer and early autumn.%‘金早58’系以新型胞质雄性不育系07RC4作母本,白交不亲和系07S132作父本配制的早熟、耐热、抗病大白菜一代杂种。植株半直立,叶球矮桩叠抱。生长期58d,单球质量1.6kg,产量40~45t·hm-2。成球性好,叶球紧实,品质优良,抗霜霉病,高抗病毒病和黑腐病,适应性广。适宜夏季和秋季早熟栽培。

  14. 紫菜薹核基因雄性不育系的创制与利用%Breeding and Utilization of the Genetic Male Sterile Line in Purple Stalk Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 娄广学

    2011-01-01

    以复等位基因遗传的白菜核基因雄性不育系00S107为不育源,采用连续回交转育同时测交筛选基因型的方法,向紫菜薹自交系XA500中转育核不育基因,育成了园艺学性状与XA500相近,不育株率和不育度均达到100%的紫菜薹雄性不育系GMS500.用该不育系配成的杂交组合整齐一致,园艺学性状优异,单位面积产量显著高于对照品种'紫婷11号'.%In order to solve the problems in the transfer and utilization of genie male sterile line in purple stalk Chinese cabbage, '00S107' which is a multiple allele inherited genetic male sterile line was used as a source of male sterility in Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis var. Purpurca Hort. Methods of crossing and backcrossing were applied to transfer the male sterility to a male fertile line' XA500' - A new genetic male sterile line 'GMS500' with 100% of male sterile plants was obtained, which was similar to 'XA500' in horticultural characteristics. An excellent hybridized combination was developed, which is uniform and superior to 'Ziting 11' in yield.

  15. Research Antifungal Activity on Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria from Traditional Sour Cabbage%传统酸菜中具有抗真菌特性乳酸菌素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传娟; 双全; 栗永乐; 萨如拉; 桑木信辅; 琢田爱

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which isolated from the sour cabbage juice prepared by herdsman in the east Inner Mogolia Region, were determined by Plate punch diffusion method, and the extracellulary bacteriocins of one screening strain was partial purified by gel filtration Sephadex G-15, and its biochemical characteristics were assessed in vitro. The results showed that strain S1-4 of LAB, which was screened out from 84 tested strains, had a broad spectrum antibacterial fungi property. Purified extracellulary bacteriocins from strain S1-4 was characterised as a proteinaceous substance. This bacteriocins compound, molecular mass ranged from 6.5 kDa to 8 kDa, has thermal stability and acid tolerance with an optimum antibacterial ability at pH 4.0.%通过平板打孔扩散法测定从内蒙古东部地区传统酸菜汁中分离的乳酸菌(LAB)的抑菌能力,再用葡聚糖凝胶G-15对筛选乳酸菌的胞外细菌素进行分离及特性研究。结果显示,84株供试乳酸菌中筛选出1株具有广谱抗真菌能力的乳酸菌S1-4。该乳酸菌所产生的胞外抑菌素属蛋白类物质,具有热稳定和耐酸特性,在pH4.0时抑菌效果最佳,其分子量约为6.5KDa~8kDa。

  16. Effects of Controlled-release N Fertilizers on Maize and Cabbage Growth%控释氮肥对玉米和大白菜生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安勋; 廖宗文

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the controlled-release character of controlled-release N fertilizer. [ Method] Effects of con-trolled-release N fertilizers on the growth of maize and Chinese' cabbage and soil N content were studied through a field experiment. [Result] All controlled-release N fertilizers were basal applied,which were better than conventional fertilizer used,and the same as more 10% N used. And corn biological yield were 8.8% and 5.2% higher respectively. Controlled-release effect of PK were better than that of MFSU-Xin. PK and MFSU-Xin could significantly increase relative fertilizer efficiency by 89.2% and 53. 2% respectively. [Conclusion] Controlled-release N fertilizer increased soil N and it could provide more N to future crop.%[目的]为了研究控释氮肥的控释性能.[方法]通过田间试验,研究2种控释氮肥在玉米和大白菜上的施用效果和对土壤氮素养分的影响.[结果]控释肥一次施入肥效明显地优于常规施肥,与多追施10%氯效果相近,玉米生物产量分别比常规施氮增加8.8%和5.2%,PK包膜尿素的控释效果比MFSU-Xin包膜尿素好.控释肥可明显提高氮肥的利用率,PK和MFSU-Xin控释肥利用率分别比常施肥提高89.2%和53.2%.[结论]控释肥可以增加土壤后效,为下季作物提供较多氮素.

  17. 结合光谱图像技术和SAM分类法的甘蓝中杂草识别研究%Research on Identification of Cabbages and Weeds Combining Spectral Imaging Technology and SAM Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖琴; 张水发; 曹阳; 赵会义; 党长青

    2015-01-01

    Weeds automatic identification is the key technique and also the bottleneck for implementation of variable spraying and precision pesticide.Therefore,accurate,rapid and non-destructive automatic identification of weeds has become a very important research direction for precision agriculture.Hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture the hyperspectral images of cab-bage seedlings and five kinds of weeds such as pigweed,barnyard grass,goosegrass,crabgrass and setaria with the wavelength ranging from 1 000 to 2 500 nm.In ENVI,by utilizing the MNF rotation to implement the noise reduction and de-correlation of hyperspectral data and reduce the band dimensions from 256 to 11,and extracting the region of interest to get the spectral library as standard spectra,finally,using the SAM taxonomy to identify cabbages and weeds,the classification effect was good when the spectral angle threshold was set as 0.1 radians.In HSI Analyzer,after selecting the training pixels to obtain the standard spectrum,the SAM taxonomy was used to distinguish weeds from cabbages.Furthermore,in order to measure the recognition accuracy of weeds quantificationally,the statistical data of the weeds and non-weeds were obtained by comparing the SAM classi-fication image with the best classification effects to the manual classification image.The experimental results demonstrated that, when the parameters were set as 5-point smoothing,0-order derivative and 7-degree spectral angle,the best classification result was acquired and the recognition rate of weeds,non-weeds and overall samples was 80%,97. 3% and 96. 8% respectively.The method that combined the spectral imaging technology and the SAM taxonomy together took full advantage of fusion information of spectrum and image.By applying the spatial classification algorithms to establishing training sets for spectral identification, checking the similarity among spectral vectors in the pixel level,integrating the advantages of spectra and images

  18. Effect of Se,Zn and Mo on Yield and Contents of Nutrient Elements and Selenium and Cadmium of Potato and Cabbage on the Loess Plateau%硒锌钼对黄土高原马铃薯和小白菜产量及营养元素与硒镉含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建伟; 王朝辉; 毛晖; 赵护兵; 昝亚玲; 李孟华

    2012-01-01

    黄土高原旱地土壤微量元素硒锌钼潜在缺乏,不仅影响农作物产量,还降低农产品的矿物营养品质,研究施用硒锌钼肥料对该地区作物生长及可食部分营养元素含量的影响具有重要意义.通过田间试验,研究了硒锌钼肥单独土施、硒锌肥配施、硒锌钼肥配施对马铃薯和小白菜产量及营养元素和硒镉含量的影响.结果表明:硒肥提高了马铃薯块茎和小白菜叶片硒含量,分别由对照的0.02 mg· kg-1和0.09 mg· kg-1提高到1.51~2.15 mg·kg-1和13.03~19.44 mg·kg-1,钼肥提高了马铃薯块茎和小白菜叶片钼含量,分别由对照的0.43 mg· kg-1和2.3 mg· kg-1提高到1.03~1.16 mg·kg-1和17.7~19.9 mg·kg-1,单施与配施处理间无显著差异.锌肥土施或锌与硒、钼肥配合土施不但使小白菜叶片中的锌含量由对照的21.0 mg·kg-1显著提高到48.1~68.4 mg· kg-1,还使镉含量显著降低50%以上;施锌对马铃薯块茎的锌含量无显著影响.硒锌钼肥单施或配施均对马铃薯和小白菜产量及氮、磷、钾、硫、钙、镁、铁、锰、铜、硼含量无显著影响.因此,在黄土高原旱地,硒钼配合土施可同时提高马铃薯块茎的硒钼含量,硒锌钼配合土施可同时提高小白菜叶片的硒锌钼含量.%On the dryland of the Loess Plateau in China, deficiency of Se, Zn and Mo not only impacts crop yields, but also reduces the essential nutrient concentrations in agricultural products. Therefore, in order to improve the crop yield and its nutritional quality, field experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of separately soil-applied selenium(Se), zinc(Zn) and molybdenum (Mo) fertilizer or their combination on the yield and concentrations of mineral nutrient, Se and cadmium (Cd) of potato and cabbage. Obtained results showed that soil Se application significantly increased Se concentrations in potato tubers and cabbage leaves from 0.02 mg·kg-1 and 0.09 mg·kg-1

  19. 构建结球甘蓝K IN基因在叶绿体基因组定点表达的载体%Construction of Chloroplast Site-specific Integration Expression Vector Harboring KIN Gene of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶鹏; 黄小云; 李必元; 王五宏; 岳智臣; 雷娟利; 钟新民

    2015-01-01

    获得叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体是开展结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化研究的第一步。本研究克隆了CMS结球甘蓝的抗冻蛋白K IN基因,发现该基因定位于结球甘蓝的2号染色体上。通过构建中间载体pKA和pAI,将K IN基因的编码区构建到了CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组定点整合表达载体pIKAA中。该载体以TrnA 和TrnI基因片段作为同源整合片段,能整合到CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组中。此外,该载体是双顺反子形式的,即在转录的单条mRNA上,同时包含了K IN和aadA 基因编码区。将pIKAA转化到大肠杆菌中,结果显示转化有该载体的大肠杆菌能够在含有氨苄青霉素(AMP)和壮观霉素(SPEC)的固体LB平板中生长。研究结果可为后期CMS结球甘蓝叶绿体基因组的遗传转化体系的建立奠定基础。%To construct chloroplast site-specific integration expression vector is the first step for carrying on genetic transformation of cabbage chloroplast genome (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.). In this study, antifree-ze protein KIN gene was cloned from cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), and was located in 2 chromosome in B. oleracea genome. By constructing the intermediate vector pKA and pAI, coding region of KIN gene was inserted into the site-specific integration expression vector (pIKAA) of CMS cabbage chloroplast. Due to the fragments of TrnA and TrnI used as homologous integration fragments, the pIKAA could target to chloroplast genomes of CMS cabbage. In addition, the pIKAA vector was bicistronic. The single transcribed mRNA from the pIKAA vector contained simultaneously coding regions of KIN and aadA gene. The vector was transformed into E. coli that can grow in LB containing ampicillin and spectinomycin. The study might lay essential basis in establishment of genetic transformation system of chloroplast genome of CMS cabbage.

  20. 菌株Stenotrophomonas sp.ZS-S-01去除菜心中残留高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药的作用%Effects of Stenotrophomonas sp.Strain ZS-S-01 on the Degradation of β-Cypermethrin and Fenvalerate Residue on Flowering Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少华; 耿鹏; 胡美英; 肖盈; 刘明智

    2011-01-01

    通过室内盆栽和田间小区试验,评价降解菌株Stenotrophomonas sp.ZS-S-01去除菜心中残留高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药的效果.室内盆栽试验结果表明,处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯的降解率分别为71.1%和65.9%,残留量分别为0.28和0.35 mg/kg,降解半衰期(T1/2)分别为26.3和29.2 h,与对照相比,T1/2分别缩短了57.2和34.1 h.田间小区试验结果表明,处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯的降解率分别为63.2%和54.0%,残留量分别为0.35和0.46 mg/kg,T1/2分别为27.7和32.1 h,与对照相比,T1/2分别缩短了34.2和15.4 h.可见,降解菌株ZS-S-01可有效去除菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯农药残留.处理72 h后,菜心中高效氯氰菊酯和氰戊菊酯残留量均低于国家叶菜类蔬菜中最大残留限量(MRLs),显示该菌具有进一步开发的潜力.%The effects of Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain ZS-S-01on the degradation of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate residue on flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ) were investigated by pot and field plot experiments, respectively. The results from the pot experiments showed that the residue of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese cabbage treated with strain ZS-S-01 were reduced by 71. 1% and 65. 9% after 72 h, leaving 0. 28 and 0. 35 mg/kg. Furthermore, the half lives ( Tl/2) of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate treated with strain ZS-S-01 were 26. 3 and 29. 2 h, reduced by 57. 2 and 34. 1 h compared with the control. The results from the field plot experiments showed that the residue of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese cabbage treated with strain ZS-S-01 were reduced by 63. 2% and 54. 0% after 72 h, leaving 0. 35 and 0. 46 mg/kg. The Tl/2 of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate were 27. 7 and 32. 1 h, reduced by 34. 2 and 15. 4 h compared with the control. The 72-hour residual values of β-cypermethrin and fenvalerate on flowering Chinese

  1. Efeito de métodos de irrigação e do uso de cobertura vegetal sobre o cultivo de repolho em São Luís-MA Effect of irrigation methods and mulching on the cabbage in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoel G de Moura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de desenvolver mecanismos que minimizem o estresse da cultura de repolho (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. provocado pela alta temperatura do ar em São Luís, MA, instalou-se um experimento em um Argissolo Arênico, no qual foram testados irrigação por aspersão em dois períodos de irrigação diários (às 12 e 18 horas, com e sem cobertura vegetal sobre o solo, e irrigação por sulco com e sem cobertura vegetal sobre o solo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições. Na irrigação por aspersão, o horário de irrigação e o uso de cobertura vegetal no solo não afetaram o desenvolvimento das cabeças de repolho (compacidade, comprimento do coração e a massa fresca. Na irrigação por sulco, a compacidade e a massa das cabeças de repolho foram significativamente afetados pelo uso de cobertura no solo, sendo que, nesse sistema a ausência de cobertura no solo resultou em repolhos com cabeça pouco firme e baixa produção de massa fresca (300.9 g, o que originou uma baixa produtividade (7.5 Mg.ha-1. Nas condições do experimento, a irrigação por sulco em solo coberto e a irrigação por aspersão, em solo coberto ou não, possibilitaram melhor desenvolvimento das plantas de repolho.In order to develop techniques that minimize heat stress of cabbage crop (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. provoked by high air temperatures in São Luís (MA, Brazil, an experiment was carried out in a sandy Alfisol. We compared irrigation by sprinkler in two daily periods of irrigation (12:00 and 18:00 hours and with and without mulching with furrow irrigation with and without mulching in a completely randomized design with six replications. The schedule of irrigation and the use of mulch didn't affect the development of the cabbage heads in the irrigation by sprinkler treatments, as these factors didn't significantly affect the compactness, the length of the heart or the mass of the cabbage heads

  2. Mixed ensiling quality of maize straw with waste cabbage and biogas production potential analysis%玉米秸秆与废弃白菜的混合青贮品质及产沼气能力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任海伟; 王聪; 窦俊伟; 李志忠; 李金平; 孙永明

    2016-01-01

    Growing energy consumption and diminishing fossil fuel supplies have encouraged increased research on renewable energy sources and development of new energy production processes. Biogas production from agricultural biomass is of growing importance as it offers considerable environmental benefits and alleviates the environmental pollution. Maize straw (MS), a substantial source of lignocellulosic biomass is the prevailing material producing biogas for large and medium sized biogas plants because of abundant cellulose and hemicellulose. In the majority of cases, the MS collected after grain harvest are available once per year in China, a strongly collection seasonal character entails preservation and storage to be fed for biogas plant continuously. Hence low-loss preservation of MS is essential for economical and sustainable use of biogas crops for anaerobic digestion throughout the year. Generally, the MS were wilted and dried to yellow stalks and collected after corn ears harvested in autumn. As a result, the free sugars are consumed, the water evaporates during wilting and field drying, giving rise to fail to achieve the demand of silage. On the other hand, a large sum of vegetable wastes, which contain a mass of water and sugars, often give rise to environment pollution, such as leaf vegetable. This study put forth assume of trans-seasonal mixed storage of MS and cabbage waste (CW) by silage theory on the basis of strong complementary in terms of physical structure, nutrient content and moisture content. The objective of the current work was to explore its feasibility for mixed silage of dried MS and CW and evaluate the effects of different mixed ratio (29:19, 27:21, 25:23, 23:25, 21:27 and 19:29) of MS and CW on silage quality, including four aspects of sensory quality, chemical composition, fermentation quality and microbial numbers. Moreover, the appropriate storage condition was selected by the dynamic analysis of mixed silage quality. The results indicate

  3. A New Mini Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid-‘Jingchunwa No. 3’%小株型大白菜新品种京春娃3号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余阳俊; 张凤兰; 张德双; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 徐家炳; 汪维红; 苏同兵

    2015-01-01

    ‘Jingchunwa No. 3’ is a new mini Chinese cabbage hybrid bred by crossing cytoplasmic male sterile line CMS10152 with self imcompatible line 09219. It has flat-topped head and deep yellow inner leaves. It takes about 55 days from transplanting to harvest. It is of small plant type. The plant is erect with dark green outer leaf. Its head shape is cylindrical and flat-topped with 21.9 cm of head height and 10.2 cm of head diameter. Its inner leaves are deep yellow in color. Its single head weight is 0.7 kg. The yield in open field is about 90-105 t·hm-2. It is resistant to virus, downy mildew and black rot. Its tolerance to late bolting is strong. Its quality is good. It fits to transplant in high density of 10 000-12 000 plants per 667 m2. It has been extended to Beijing, and Hebei, Gansu, Yunnan, Hubei Provinces.%京春娃3号是由细胞质雄性不育系CMS10152与自交不亲和系09219配制而成的叠抱型深黄心小株型大白菜一代杂种。早熟,定植后55 d(天)收获,株型小,较直立,外叶深绿色,叶球筒形,叠抱,球内叶深黄色,球高21.9 cm,球直径10.2 cm,单球质量0.7 kg,667 m2产净菜6000~7000 kg。抗病毒病、霜霉病和黑腐病,耐抽薹性较强,品质佳。适于密植,每667 m2可定植10000~12000株。已在北京、河北、甘肃、云南、湖北等地推广种植。

  4. Identification of non-heading Chinese cabbage cultivars and lines resistant to disease caused by Colletotrichum sp.%不结球白菜品种(株系)对炭疽病抗性的鉴定与筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建营; 侯喜林; 张玉明; 张正光; 郑小波

    2001-01-01

    The method for identif ying resistance of non-heading Chinese cabbage to Colletotrichum higginsianum by artificial inoculation of the plant seedlings and screening of the resistant plant varieties and lines by the fast and reliable method were reported.The critical technique of the method included inoculation of seedlings at two-leaf stage with a spore suspension of 1×106 spores*mL-1,and incubation of the inoculated plants in the controlled condition(25 ℃,100% relative humidity)for 24 h and in the green house(25 ℃)for 7 days,respectively,followed by examination of resistance levels . This method allowed for aquick identification of resistance levels of different varieties and lines.Resistance identified by the method was consistent with tha t identified by the traditional method that uses bigger seedlings(at five-leaf stage)and mature plants in the fields.Using this fast and reliable method,four varieties of 26 varieties and lines tested were scored as high resistance.It is suggested that these resistant varieties be used in the agricultural production and breeding.%报道不结球白菜对炭疽病(Colletotrichum higginsianum) 抗性的苗期鉴定方法和抗病品种(株系)的筛选结果。在2片真叶期,以1×106个·mL -1孢子浓度喷雾接种,25 ℃、RH>100%保湿24 h,25 ℃光照培育7 d,可快速地将不同抗性的品种(株系)鉴别出来。用该方法所获得的品种(株系)抗性鉴定结果与田间苗期(5 片真叶期)和成株期抗性鉴定结果基本一致。将该方法与田间抗性鉴定相结合,从26个品种(株系) 中筛选出4个高抗材料,可供生产上使用或作为抗病育种的抗源材料。

  5. Analysis on Seed Vigor Testing of Chinese Cabbage Base on UV Absorbance Method and Electrical Conductivity Method%紫外吸收法、电导率法检验大白菜种子活力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春香; 隋铭; 胡畔; 赵卫星

    2013-01-01

    通过人工老化种子和不同年代种子具有的活力不同,以发芽指数为活力参考标准来探索种子浸泡液电导率测定法和紫外吸收测定法是否适合大白菜种子活力的快速检测.结果表明:大白菜种子紫外区随着波长的缩短吸收值增大,但经玻璃比色杯滤过后会在286 nm下显示吸收峰,随着种子活力的降低286 nm下的OD值呈上升趋势,对发芽率高于85%的种子适用,而对于活力过低的种子检验不可靠;随着种子活力的降低电导率呈上升趋势,但对活力差异较小的种子间检验不可靠.因此,对发芽率合格范围内的种子可以根据286 nm(玻璃比色皿)紫外吸收值评价大白菜种子活力的高低,其他的种子可参考电导率值比较种子活力.%UV absorbance method and electrical conductivity method of seed soaking solution were investigated to find which one is fit for quick seed vigor test using artificial aged chinese cabbage seeds and natural aged seeds with different seed vigor.The results shows that seed soaking solution absorption value is increasing with the shorten of wavelength in quartz cup,has a absorption peak on 286 nm wavelength in glass cup.The OD values of 286 nm absorption is increasing with the decline of seed vigor in the region of germinating rate over 85%,this trend is unfit for seeds germinating rate below 85% ;however elcetrical conductivity method is fit for low seed vigor testing,but when seeds have relatively little difference on vigor level,this method is unreliable.So as for as qualified germinating rate seeds is concerned,286 nm absorbance peak testing method is fit for seed vigor testing,while electrical conductivity testing is fit for others.

  6. 不结球白菜新品种速俊028的选育%A New Non-heading Chinese Cabbage F1 Hybrid-‘Sujun 028’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志银; 张斌; 闻凤英; 刘晓晖; 罗智敏; 王超楠; 李梅

    2014-01-01

    ‘Sujun 028’is a new non-heading Chinese cabbage F1 hybrid bred by crossing 2 self-incompatible lines 08-411-5s and 07-N2 kangre-3s.It grows fast with beautiful plant type.It is about 20 cm in height and about 25 cm in width.The leaf is glossy green and the petiole is short without wax powder.It is early maturing.In summer and autumn sowing,it takes only 20 days to bean waist.It can be planted with appropriate density.The best planting density is 8 cm in row spacing and 15 cm in line spacing.It is highly resistant to virus disease,downy mildew and resistant to soft rot.It has wide adaptability,and is suitable for summer and autumn cultivation all over the country.For winter and spring cultivation,it can be grown in open fields in the southern areas of the Yangtze River,but in the norther areas of the Yangtze River it has to be planted in protected fields.%速俊028是由两个自交不亲和系08-411-5s和07-N2抗热-3s配制而成的不结球白菜一代杂种。株型美观,株高20cm左右,开展度25cm左右;叶色亮绿,叶柄较短、勺状、碧绿无蜡粉,基部头大、束腰;早熟,生长速度快,夏秋季播种20d(天)后开始束腰;可适当密植,最佳种植密度为株距8cm,行距15cm;高抗病毒病、霜霉病,抗软腐病;适应性广,全国各地夏秋季均可种植,长江以南地区冬春季可露地栽培,长江以北地区秋冬季和冬春季需保护地种植。

  7. Study on breeding and utilization of genetic male sterile line in dwarf Chinese cabbage%矮脚黄白菜核基因雄性不育系的创制与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊; 杨宁; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    A directional transfer program was designed by using multiple allele inherited genetic male-sterile line AB01 and its temporary maintainer line B01 as source of male sterility, and recurrent backcrossing was employed to transfer botanical traits, while the genotype was identified through test cross. Following the procedure, the male sterile gene was successfully transferred to the target parent "Y", the inbred line of Jinguan in dwarf Chinese cabbage. A new male sterile line GMS401, which is similar to Y on botanical traits with 100% male sterility and 100% male sterile plants, was bred. The results showed that GMS401 as the female parent, the hybridized combinations GMS401×D1 and GMS401× D2 were finally obtained and they were excellent in horticultural characters and uniformity. In addition, the yield of the combinations was apparently higher than that of CK.%以复等位基因遗传的早熟大白菜雄性不育“两用系”AB01和“临时保持系”B01为试材,设计定向转育方案,采用连续回交转育性状的同时,测交筛选基因型的方法,向源自金冠的矮脚黄白菜自交系Y中转育雄性不育基因,育成了不育株率和不育度均为100%、园艺学性状与自交系Y相近的矮脚黄白菜核基因雄性不育系GMS401.结果表明,用GMS401试配的杂交组合(GMS401×D1)和(GMS401×D2)整齐度高,园艺学性状优异,产量显著高于对照品种南京矮脚黄和抗病矮脚黄.

  8. 甘蓝脯氨酸脱氢酶基因克隆与RNAi表达载体构建%Cloning of ProDH gene in cabbage and construction of the RNAi vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜; 黄韫宇; 冯洁; 刘莉莎; 杨鹏; 赵冰; 郭仰东

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference(RNAi) targeting ProDH suppresses the degradation of proline, and may increase the resistance to drought and salt stress.In this assay, full length cDNA of ProDH was cloned with RT-PCR and RACE methods from total RNA of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.var.capitata L.).The sequence analysis indicated that it contained 1 719 nucleotides coding for 498 amino acid residues.The ProDH gene and its deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of sequence homology with the AtERD5, BnProDH, BrProDH and AsProDH.The cDNA fragment was chosen to insert into plant vector pFGC-1008 at forward and reverse orientations to construct the recombinant RNAi vector.The RNA interference vector pFGC-gPDH was constructed successfully by restricting endonucleasa digestion and sequencing, which would provide a construct for further functional study for drought resistance of plant.%通过RT-PCR、同源克隆和RACE等方法由甘蓝总RNA扩增得到了甘蓝脯氨酸脱氢酶基因cDNA全长(1 719 bp),其中包含了一个1 497 bp的完整开放阅读框,编码498个氨基酸,与已发表的十字花科植物P加DH基因均具有85%以上的同源性.在此基础上设计并克隆干扰片段,利用酶切连接的方法将该基因干扰片段正反向插入到载体pFGG1008的GUS内含子两侧,经限制性内切酶酶切和测序鉴定,证明植物表达载体pFGC-gPDH已构建成功,为进一步研究该基因的功能创造了条件.

  9. A New Crack-tolerant Cabbage Variety-‘Qingnong 55’%耐裂球早熟甘蓝新品种青农55的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙朝辉; 孙令强; 孙旭亮; 陈丽萍; 程斐

    2015-01-01

    ‘Qingnong 55’ is a new crack-tolerant cabbage variety developed by crossing cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line A05-1-3-15 as female parent with self-compatible line Heyin-1 as male parent. It is of early maturity. It takes 50-55 days from transplantation to harvest. Its head crack rate is less than 0.5% within 15 days after its maturity. The outer leaves are about 12 pieces and shining green in color. Its head is round and about 16-18 cm in length. The inner leaves are light yellow in color and taste sweet and crispy. Its central axis is extremely short,about 1/2 of the head height. The average single head weight in initial harvest period is about 1.2-1.4 kg. The total yield can reach 67.5 t·hm-2 for open field in autumn and over 75 t·hm-2 for simple plastic tunnels in spring. This variety is resistant to black rot and tolerant to downy mildew. It is suitable to be planted in northern China in spring in protected land and in autumn in open fields.%青农55是以耐裂球早熟 ogura 雄性不育系 A05-1-3-15为母本,以耐裂球早熟自交系荷引-1为父本配制成的耐裂球甘蓝一代杂种。早熟,定植后50~55 d(天)成熟,成熟后15 d(天)内裂球率小于0.5%。外叶12片左右,叶球圆形,球高16~18 cm。球外叶两叶叠抱,绿色,油亮,内叶淡黄色,口感甜脆,中心柱长度仅为叶球高度的1/2左右,采收初期平均单球质量1.2~1.4 kg。秋季露地栽培每667 m2净菜产量4500 kg,春季保护地栽培每667 m2净菜产量可达5000 kg以上。高抗黑腐病,耐霜霉病。适宜北方地区春季保护地、秋季露地早熟栽培。

  10. Breeding of Kaishu No.15, a New Disease-resistant Chinese Cabbage Cultivar with Compact Head%抗病叠抱型大白菜新品种开蔬15号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪敏; 冯健起; 刘素景

    2013-01-01

    Kaishu No.15 was bred according to the production and market demands of Chinese cabbage, by crossing two self-incompatible lines Zheng×An-98 and b-c-06. It was late-maturing with the growth period of 85 days. Its head was large, compact, stocky and spherical. The plant height was 45 cm, and the plant breadth was 68 cm. The outer leaves were light green, and the stem of the outer leaves was white and thick. The interior leaves were white and soft, with less fiber, good taste and high quality. Its individual net weight was 4-4.5 kg, and the yield was 6 500-8 000 kg/667 m2. It was resistant to downy mildew, and highly resistant to virus disease (TuMV), soft rot and black rot. It possessed high yield, good storage resistance and excellent bolting resistance, and it was suitable for cultivation in Beijing, Liaoning, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Henan and Shaanxi and so on.%  开疏15号是根据大白菜生产和市场需求,用自交不亲和系郑×安-98和自交不亲和系b-c-06配制而成的晚熟大白菜新品种。生育期85 d,平头叠抱型,植株平展,叶球矮桩头球形、较大,株高45 cm,开展度68 cm×68 cm,外叶浅绿色,帮白厚,单株净菜质量4.0~4.5 kg,667 m2净菜产量6500~8000 kg。心叶白色,软叶率高,纤维少,口感好,品质优。抗霜霉病,高抗病毒病(TuMV)、软腐病、黑腐病。丰产性、耐贮藏性好,不易抽薹。适宜在北京、辽宁、天津、河北、山东、河南及陕西等地区推广种植。

  11. 15N Isotope Techniques for Estimating Effects of Urea-N Fertilizer Application Rate on Yieids and Nutrient Contents of Pakchoi Cabbage and Asparagus Lettuce and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yu-Iin; ZHENG Sheng-xian; RONG Xiang-min; LIU Qiang; FAN Mei-rong

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment combined with15 N isotope techniques was conducted to evaluate effects of the varying rates of urea.N fertilizer application on yields,quailty,and nitrogen use efficiency(NUE)of pakchoi cabbage(Brassica chinensis L.)and asparagus lettuce(Lactuca saiva L.).15 N-labbled urea(5.35 15 N atom%)was added to pots with 6.5kg soil of 0.14,0.18,0.21,0.25,and 0.29 g N/kg soil.and applied in two splits:60 percenl as basel dressing in the mixture and 40 percent as toodressing.The fresh yields of two vegetable species increased with the increasing input of urea-N,but there was a significant quadratic relationship between the dose of urea-N fertilizer application and the fresh yields.Whan the dosage of urea-N fertilizer reached a certain value,nitrate readily accumulated in the two kinds of plants due to the decrease in NR activity;furthermore,there was a linear nagative correlation between nitrate content and NR activity.With the increasing input of urea-N.ascorbic acid and soluble sugar initially increased,declined after a while,and crude fiber rapidly decreased too.Total absorbed N(TAN).N derived from fertilizer(Ndff),and N derived from soil(Ndfs)increased,and the ratio of Ndff and TAN also increased.but the ratio of Ndfs and TAN as well as NUE of urea-N fertilizer decreased with the increasing input of urea-N.These results suggested that the increasing application of labeled N fertilizer led lo the increase in unlabeled N(namely,Ndfs)presumably due to"added nitrogen interaction"(ANI),the decease in NUE of urea-N fertilizer may be due to excess fertilization beyond the levels of plant requirements and the ANI.and the decrease jn the two vege table yields with the increasing addition of urea-N possibly because the excess accumulation of nitrate reached a toxic level.

  12. Uso de esterco bovino e húmus de minhoca na produção de repolho híbrido Utilization of cattle manure and earthworm compost on hybrid cabbage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P. Oliveira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se a eficácia do esterco bovino e húmus de minhoca na produção de repolho, híbrido Matsukaze, em experimento realizado no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFPB, Areia, de 10/12/97 a 05/03/98. Os tratamentos utilizados foram 20; 30; 40; 50 e 60 t/ha de esterco bovino e 10; 15; 20; 25 e 30 t/ha de húmus de minhoca e tratamento testemunha (sem matéria orgânica. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com onze tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial (5 x 2 + 1, em quatro repetições. Foram avaliados o diâmetro longitudinal, transversal, índice de formato e compacidade da cabeça, peso médio e produção total de cabeças. A dose de 46,0 t/ha de esterco bovino e 29,0 t/ha de húmus de minhoca resultaram em maiores diâmetros longitudinais na cabeça de repolho (13 e 12 cm, respectivamente. A dose de 47,0 t/ha de esterco bovino e 20,0 t/ha de humus de minhoca proporcionaram a formação de cabeças com maiores diâmetros transversais (13 e 11 cm, respectivamente. Todas as doses de esterco bovino induziram a formação de cabeças mais uniformes e compactas, enquanto a dose de 20 t/ha de húmus de minhoca propiciou a formação de cabeças desuniformes de baixa aceitação comercial. A dose de 41,0 t/ha de esterco bovino promoveu máximo peso médio (900 g e máxima produtividade (47,0 t/ha de cabeças, enquanto as doses de 27,0 e 29,0 t/ha de húmus foram responsáveis pelo peso médio máximo (700 g e máxima produtividade (38,0 t/ha, respectivamente.The use of bovine manure and earthworm compost were compared in cabbage production, hybrid Matsukaze, at the Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil, from December 1997 to March, 1998. The treatments consisted of 20; 30; 40; 50 and 60 t/ha of bovine manure and 10; 15; 20; 25 and 30 t/ha of earthworm compost and a treatment without organic matter (control. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with eleven treatments arranged in a factorial

  13. Uso de antibióticos e leveduras para controle da podridão-mole em couve-chinesa Use of antibiotics and yeasts for controlling Chinese cabbage soft rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRF Mello

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A podridão-mole causada por Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc pode ocorrer em plantios de couve-chinesa (Brassica pekinensis com até 67% de incidência. O trabalho visou avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de Pcc a bactericidas, o efeito de Mycoshield® nas dosagens de 3,0 e 1,5 g L-1, e de leveduras a 10(8 cel/mL no controle da doença em casa de vegetação e em campo. As plantas foram pulverizadas com Mycoshield® (oxitetraciclina 20% e leveduras (Rh1 e Rh2 (Rhodotorula spp. e Sc1 (Saccharomyces cerevisae sete dias após o transplante, e inoculadas por picada com o isolado Pcc120, sete dias e 12 h após o tratamento, respectivamente. Em todos os experimentos foram avaliados os componentes epidemiológicos da doença. In vitro, 40 isolados de Pcc testados apresentaram resistência ao sulfato de cobre e sensibilidade a oxitetraciclina, estreptomicina, oxitetraciclina+estreptomicina e oxitetraciclina+sulfato de cobre, todos na concentração de 0,2 g L-1. Seis isolados de Pcc foram mais inibidos por Mycoshield® do que por Agri-Micina® (oxitetraciclina 1,5% + estreptomicina 15% ambos a 3,0 g L-1, não sendo inibidos por Kasumin® (casugamicina 2% (2,0 mL L-1. Em casa de vegetação, Mycoshield® (3,0 g L-1 reduziu a severidade e o índice de doença em até 47,4 e 19%; já a levedura Sc1 reduziu a severidade da doença e a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD em até 27,6 e 39,3%, respectivamente, enquanto Rh1 reduziu a AACPD em até 33,5%. Em campo, Mycoshield® reduziu o índice de doença (14,4% a severidade (15,5% e a AACPD (28,9%; enquanto que Rh1 reduziu o índice de doença (8,8% e Sc1 reduziu a AACPD (15,7%. Conclui-se que o Mycoshield® e as leveduras apresentaram baixa eficiência para controle da podridão-mole da couve-chinesa em campo.The soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc may occur in Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis plantations presenting till 67% of incidence

  14. Studies on Anther Development of 4x Sexual Polyploidization Male Sterile Lines in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage%有性多倍化白菜四倍体雄性不育花药发育的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟程; 田鑫; 张蜀宁; 张文华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对有性多倍化雄性不育系花药的败育时期和方式进行研究,为雄性不育基础研究提供理论依据.[方法]以同源四倍体白菜为母本,以秋水仙素诱导筛选出含2n配子较高的二倍体为父本杂交获得四倍体不育系及其保持系为材料,采用常规石蜡切片法对其花药进行解剖学研究,观察其花药的败育时期.[结果]退化的雄蕊可分为4种类型,均败育于孢原细胞分化期,始终处在孢原细胞期,无绒毡层与花粉母细胞的分化,不形成药室,属孢子体败育型.[结论]有性多倍化白菜四倍体雄性不育的4种类型都是孢子体败育型.%[Objective]Cytological investigation on microsporogenesis of male sterility of sexual polyploidizationmale sterile lines in non-heading Chinese cabbage were studied to provide theoretical basis for the male sterility. [Method]Anther anatomical structure and development were observed using a light microscope through paraffin slices on the production of Ax CMS by sexual polyploidization and its maintainer line in Chinese cabbage. Abortion stage of 4x CMS was observed. [Jiesult] There were four types in the degraded stamens. The abortion of stamen occurred at the stage of archesporial cell differentiation,at which there was no differentiation of fibrous layer,tapetum and microspore mother cell. It belonged to non-sporange cytoplasmic male sterility. [Conclusion]Four types of the 4x sexual polyploidization CMS lines in non-heading Chinese cabbage were sporophyte abortion.

  15. Effects of Water-fertilizer Coupling on Physiological Characteristics and Yield of Baby Cabbage(Brassica pekinensis) in Hexi Oasis%水肥耦合对河西绿洲娃娃菜生理特性及产量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴子孝; 陈修斌; 许耀照; 李翊华

    2016-01-01

    Using split plot design, a field experiment was conducted in an irrigated desert soil in Hexi oasis to investigate the effect of water and fertilizer coupling on yield and physiological characteristics such as net photochemical efficiency (ΦPSⅡ) , photochemical quantum yield (Fv′/Fm′), coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP), non photochemical quenching coefficient (qN) and photo inhibitionin by using Baby Cabbage variety‘Chunyuehuang’ . The results showed that Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs values of baby Cabbage un-der the condition of 75% ~90% field water capacity plus soil fertilizer combination of N 350 kg·hm-2 +P2 O5 400 kg·hm-2 +K 300 kg·hm-2 were significantly higher than any other treatment at the early, middle and late stage of leaf lotus throne. This indicates that Baby Cabbage plants maintain higher physiological activities under this condition. The dynamics of Pn, Ci, Tr and Gs of Baby Cabbage was in the order of middle lotus throne > late lotus throne > early lotus throne.%为探明河西绿洲灌漠土高原夏菜娃娃菜生产中,不同水肥耦合模式对娃娃菜生理特性及产量影响,以品种“春月黄”为材料,采用裂区试验设计,研究了实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、光化学量子产量( Fv′/Fm′)、光化学猝灭系数( qP)、非光化学猝灭系数( qN)、光抑制程度和产量对不同水肥耦合的响应。结果表明:在中等的土壤水分和理论施肥水平条件下,即土壤田间持水量达75%~90%及肥料组合为N 350 kg·hm-2+ P2 O5400 kg·hm-2+K 300 kg·hm-2的W2F1处理,娃娃菜在莲座初期、中期、末期,其叶片的净光合速率( Pn )、胞间 CO2浓度( Ci )、蒸腾速率( Tr )和气孔导度( Gs)的变化值明显高于其他处理,植株保持较高的生理代谢活动;叶片的ΦPSⅡ、 Fv′/Fm′、 qP值最大,光抑制程度最低,其生物学产量和经济产量也最高。不同时期的Pn、 Ci、 Tr和Gs的数值变化规律为:莲座中期>

  16. Effect of Different Light and Hormone Treatments on Isolated Microspore Cultures of Heat-Tolerance Chinese Cabbage%光照和激素对耐热型大白菜游离小孢子培养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛鹏; 张秀荣; 岳艳玲; 李晶晶; 邓静

    2011-01-01

    0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L NAA and 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5, 1.0 mg/L 6-BA were added to NLN media, and A-3 000 1x light, B-10 d dark then 3 000 1x light, C-15 d dark then 3 000 lx light and D-dark were applied to culturing isolated microspore of heat-tolerance Chinese cabbage-Xiajiangjiu in order to study the effect of light and hormone on the growth and induction of microspore-derived embryos. The results showed: 0.1 mg/L 6-BA could improve induction of mi crospore-derived embryos. The highest yield, 206 embryos, was obtained. At the same time adding 0.2 mg/L NAA could not only induce higher embryos, 205 embryos, but also promote growth of em bryos . Cotylednary and Germinated embryo increased to 33.7 % and abnormal embryo decreased to 14.1% . Dark culture could improve induction of microspore-derived embryos and D treat obtained 149embryos. Light culture, however, decreased embryo yield but improved the growth of embryos and regen erated plantlet. Better B treat induced 108 embryos and rate of regenerated plantlet increased to 145 % .%将分离纯化的小孢子悬浮培养在添加0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0 mg/L的NAA和0,0.05,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0 mg/L 6-BA的NLN培养基中,在A(3000 lx光培养)、B(10 d暗培养再3000k光培养)、C(15 d暗培养再3000k光培养)、D(ck,暗培养)条件下进行培养,研究光照和激素对耐热型大白菜“夏将军”游离小孢子成胚及胚状体发育的影响.结果表明:0.1 mg/L 6-BA能显著促进胚状体的发生,使胚产量达到最高,为206个.同时附加0.2 mg/L NAA不但保证有较高的胚产量(205个),还可促进胚状体发育,子叶胚及萌发胚可达33.7%,畸形胚比例下降到14.1%;暗培养能促进成胚,D处理成胚量高,达149个,光培养则明显抑制成胚,但可促进胚状体发育,提高成苗率,其中以B处理成胚成苗效果较好,成胚108个,成苗率145%.

  17. 超声波萃取气相色谱法检测白菜干中的有机磷农药残留%Determination of organophosphorus insecticides residues in dry cabbages by ultrasonic extraction-gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 黎小鹏; 李文英

    2012-01-01

    In order to detect familiar organophosphorus insecticides residues more accurately and more conveniently, a detection method was established for the determination of 12 organophosphorus insecti- cides residues i methamidophos, isofenphos-methy n dry cabbages by ultrasonic extraction-gas chromatography, including dichlorvos, acephate, phorate, omethoate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl, fenitrothion, 1, parathion and isocarbophos. The results showed that the 12 organophosphorus insecti- cides concentration range of linearity was 0. 01 - 1.00 μg/mL. The percent recoveries were 70. 6% - 112. 1% , coefficients of variation (CV) were 1.6% - 15.2% , and the detection limits were 0. 004 - 0. 026 mg/kg. Some samples collected from market were determined by this method system. It was found that the residue was 0. 243 mg/kg for chlorpyrifos with 1.7% of CV, and the other 11 organophosphorus insecticides were not found. This method was precise, high sensitivity and more convenient, and met the need of organophosphorus insecticides residues detection.%为了更准确、简便地检测白菜干中常见的有机磷农药残留,建立了超声波萃取气相色谱法检测白菜干中敌敌畏、甲胺磷、乙酰甲胺磷、甲拌磷、氧乐果、乐果、毒死蜱、甲基对硫磷、杀螟硫磷、甲基异柳磷、对硫磷和水胺硫磷等12种有机磷农药残留的方法.结果表明,12种有机磷农药在0.01-1.00μg/mL范围内具有良好的线性关系,回收率为70.6%-112.1%,变异系数1.6%-15.2%,方法检出限为0.004-0.026mg/kg.实际检测样品时,于白菜干样品中仅检出毒死蜱残留量为0.243mg/kg,变异系数为1.7%,其余11种有机磷农药未检出.该方法定量准确、灵敏度高、操作简便,适用于白菜干中常见的12种有机磷农药残留的检测.

  18. Grey Decision and Cluster Analysis on Heat Resistance of Different Cabbage Genotypes%不同基因型甘蓝耐热性的灰色决策与聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵贵荣; 方淑桂; 钟开勤; 黄建都; 陈文辉

    2011-01-01

    对高温胁迫下12份不同基因型结球甘蓝幼苗的7个生理生化指标和4个相关农艺性状进行灰色决策和聚类分析,结果表明,10个性状与壮苗指数的关联度值从大到小依次为:GSH含量、SOD活性、POD活性、单株重、地上干重/地下干重、MDA含量、Vc含量、相对膜透性、Pro含量和地上鲜重/地下鲜重.强夏-1-2的综合效果测度值是1.465 1,综合表现最好,其次是抗热50-1,综合效果测度值为1.436 4,77-2综合效果测度值是1.217 3,综合表现最差.系统聚类将12份甘蓝亲本材料的耐热性划分为3类:第Ⅰ类为耐热材料,包括强夏-1-2、抗热50-1、中甘17-2和118-1;第Ⅱ类为中等耐热材料,包括早恒株×秋绿、秋绿-1、97-4和早恒株×97-4;第Ⅲ类为不耐热材料,包括135-4-1、中甘16-3、106-H和77-2.%A total of 11 traits, including 4 agronomical traits and 7 physi-biochemical traits that measured in 12 cabbage genotypes under high temperature stress, were analyzed using gray decision and cluster analysis method. The results of gray correlative analysis showed that the index were ranked according to their gray correlation degree to seedling index as follows: GSH content, SOD activity, POD actitvity, plant weight, dry weight of above-ground/dry weight of under-ground, MDA content, Vc content, relative membrane permeability, Pro content and fresh weight of above-ground / fresh weight of under-ground. The comprehensive measure values of Qiangxia-1-2 was 1.465 1, has greatest integrated performance, followed by Kangre50-l. The comprehensive measure value of 77-2 was 1. 217 3, has the poorest performance. Cluster analysis showed that 12 situ accessions were classified into 3 categories. The first category was the most heat resistance situ accessions including Qiangxia-1-2, Kangre50-l , Zhongganl7-2 and 118-1, the second category was the intermediate heat resistance situ accessions including Zaohengzhu × Qiulv, Qiulv-1, 97-4 and

  19. 小白菜表面粪大肠菌群的污染及其耐药性研究%Occurrence of Fecal Coliforms on Chinese Cabbages and Their Resistance to Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼; 李雅颖; 姚槐应; 葛超荣

    2014-01-01

    为明确粪大肠菌群对蔬菜的污染及其耐药性,对厦门市集美区主要菜市场及超市的小白菜进行抽样调查。采用平板计数和MPN法对小白菜表面的粪大肠菌群进行计数,并通过对分离的细菌进行药敏试验,揭示粪大肠菌群对常用抗生素的耐药性。结果显示平板计数粪大肠菌群数量平均为631.3 CFU·g-1,合格率达90.9%;MPN计数平均为48.2 MPN·g-1,合格率达87.9%。清洗处理后粪大肠菌群数量从564.7 CFU·g-1降到92.5 CFU·g-1;流水浸泡10 min后,粪大肠菌群数量从564.7 CFU·g-1降到99.2 CFU·g-1。药敏试验结果表明,粪大肠菌对青霉素和四环素的耐药率达到100%,对红霉素的耐药率达到85.0%,但对庆大霉素、阿米卡星和环丙沙星没有耐药性。研究表明清洗处理显著降低粪大肠菌群的数量,粪大肠菌群对常用抗生素具有一定程度的耐药性,其耐药谱较广。%Microbial contamination of vegetables has aroused public concerns. An investigation was carried out to examine occurrence and resistance to antibiotics of fecal coliforms on fresh Chinese cabbages collected from farmers-markets and supermarkets in Jimei district of Xiamen city, China. Fecal coliforms were quantified using both MPN(most-probable-number)and PC(plate count)methods. Two treat-ments(washing or immersion in water)were used to evaluate the effect of cleaning on the abundance of fecal coliforms. The resistance of the isolated fecal coliforms to six common antibiotics(gentamicin, amikacin, penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin)was eval-uated using antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The results showed that average population of fecal coliforms from the samples was 631.3 CFU·g-1 by PC method, with qualified rate of 90.9%, whereas average population of fecal coliforms was 48.2 MPN·g-1 by MPN method, with qualified rate of 87.9%. Washing and 10 min immersion reduced the number of fecal

  20. 菜心产品器官主要营养成分和硝酸盐的分配规律%Distribution Rules of Nutrients in Different Organs of Flowering Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏蔚; 陈玮锋; 宋世威; 陈日远

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, we investigated the contents of vitamin C, soluble sugars, free amino acids and nitrate in different organ homogenates (bolting stem, leaf, petiole and flower bud) and in the entire plant homogenate of flowering Chinese cabbage ( L. ssp. ). The results showed that, flower bud had the highest contents of vitamin C, soluble sugar, free amino acids, and bolting stem took the second place. The nitrate content in petiole was significant higher than that in the other three organs, but nitrate content in the other three organs had no significant difference. There were 79.8% soluble sugar, 70.3% free amino acids and 68.1% vitamin C accumulated in bolting stem and flower bud, which were far higher than those in the other two organs. Nitrate was mostly accumulated in bolting stem, less in petiole and leaves, least in flower bud. While homogenized the entire plant organs together, the contents of vitamin C, soluble sugar, free amino acids and nitrate showed no significant difference with the weighted sums of the four different organs.%以菜心为材料,采用分产品器官(薹茎、叶片、叶柄、花蕾)和整个产品器官匀浆的方法,测定了维生素C、可溶性糖、游离氨基酸和硝酸盐含量,研究其分配和积累规律。试验结果表明,花蕾的维生素C、可溶性糖、游离氨基酸含量均最高,薹茎次之,叶柄与叶片较低;叶柄的硝酸盐含量最高,其他3种器官间差异不显著。从积累量看,薹茎和花蕾积累了79.8%的可溶性糖、70.3%的游离氨基酸和68.1%的维生素C,远高于其他器官积累量。硝酸盐主要积累在薹茎中,其次是叶柄和叶片,花蕾中最少。利用整个产品器官匀浆测定的维生素C、可溶性糖、游离氨基酸和硝酸盐含量计算的积累量,与分器官加权求和的方法获得的数值间差异不显著。

  1. Maturação e qualidade de sementes de repolho de verão sob condições tropicais Maturation and seed quality of summer cabbage seeds under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Alves de Freitas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do estádio de maturação dos frutos (síliquas e da época de trilhagem sobre o potencial fisiológico de sementes de repolho, cultivar União. Em setembro de 2005 (200 dias após o transplantio, foi efetuada uma única colheita dos rácemos com síliquas em diferentes estádios de maturação, identificadas pelas colorações verde-escuro, verde-claro, arroxeada e bege. Estes estádios de maturação originaram sementes com coloração predominantemente verdes, castanho-claras, castanho-escuras e negras, respectivamente. Parte dos rácemos colhidos foi trilhada logo após a colheita e parte foi deixada em condições de laboratório, por uma semana, antes da trilhagem. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (estádio de maturação das síliquas e época de trilhagem. As sementes foram submetidas a testes de grau de umidade, massa de 100 sementes, germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação, emergência de plântulas em casa de vegetação e envelhecimento acelerado. O potencial fisiológico das sementes variou entre os diferentes estádios de maturação das síliquas. Os resultados indicaram que os rácemos com síliquas de coloração verde-clara podem ser colhidos, desde que as sementes permaneçam no interior das síliquas por uma semana antes da trilhagem.The effect of maturation stages under tropical conditions, of summer cabbage cv. União fruits (seedpods, was studied on the seed physiological quality. On September, 2005 (200 days after transplanting, seedpods were harvested from racemes in the maturation (color stages of intensive green, green, purple and beige, resulting in seeds with the predominant colors of green, brown, intensive brown and black, respectively. Part of the harvested racemes was threshed immediately after harvesting and part was stored at laboratory conditions for a week before being threshed. The experiment was conducted in

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  3. Study on Variation of Reducing Sugar Content and Its Relationship with Fermentation End during Fermentation of Cabbage Soup Stock%酸甘蓝老汤发酵过程中还原糖含量的变化规律及其与发酵终点的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静

    2015-01-01

    The main material of sauerkraut is cabbage.The vaiation of reducing sugar content and its relationship with vaccum-packaging bulge bag under soup stock fermentation conditions of cabbage are researched in order to determine the reducing sugar content at fermentation end.The results show that the reducing sugar content declines with the prolong of fermentation time during the fermentation process;temperature has the most impact on reducing sugar content,followed by the dosage of salt, and the impact of inoculum size is not obvious.When the reducing sugar content is below 0.2%,the vacuum packaging is no longer expanded,and it can be considered as fermentation end.%以甘蓝为原料加工成酸菜,研究甘蓝在老汤发酵条件下还原糖含量的变化规律及酸甘蓝中还原糖含量与真空包装胀袋的关系,确定发酵终点时酸甘蓝中还原糖的含量。试验结果表明:在整个发酵过程中,随发酵时间的延长,酸甘蓝中还原糖含量呈下降趋势;温度对还原糖含量的变化影响最大,加盐量影响次之,接种量的影响不明显。当还原糖含量达到0.2%以下时,真空包装后不再发生胀袋,可定为发酵终点。

  4. 甘蓝转TA29-Barnase基因植株的花器特征及育性分离的初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON FLOWER CHARACTERISTICS AND SEGREGATION OF MALE STERILITY OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS WITH TA29-Barnase IN CABBAGE(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉英; 龚静; 吴晓光; 杨红娟; 沈革志; 王新其; 殷丽青; 陆桂华; 王江; 宛新杉

    2001-01-01

    Male sterile cabbage plants were got by transferring TA29-Barnasegene to common cabbage plants. These male sterile transgenic plants with TA29-Barnase gene have the same horticultural characters which can be also inherited steadily by plants in next generation as non-transgenic ones. But their flowers bear fully catagenetic stamen lacking pollens, normal fragrant nectaries and strong pistils able to receive pollens from other plants or different cultivars and set seeds. At the meantime, the sterility in transgenic plants can segregate in their posterior generations at sterility rates of 12.5%~85.7%.%利用分子生物学方法,将控制作物育性的基因(TA29-Barnase)转化甘蓝生物体,培育出了甘蓝雄性不育植株。带有TA29-Barnase基因的雄性不育植株的园艺学性状与未转化植株相同,并且其性状在后代中稳定不变;不育植株的花朵表现雄蕊完全退化,但蜜腺和雌蕊健全,能接受外来花粉,杂交结实率较高;同时,雄性不育植株的不育性在后代中出现分离,不育株率占12.5%~85.7%;此外,不育性状具有镶嵌性。

  5. 不结球白菜雄性不育系及其保持系花药发育的细胞学观察%Cytological Observation of Anther Development between the Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红芳; 侯瑞贤; 李晓锋; 朱玉英; 侯喜林

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino)雄性不育系及其保持系为试验材料,选择不同发育阶段的花蕾,取其花药,制成石蜡切片和超薄切片,经染色后在电子显微镜下观察.结果表明,不结球白菜雄性不育系与保持系的花药发育有明显的不同:不育系花药发育受阻于花粉母细胞分化期,形成1~3个药室,并形成正常的四分体小孢子,此时细胞组织逐步解体,形成空腔花药;最后向内皱缩;保持系花粉母细胞能形成正常的四分体,进而形成小孢子,最终形成充满正常花粉粒的花药.%Buds selected at different developmental stages of a new germplasm sterile male of non-heading Chinese cabbage and its maintainer lines were studied. Anthers were collected,made into paraffin sections, stained, and observed by electron microscopy. Results show that non-heading Chinese cabbage sterile male lines and maintainer lines exhibited quite different anther development. Male sterile lines in relation to anther development were inhibited at the stage of archesporial cell, produced only 1 -3 anther sacs, and formed normal sporogenous cells. The cells gradually disintegrated,formated cavity,and finally shrunk inward. The maintainer archesporial cells formed normal anther sacs, formed sporogenous cell, and ultimately formed anthers with normal pollen.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _oleracea_S.png Brassica_oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  7. Produção de repolho 'Chato de Quintal' e da capuchinha 'Jewel', solteiros e consorciados, sem e com cama-de-frango semidecomposta incorporada no solo Yield of 'Chato de quintal' cabbage and of 'Jewel' nasturtium, in monocrop and intercrop system, with and without semi-decomposed chicken manure added to the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antunes Moraes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de "cabeças" de repolho e de flores de capuchinha. A capuchinha 'Jewel' (Ca e o repolho 'Chato de Quintal' (R foram alocados no campo em experimento conjunto, sendo estudados cada um deles como fatorial 2 (cultivos solteiro e consorciado x 2 (sem-S e com-C cobertura do solo com cama-de-frango, na dose de 6,5 t ha-1, perfazendo, no total, seis tratamentos (CaS, CaC, RS, RC, CaRS, CaRC, arranjados no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As colheitas das flores de capuchinha foram efetuadas entre 35 e 98 dias após o transplante (DAT e a do repolho entre 83 e 104 DAT. A altura das plantas de repolho apresentou crescimento linear, com taxas variáveis, em função dos dias após o transplante, com o uso de cama-de-frango no solo, e com o sistema de cultivo. As produções de repolho foram de 32,76 t ha-1 no arranjo em cultivo solteiro e de 27,65 t ha-1 no cultivo consorciado e de 35,78 t ha-¹ e 24,62 t ha-¹, com e sem o uso de cama-de-frango, respectivamente. A maior produção de capuchinha foi sem o uso de cama-de-frango, em cultivo solteiro, com 15.825.000 flores e 10,63 t ha-¹ de massa fresca. Altura de plantas, diâmetro e comprimento das flores de capuchinha foram influenciados apenas pelas épocas de avaliação. O cálculo da razão de área equivalente para o consórcio foi de 1,35 com uso de cama-de-frango e de 1,25 sem o uso, indicando ser viável o cultivo misto de repolho com a capuchinha. A renda bruta para o consórcio foi de R$38.065,20 e R$28.587,50 com e sem uso de cama-de-frango, respectivamente.This work has as objective to study yield of cabbage and nasturtium flowers. 'Jewel' nasturtium (Ca and 'Chato de quintal' cabbage were placed at field in jointed experiment, and they were studied as 2 (monocrop and intercrop system x 2 (with or without soil covering with chicken manure, in dose of 6.5 t ha-1 factorial scheme, which resulted in

  8. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE BORO, NA PRESENÇA E AUSÊNCIA DE MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA, NA CULTURA DO REPOLHO (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BORAX RATES AND MANURE ON CABBAGE (Brassica oleraceae var. Capitata Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro José Chaves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito de diferentes níveis de boro na cultura do repolho, na presença e ausência de matéria orgânica, foi instalado na Escola de Agronomia da UFG um experimento em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições. A cultivar utilizada foi Matsukase. Os tratamentos com boro constaram da aplicação de 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 e 320 kg/ha de Bórax comercial, combinadas com doses de 0 e 75 t/ha de esterco de curral. A adubação orgânica aumentou o diâmetro, a altura e o peso de cabeça, mas as relações peso de cabeça/peso total e diâmetro/altura de cabeça não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A aplicação de boro apresentou respostas significativas, na ausência de adubação orgânica, para peso de cabeça, altura de cabeça e relação peso/diâmetro de cabeça. A produção física máxima foi estimada para uma dosagem de 101 kg/ha de bórax. Na presença de adubação orgânica, não houve efeito significativo da adubação com Bórax sobre a produção do repolho.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Adubação orgânica; boro; Brassica oleraceae var. captata; repolho.

    The experiment was carried out at Goiás Federal University (UFG, Brazil, in order to verify the effect of different borax levels in presence or absence of manure, for cabbage cv. Matsukase crop. Boron was applied at 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha of commercial Borax, combined to doses of 0 or 75 ton/ha corral manure. Organic fertilization increased head diameter, height and weight, but did not interfere on head weight/total weight nor head diameter/head height ratios. Boron application showed significant responses when organic fertilization was absent, regarding to head weight, head height and weight/head diameter ratio. The highest

  9. Joint Toxicity of CPFX and Cu on Seed Germination and Root Elongation of Corn, Radish and Chinese Cabbage%环丙沙星与Cu复合污染对玉米萝卜和小白菜3种作物生态毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李通; 金彩霞; 朱雯斐; 刘国光; 刘海津

    2013-01-01

    Three vegetables, corn, radish and Chinese cabbage, were chosen to study on the acute toxic effects of ciprofloxacin(CPFX)-Cu pollutants on their germination percentage, root elongation and shoot elongation. The results showed that the inhibitory rates of germination percentage, root elongation and shoot elongation of the three vegetables had significant correlations to CPFX-Cu concentrations(P<0.05 ). In ? three different Cu concentrations, the inhibitory of root elongation and shoot elongation of the three vegetables increased along with the CPFX concentration. With increasing concentration of CPFX, differences among three Cu concentration on the inhibitory rate of root(shoot) elongation of corn and radish were decreased. In the joint effects of CPFX and Cu, the interactive effects of the two pollutants on root and shoot elongation of the three vegetables were very complicated. When Cu concentration was low( 100 mg ? kg-1), CPFX-Cu showed antagonistic effect on corn's root elongation and shoot elongation, and synergistic effect on radish's. Furthermore, they showed antagonistic effect on root elongation of Chinese cabbage and synergistic effect on shoot elongation. When Cu concentration was high(400 mg-kg-1), CPFX-Cu showed some synergistic effect on root elongation and shoot elongation of corn. On the other hand, they showed antagonistic effect on root elongation of radish and Chinese cabbage, and synergistic effect on shoot elongation.%采用急性毒性试验方法,研究了环丙沙星与Cu复合污染对3种作物(玉米、萝卜和小白菜)种子发芽、根伸长及芽伸长的影响.结果表明,在环丙沙星与Cu复合作用下,3种作物根伸长抑制率和芽伸长抑制率与药物浓度显著相关(P<0.05);在不同Cu处理浓度下,3种作物根伸长抑制率和芽伸长抑制率均随环丙沙星浓度的增大而增大.低Cu浓度(100 mg· kg-1)下,环丙沙星与Cu复合污染对玉米根伸长和芽伸长的联合作用表现为拮抗

  10. 利用分子标记辅助选育白菜薹复等位基因型雄性不育系%The Directional Transfer of a Multiple-allele Male Sterile Line in Chinese Cabbage by using Molecular Marker-assisted Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋实; 刘志勇; 张曦; 冯辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to create an approach for utilization of heterosis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis L.), a breeding method for multiple-allele male sterile line and a“directional transfer program”was designed and carried out in the experiment. A multiple-allele male sterile line of Chinese cabbage“Wangzi”was used as a resource of male sterility, and an inbred line of Chinese cabbage was the target line. Recurrent backcr-ossing method was employed to transfer male sterility and horticultural characters while the genotype was iden-tified through molecular marker-assisted selection. The GSSR1, which is closely linked to the male sterility gene“Ms”, was chosen from 26 pairs of SSR primers to apply in the selection. GSSR1 also could select the fertile gene“ms”and the fertile restoration gene“Msf”. After three times recurrent backcrossing, a new genetic male sterile line of Chinese cabbage with 100%of male sterile plants and 100%of male sterility, BGMS-3, was bred. The new male sterile line was applied to develop hybrid combinations, and then one excellent combination of C3 was selected from six combinations.%为解决白菜薹杂种优势利用中的杂交制种手段问题,以大白菜复等位基因型雄性不育系为不育源,设计定向转育方案,采用连续回交的方法转育不育性和农艺性状,同时利用分子标记辅助选择目标基因型植株,向白菜薹自交系中转育不育基因,创制白菜薹雄性不育系。通过26对SSR引物的筛选鉴定,获得与显性雄性不育基因Ms紧密连锁、且同样可以标记同一位点恢复基因Msf和可育基因ms的分子标记GSSR1。经过3个世代的回交转育,创制出了具有100%不育度和100%不育株率的白菜薹复等位基因型雄性不育系BGMS-3。以BGMS-3为母本,与6个白菜薹自交系杂交,筛选出1个强优势组合C3。

  11. Effect of the powder of purple cabbage, broccoli and wheat germ on acrylamide formation in cookies%添加紫甘蓝粉、花椰菜粉、麦胚粉对曲奇中丙烯酰胺生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦黎; 付晓文; 朱雨辰; 王鹏璞; 安勃勃; 陈芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究添加紫甘蓝粉、花椰菜粉、麦胚粉对曲奇中丙烯酰胺生成的影响,为优化焙烤食品配方、控制丙烯酰胺生成提供基础。方法参考AACC方法,分别以一定比例的植物粉替代等量面粉制作曲奇,以未添加植物粉曲奇为对照,采用HPLC-MS/MS法测定曲奇中丙烯酰胺的含量。结果三种植物粉对丙烯酰胺生成的影响不同。在添加量为1%~10%时,添加紫甘蓝粉、花椰菜粉的曲奇中丙烯酰胺含量随添加量增加而增大。添加量为10%时,丙烯酰胺含量分别为对照的26.25、68.52倍,而添加麦胚粉曲奇影响不显著。结论添加紫甘蓝粉、花椰菜粉和麦胚粉对曲奇中丙烯酰胺的生成有不同影响。%Objective The effect of addition of purple cabbage powder, broccoli powder, wheat germ powder on the acrylamide content in cookies was investigated. This would provide the basic for the optimization of formula and control of acrylamide formation in baked foods. Methods According to the modified AACC method, the cookies were prepared with a given proportion of plant powder, which was added to replace the flour, and the cookies without addition were used as contrast. Acrylamide content in cookies was determined by HPLC-MS/MS. Results The three kinds of plant powder had the different influence on the formation of acrylamide in cookies. Within a range of addition proportion from 1%to 10%, the generation of acrylamide increased with the addition proportion of powder in cookies with purple cabbage and broccoli powder. When the 10% of purple cabbage and broccoli powder was added in ingredients, the acrylamide content in the cookies were 26.25 and 68.52 times higher than that in control respectively. But the addition of wheat germ powder had not significant influence on acrylamide. Conclusion Addition of the three kinds of plant powder have different influence on the formation of acrylamide in cookies.

  12. 低表达H蓝花药发育相关基因小体积荧光定量反应体系的建立和可靠性分析%A Real-time Quantitative PCR Protocol with Small Reaction Volume for Studies of Low Expression Genes Related to Cabbage Anther Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王效维; 刘海霞; 杨颖丽; 康俊根

    2011-01-01

    植物发育过程中很多重要基因拷贝数较低.为建立稳定可靠、适于低拷贝微量模板表达分析的实时qR-PCR小体积反应体系,采用在甘蓝花药中表达量较少的AT-HOOK基因进行小反应体积荧光定量表达分析,研究小反应体积的扩增效率和可行性,并通过对其在甘蓝不同植物器官、不同花药组织和花药发育不同时期的表达特征的重复性和可靠性分析,最终建立了稳定可靠而且成本较低的10μL荧光定量分析体系,为进一步大规模深入研究甘蓝花药发育相关基因表达特征及发育调控基因功能分析奠定基础,同时也为其他低拷贝表达基因的研究提供参考.%Many important genes have a relatively low expression level during plant development.To establish a cheap and reliable quantitative PCR protocol for expression studies of low-copy-number genes, we used the low expression gene AT-HOOK in cabbage anther to evaluate the feasibility of real-time quantitative PCR with small volume regarding the stability and efficiency.A feasible 10 μL real-time quantitative PCR protocol was established.The experiment here showed that the small volume quantitative PCR system was stable and reliable and it could be helpful for the extensive expression studies of low-copy-number genes related to cabbage anther development.

  13. Custo de produção e rentabilidade das culturas de alface, rabanete, rúcula e repolho em cultivo solteiro e consorciadas com pimentão Production cost and profitability of lettuce, radish, arugula and cabbage sole crop and intercropped with sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Luciano Alves Rezende

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o trabalho na UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP, com o objetivo de avaliar a rentabilidade das culturas de alface, rabanete, rúcula e repolho, em cultivo solteiro e consorciadas com pimentão. A determinação dos custos de produção das culturas em cultivo solteiro e em consórcio foi realizada com base na metodologia do custo operacional total (COT, com valores referentes a março de 2005. Para o cálculo da receita bruta, considerou-se o preço do setor atacadista, CEAGESP, no mês de março de 2005. Os COT das culturas de repolho, rúcula, alface e rabanete, quando consorciadas com pimentão, tiveram redução de 34,0%, 24,7%, 21,3% e 20,8% em relação aos seus respectivos cultivos solteiros. As culturas de alface e rabanete consorciadas com pimentão apresentaram aumento na receita líquida em 49,6% e 13,9%, respectivamente, quando comparadas com seus cultivos solteiros. A maior rentabilidade foi obtida em consórcio de pimentão com alface. A taxa de retorno e índice de lucratividade dos consórcios foram superiores aos observados nas monoculturas.This work was carried out at UNESP, in Jaboticabal, SP, with the aim of evaluating the production cost and profitability of lettuce, radish, arugula and cabbage sole crop and intercropped with sweet pepper. The determination of the production cost was accomplished with base on the methodology of the total operational cost (TOC, in March of 2005. For the calculation of the gross revenue, the price of the wholesale sector, CEAGESP, applied in March 2005, was considered,. The TOC of the cultures cabbage, arugula, lettuce and radish when intercropped with sweet pepper had a reduction of 34.0%, 24.7%, 21.3% and 20.8%, when compared to their respective single cultivation. The cultures of lettuce and radish intercropped with sweet pepper had net revenue increase of 49.6% and 13.9%, respectively, when compared to their single cultivation. The largest profitability was obtained when sweet pepper was

  14. 抑制差减杂交法研究复等位基因遗传的大白菜核雄性不育分子机制%The Molecular-mechanism Research of Genic Multiple-allele Inherited Male-sterile in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀瑞琴; 宋倩; 辛喜凤; 周雪; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    AB01, the two-type line of multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Chinensis ) was bred by our research group, the technology system of this material had been build, but its sterile molecular mechanism was not clear yet. In this research, sterility and fertility cDNA libraries including 27 differentially expressed clones were constructed using the fertile and sterile buds of AB01 by the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). According to BLAST screening and functional annotation, 25 ESTs were homology to known sequence of the databases at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI). The 25 genes, with homology to known proteins, could be divided into 4 groups (7 flowers developing-felated genes, 5 lipid metabolism, 3 energy metabolism genes, 3 chloroplast related genes and 7 encode the unclassified proteins). The results suggested the molecular mechanism of genic multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage was related with lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and photosynthesis progress.%AB01是本课题组培育的复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜甲型“两用系”,目前已建立了一套该材料的应用技术体系,但其不育分子机制尚不明确.本研究以AB01的不育株和可育株为材料,利用抑制差减杂交技术构建了正反抑制差减cDNA文库,并通过测序及生物信息学手段寻找育性相关基因,以此来推断该材料的不育分子机制.研究共找到27个差异表达基因,其中25个基因在NCBI数据库中均有同源序列,这些基因中7个与花发育相关,5个与脂类代谢相关,3个与活性氧及能量代谢相关,3个与光合作用及叶绿体合成相关,其余7个为功能未知基因.由此推测复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜不育的发生与脂类、能量代谢及光合作用有关.

  15. Cloning and Characterization of a Genic Male Sterility-related Gene BrLTP1 in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜核雄性不育相关基因BrLTP1的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 叶雪凌; 李承彧; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    利用cDNA-AFLP技术分析大白菜核雄性不育两用系'AB02'可育株(msms)和不育株(Msms)花蕾的基因表达谱,在可育株混合花蕾cDNA中扩增出1条特异条带TDF-25,通过RACE和RT-PCR技术克隆了该基因的全长cDNA序列.序列分析表明,该基因编码脂质转移蛋白,命名为BrLTP1.BrLTP1全长cDNA序列为750 bp,推测编码1个包含183个氨基酸残基的前体蛋白.BrLTP1蛋白含有典型的脂质转移蛋白N端信号肽,保守的AAI结构域和半胱氨酸位点.预测BrLTP1蛋白含有多种修饰性位点,包括1个PKC磷酸化位点,2个N-糖基化位点和10个N-端豆蔻酰基化位点.基因表达模式表明,BrLTP1在两用系不育株花蕾中受到强烈抑制,在可育株的大花蕾、成熟花药以及花瓣中高水平表达.%The gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-AFLP in the genic male sterile line ‘AB02' of Chinese cabbage, and a differentially expressed cDNA fragment, TDF-25, was only found in fertile plants. The full-length cDNA of BrLTPl, coding lipid transfer protein in Chinese cabbage, was amplified by RACE and RT-PCR. The BrLTPl gene was 750 bp long in cDNA and hypothetical protein BrLTPl included 183 amino acids with a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the BrLTPl protein has ten N-myristoylation sites, two N-myristoylation sites, and one PKC phosphorylation site. Gene expression characteristics indicated that BrLTPl was highly expressed in big flower buds and mature anthers of fertile plants, with a extremely low expression level in sterile buds.

  16. 茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸诱导的大白菜叶片与根系硫苷含量系统性变化研究%Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-xiang ZANG; Jia-li GE; Ling-hui HUANG; Fei GAO; Xi-shan LV; Wei-wei ZHENG; Seung-beom HONG; Zhu-jun ZHU

    2015-01-01

      结论:茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸处理后,大白菜根系比叶片积累更多的硫苷,吲哚族硫苷比其他种类的硫苷积累更快;茉莉酸甲酯诱导硫苷合成的效果好于水杨酸,而且诱导时间更长;茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸在诱导大白菜根系硫苷合成过程中具有反协同效应。%Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Re-gardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. Al three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that ac-cumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elici-tation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA-and MeJA-mediated systemic response sys-tems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on

  17. 大白菜软腐病菌16S rDNA序列比对鉴定及杀菌剂对其生物活性测定试验%16S rDNA Sequence Compare of Erwinia carotovora subsp, carotovora and Bioactivity of Fungicide against Chinese Cabbage Soft Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 刘君丽; 司乃国

    2011-01-01

    [Aims] Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora is an important plant disease having effect on the normal growth of Chinese cabbage, which seriously results in decreasing crop's yield and quality. Chemical control is an effective messure to control the disease. In order to clarify the controlling effect of strobilurins and antibiotics on Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora, the research was carried out. [Methods] E. Carotovora subsp. Carotovora separated from the leaf of rotten Chinese cabbage was identified using method of sequence comparison to 16S rDNA, and then bioactivity of the fungicides mentioned above was tested using E. Carotovora subsp. Carotovora as target. [Results] The results indicated that there was great bioactivity difference between different fungicides for E. Carotovora subsp. Carotovora, the results of in vitro and in vivo are different for the same fungicide. [Conclusions] Due to the bioactivity difference between in vitro and in vivo, these two testing methods, in vivo and in vitro should be evaluated together to obtain accurate evaluation.%[目的]大白菜软腐病是影响白菜正常生长的重要病害,严重影响白菜的产量和品质.化学防治是控制大白菜软腐病的重要措施.为了进一步明确甲氧基丙烯酸酯类和抗生素类药剂对大白菜软腐病的防治效果,开展试验研究.[方法]从腐烂大白菜叶片分离得到大白菜软腐病菌(Erwinia carotovora subsp.carotovora),采用16S rDNA序列比对的方法对其进行鉴定.将其作为防治对象,测试杀菌剂的生物活性.[结果]不同药剂对大白菜软腐病菌的生物活性差异很大,同一药剂在离体试验和活体试验中的结果也并不相同.[结论]由于药剂的生物活性测试结果在离体和活体试验中表现出差异性,需要将2种试验方法相结合,才能对药剂生物活性进行准确评价.

  18. Resposta da couve Tronchuda (Brassica oleracea var. costata à aplicação de azoto e boro e de um fertilizante orgânico autorizado em Agricultura Biológica Tall cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata response to the application of nitrogen, boron and an organic amendment permitted in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    .The Portuguese are one of the greatest brassica consumers in the entire world. Tall cabbage is grown in Portugal over an area greater than 1000 ha. Tall cabbage consumption is very popular at Christmas time. In this work, results from nitrogen and boron application, as conventional fertilisers, and from the use of Dix10, an organic amendment (˜ 10 % total N permitted in organic farming, are reported. Young cabbage plants were prepared in a greenhouse in micro-pots and transplanted with protected roots on August 29, 2005, spaced at 0.8x0.5 m between and within rows. The soil was loamy textured with 0.83 % organic matter, pH(H2O 5.2, and with median P and high K content levels. Six treatments were established: SAd treatment, without any fertilization; Dix10, applied in a rate equivalent to 80 kg N/ha; NB and N+, with 80 and 160 kg N/ha as urea, respectively; and B-and B+ treatments, without B and with 4.4 kg B/ha as borax. Boron treatments were fertilised with 80 kg N/ha and N treatments with 2.2 kg B/ha. Thus, NB is a median treatment with 80 kg N/ha and 2.2 kg B/ha. SAd plants yielded 13.7 Mg biomass/ha and took up 33.9 kg N/ha and 40.9 g B/ha, which are values significantly lower than that obtained on fertilised plots. In Dix10 treatment, cabbage yielded 18 Mg biomass/ha and took up 45.1 and 51.3 g B/ha. NB treatment produced higher biomass (38.6 Mg/ha and N uptake (107.9 kg/ha than SAd and Dix10 treatments. N+ treatment did not increase the yield, neither N uptake if compared with NB. B+ treatment has not any influence in biomass yield but increased tissue B content and B uptake. In N+ treatment there was a significant decrease in tissue B concentration and B uptake, which suggests antagonism of N over the uptake of B. The biomass yields and the apparent N and B recoveries showed that the lower biomass yielded in SAd and Dix10 treatments were due to a shortage of soil N availability in these treatments during the growing season.

  19. Study on Synergetic Efficacy of Keyun Insect Attractant Combined with Pesticides Against Aphid in Chinese Cabbage Seed Production%科云昆虫诱食剂与杀虫剂混用防治大白菜制种田蚜虫的增效作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳功; 杨芳; 冯振群

    2013-01-01

    Three different insecticides such as Lambda-cyhalothrin,Imdacloprid and Avermectin showed respectively promising synergistic effects in controlling aphid of Chinese cabbage seed production when mixed with Keyun insect attractant,The effects of the insecticides increased by 8.64-11.77、1.88-8.77 and 4.34-9.34 percentage on 1d,3d or 7d after application when they were used together with Keyun insect attractant,compared with those of singly-used insecticide.Moreover,the death peak of aphid was advanced by 2 days,4 days and 2 days respectively.%高效氯氰菊酯、啶虫脒、阿维菌素3种农药和科云昆虫诱食剂混用,对于防治大白菜制种田蚜虫有明显的增效作用,药后1、3、7d的防效比其单用提高8.64~11.77、1.88~8.77、4.34~9.34个百分点,且蚜虫死亡高峰期分别提前了2、4、2d.

  20. Effects of drip fertigation uniformity and nitrogen application level on growth, yield and quality of Chinese cabbage%滴灌均匀系数和施氮量对白菜生长及产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李久生; 尹剑锋; 张航; 栗岩峰

    2011-01-01

    The effects of drip fertigation uniformity and nitrogen application level on crop growth, nitrogen uptake,chlorophyll meter reading (SPAD), yield and quality of Chinese cabbage were investigated in a solar greenhouse to determine the design and evaluation standard of drip irrigation uniformity.Three Christiansen uniformity coefficients of 0.62, 0.80 and 0.96 and two levels of nitrogen applied at 150 and 300 kg/hm2 were used.The continuous measurements using TDR sensors of Hydra Probe demonstrated an approximately similar variation pattern of soil water content and temperature during the growing season of Chinese cabbage for all the treatments tested.The observed difference of soil bulk electrical conductivity (ECb,) for different treatments could mainly attribute to the difference of the initial ECb values.Plant height, dry matter above ground, nitrogen uptake and yield with the drip irrigation system demonstrated a more uniform distribution than those with water and fertilizers applied at fertigation uniformity coefficient equal to or less than 0.80.It was found that the influence of fertigation uniformity on plant height, dry matter above ground,nitrogen uptake and yield was insignificant at a significance level of 0.05.The quality indexes of Chinese cabbage,including vitamin C, total sugar, nitrate and cellulose were also insignificantly affected by fertigation uniformity at the same significance level.Increasing fertigation uniformity might not necessarily result in an increased yield and an improved quality of Chinese cabbage.As no negative influence of fertigation uniformity on crop growth, nitrogen uptake and yield was observed, it is suggested that lower uniformity values of drip irrigation system below those recommended by the current standards can be considered.%为了完善滴灌均匀系数设计与评价标准,在日光温室内研究了滴灌均匀系数和施氮量对白菜生长、氮素吸收、相对叶绿素含量(SPAD)、产量和品质的影

  1. Forecast of Vegetable Prices in China Based on ARMA Model--A Case Study of Cabbage, Cucumber and Tomatoes%基于 ARMA 模型的我国蔬菜价格预测--以大白菜、黄瓜和番茄为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明明; 张瑞涛; 王俊芹; 王余丁

    2015-01-01

    This paper set up the ARMA model which based on time series, through searching the prices of agricultural market from 2002 to 2014 as sample datas with Eviews8.0 software, so as to analysis and forecast the prices of Chinese cabbage, cucumber and tomato. The results showed that vegetable prices would show a rising trend over the next two years with seasonal fluctuation, among them, the seasonal factor was the main factor to influence the price fluctuation of vegeta-bles.%以2002-2014年农产品集贸市场价格为样本数据,利用 Eviews 8.0软件,建立了基于时间序列分析的 AR-MA 模型,对大白菜、黄瓜和番茄的价格进行了分析预测。结果表明,我国蔬菜价格未来2 a 将呈上涨趋势,且具有季节性波动的特征,其中季节因素是影响蔬菜价格波动的最主要因素。

  2. EMISSION RATES OF PHEROMONE LURES OF THE CABBAGE LOOPER MOTH, TRICHOPLUSIA NI AND THEIR EFFECTS ON MALE BEHAVIORAL RESPONSE%粉纹夜蛾Trichoplusia ni性信息素诱芯的释放速率及其对雄蛾反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊伟

    2001-01-01

    The actual emission rates and their relative ratios of multi-component pheromone blend of the normal and mutant cabbage looper moth from rubber septa were determined by analyzing the extracts of airborne collection in Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Dodecyl and dodecenyl acetates emitted significantly faster than tetradecenyl acetates from the septum containing these two groups of acetates at equal amounts. The emission rate increased with the increase of loading dosage, but reach its maximum at 100 μg. Emission rates of all pheromone components decreased dramatically after baits were exposed for one week. Frozen-stored pheromone baits decreased their emission rates of pheromone compounds starting from the second day, conpared to those of fresh ones. There was no increase in male behavioral response of male mutants towards the elevated mutant pheromone bait, which was equivalent to what a mutant female produced. But the normal nale cabbage looper moths do prefer to the pheromone bait emitted less amount of Z9-14:OAc. The influence of release rates on mating disruption was also discussed.%用空气收集法收集样品,用气相色谱-质谱联用仪分析了正常与变异的粉纹夜蛾Trichoplusia ni品系的多元性信息素组份的相对比例及其混合物在硅胶诱芯上的精确释放速率.在剂量相同的情况下,十二烷基醋酸酯(Dodecyl acetate)和十二碳烯基醋酸酯(Dodecenyl acetate)从诱芯中散发的速率要比十四碳烯基醋酸酯(Tetradecenyl acetate)高得多.当诱芯中性信息素的含量低于100μg时,各组份的释放速率与剂量成正比.诱芯置于空气中一星期之后,所有组份的释放速率均剧烈下降.与刚配制的诱芯相比,冷藏诱芯中的性信息素的释放速率从第二天起即开始下降.增加诱芯中雌性信息素(由变异雌蛾所产生)的剂量并不能加强变异雄蛾的行为反应.正常雄蛾对于Z9-十四碳烯基醋酸酯(Z9-14:OAc)释放率较低的诱

  3. The cytological observation of pollen and anther development in the cabbage 88-3 male-sterile line%大白菜雄性不育系88-3花药和花粉发育的细胞形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福青; 王翠兰; 宋再华

    2001-01-01

    When the sterile plant of male-sterile meanline of cabbage 88-3 flowering,there is no pollen grain in the anther.Abort occurs from the stage of microspore mothercell to binuclear pollen grain and its peak happens around the final stage Ⅱ of meiosis.Male-abort includes such three forms as following microspore mothercell cantt reach or finish the meiosis stage;microspore cant develop normally.A sudden complete disintegration or coagulating into a ball is the common character of abort.Male-sterility mainly results from the abnormality of mesospore,tapetum tissue and vascular bundle.%大白菜雄性不育两用系88-3的不育株,其开花时花药内无花粉粒;败育从小孢子母细胞至二核花粉粒皆有发生,高峰期在末期Ⅱ前后;小孢子母细胞不能进入减数分裂和小孢子母细胞不能完成减数分裂及小孢子不能正常发育是雄性败育的主要形式;败育一旦发生便是急剧而彻底地解体或凝聚成一团是败育的共同点;中层组织、绒毡层组织及药隔维管束异常均是雄性败育的因素。

  4. 不结球白菜根尖体细胞染色体制片及其二倍体和四倍体有丝分裂过程观察%Chromosome preparation of somatic cell in root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis ) and observation of mitosis process of its diploid and tetraploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金双; 张蜀宁; 孙成振; 王雅美

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino)根尖为材料,对染色体制片过程中根长(小于0.5 cm、0.5 ~ 1.0 cm、1.0~2.0 cm及大于2.0 cm)、预处理方法、预处理剂种类(2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉、2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉与质量浓度0.2g·L-1秋水仙素等体积混合液、质量浓度0.2g·L-1秋水仙素、饱和对二氯苯、质量浓度20或40 mg·L-1放线菌酮、质量浓度40mg·L-1放线菌酮与2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉等体积混合液)及预处理时间(1.0~3.5 h)进行了比较和筛选;在此基础上,对二倍体和四倍体不结球白菜根尖体细胞有丝分裂过程进行观察.结果表明:根长度对分裂相的数量有显著影响;根长1.0~2.0 cm,分裂相相对较多,占细胞总数的64.75%.冰冻预处理22 ~ 23 h,能获得一定量的分裂相.采用不同的预处理剂及预处理时间,分裂相的数量及染色体形态有明显差异;用质量浓度40 mg·L-1放线菌酮溶液处理3.5h,分裂相数量最多,但易导致染色体加倍;用质量浓度20mg·L-1放线菌酮预处理3.5h,染色体长且着丝点及随体清晰,且分裂相较多,占细胞总数的53.65%.因而,根长度以1.0 ~2.0 cm为宜,适宜的预处理方法为用质量浓度20 mg·L-1放线菌酮浸泡2.0~3.0 h.二倍体及四倍体不结球白菜根尖体细胞有丝分裂过程基本相似,在有丝分裂的间期、前期、中期、后期和末期染色体的行为基本一致,但在四倍体的有丝分裂过程中会出现多价体、染色体桥、落后染色体、染色体异常分离及内源有丝分裂等异常现象.%Using root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Makino) as experimental material, root length (shorter than 0.5 cm, 0.5-1.0 cm, 1.0-2.0 cm and longer than 2.0 cm) , pretreatment method, pretreatment agent types (2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline, equivalent volume mixed solution of 2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline and 0. 2 g

  5. Efficacy Test of 1×109,PIB/gSpodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus·15%,,Tebufenozide SC AgainstSpodoptera litura on Cabbage%1×109 PIB/g SpltNPV·15%虫酰肼悬浮剂对甘蓝斜纹夜蛾的田间防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 梁卿; 张显勇; 吕思行; 何洁明; 徐树兰; 郑常格

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide effect tests using 1×109,PIB/g Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus·15%Tebufenozide SC against Spodoptera litura Fabricius on cabbage in the field were carried out.The results showed that the Tebufenozide SC has a good effect.After a 3-day spraying of 1,500,g/hm2 pesticide,the control efficacy exceeded 80%,and the persistent periodlasted for 14,d,obviously better than those of 1,500,g/hm2,of 1×109,PIB/g Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedro-virus WP.The result indicated that 1×109,PIB/g Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus·15%,Tebufenozide SC have a good prospect.%用1×109,PIB/g斜纹夜蛾核型多角体病毒·15%,虫酰肼悬浮剂进行了甘蓝斜纹夜蛾的田间药效试验。结果表明:供试药剂对甘蓝斜纹夜蛾具有良好的防治效果,田间制剂用量1,500,g/hm2时,药后3天对甘蓝斜纹夜蛾幼虫的防效达到80%,以上,且持效期达14,d,显著优于对照药剂1×109,PIB/g 斜纹夜蛾核型多角体病毒可湿性粉剂1,500,g/hm2的防效和持效期,说明1×109,PIB/g 斜纹夜蛾核型多角体病毒·15%,虫酰肼悬浮剂在防治甘蓝斜纹夜蛾上具体良好的推广应用前景。

  6. 不结球白菜优异种质对小菜蛾抗性的遗传分析%Inheritance of the Resistance of Elite Germplasm to Diamondback Moth(plutella xylostella L.)in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鹏; 李锡香; 吴青君; 邱杨; 徐宝云; 王海平; 宋江萍; 王少伟

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜抗小菜蛾材料508为母本(P1)、以感虫材料114为父本(P2)构建了包括P1、P2、F1、F2、BC1P1和BC1P2的6个世代群体,通过人工网室鏊定各世代群体的抗虫性,利用主基因+多基因混合遗传模型联合分析法分析了不结球白菜抗虫遗传规律.结果表明:在508×114组合中,感虫对抗虫表现部分显性,抗虫性遗传符合一对加性-显性主基因+加性-显性多基因遗传模型,在BC1P1、BC1P2和F2群体中的主基因遗传率分别为57.21%、25.87%和76.05%,为有效利用抗虫资源和挖掘抗虫基因奠定了基础.%Insect-resistant inbred line 508 of the non-heading Chinese cabbage( Brassica chinensis L. )as female parent and susceptible inbred line 114 as male parent were used to construct six generation populations of P1、P2 、F1 、BC1P1 、BC1 P2and F2. The resistances of all the populations to diamondback moth(DBM) were evaluated in net, and the inheritance of insect-resistance for six generations was analyzed by joint analysis method. The results showed that the insect-resistance was partly recessive in the combination of 508 × 114 and fitted to the D-1 genetic model which is one pair of major additive-dominant gene plus additive-dominant polygene's. The heritability of the major genes in BC 1 P1, BC1 P2 and F2 populations were 57.21% ,25.87 % and 76.05 % , respectively. The results will be helpful for us to effectively utilize the insect-resistant gene resources in insect-resistance breeding.

  7. 不结球白菜雄性不育新种质不育系与保持系的生理生化分析%Physiological and biochemical analysis between a new germplasm CMS and its maintainer line of nonheading Chinese cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红芳; 侯瑞贤; 李晓锋; 朱玉英

    2011-01-01

    The leaves,buds,and flowers of the newly-bred sterile germplasm of nonheading Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line at different stages were determined in terms of soluble protein, soluble sugar, proline, O-2·, malondialdehyde and three protective enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase(POD),catalase(CAT). The results showed that the male sterile line at vegetative growth phase was near to its maintainer line in leaves' soluble protein content,but significantly lower than its maintainer line in soluble sugar and proline contents;The male sterile line at full bloom stage was higher than its maintainer line in leaves' soluble protein,soluble sugar and proline contents. The male sterile line was lower than its maintainer line in soluble protein, soluble sugar and proline contents of buds and flowers,but higher than its maintainer line in O-2·and MDA contents.%以新选育成的不结球白菜不育新种质及其保持系为试材,对不同时期的保持系和不育系的叶片、花蕾和花朵进行可溶性蛋白质、可溶性糖、脯氨酸、O2·、丙二醛以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)3种保护酶的测定.结果表明:在营养生长期,不育系叶片中可溶性蛋白质含量与其保持系相近,而可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量显著低于保持系;在盛花期,不育系叶片中的可溶性蛋白质、可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量均高于其保持系.不育系花蕾和花朵的可溶性蛋白质、可溶性糖和脯氨酸含量低于其保持系,而O2·和丙二醛含量高于其保持系.

  8. Efeito de espaçamentos e doses de nitrogênio sobre as características qualitativas da produção do repolho Effect of spacing and doses of nitrogen on the qualitative characteristics of the yield of cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. de Aquino

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de três espaçamentos (80x30; 60x30 e 40x30 cm e cinco doses de N (0; 75; 150; 225 e 300 kg ha-1, sobre os aspectos qualitativos da produção do repolho 'Kenzan'. O experimento foi conduzido a campo, em solo com baixo teor de N sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com o fator espaçamento nas parcelas e doses de N nas subparcelas. O N foi parcelado, colocando-se 20% da dose total no transplante e aos 20 dias após o transplante (DAT e 30% aos 35 e aos 50 DAT. A colheita se iniciou aos 65 DAT e estendeu-se até os 83 DAT. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca média de cabeça; diâmetros transversal e longitudinal e volume de cabeça; teores de proteína total e de NO-3 na massa fresca e a perda de massa pós-colheita durante o armazenamento. Com incremento das doses de N observou-se aumento de valores para todas as características avaliadas, exceto para perda de massa pós-colheita, em que ocorreu o inverso. A redução do espaçamento proporcionou redução da massa fresca média, do volume, dos diâmetros transversal e longitudinal e dos teores de NO-3 e de proteína das cabeças, além de maior perda de massa pós-colheita. Considerando os aspectos qualitativos (formato e dimensões da produção, o espaçamento de 40x30 cm e a dose de 253 kg ha-1 de N, seriam os mais indicados para o cultivo visando o comércio in natura. Todavia, visando-se produto destinado ao processamento o maior espaçamento, em função do maior teor protéico e da menor perda de massa fresca pós-colheita, seria o mais indicado.The effect of three spacings (80x30; 60x30 and 40x30 cm and five doses of N (0; 75; 150; 225 and 300 kg ha-1, was evaluated on the qualitative aspects of cabbage 'Kenzan' yield. The experiment was conducted under field conditions, in soil with low nitrogen content, in a completely randomized design with split-pot scheme, and four replicates, with spacings in plot and

  9. 硝化抑制剂型包膜复合肥的氮素释放特征及其对大白菜生长的影响%N-release Characteristics of Coated Compound Fertilizers Added by Nitrification Inhibitor and Their Effects on Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯俊; 董元杰; 李光宗; 范振义; 刘双

    2011-01-01

    Four homemade compound fertilizers with nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) being ratio 0% , 1% , 2% and 4% , separately were prepared out of common compound fertilizer by coating them with fly ash as major material. Soil incubation experiment and field experiment were used to study N-release characteristics of the fertilizers and their effects on Chinese cabbage. Results showed that: (l)Using four kinds of fertilizers could keep N as NH4+ - N for a long time, consequently, reduce the risk of nitrate N losses. The effects of four kinds of fertilizers on nutrient release property were 4%>2%>1%~>0%; (2)Four kinds of fertilizers increased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration in the leaves of the Chinese cabbage during its mid and late growth stage, and the two kinds of which ratio being 1% and 2% were better than the others. The fertilizer added by 4% ratio DCD was lowest, however, the other three kinds of fertilizers improve the yield by 14. 0%~17. 2%, income by 14. 55%~17. 5%, and there were not obvious differences between the latter kinds and thermoplastic resins coated fertilizer. In addition, they decreased nitrate contents and organic acid contents by a certain extent in the functional leaves of the plant, and improved sugar-acid ratio and soluble sugar and Vc contents of the head of the pant at the harvest stage. Moreover, theeffects were not obvious comparing with common compound fertilizer and resin coated fertilizers.%以粉煤灰为主要包膜材料,同时添加硝化抑制剂双氰胺(DCD),对普通复合肥进行包膜,制备了DCD含量分别为0%,1%.2%和4%的4种包膜缓释复合肥,并进行土壤培养试验和田间试验,研究包膜缓释肥的氮素释放特征及其对大白菜生长的影响.结果表明:(1)硝化抑制剂与粉煤灰包膜结合能有效地保持氮素养分较长时间处于NH4+-N形态,减少了因转化为N3--N形态而造成的养分淋溶损失.4种自制包膜肥的缓释效果为:4%DCD>2%DCD

  10. Study of pollen mother cell meiosis and male gametophyte development in autotetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage%普通白菜同源四倍体花粉母细胞减数分裂及其雄配子体发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔群香; 王倩; 唐红艳; 韩长奎

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal meiotic behaviors and male gametophytes development of autotetraploid of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Makino) derived from microspore culture were studied by using H33258 fluorescence staining technique. The results showed that tetraploid with cell division period and chromosomes morphological change was similar to the diploid; Four homologous chromosomes formed quadrivalent, bivalent (or paired bivalent) and few trivalent and univalent at metaphase Ⅰ ; There were different styles for the quadrivalent at diakinesis stage, such as rod style, ring style, or in the shape of V, L, U, S and Y et al. There were ten quadrivalents or paired bivalents appeared in majority cells at metaphase Ⅰ , while multivalent and univalent appeared in a few cells. The tetrads were mostly vertical or tetrahedral. The form of the cytokinesis of meiosis was simultaneous type. The mature pollen grains were three karyotype, including a vegetative nucleus and two sperm nuclei, with four germinal furrow. Lagging chromosomes were observed during the whole division period from meiosis anaphase Ⅰ to telophase Ⅱ , and even at mitosis of microspore.%应用H33258荧光染色法研究普通白菜小孢子再生四倍体植株花粉母细胞减数分裂和雄配子体发育过程.结果表明:四倍体白菜花粉母细胞减数分裂过程及各时期染色体形态等变化与二倍体植株相似;4条同源染色体中期Ⅰ可出现四价体、二价体或配对二价体、少量三价体和单价体;终变期四价体呈棒状、环状、V形、L形、U形、S形、Y形等多种构型;中期Ⅰ多数细胞中出现10个四价体或配对二价体,个别细胞中出现多价体或单价体.四分体排列方式有垂直型和四面体型;花粉母细胞减数分裂的胞质分裂方式为同时型;成熟花粉粒为三核型,包括1个营养核和2个精核,具四萌发沟.从后期Ⅰ到末期Ⅱ,甚至小孢子有丝分裂,整个

  11. Influence of Different NH4+/NO3- Ratios on Nitrate Accumulation in Different Genotypes of Chinese Cabbage%铵硝比例对不同基因型小白菜硝酸盐积累影响机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵首萍; 张瑞麟; 徐明飞; 郑纪慈

    2011-01-01

    Taking the different genotypes of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino) cultivars, hyper nitrate accumulator SYM and low nitrate accumulator HGQGC as materials, we investigated the accumulation of nitrate, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and the expression levels of NRT1and NRT2 in plant tissue. The results showed that different NH4+/NO3- ratios produced significant influence on nitrate accumulation and this influence varied with genotypes. SYM possessed stronger ability than HGQGC to absorb, accumulate and utilize nitrate especially under higher NO3- proportion treatments, and the NRA of HGQGC was more sensitive than SYM to different NH4+/NO3- ratios. The expressions of NRT1 and NRT2 mainly located in root, and the expression levels of NRT1 was higher significantly than that of NRT2. The expression levels of NRT1 and NRT2 can partly explain the different nitrate accumulations between SYM and HGQGC under different NH4+/NO3- ratios;however, the mechanism of it needs more research.%本研究以前期工作中筛选出的硝酸盐积累量存在显著差异的2个不同基因型小白菜品种为材料,在人工气候箱水培条件下研究了不同铵硝比例对小白菜硝酸盐积累量、硝酸还原酶活性(NRA)和硝酸盐吸收基因NRT1和NRT2的表达量的影响.结果表明,不同铵硝比例对小白菜硝酸盐积累量有显著影响,且存在基因型差异.四月慢对硝酸盐吸收、积累及同化利用的能力都强于华冠青梗菜,尤其是在高NO3-比例处理时.与华冠青梗菜相比,四月慢对NO3-的同化利用的能力更不易受铵硝比例的影响.NRT1和NRT2主要在根部表达,且NRT1的表达量显著高于NRT2,NRT1和NRT2的表达量变化规律只能在一定程度上解释小白菜不同基因型间硝酸盐积累量的差异,小白菜不同基因型品种间硝酸盐积累量差异的机理还需要进一步研究.

  12. 新型包膜缓释肥对大白菜生理特性、产量及品质的影响%EFFECTS OF HOMEMADE COATED CONTROLLED RELEASE FERTILIZERS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS.YIELD AND QUALITY OF CHINESE CABBAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱现奎; 董元杰; 胡国庆; 王艳华

    2011-01-01

    Three controlled release fertilizers with N-P2O5-K20 ratio being 14.25-14.25-14.25, 13.5-13.5-13.5 and 12.75-12.75-12.75, separately were prepared out of a common compound fertilizer (N-P2O5-K2 O: 15-15-15 ) by coating it with fly ash and organic agglomerant.A field experiment was conducted to study effects of the coated controlled release fertilizers on physiological characteristics, yield and quality of the Chinese cabbage growing in the field.Results show that the fertilizers increased chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance and decreased stomatal limitation (Ls) in the leaves of the plant during its late growth stage, and improved the plant parameter characteristics, and biomass per head by 0.10 ~0.33 kg, yied by 9.72%~33.1%.In addition, the coated controlled release fertilizers decreased NO3-N significantly and organic acid contents by a certain extent in the functional leaves of the plant, and improved sugar-acid ratio and soluble sugar and Vc contents of the head of the plant at the harvest stage.%以粉煤灰和有机黏结剂为包膜材料,对普通复合肥料(N-P2O5-K2O:15-15-15)进行包膜,制备了N-P2O5-K2O分别为14.25-14.25-14.25、13.5-13.5-13.5和12.75-12.75-12.75的3种包膜缓释肥料.通过田间试验,研究了包膜缓释肥料对大白菜生理特性、产量以及品质的影响.结果表明,在施肥水平相同的情况下,与普通复合肥相比,3种包膜缓释肥料可以提高大白菜生长后期叶片叶绿素含量、净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度,有效地降低叶片气孔限制值Ls;3种粉煤灰包膜复合肥处理能有效地改善大白菜单株参数,单株结球质量增加0.10~0.33 kg,产量提高9.72%~33.1%;同时,施用粉煤灰包膜缓释肥可以显著降低大白菜功能叶的NO-3-N含量,也一定程度上降低了有机酸含量,提高了收获期大白菜球叶中可溶性糖含量、糖酸比以及Vc含量.

  13. Isolation and Phylogeny of Nitrogen-Fixing Endophytic Bacteria in Wheat, Rice, Maize, Chinese Cabbage and Celery%小麦、水稻、玉米、白菜、芹菜内生固氮菌及其系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建光; 罗琼; 高淼; 胡海燕; 徐晶; 周义清

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解小麦、水稻、玉米、白菜、芹菜内生固氮菌的主要类群,确定内生固氮菌的系统发育地位.[方法]样品表面灭菌后采用无氮培养基分离、培养内生固氮菌,乙炔还原法测定菌株固氮酶活性;PCR扩增得到菌株16S rDNA,通过序列测定和相似性分析研究菌株的系统发育.[结果]从大田小麦体内分离到内生固氮菌34株,固氮酶活性在0.30-30.24 nmol C2H4/h·mg蛋白,基于16S rDNA序列最大相似性,这些菌株分属于假单胞菌(Pseudomonas)、根瘤菌(Rhizobium)、芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)、黄杆菌(Fla vobac terium)等13属21种,种群分布较为广泛;从大田水稻体内分离到内生固氮菌25株,固氮酶活性在3.12-254.12 nmol C2H4/h·mg蛋白,属于芽孢杆菌、伯克霍尔德氏菌(Burkholderia)、肠杆菌(Enterobacter)、克雷伯氏菌(Klebsiella)等9属16种,伯克霍尔德氏菌、肠杆菌和克雷伯氏菌是水稻内生固氮菌特有种群;从大田玉米体内分离到内生固氮菌9株,固氮酶活性在7.27-59.58 nmol C2H4/h·mg蛋白,属于根瘤菌、鞘氨醇单胞菌(Sphingomonas)等5属6种;从盆栽试验小白菜体内分离到内生固氮菌14株,固氮酶活性在2.33-205.21 nmol GH4/h·mg蛋白,属于根瘤菌、节杆菌(Arthrobacter)等6属8种;从市售芹菜体内分离到内生固氮菌10株,固氮酶活性在1.23-46.70nmolC2H4/h·mg蛋白,属于鞘氨醇单胞菌、假单胞菌等5属8种.[结论]在生长期小麦、水稻、玉米和部分蔬菜体内普遍存在内生固氮菌,菌株固氮酶活性差异较大,在0.30-254.12 nmol C2H4/h·mg蛋白,系统发育地位分属于假单胞菌、根瘤菌、芽孢杆菌等25个属的56个种,这些内生固氮菌对于农业生产有巨大潜能.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to determine the main groups and phylogenetic position of nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria in wheat, rice, maize, Chinese cabbage and celery. [Method] Surface sterilization and

  14. 超微细磷矿粉包膜缓释肥的缓释特征及其对大白菜生理特性的影响%NUTRIENT RELEASE CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLLED RELEASE FERTILIZERS COATED WITH SUPERFINE PHOSPHATE ROCK POWDER AND ITS EFFECTS ON PHYSIOLOGIC TRAITS OF CHINESE CABBAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯俊; 董元杰; 刘春生; 盖国胜; 邱现奎; 王全辉; 范振义

    2012-01-01

    Four types of controlled release fertilizers, CRF2 , CRF3 , CRF4 and CRF5, were prepared out of a common compound fertilizer (N-P2 O5-K2O: 15 - 15 - 15) by coating it with superfine phosphate rock powder ( SPRP) , which accounted for 0% , 40% , 50% and 60% of the total coating in mass, separately. Electronic microscope scanning, static water releasing, soil incubation and a field experiment were conduced to explore characteristics of their nutrient release and their effects on physiologic traits of Chinese cabbage. Results show that the use of superfine phosphate rock powder in coating markedly improved evenness and density of the surface of the coating and hence its capability of controlling nutrient release, and the effect increased with the proportion of the powder in coating. The four kinds of homemade SPRP-coated fertilizers had a nutrient releasing period ,58-68 days longer than the common compound fertilizer had but still shorter than 88 days the resin coated fertilizers ( CRF1) had. However, their apparent nitrogen release rates were approximate to that of CRF1. Besides, the four SPRP-coated fertilizers increased the chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate in the leaves of the plant during its middle and late growth stages, the activities of SOD, CAT and POD during its balling period, the biomass per head by 0. 17 ~0. 77kg, the yield by 6. 66% ~ 35.50% , and sugar/ acid ratio, soluble sugar content, and VC content of the head of the plant at the harvest stage. Comparison with CRF1 shows that they made no big differences in physiological traits of the plant. In terms of nutrient release and effects on physiological traits of the plant the four homemade fertilizers follow the order of CRF4≈CRF5 > CRF3 > CRF2.%以超微细磷矿粉为主要膜材料对普通复合肥(N-P2O5-K2O:15-15-15)进行包膜,制备了超微细磷矿粉分别占膜材料质量0%、40%、50%和60%比例的4种包膜缓释肥料,分别为CRF2、CRF3

  15. Lead and Cadmium Concentration in Agricultural Crops (Lettuce, Cabbage, Beetroot, and Onion of Isfahan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohajer

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that although most of the sampling plants were contaminated with lead and cadmium, the estimated daily intake of each metal (EDI showed that except lead in lettuce, other crops have EDI below the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI recommended by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. In order to better management, preventing pollution and also finding the origin of elements, analyzing heavy metals content in soil, water, and dust of this region is recommended.

  16. Single and joint toxicity of cypermethrin and copper on Chinese cabbage (Pakchoi) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T F; Wang, T; Sun, C; Wang, Y M

    2009-04-15

    The single and joint effects of Cu(2+) and cypermethrin (CPM) on the seed germination and the elongation of root and shoot of Pakchoi were investigated. The results showed that in solution low concentrations of Cu(2+) could accelerate the germination rate of Pakchoi, whereas high concentrations of Cu(2+) could